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Jaina Dharma, is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towar ds all living beings.

Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of sel f-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called a jina ("conqueror" or "victor"). The ultimate status of these perfec t souls is called siddha. Ancient texts also refer to Jainism as shramana dharma (self-reliant) or the "path of the niganthas" (those without attachments or ave rsions). Jain Emblem (Jain Prateek Chihna) In 1974, during the auspicious 2500th Nirvana anniversary of Lord Mahavir (last Jain monk to attain moksha or enlightenment), the Jain community at large collec tively chose one image as an emblem for the Jain religion. Since then, this embl em is used in almost all of the Jain magazines, wedding cards, Jain festival (li ke kshamavani, diwali, etc.) cards, and every magazine with links to events rela ted to Jain society. Use of this emblem helps to create a culture showing dedica tion and trust for the religion and the values that are represented by the emble m. Fundamental concepts The Jain emblem is composed of many fundamental concepts and symbols. The outlin e of the image represents the universe as described in Jain scriptures. It consi sts of three Loks (realms). The upper portion indicates Urdhava Lok (heaven), th e middle portion indicates Madhya Lok (material world) and the lower portion ind icates Adho Lok (hell). The semi-circular topmost portion symbolizes Siddhashila, which is a zone beyond the three realms. All of the Siddhas (liberated bodiless souls) reside on this forever, liberated from the cycle of life and death. The three dots on the top s ymbolizes Triratna (Ratnatraya) – Samyak darshan(right belief), Samyak Gyan (right knowledge), & Samyak Charitra (right conduct). Every creature in this world can become free from the cycle of life and death. This gives the message that it is necessary to have Triratna in order to attain Moksha. In the top portion, four arms of Swastika symbolizes the four Gati (destiny): Na rak (demon), Triyanch (animal), Manushya (human) and Dev (angel). It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the Madhya Lok (material world), where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their Karmas (deeds). It a lso represents the four columns of the Jain Sangh: Sadhus, Sadhvis, Shravaks and Shravikas - monks, nuns, female and male laymen. It also represents the four ch aracteristics of the soul: infinite knowledge (Anant Jnan), infinite perception (Anant Darshan), infinite happiness (Anant Sukh), and infinite energy (Anant Vir ya). The symbol of hand in the lower portion shows fearlessness and symbolize the fee ling of Ahimsa towards all the creatures in this world. The circle in the middle of the hand symbolizes Samasara (reincarnation cycle) and the 24 spokes represe nts the preaching from the 24 Tirthankars, which can be used to liberate a soul from the cycle or reincarnation. The meaning of the mantra at the bottom Parasparopagraho Jivanam is "Live and Le t Live". All creatures should help one another. In short, the Jain emblem represents many important concepts to show the path to enlightenment by following the basic principles of Ahimsa (non-violence), Trira tna (right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct) and helping others. Main principles Five Mahavratas of Jain ascetics Jainism encourages spiritual development through cultivation of one's own person

but also in words (speech) and action. Not to take materials into personal possession that have been dropped of f or forgotten by others. vrata). Not to take into possession materials that are not earned or offered by others. Jains do no t believe in a creator deity that could be responsible for the manifestation. it attains divine consciousness. stolen goods. Jainism has extensive classification of vario us living organisms including micro-organisms that live in mud. There should even be no room for any thought conjuring inju ry to others. the househol der must not have a sensual relationship with anybody other than one's own spous e. all other principles yield to it whenever there is a conflict. it would be perfectly moral to re main silent (for you are neither being untrue. The triple gems of Jainism . Besides. Aparigraha (Non-possession. Such a practise through lifelong wo rk towards oneself is called as observing the Mahavrata ("Great Vows"). The basic intent of this vow is to conquer passion. cr eation. let alone talking about it or performing of such an act. For ins tance. as explained by the Jinas and re vived by the tirthankaras. A ll living organisms have soul and therefore need to be interacted with. to attain complete liberation or nirvana. Satya (Truthfulness) To always speak of truth such that no harm is caused to others. Asteya (Non-stealing) Not to take into possession. without causing much harm. Non-materialism) .. Jains believe that to attain enlightenment and ultimately liberation from all ka rmic bonding. Those who have attained moksha ar e called siddhas. The universe is self regulated by the l aws of nature. venerable like a preceptor and dear to everyone like a kinsman. while those attached to the world through their karma are call ed samsarin. Jain monks and nuns practice complete abstinence from any sexual activity. thus preventing wastage of energy in t he direction of pleasurable desires. Some of the guidelines for this principle follow as u nder: Always give people fair value for their labor or product. When the soul sheds its karmic bond s completely. Given that non-violence has priority. il legal businesses. During observance of this vow. products made out of raw materials obtained by way of pyramid schemes. or maintenance of this universe. Any attempt to squeeze material wealth from others and/or exploit the weak is considered theft. it also includes respecting the views of others (non-absolutism and acceptance o f multiple views). A person who speaks truth becomes trustworthy like a mother.right vision or view (Samyak Darshana). Brahmacharya (Celibacy) To exercise control over senses (including mind) from indulgence. The vow involves "minimizing" intentional as well as unintentional harm to anot her living creature. in a situatio n where speaking truth would lead to violence. etc. For example. air and water. One should remain satisfied by whatever is earned through hone st labour. Not to purchase materials as a result of being cheaper in value. Every soul has to follow the wisdom and reliance on self control through vows (Sanskrit: . anything that is not willingly offered. Jains believe that life exists in various forms in different part s of the universe including earth. should be strictly prohibited. nor causing violence by way of tr uth). if the resultant price reduction is a result of improper method of preparation. right knowledge (Samya k Gyana) and right conduct (Samyak Charitra) . These vo ws are: Ahimsa (Non-violence) To cause "no harm" to living beings (on the lines of "live" and "let live").provide the path for attaining li beration from the cycles of birth and death. It is t he strict adherence to one's own possessions without desiring for the ones that belong to others. one must practice the following ethical principles not only in tho ught.

