4 views

Uploaded by menguemengue

composite RLH is studied theoretically and experimentally

save

- 2010 Simulation of a Tunable Metamaterial With Nematic Liquid Crystal Layers
- Modeling a Composite Meta-material Cell using NRW Method
- Fault Location in Power Transmission Lines using Autocorrelation Function
- High Voltage Engineering -Professor J R Lucas-Level 3_Chap4
- Why We Not Use OC Relay as Main Protection in Transmission Lines
- VALIDATION OF NEW POLE-SLIP ALGORITHM.pdf
- Sound Quality
- EMW Techniques2_5B.PDF
- DESIGN OF PLUS SHAPE MPA LOADED WITH SRR AND CSRR STRUCTURE
- 120056 u
- Distributed Circuit Design in RF ICS
- F. S. S. Rosa, D. A. R. Dalvit and P. W. Milonni- Casimir-Lifshitz Theory and Metamaterials
- Cs 23574579
- 50-100
- Eft
- 202-HW6.pdf
- Tta+Syllabus
- Lab04
- Multistable_surface.pdf
- Optical_Nanoantennas.pdf
- Bose-Einstein.pdf
- Bifurc_Coupled_Osc.pdf
- Bright_dark.pdf
- Multilayered_Metamaterials.pdf
- Light_Nanoantennas.pdf
- Intrinsic modes.pdf
- Multimode_Waveguides.pdf
- FDTD_Numerics.pdf
- dimer_nanoantenna.pdf
- Soliton_Interaction.pdf
- Solitons_waveguides.pdf
- Photonic_Crystals.pdf
- rossby waves
- Soliton_perturbations.pdf
- The_Piezoelectricity_Effect.pdf
- Ferromagnets.pdf
- Torsional_Meta.pdf
- Vortex_Optics.pdf
- Magnetoelastic metamaterials.pdf
- Competing_Nonlinearities.pdf
- Bright_kerr.pdf
- Phase_Jitter.pdf
- Kinh_Lattices.pdf
- Four_Wave_mixing_Meta.pdf
- Plasmons_Waveguides.pdf
- Modes-Frenkel.pdf
- sine-Gordon soliton.pdf
- Chiral_Metamaterials.pdf

You are on page 1of 2

**Q. Zhang and C. Caloz
**

A comparison of transmission and reﬂection all-pass phasers is conducted in terms of resolution for analogue signal processing. First, a formula for resolution is derived based on the fundamental operation of real-time Fourier transformation. Next, the condition for equal resolution of the two types of phasers is established as a general relation between their coupling coefﬁcients. It is subsequently shown that reﬂection phasers impose less constraint on the coupling coefﬁcient than transmission phasers.

structure often referred to as a ‘C-section’. Its group delay is [16, 17]

tt (v) =

pa v0 a2 + 1 − a2 cos2 pv/2v0

(3)

where ω0 is the frequency where the electrical length is π/2, and a is related √ to the normalised coupling coefﬁcient kt by a = (1 − kt )/(1 + kt ). This function is plotted in Fig. 2a. Its maxima occurs at ω0, 3ω0, … and are τtmax = π/aω0, while its minima occurs at 0, 2ω0, 4ω0, … and are τtmin = aπ/ω0. Considering that the maximal usable group delay swing extends over half the period of τt (ω), the phaser resolution is found as

**@t = (ttmax − ttmin )v0 = p(1/a − a) =
**

Introduction: Microwave analogue signal processing consists in manipulating signals in their pristine analogue and real-time form for highspeed applications at microwaves – potentially up to the terahertz range – and may be considered as a mid-range counterpart of optical signal processing and RF surface acoustics wave processing [1, 2]. A number of microwave analogue signal processing applications have been recently reported [3–13]. The core of an analogue signal processing system is a phaser, which is a component exhibiting a designable frequency-dependent group delay response [13]. Phasers are usually designed as all-pass networks, which may be either of reﬂection type [3, 4, 14, 15] or of transmission type [16–18]. This Letter compares the two types of phasers in terms of resolution. Phaser resolution: Real-time Fourier transforming is a fundamental operation in analogue signal processing [3, 8], which may be considered as a reference to deﬁne the ﬁgure of merit of a phaser [3, 13]. To operate as a real-time Fourier transformer, a phaser must have a group delay that is a linear function of frequency (quadratic phase) with a slope satisfying the condition [3]

