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Rocket City Math League

Mercury Test Solutions
1. The total cost is found by multiplying the cost per pencil by the number of pencils. (0.43)(23)  9.89 . 2. Let Tran’s number be n . Create and solve an equation that satisfies Tran’s description: 2n  6  8n2  8n2  2n  6  0  (8n  6)(n  1)  0  n  1 . 3. Applying the formula for the number of ways to arrange the letters in a word: 4. Solve for when 2 y  11 is positive, and when it is negative:

2011-2012 Round 3 $9.89 1 2520

7!  2520 . 2!

2 y  11  y  5  y 11  5  y  16

 (2 y 11)  y  5  2 y 11   y  5  3 y 11  5  3 y  6  y  2
Therefore, the smallest integer value that satisfies the original inequality is 2.

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1 1  . x y y x x y x  y 18 9 1 1 1 1 Simplifying  :   . We know the values of x  y and xy .     . xy xy xy xy 4 2 x y x y
5. Let the two numbers be

x and y . We are given that x  y  18 and xy  4 . We are trying to find

9 2

6. Squaring

x  y  8 , x 2  2 xy  y 2  64 . From this quantity, subtract x 2  y 2  48 .

x 2  2 xy  y 2  64

 x 2  y 2  48
2 xy  16  xy  8
15! 15!   3, 003 . 5!(15  5)! 5!10! Another approach is that there are 15 14 13 12 11 ways to arrange sets of 5 planets from the 15, then, since there are 5! arrangements of each set, each has been counted that many times, so we divide by 5!. 8. The equation converts to 1523(10)  ____ (10)  1707(10) . The number to complete the equation is 184(10) .
7. The number of ways Praz can choose to visit 5 planets, from 15 planets is
15

8

C5 

3,003

Converting to base 8,

184(10)  2708 .

270

9. The x-intercept of the inverse of a function can be found by switching the x and y coordinates of the y-intercept of the function. Since the y-intercept of the original function is (0, 11), the x-intercept of the inverse of the function is (11, 0). 10. Insert the points (-3, 0), (-1, 0), (0, -18), and (2, -60) into f ( x)  ax3  bx 2  cx  d . The 4 equations

(11, 0)

 27a  9b  3c  d  0 abcd  0 are found. After solving for a, b, c, and d, the function is f ( x)  x3  2 x 2  21x  18 . d  18 8a  4b  2c  d  60
Since we know (x+3) and (x+1) are factors, we can divide f(x) by x  4 x  3 to find the remaining factor (x - 6). So, f ( x)  ( x  1)( x  3)( x  6) . The only positive value of x for which f ( x)  0 is 6.
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