Human. the world constantly undergoes cyclical changes as per governing universal laws. power. For monks and nuns. expressions and actions. non-stealing. with innate qualities of infinite knowledg e. sub-human or hellish being ac cording to its own karma. The Great Vows are prescribed for Jain monastics while limited vows (anuvrata) are prescribed for householders. perception. Ja inism recommends conquering anger by forgiveness. super-human (heav enly beings) and hellish-beings are the four forms of samsarin soul incarnations . however. executed with intent of at tachment and aversion. One's unconquered mind tainted with a nger. Because all living beings possess a soul. and have always e xisted in time. deceit destroys peace. Jainism emphasizes the equality of all life. A major characteristic of Jain belief is the emphasis on the consequences of not only physical but also mental behaviours. What you own today may not be rightfully yours tomorrow. and greed by contentment. However. This is the path to salvation in Jainism. pride (ego). and non-possessiveness with their current practical limitations. accelerating spiritual progre ss. Core beliefs Every living being has a soul. pride (ego) by humility. Jainism acknowledges that every person has different capabilities and capacities to practice and therefore accepts different levels of compliance for ascetics a nd householders. and bliss (masked by its karmas). A living being's thoughts. sub-human (category catering to inclusion of animals. human. non-possession involves complete ren unciation of property and human relations. places and material things. The principle of non-violence seeks to minimize karmas that limit the capabiliti es of one's own soul. harming no one and b eing kind to all living beings. great care and awareness is essential in one's actions. The universe is occupied by both living beings (jīva) an d non-living objects (Ajīva). attachment to the owned object is possessiveness. without excessive attachment or aversion. and greed destroys good judgement. Jain scholars have explained in-depth methods and techniques that are said to result in clearance of past acc umulated karmas as well as stopping the inflow of fresh karmas. it is possible to overcome the limitations gradually. These influxes of karma in turn contribute to determination of circumstances that would hold up i n our future in the form of rewards or punishment. For householders. non-possession is owning without attachment . Jainism views every soul as worthy of respect because it h as the potential to become siddha (paramatma "highest soul"). Anger comes in the way of good human relations. advocating harmlessness towards all . This policy extends even to microscopic organisms. while monks and nuns have to observe them very strictly. and greed joined with uncontrolled sense organs are p owerful enemies of humans. Therefore regard every living being as you do yourself. The samsarin soul incarnates in various life forms d uring its journey over time. Every soul is born as a heavenly being. birds. With consistent practice. insects and other forms of living creatures). The basic principle behind obser vance of this vow lies in the fact that life changes. pride destroys humility. Ownership of an object itself is not possessiveness.To observe detachment from people. Jains hold that the universe and its natural laws are eternal. c elibacy. . Householders are encouraged to practice five cardinal principles of non-violence. Hence the householder is encouraged to discharge his or her duties to related people and objects as a trustee. truthfulness. because the notion of possession is illusory. give rise to the accumulation of karma. decei t by straight-forwardness. whether great or small. deceit. Every soul is potentially divine.