2 Dt 0 ≪1 ¨0 2p f

2pkt 1 − kt2

(4)

t tmax

1.0

45

tt

tr

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

**equ al r eso lutio n
**

kr =

(8)

t,r

↑

30

t

kr 0.5

0.4 0.3

1 − kt 1 + kt 2πk t 1 − k t2

1 4

line

15

(4) t

tmin

0

0.2

=

w0

2w0 a

3w0

w 4w0

0.1 0

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

kt b

Fig. 2 Typical group delay response of transmission and reﬂection phasers with kt and kr satisfying condition in (8), and comparison of transmission and reﬂection phasers for equal resolution in terms of their coupling coefﬁcients

a Typical group delay response b Comparison of the transmission and reﬂection phasers

(1)

¨ 0 is the slope where Δt0 is the duration of the signal to be analysed and f of the phaser’s group delay response, which is the ratio of the group ¨ 0 = Dt/Dv. According to delay swing, Δτ, and bandwidth, Δω, i.e. f Fourier theory, the duration of a signal is inversely proportional to its bandwidth [19], i.e. Δt0 = C/Δω, where C is a constant depending both on the shape of the signal and on the deﬁnition of its bandwidth. ¨ 0 and Δt0 into (1) yields Substituting the above expressions for f DtDv≫C 2 /2p. This relation, sometimes called the uncertainty condition [20] in analogy with quantum mechanics, reveals that the product ΔτΔω of a phaser should be as large as possible (at least larger than C 2/2π) for accurate Fourier transforming. One may subsequently deﬁne this product as the ﬁgure of merit for a phaser

A reﬂection phaser, shown in Fig. 1b, is composed of an impedance inverter connected to a shorted transmission line [14]. The inverter may be realised by coupling apertures, such as, for instance, a waveguide iris [21]. The normalised impedance at the input of the network is zin (v) = −jkr2 cot pv/2v0 . From this relation, S11(ω) is calculated as S11 (v) = zin (v) − 1 1 + jkr2 cot pv/2v0 = zin (v) + 1 1 − jkr2 cot pv/2v0 (5)

and the group delay is obtained as the frequency derivative of the phase of this function, and reads

tr (v) =

pkr2 v0 1 − 1 − kr4 cos2 pv/2v0

(6)

@ = DtDv

(2)

called the ‘phaser resolution’, because this quantity is proportional to the resolution of the frequency in the time domain. All-pass phaser analysis: All-pass phasers can be either transmissiontype or reﬂection-type networks. Fig. 1 shows the simplest distributed models of transmission and reﬂection phasers. These models will next be used to compute the resolutions of the two phaser types. Although several phasers are usually cascaded to provide sufﬁcient resolution [16, 17], the forthcoming considerations for ﬁrst-order phasers will qualitatively apply to cascaded phasers.

q= π at w0 2 π at w0 2

This function is plotted in Fig. 2a. Its maxima occurs at 0, 2ω0, 4ω0, … and are ttmax = p/kr2 v0 , while its minima occurs at ω0, 3ω0, … and are ttmin = kr2 p/v0 . The phaser resolution is then found as

@r = (trmax − trmin )v0 = p 1/kr2 − kr2

(7)

Comparison and discussion: The two types of phasers may be compared in terms of their coupling and inversion (i.e. also coupling) coefﬁcients for equal resolution. By equating (4) and (7), one obtains kr = 1 − kt 1 + kt

(1/4)

(8)

**coupled transmission lines
**

kt (coupling factor)

impedance inverter

q=

transmission line kr (inversion factor) b

a

**Fig. 1 Simplest distributed models of ﬁrst-order all-pass phasers
**

a Transmission phaser (C-section) b Reﬂection phaser

A ﬁrst-order transmission all-pass phaser, shown in Fig. 1a, is composed of two coupled transmission lines interconnected at one end, a

This relation is plotted in Fig. 2b along with (4). The ﬁrst observation to make, regarding Fig. 2b, is that, for high phaser resolution, kt should be large (close to 0), whereas kr should be small (close to 0). This can be explained in terms of wave trapping with the help of Fig. 3. In the transmission phaser, as shown in Fig. 3a, a wave loop is formed at the end of the coupled lines via the end connection. Large delay follows from large wave trapping into the loop, and hence to a large amount of backward coupling [18], i.e. a large kt. On the other hand, in the reﬂection small amount of coupling, and hence a phaser, as shown in Fig. 3b, it is a small kr, since a large kr reduces the wave reﬂection from the inverter [21] into the loop.

