Averiguar – to find out (We must find out where the train is. = Debemos averiguar cuando llega el tren.) (They never found out the answer. = Nunca averiguaron la solucion.) Claro = of course/clearly Disculpe = excuse me  when asking for directions. Lo siento = i’m sorry. Me podria decir…? = could you tell me? No estoy seguro/a = I’m not sure.  when asked about directions No tengo ni idea = I have no idea.  when asked about directions Por supuesto = of course Sabe Ud…? = Do you know..? (formal) (Sabe Ud. donde la iglesia esta. = Do you know where the church is?) Sabes…? = Do you know…? (informal) Bajarse del autobus = to get OFF the bus (OFF = DEL)  Del got OFF the bus. Subirse al autobus = to get ON the bus (ON = AL)  Al got ON the bus. El/la conductor/a = driver (El conductor colectiono nos boletos = the driver collected our tickets) El edificio = building El estacionamiento = parking space La iglesia = church La lancha = boat El letrero = sign La parada del autobus = bus stop El puente = bridge El semaforo = traffic light A continuacion = next (A continuacion viene la primera parade del autobus = Coming up next is the first bus stop)

Despues = after, afterwards El jardin botanico = botanical garden Luego = later Para empezar = to begin with Por ultimo = finally/ultimately Primero = first, primary El recorrido = journey La torre = tower El anden = platform La estacion de tren = train station Ida y vuelta = round trip (back and forth) El/la matero/a = baggage carrier El/la pasajero/a = passenger La taquilla = ticket booth La via = rail Rewrite the sentence: After the journey to the botanical garden, we arrived at the train station and finally bought our tickets. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Disculpe. Sabes donde esta la parada del autobus? ______________________________________________________________________________ Cenar = to have dinner/supper Dejar la propina = to leave a tip (at a restaurant) La especialidad de la casa = specialty of the house El/la mesero/a = the waiter Para mi = I’ll have… (Para mi un helado, por favor = I’ll have ice cream, please.)

Por favor, me trae… = Please bring me… Asustarse = to get scared Compartir = to share Contra(ue) chistes = to tell jokes Cuando era joven…..imperfecto = When I was young… Cuando tenia trece anos….imperfect = When I was thirteen years old… Fastidiar = to annoy Molestar = to bother Odiar = to hate Bondadoso = kind (ex. to bond with a KIND person) = bondadoso USING COMPARISONS = Dormir (ue) tan bien como un liron … = to sleep like a baby Tan bueno como un angel … = to be as good as a saint Ser tan feliz…. = to be as happy as Ser tan fuerte = to be as strong as COMPARING QUALITIES = TAN + ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB + COMO  Diego es tan alto como Pedro. (Diego is as tall as Pedro.)

Eres tan inteligente como cualquier hombre. (You are as intelligent as any man.)
Rewrite = My dad is as strong as the Hulk. _______________________________________

The book is as good as the movie. _________________________________ The boy is as tall as the girl. ______________________________________ COMPARING QUANTITIES = Tantos/tanto (tantas/tanta) + noun + como Rewrite = Yo tenia tanto dinero como mi heramo. ________________________________________ Maria tenia tantas amigas como amigos. _______________________________________

Model: Yo tengo una pluma. Tú tienes una pluma. Yo tengo tantas plumas como tú. 1. Juan tiene dos padres. María tiene dos padres. Maria tiene __________ padres como Juan.

2. Ricardo es viejo. Rita es vieja también. Rita es tan vieja __________ Ricardo.

3. El hombre lee tres libros. La mujer lee tres libros. La mujer lee ___________ libros como el hombre

Generally, the preterite is used for actions in the past that are seen as completed, while the imperfect tense is used for past actions that did not have a definite beginning or a definite end. Juan habló dos horas. Juan spoke two hours. (action completed) Las chicas hablaban en inglés. The girls used to speak in English. (no definite beginning or end)



is used in the following situations:

• • • • •

For actions that can be viewed as single events For actions that were repeated a specific number of times For actions that occurred during a specific period of time For actions that were part of a chain of events To state the beginning or the end of an action

• • • • • • •


is used in the following situations:

For actions that were repeated habitually For actions that "set the stage" for another past action For telling time For stating one's age For mental states (usually) For physical sensations (usually) To describe the characteristics of people, things or conditions

Irregular in the PRETERITE FORM = Here are the verbs, along with their corresponding stem changes:

Infinitive andar estar tener caber haber poder poner saber hacer querer venir

Stem Change anduvestuvtuvcuphubpudpussuphicquisvin-

JUGAR CONJUGATED IN THE IMPERFECT TENSE = Jugaba / Jugabamos Jugabas / Juababa/ Jugaban TENER CONJUGATED IN THE IMPERFECT TENSE = Tenia / Teniamos Tenias / Tenia / Tenian

**IR + VER IRREGULAR ** Iba / ibamos Ibas / Iba / iban

When expressing something is ‘really’ or ‘extremely’  vowel ending is –isimo/a. Ex. El partido estuvo divertidisimo. La reunion estuvo aburridisima.

** When talking about two things that were happening at the same time IN THE PAST, use mientras and the imperfect tense.  Nosotros jugabamos alajedrez mientras Rogelio vistaba el zoologico.

definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de el/la/los/las + noun + mas/menos + adjective Here are some superlative examples. Juan es el chico más inteligente de la clase. John is the smartest boy in the class. Bill Gates es el hombre más rico de los EEUU. Bill Gates is the richest man in the U.S. La comida de Puerto Rico es la mejor del mundo Puerto Rican food is the best in the world.

Commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the "imperative" form of the verb.
Compre Ud. el anillo. (You) Buy the ring. Haga Ud. la tarea. (You) Do the homework. Compren Uds. los libros. (You-all) Buy the books. Hagan Uds. el trabajo. (You-all) Do the work.

The formal commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive: 1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative. 2. Then drop the -o ending. 3. Finally, add the following endings:

-ar verbs:
-e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.)

-er and -ir verbs:
-a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.) The following verbs are irregular:
dar dé Ud. den Uds. estar esté Ud. estén Uds. ir vaya Ud. vayan Uds. ser sea Ud. sean Uds. saber sepa Ud. sepan Uds.

The affirmative informal indicative Ud. form:

(tú) commands are formed the same way as the present

(hablar - ar + a = habla) (comer - er + e = come) (escribir - ir + e = escribe) ***Be sure to note that the "tú" commands use the usted form, not the tú form!***

Preterite + Imperfect Contrasted =


Continuing a story…
En seguida (right away) De repente (all of a sudden) Fue cuando (It was when) Entonces (So then) Por eso (That’s why)

Ending a story…

Al final (Finally) Asi que (So that’s how) En fin, todo salio bien.. (In short, everything turned out well.)

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