Non-possessiveness is the balancing of needs and desires whil e staying detached from our possessions. Non-violence (to be in soul consciousness rather than body consciousness) is the foundation of right view. the condition of right knowledge and the kernel o f right conduct. By saluting them saying "namo namaha". Rather. important not to waste human life in evil ways. The universe is self-regulated. This search to view things from different angles leads to understanding . or destroyer. human birth. experiencing infinite knowledge. In this main prayer. spiritual leaders (Acharyas). this includes compassion and forgiveness in thoughts. It is a Jain philosophical standpoint just as there is the Advaitic standpoint of Sankara and the standpoint of the "middle way" of the Bu ddhists. Jains worship the icons of jinas. The goal of Jainism is liberation of the soul from the negative effects of u nenlightened thoughts. Four things are difficult for a soul to attain: 1. Usually they are found in pairs around the ico ns as male (yaksha) and female (yakshini) guardian deities. Anēkāntavāda ("multiple points of view") is a foundation of Jain philosophy. This philosophy allows the Jains to accept the truth in other philosophies from their perspective and thus inculcating a tolerance for other viewpoints. and all th e monks and nuns. power.Every soul is the architect of its own life. Over time. Own ing an object by itself is not possessiveness. Limit possessions and lead a life that is useful to yourself and others. Even though they hav e supernatural powers. Praying by reciting this mantra. Jains do not ask for any fav ours or material benefits. who have conque red their inner passions and attained divine consciousness. It leads to a state of being unattached to worldly things and b eing non-judgmental and non-violent. therefore. speech. Jains receive inspirati on from them to follow their path to achieve true bliss and total freedom from t he karmas binding their souls. absolute conviction in the philosophy of no n-violence. here or hereafter. This mantra serves as a simple gesture of deep respec t toward beings that are more spiritually advanced. words and actions toward all living beings and respecting views of ot hers (non-absolutism). these deities are also souls wandering through the cycles of births and deaths just like most other souls. The triple gems of Jainism ("Right View. There is no supreme divine creator. The mantra also reminds foll owers of the ultimate goal of reaching nirvana or moksha. preserver. as they can drag one far away from true nature of the soul. and action. it becomes free and attains divine conscio usness. people began worshi ping these deities as well. perception. however. be merciful to afflicted souls. This is the application of non-violence in t he sphere of thought. owner. 2. attachment to an object is possessiveness. Namokar Mantra is the fundamental prayer in Jainism and can be recited at an y time of the day. These vows ca nnot be fully implemented without the acceptance of a philosophy of non-absoluti sm. 3. and tolerate the perversely inclined. Jainism stresses the importance of controlling the senses including the mind . Jain scholar s have devised methods to view both physical objects and abstract ideas from dif ferent perspectives systematically. and 4. Enjoy the company of the holy and better-qualified. practicing this knowledge with conviction in everyday life ac tivities. teachers. and study the Script ures of these liberated beings. and bliss (Moksha). When a soul is freed from karmas. st rive to rise on the ladder of spiritual evolution. Jainism acknowledges the existence of powerful heavenly souls that look afte r the well-being of Tirthankaras. and every soul has the potential to achieve divine consciousness (siddha) through its own efforts. This goal is achieved through clearan ce of karmic obstructions by following the triple gems of Jainism. It is. arihants and Tirthankaras. the devotee bows in respect to liberated souls still in human form (arihants). fully liberated souls forever free from rebirth (siddhas). Right Knowledge and Right Conduct") provide the way to this realisation. Jains hold the above five major vows at the center of their lives. knowledge of the laws governing the souls.

The doctr ine of Syādvāda is based on the premise that every proposition is only relatively tr ue. Followers of Jain dharma eat before the night falls. the minister of the Ganga King Rachamalla. and is considered the largest stone sculpture in the world. as it is a st epping-stone to the ultimate realization and understanding of reality. Syādvāda provides Jains with a systematic methodology to explore the real nature of reality and consider the problem in a non-violent way from different perspective s. A statue of B ahubali is located at Shravana Belagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka Stat e.Syād-asti-nāsti-avaktavya — "in some ways it is. seed. according to Jain texts. Jina may refer to Tirthankara. an endeavour requiring p atience and care. When this happens preju dices subside and a tendency to accommodate increases. They avoid eating root vegetables in general. The doctrine of Anēkānta is t herefore a unique experiment of non-violence at the root.Syād-nāsti-avaktavya — "in some ways it is not and it is indescribable" 6. It all depends on the particular aspect from which we approach that proposit ion. The literal meaning of Tirthankara is "ford-builder". Jains compare the pro cess of becoming a pure soul to crossing a swift river. They filter water regularly so as to remove any small insects that may be prese nt and boil water prior to consumption. Furthermore. e tc. A derivation of this principle is the doctrine of Syādvāda that highlights every mod el relative to its view point. a tree could be stationary with respect to an observer on earth. Jains.Syād-asti-avaktavya — "in some ways it is and it is indescribable" 5.Syād-avaktavya — "in some ways it is indescribable" For example. by order of Chavundaraya. in Jainism Jains believe that dharma and true liv ing declines and revives cyclically through time. When standing at the statue's f eet looking up. Bahubali. therefore. it is not and it is indescribab le" 7. also known as Gommateshvara. developed logic that encompasses seven-fold predication s o as to assist in the construction of proper judgment about any proposition. According to the scriptures.Syād-asti-nāsti — "in some ways it is and it is not" 4.. Jains worship special Arihants such as Bahu bali. one sees the saint against the vastness of the sky. The special Jinas who not only rediscover dharma but also preach it for the Jain community are called Tirthank ara. fruit. root vegetables contain infinite mic roorganisms called nigodas. These seven propositions are described as follows: 1. It is a matter of our daily experience that the s ame object that gives pleasure to us under certain circumstances becomes boring under different situations. This process ensures that each statement is expressed from seven different co nditional and relative viewpoints or propositions.).Syād-nāsti — "in some ways it is not" 3. and thus it is known as theor y of conditioned predication. ho wever it will be viewed as moving along with planet Earth for an observer in spa ce.and toleration of different and even conflicting views. Apart from the Tirthankaras. A ford-builder has already crossed the river and can therefore guide others. . Nonetheless. Only a few souls that reach Arihant status become Thirthankars wh o take a leadership role in assisting the other souls to move up on the spiritua l path. Customs and practices Jains are vegetarians.Syād-asti — "in some ways it is" 2. T he giant image was carved in 981 AD. This statue of Bahubali is carved from a single large stone that is fifty-seven feet high. It is a sacred place of pilgrimage for Jains. as cutting root from a plant kills it unlike other parts of the plant (leaf. relative truth is useful. was th e second of the one hundred sons of Rishabha and king of Podanpur.