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 4th July 2013 Vol. 49 No. 14

W.. Caloz (Electrical Engineering. École Polytechnique de Montréal.0606 One or more of the Figures in this Letter are available in colour online. pp. (7). IEEE 1989. 1962) 20 Cohen.. Wirel... whose bandwidth is less than 10%.. 61. 1963.M.. Microw.. D. D. B. which induces strong reﬂection. and Caloz. 2013. Q. S. Zhang. Sounas. Magn. S..V. A. and Caloz. S. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013 21 February 2013 doi: 10. C. 58. USA. C. Microw. Compon. which is easy to realise practically. pp. B.. and coupling structures’ (Artech House Norwood. C. 601–603 12 Zhang. Snyder.L. 2008. 209. which may affect its behaviour because of bandwidth limitation. C. 10.. Theory Tech. A. 51. 15–20 ELECTRONICS LETTERS 4th July 2013 Vol. Erro. L.. December 2012.. Microw. S.. B. since typical circulators exhibit at least that much bandwidth and even possibly much more [22].: ‘Distortion-less real-time spectrum snifﬁng based on a stepped group-delay phaser’.. 2012.. and Apsel. E. D. 60.... whereas the transmission phaser has a continuous conﬁguration with only distributed.. pp.. 2392–2407 18 Gupta.V. pp. IEEE Microw. pp. and Caloz..: ‘Compressive receiver using a CRLH-based dispersive delay line for analog signal processing’. (51). Lett. pp. IEEE Trans. 24. and Caloz. Taiwan. 1989) 3 Laso. 691–692 14 Zhang. whereas the transmission phaser needs a coupling coefﬁcient of only kr = 0.. Microw.. pp. and Jones. Compon. C.. Repeta.. Q. A. pp. Deforge. MA. and Caloz. 1043–1052 13 Caloz. A. IEEE Trans. to achieve a resolution of ϱt = 20..zhang@polymtl. C... Q. IEEE Trans. C. R. J. Kopa. M. 14 . Conf.: ‘Synthesis of cross-coupled reduced-order dispersive delay structures with arbitrary group delay and controlled magnitude’. Wirel. Q.1049/el. Theory Tech. Theory Tech. pp. Microw. The Netherlands. 2006. Theory Tech. R. According to Fig. 2003..734. corresponding to a back coupling coefﬁcient of |S11| = 0. Microw.. C. IEEE Trans. C. 16.. 3449–3457 11 Nikfal. 864–866 6 Nguyen. Microw. M. IEEE Trans. Zhang and C. IEEE Trans.. H. Proc.: ‘Time-frequency distributions – a review’.: ‘SAW and optical signal processing’. (3).J.. C. Azaña. IEEE Microw. 705–717 4 Schwartz.: ‘Reﬂection-type artiﬁcial dielectric substrate microstrip dispersive delay line (DDL) for analog signal processing’. pp. 77. 2009.. However. 2009. Wenzel. Nikfal.: ‘Experimental demonstration and characterization of a tunable CRLH delay line system for impulse/ continuous wave’. pp. S.. which is almost impossible to reach practically. 3 Wave trapping explanation a Transmission-type phasers b Reﬂection-type phasers The second observation regarding Fig. Theory Tech.L. M. 2617–2618 8 Gupta. and Caloz. For example. Lopetegi.. 3939–3949 19 Papoulis. 17. Theory Tech. 2012.: ‘The synthesis of coupled transmission line all-pass networks in cascades of 1 to n’. 1366–1368 10 Xiang.2013.: ‘Theoretical analysis and practical considerations for the integrated time-stretching system using dispersive delay line (DDL)’. 18. Theory Tech. Q. Abielmona.. 57. M. IEEE Trans. IEEE Antennas Wirel. C. M... Lett. Z. J. Fu. IEEE Ultrasonics Symp. Magn. Zhang. 57. S. Garde.. 941–981 21 Matheai. Theory Tech. Nguyen. Microw.A. L...wave loop wave loop kt a kt b Fig. S. back coupling. S.. S. and Nikfal. D. pp. C. Microw.954. One might argue that the comparison is not fair since the reﬂection phaser requires a circulator [14]. pp.V. Perret. IEEE Trans. pp. and Caloz.: ‘Advances in ferrite microwave materials and devices’.. Compon. and Plant.: ‘Synthesis of narrow-band reﬂection-type phasers with arbitrary prescribed group delay’.. and Caloz.J. Theory Tech. M. 2009. D. IEEE Trans.. E. Lett. T.: ‘The Fourier integral and its applications’ (McGraw-Hill. 60. B. IEEE Microw... Rotterdam.: ‘Real-time spectrum analysis in microstrip technology’. Wirel. 2b. M. S. 11. Muriel. M. 23–29 17 Gupta. This may be intuitively understood from the fact that the reﬂection phaser has a sharp discontinuity at the inverter location. (APMC). M. Proc. is that the distances of kt to 1 and of kr to 0 for equal resolution are very unequal.V. Mater.. New York. E. 1714–1723 16 Steenaart.G. this is not an issue for most reﬂection phasers.. 215–218 5 Abielmona. Reﬂection phasers impose much less fabrication constraints than transmission phasers when a high resolution is required... Lett.: ‘Microwave analog real-time spectrum analyzer (RTSA) based on the spectral-spatial decomposition property of leaky-wave structures’.: ‘Composite right/left-handed delay line pulse position modulation transmitter’.J.A. September 2005. impedance-matching networks.: ‘Surface acoustic wave devices and their signal processing applications’ (Academic. IEEE Trans. pp. and Guglielmi. and therefore weak. 3. Montréal H3T 1J4. 22.: ‘Chipless RFID system based on group delay engineered dispersive delay structures’. 60. 2007..: ‘Microwave analog signal processing (ASP) for high speed and high frequency applications’. Gupta. 800–809 2 Campbell. Sorolla. 1980) 22 Schloemann.. pp... IEEE Trans. Vol. 2989–2999 9 Gupta.L. Gupta. IEEE Microw. G. 527–529 7 Abielmona. Conclusion: A theoretical comparison of transmission and reﬂection phasers has been conducted in terms of resolution. B. J.. Propag. 2000. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada under grant CRDPJ 402801-10 in partnership with BlackBerry.T.D. H.: ‘Experimental demonstration of real-time spectrum analysis using dispersive microstrip’. S. pp. Theory Tech.: ‘Group delay engineered non-commensurate transmission line all-pass network for analog signal processing’. Benito. and Caloz. 49 No.392. 2011. Young.. Microw. Gupta. C. pp. and Caloz. Kaohsiung. explaining this fact reduces to explaining why more energy is trapped in the reﬂection phaser loop than in the transmission phaser loop. and Caloz. 2012. Gupta. the transmission phaser requires a coupling coefﬁcient of kt = 0..: ‘CRLH-CRLH C-section dispersive delay structures with enhanced group-delay swing for higher analog signal processing resolution’. Gupta.. 2012. S.: ‘Microwave ﬁlters. Theory Tech.. Microw.ca References 1 Lewis. Badiere. pp. Canada) E-mail: qingfeng. 57. 2394–2402 15 Coulombe.. 2010. Parsa. (1). Sounas.