Jain monks and nuns walk barefoot and sweep the ground in front of them to avoid killing insects or other tiny beings. Medieval Traditions The period of 16th to 18th century was a period of reforms in Jainism. The physical form i s not worshipped. rejected id ol worship as unsanctioned by scriptures. Jainism is mainly divided into two major sects. Tirthankaras remain role-models. usage of flowers and offerings in Jain temples. Murtipuj ak and Digambara sects allow praying before idols so as to assist in stimulating and focusing thoughts while praying. Terapanthi (Digambara) – The Digambara Terapantha movement arose in protest ag ainst the institution of Bhattarakas (Jain priestly class). Knowledge and Conduct Right View Right View . also a non-iconic sect. Pratikraman (turning back from transgression) is a practice of confession and re pentance. arose from Sthan akvasis on account of differences in religious practices and beliefs. Even though all life is considered sacred by the Jains. thus ending their cycle of transmigration. For this reason. criticizing others and to develop habit of self-analysis. extending fr iendship and asking forgiveness for their own wrongful acts without reservation is part of this process. The lay men and wom en also pursue the same five major vows to the limited extent depending on their capability and circumstances. For example. Jainism has a distinct idea underlying Tirthankara worship. namely Svetambara and Digambara. During thi s practice. The later schools arose against certain practices and belief that were perceived as corru pting and not sanctioned by scriptures. which is a Sanskrit word meaning equanimity. the laity usually choose professions that revere and protect life and totally avoid viole nt livelihoods. This is a process of looking back at the bad thoughts and actions carr ied out during daily activities and learn from this process so as to resolve not to commit those mistakes again. Along with the Five Vow s. arising from the Śvetāmbara tradition. qualities ) are praised and emulated.Jain monks and nuns practice strict asceticism and strive to make their current birth their last. Terapanthi (Śvetāmbara) – The Terapanthi.Many disciplines of knowledge are developed based on certain fu ndamental givens. Jains refrain from all violence (ahimsa) and recommend th at sinful activities be avoided. and worship of minor gods. The following schools arose during this period : Sthanakvasi – The Sthanakvasis. i t is considered vital never to harm or upset any person. Euclidean geometry is an axiomatic sys tem. Forgiving others for their faults. Jains avoid harboring ill will and practice forgiveness. Right View. This enables Jains to get away from the tendency of fin ding fault in others. However. They believe that at ma (soul) can lead one to becoming parmatma (liberated soul) and this must come from one's inner self. or axioms. Following the primary non-violence vow. self-improvement and introspection. human life is deemed the highest form of life. they remain calm and undisturbed. Jains practice Samayika. and sects such as t he Sthanakavasi and Terapanth stringently reject idol worship. It ta . in which all theorems ("true statements given the axioms") are derived from a finite number of axioms. This helps in recollecting the tea chings of Thirthankars and discarding sinful activities for a minimum of 48 minu tes. Special theory of relativity base itself on one of t he fundamental principles called "The Principle of Invariant Light Speed". but the characteristics of the Tirthankara (virtues.

Similarly. This mission provides the direction to Jains in making the right choices an d living with right discipline. and wanting to ge t to a safer place.Smayakgyanam. scientists modelled light as electromagnetic waves until photoelectricity wa s discovered requiring them to re-model it as both wave and a particle (Wave-par . Asrava (in-flux of karma). Acharya of 20th century of Terapanth tradition defined Samyak Darshan as Yatharth Drishtih . The two complement and support each other in refining the m odel and understand the reality better. These nine fundamenta l concepts. so as to g uide in formulating their procedures. A person who sees the objects illuminated by coloured light may not be able to judge the true colour of the objects. Want of proper faith amounts to blindness and want of proper knowledge amounts to lameness. and belief in the nine fundamental principles described just above (As tikya). A good analogy is a case of two men. kindness (A nukampa). Bandha (bonding and constraining soul). provide the metaphysical structure of Jain philosophy.Sam yakdarshanam in his book Jain Siddhant Deepika. Right knowledge Right knowledge reveals the true nature of reality. If both co-operated. articles. regardless of the state of motion of the light source. of matter. actions and reactions. consists of nine fundamentals namely . Jainism declares that a person with the right vision will have spiritual cal mness (Prasanna). This is achieved by removing the karmic veil on the soul. with out difficulty. Each soul when completely free from karmic influences acquires the state of perfection. Saint Acharya Tulsi. Jiva (living beings).kes it as given that light in vacuum propagates with the constant speed in terms of any system of inertial coordinates. Ajiva (non-living objects). Most of our knowledge is sensory based (mati) and based on recorded knowledg e developed by our ancestors in the form of books. is ne cessary condition for launching upon the path of liberation. papers and other me dium (sruta). However. which means determination to find out the meaning of t he essence of reality is the right vision. Punya (goo d karma). Right view and right knowledge are inter-dependent. Papa (bad karma). The spiritual goal in Jainism is to attain the true nature of soul by removing the karmic masks on it. desire for liberation from the endless birth-life-death cycles (Samvega). Nirjara (eradication of karmic bonding) and Moksa (total liberation or salvation from karmic bonding). Ajiva (non-living objects) and the bonda ge that arises between them due to their interaction (karmic flow) as starting p oint for the development of its knowledge and practice. one blind and another lame caught in a bush fire. the same person viewing these objects illuminated by sun light will see their true nature of its colours. thereby both safely getting out of the bu sh fire. Sam vara(stoppage of in-flux of karma). and of their mutual relationships.without any attachment or aversion to anything (Nirveda). An intelligent conviction and profound faith in the essential nature of the soul. where the knowledge is applied and experienced. the blind can carry the lame man and th e lame can direct on the path to take. Anothe r good example to illustrate this point can be found in the fairly recent scient ific history in the development of our knowledge base about light. The framework of right view in Jainism. This is in a way very similar to the popular and modern practice within larg e commercial organisations to use their vision and mission statement. Acharya Tulsi defined it as Yatharth Bodhah . There is a fair degree of inter-play bet ween the two and they are not only inter-twined but also linked with the third j ewel. Jain scholar Umasvati defines samayak darsana (right vision) as Tattvarthasr addhanam Samyak-darsanam. For a long ti me. proper knowledge is essential to provide the right gu idance to the soul in its journey towards spiritual uplifting. Jain philosophers also include the knowledge acquired directly wit hout any medium. Like these structured disciplines of study. processes and practice. namely the conduct. Jainism bases itself on the concepts of Jiva (living souls).

it would seem that the tree is stationary.Syād-nāsti — "in some ways it is not" 3. The jain theory of knowledge is a highly developed one based on comprehensiv e apprehension of reality in multitude of view points and relativity. no model of reality is absolute including religious/spiritual/ph ilosophical concepts. Anekantavada. the interaction between the three gems is very important to ge t to the real essence of nature." There are numerous examples that can be referenced from the field of science to substantiate this view. However.S. when an object weighs 50 K ilograms. the measurement is true in the gravitational environment of planet ear th. This process ensures that each statement is expressed from seven dif ferent conditional and relative viewpoints or propositions. each model provides insight into the working of t he universe that are useful within the bounds of its framework and therefore use ful under certain conditions. so as to exerci . it is not and it is indescr ibable" 7. The point to make here is that our perceptions including using m ind is so limited in nature to understand and comprehend the complexities of rea lity. But fo r an observer in space it will be moving along with earth. This means.Syād-avaktavya — "in some ways it is indescribable" As Dr. and thus it is known as theory of conditioned predication.Syād-asti-nāsti — "in some ways it is and it is not" 4.Syād-asti-nāsti-avaktavya — "in some ways it is. This means.Syād-asti — "in some ways it is" 2. The theory of Syadvada is based on the premise that every proposition is only relati vely true. is the application of the principle of equality of souls in the sphere of thought. This search leads to understanding and toleration of different and even conflicting views. It is necessary for us to know a thing is c learly and distinctly.Syād-asti-avaktavya — "in some ways it is and it is indescribable" 5. Right conduct Right conduct is the application of the knowledge developed. It is a jain philosophical standpoint just as there is the Advaitic st andpoint of Sankara and the standpoint of the Middle Path of the Buddhists. It all depends on the particular aspect from which we approach that p roposition.Syād-nāsti-avaktavya — "in some ways it is not and it is indescribable" 6. For example. A derivation of this principle is the doctrine of Syadvada that highlights e very view is relative to its view point. The tree is moving in the sense that its branches and leaves are moving when there is a wind and it is not moving since i t is fixed to a place in the ground. Jains therefore developed logic that encopasses sevenfold predicatio n so as to assist in the construction of proper judgement about any proposition. Nonetheless relative truth is undobuted ly useful as it is a stepping stone to the ultimate realisation of reality. Jain philosophers have included the concept of multiple view points in their philosophy. The theory of Anekanta is therefore unique experiment of non-violence at the root. co-exist in life and experience. It is a matter of our daily experienc e that the same object which gives pleasure to us under certain circumstances be comes boring under different situations. which literally means search of truth from different points of view. will be something else. The same object. Another way to approach the same example is that for an observer on earth. When this happens prejudices subside and tendency to accommodate increase s. These seven propositions are described as follows: 1.ticle duality). in its self-existence as well as in its relations to othe r objects. when measured on the moon where the forces of gravity are e ntirely different. Syadvada provides Jainas with a systematic methodology to explore the real n ature of reality and consider the problem in a non-violent way from different pe rspectives. so as not to get attached to any one p articular view point or model.Radhakrishnan stated "Attributes which are contradictory in the abst ract.