- 2010 Simulation of a Tunable Metamaterial With Nematic Liquid Crystal LayersUploaded byantonyscorpio
- Modeling a Composite Meta-material Cell using NRW MethodUploaded byTI Journals Publishing
- Fault Location in Power Transmission Lines using Autocorrelation FunctionUploaded byIJAERS JOURNAL
- High Voltage Engineering -Professor J R Lucas-Level 3_Chap4Uploaded byMahmoud Basho
- Why We Not Use OC Relay as Main Protection in Transmission LinesUploaded byarsalanhamid
- VALIDATION OF NEW POLE-SLIP ALGORITHM.pdfUploaded byDanielAlejandroRamosQuero
- Sound QualityUploaded byEmi Cabrera
- EMW Techniques2_5B.PDFUploaded byjustdream
- DESIGN OF PLUS SHAPE MPA LOADED WITH SRR AND CSRR STRUCTUREUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- 120056 uUploaded byNipuna Thushara Wijesekara
- Distributed Circuit Design in RF ICSUploaded byClique for Applied Research in Electronic Technology
- F. S. S. Rosa, D. A. R. Dalvit and P. W. Milonni- Casimir-Lifshitz Theory and MetamaterialsUploaded byKorezm
- Cs 23574579Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 50-100Uploaded byLaxus Dreyar
- EftUploaded byanurag sawarn
- 202-HW6.pdfUploaded byNico
- Tta+SyllabusUploaded bymahesh519
- Lab04Uploaded byax33m144

- Multistable_surface.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Optical_Nanoantennas.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Bose-Einstein.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Bifurc_Coupled_Osc.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Bright_dark.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Multilayered_Metamaterials.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Light_Nanoantennas.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Intrinsic modes.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Multimode_Waveguides.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- FDTD_Numerics.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- dimer_nanoantenna.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Soliton_Interaction.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Solitons_waveguides.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Photonic_Crystals.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- rossby wavesUploaded bymenguemengue
- Soliton_perturbations.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- The_Piezoelectricity_Effect.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Ferromagnets.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Torsional_Meta.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Vortex_Optics.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Magnetoelastic metamaterials.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Competing_Nonlinearities.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Bright_kerr.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Phase_Jitter.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Kinh_Lattices.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Four_Wave_mixing_Meta.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Plasmons_Waveguides.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Modes-Frenkel.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- sine-Gordon soliton.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue
- Chiral_Metamaterials.pdfUploaded bymenguemengue