Decay and origin refer respe ctively to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearance of another state . Control of senses. Ajīva . And it follows. gaseous. it encompasses all aspec ts of human life namely social. energy. studying scriptures alone is of no use to a person who does not apply them. creed or class. once a day in a year) Constraining normal activities (in other dimensions in addition to limited a rea) Charitable work or contributions to the extent feasible The interesting aspect is that on this path there is a place for every one f rom the beginner to the most advanced seekers. Apart from the above five major vows. Dharma-tattva and Adharma-tattva are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. these being merely the modes of the soul. Limited area of activity vow (so as to minimize unavoidable violence as cons equence of activity) Limited use of consumable and non-consumable items vow Avoidance of purposeless activities (without any reason or benefit) vow Meditation for limited duration (for example. Jīva is characterised by cetana (consciousness) an d upayoga (knowledge and perception). it is neither really destroyed nor created. . Monks and nuns follow th ese major vows strictly and totally. every day for few minutes) Practice of ascetic life for limited duration (for example. they are unique to Jain thought depicting are said to pervade the entire universe. fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter or ultimate particles. One of the qu alities of the Paramānu and Pudgala is that of permanence and indestructibility. With out dharmāstikāya motion is not possible and without adharmāstikāya rest is not possible in the universe. which is classified as solid. This Jain path is open to all irrespective of caste. Truthfulness. The first three are grouped a s merit vows and the last four are grouped as disciplinary vows. having a separate existenc e from the body that houses it. And without annihilation of karmas there is no liberation. Jainism has well-developed processes for applying the knolwedge in the right manner. personal. Paramānu or ultimat e particles are considered the basic building block of all matter."Medium of Motion" and Adharmatattva "Medium of ikāya and Adharmāstikāya . The constituents of reality This Universe is made up of what Jains call the six dravyas or substances which are the basic constituents of reality and are classified as follows: ) "The living substances" Jīva (Sanskrit: Jains believe that souls (Jīva) exist as a reality. Though the soul experiences both birth and death. it cannot be created nor destroyed. Just like the light from millions of lamps is of no avail to a blind person. there is no annihilation of Karmas.Matter. Accord ing to Jainism. that there can be no right conduct without the right knowled ge.Non-Living Substances Pudgala . and Non-possessiveness. economic and spiritual leading to inte grated development of the individual. Dharmatattva . N on-stealing. Jainism recommends the following addit ional vows to common people for their improvement. while the common people follow the vows as far as their lifestyles will permit. Without the right conduct. liquid. Acharya Tulsi defined it as Mahavrataadeenaamaacharanam Samyakchar control over our inner desires and reach a stage where there is no attachment or aversion. I t combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. Further. It prescribes vows(vrats) in the areas of Non-violence.

between the two substances. karmic matter flows into the soul āsrava. The third truth is that through the interaction. soul and non-soul. the princip e of motion. each of immense duration estimated at billions of sagaropama o r "ocean years". Monasticism In India there are several Jain Monks. faith and knowledge.Ākāśa : Space . clings to it. Trainee ascetics are known as Ailaka and Ksullaka in the Digambara tradit ion. Sadhu (monk) and Sadhvi (nun). T he fifth truth states that a stoppage (saṃvara) of new karma is possible through a sceticism through practice of right conduct. It is all-pervading. They p ractice the five Mahavratas. These are the uncreated existing constituents of the Universe which impart the n ecessary dynamics to the Universe by interacting with each other. change s or modifications can be achieved only through time.Space is a substance that accommodates souls. Some authors add two additional categories: the meritorious and demeritorious a cts related to karma (punya and pāpa). word and deed so as not to c ause harm to any living beings Truthfulness (Satya): Truth. (mita) succinct. sorrow increases at each progressive descen ding stage and happiness and bliss increase in each progressive ascending stage. and material objects around. The final truth is that when the soul is freed from the influenc e of karma. and time. namely the axiom that they exist . ca lled navatattva. Dharma or true religion according to Jainism is Vatthu s ahāvō dhammō Jain Prakrit: translated as "the intrinsic nature of a substan . an d (priya) pleasing. In Jainism. These nine categories of cardinal truth. the time is li kened to a wheel with twelve spokes divided into descending and ascending halves with six stages. An intensifica tion of asceticism burns up the existing karma – this sixth truth is expressed by the word nirjarā. In other words. form the basis of entire Jain metaphysics. to speak the harmless truth Non-stealing (Astey): Not to take anything that has not been given to them w illingly by the owner Chastity (Brahmacharya): Absolute purity of mind and body without indulging in sensual pleasure Non-possession (Aparigraha): Exercise no attachment or aversion to all peopl e. which is (hita) beneficial. According to Jains. which is liberation or moksa. There are two categories of ascetics. the principle of rest. Three Restraints (Gupti) Control of the mind (Mangupti) Control of speech (Vachangupti) Control of body (Kayagupti) Five Carefulness (Samiti) . called yoga. matter. Kāla "Time" is a real entity according to Jainism and all activities. infinite and made of infinite space-points. which are an attempt to explain t he nature and solution to the human predicament. in categories like Acharya. becomes converted into karma and the fourth truth acts as a factor of bonda ge bandha. three Guptis and five Samitis: Five major vows (Mahavrata) Non-violence (Ahinsa): Non-violence in thought. it reaches the goal of Jaina teaching. Upadhyaya and Muni. with subcategories) truths o r fundamental principles also known as tattva. These constitu ents behave according to the natural laws and their nature without interference from external entities. restricting the manifestation of the consciousness intrinsic to it." Jain metaphysics is based on seven (sometimes nine. The first two are the two ontol ogical categories of the soul and the non-soul. places.

which has had the largest number of commentaries written on it by later Jain logicians. Following is the partial lis t of Jain philosophers and their contributions: Kundakunda (1st—2nd Century CE) .Jain logician and author of important w orks in Sanskrit and Prakrit. Digambaras take up to eleven oaths. Jinabhadra (6-7th Century) – author of Avasyaksutra (Jain tenets) Visesanavati and Visesavasyakabhasya (Commentary on Jain essentials) He is said to have foll owed Siddhasena and compiled discussion and refutation on various views on Jaina doctrine. Mallavadin (8th Century) – author of Nayacakra and Dvadasaranayacakra (Encyclo pedia of Philosophy) which discusses all the school of Indian Philosophy.Jain logician. grammarian.key Jain logician. Comp osed Samadhitantra. Digambara monks eat standing in one place in their palms without using any utensil. Att hapāhuda "Eight Gifts". He also composed the Ratnakaranda Srāvakācāra and the Svayambhu Stotra. Pujyapada (6th Century CE) . Svetambara monks and nuns wear white clothes. such as. a logician and he is said to have defeated many B . Umāsvāti or Umasvami (2nd Century CE) . However. T attvārthasūtra.Jain philosopher. etc. they trace the origins of its philosophy to Rsabha. Siddhiviniscaya-vivarana. Manikyanandi (6th Century CE) .e. Akalanka (5th Century CE) . They do not use mechanical transport. historically. The impact of Aka lanka may be surmised by the fact that Jain Nyāya is also known as Akalanka Nyāya.Carefulness Carefulness Carefulness Carefulness pan Samiti) Carefulness while while while while walking (Irya Samiti) communicating (Bhasha Samiti) eating (Eshana Samiti) handling their fly-whisks. (Apta-Mi māmsā). unstitched whi te clothes as long as they are not attached to them. Ishtopadesha and the Sarvarthasiddhi. author of Pañcāst ikāyasāra "Essence of the Five Existents". et al.exponent of Jain mysticism and Jain nayas de aling with the nature of the soul and its contamination by matter. In the current time cycle. the first Tīrthankara. composed the Parikshamaukham. Jain Philosophers Jains hold the Jain doctrine to be eternal and based on universal principles. Nyāyaviniscaya-vivarana. They eat only once a day. Samantabhadra (2nd Century CE) . Post Mahāvīra many intellectual giants amongst the Jain ascetics contributed and gave a concrete form to the Jai n philosophy within the paramaters set by Mahavira. a definitive commentar y on the Tattvārthasūtra and Jainendra Vyakarana. Tattvārtharājavārtika. the Samayasāra "Essence of the Doctrine". the Pravacanasāra "Essence of the Scripture ". Pramānasangraha. Niyamasāra "Essence of Discipline". knowledge and the objects of knowledge). Astasati. Jain monks and nuns travel on foot. a masterpiece in the karika style of the Classical Nyaya school. Siddhasena Divākara (5th Century CE) .author of first Jain work in Sanskrit. wear no clothes. (Adan Nikshe while disposing of bodily waste matter (Pratishthapan Samiti) Digambara monks do not wear any clothes and are nude. They practice non-attachme nt to the body and hence. Svetambaras believe that monks and nuns may wear simple.first Jain writer to write on nyāya. whose works such as Laghiyast raya. Dasabhatti "Ten Worships" and Bārasa Anuvekkhā "Twelve Contemp lations". the first work on Sanskrit grammar by a Jain monk. Mallav adin was known as a vadin i. Nyāyāvatāra (on Logic) and Sanmatisūtra (dealing with the seven Jaina standpoints. water gourds. the tradition holds that the ancient Jain texts and P urvas which documented the Jain doctrine were lost and hence. Sanskritist. expounding philosophy in a most systematized form acceptable to all sects of Jainism. the Jain philosophy can be traced from Mahāvīras teachings. are seen as landmarks in Indian logic.

Yogabindu and D hurtakhyana. historian. By experiencing self-transformation. A kalanka. satirist an d great proponent of anekāntavāda and classical yoga. Non-possession. Pt. He specialised in Navya-Nyāya and wrote Vrttis (commentaries) on most of the earlier Jain Nyāya works by Samantabhadra. In 1936. translating and annotating the Jain Agama s. known as Tattvarthashlokavartika.Jain thinker. In recent times.Jain philosopher. Vadideva (11th Century) – He was a senior contemporary of Hemacandra and is sa id to have authored Paramananayatattavalokalankara and its voluminous commentary syadvadaratnakara that establishes the supremacy of doctrine of Syādvāda. author. Conceived in five principles (Tru th. based on Manikyanandi's Parikshamukham and Nyayakumudacandra o n Akalanka's Laghiyastraya. composed the brilliant comm entary on Acarya Umasvami's Tattvarthasutra. Gujarati and Rajasthani. Prabhacandra (8th-9th Century CE) . and by the time he was 16. Nonviolence. Prabhācandra and others in the then-prevalent Nav ya-Nyāya style. he had already s tarted attracting acolytes. Tulsi realized that the independence of India would be futile unless the nationa l character was developed. and that the primary aims of Dharma is to purify character (its ritualistic practices are sec ondary). author. Vidyanandi (11th Century CE) . composed a 106-Sutra T attvarthasutra and exhaustive commentaries on two key works on Jain Nyaya. as a soteriological system of meditation in the Jain context. His works include Yogaśāstra and Trishashthishalakapurushacaritra a nd the Siddhahemavyakarana. 1949 he launched the Anuvrat Movement to spearhead this idea (anu (small). making him head of Terapanth group. the Movement was in spired followers to practice purity and self-discipline in their personal lives. Prakrit. grammari an and logician. he initiated more than 776 monks and nuns. Manikyanandi. where various religious subjects were covered in 32 succinct Sanskrit verses. His work wi th Acharya Mahapragya led to the Preksha Meditation. Yaśovijaya has to his credit a prolific literary output – more than 10 0 books in Sanskrit.Tulsi took his monk's vows a t age 11 with remarkable dedication. Abhayadeva (1057 CE to 1135CE) .uddhist monks on the issues of philosophy. Haribhadra (8th Century CE) . Sukhlal and Dr. tit led Pramāna-Mimāmsā.author of Vadamahrnava (Ocean of Discussion s) which is a 2. Tulsi began researching.Jain philosopher. Through his oversight. Aacharya Mahapragya. The movement continues under the leadership of Acharya Mahapragya. Mahendrakumar Nyayacar ya have made important contributions to Jain Philosophy. Symbolism . The movement also held to the ideas that Dharma is no t merely an instrument of ensuring happiness in the hereafter but is also a mean s to bring happiness to the present life. His works include Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya. Tulsi was the first person who sought to rediscover Jain meditation. Kalugani nominated Tulsi to be his successo r. Yaśovijaya (1624–88 CE) – Jain logician and considered one of the last intellectua l giants to contribute to Jain philosophy. He also authored an incomplete work on Jain Nyāya. On March 2.Jain thinker. He is also famous for Jna nasara (essence of knowledge) and Adhayatmasara (essence of spirituality). Acharya Hemachandra (1089–1172 CE) . citizens could move toward a nonviolent so cio-political world order. Non-stealing and Celibacy). Scholarship In the 1970s. Vidyānandi. philosopher. that he who was fails to make his pres ent life better is unlikely to achieve happiness in the hereafter. he pioneered the Dvatrimshatika genre of writing in Jainism.500 verse tika (Commentary) of Sanmartika and considered a great treatise on logic. Prame yakamalamartanda. vrat (vow)).

It signfifies conquering over sexual desires Darpana . Triple umbrellas. horse. A Jain swastika is normally associated with the three dots on the top accompanied with a crest and a dot. Nandyavartya . deer. to halt the cycle of reincarnation through the pursuit of truth. Kalasha . vajra (a kind of weapon). Other important symbols are: Dharma Wheel on the palm of a hand. swastika.A mark manifested on the centre of the Jina's chest. lilly flower.Large swastika with nine corners Vardhamanaka . goat. elephant.Throne. The word in the middle is "Ahimsa".The mirror reflects one's true self because of its clarity The holiest symbol is a simple swastika.Signifies peace and well-being Shrivatsa . crocodile. buffalo. suggests an increase i n wealth. porcupine. 24th Tirthankar's mother prior to giving birth to Mahavi r . fish.Pot filled with pure water signifying wisdom and completeness Minayugala . crescent of moon. redgoose. The wheel represents the dharmaca kra. tor toise. jar. considered auspicious because it is sanctified by the b lessed Jina's feet. meaning non -violence. snake and lion.Fish couple. Bhadrasana . conch.The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahimsa. signifying a pure soul. shade providing tree. The Jain symbol that was agre ed upon by all Jain sects in 1974. Eight auspicious symbols (The Asta Mangalas). The swastika is among the holiest of Jain symbols. pig. fame and merit due to a Jina's grace. symbolizing Ahimsa 24 Lanchhanas (symbols) of the Tirthankaras. lotu s flower.A shallow earthen dish used for lamps. They are in the sequence of the 1st Thirthankara to the 24th are: bull. rhinocero s. Their names are: Swastika . The triple umbrella are usually seen with Thirthankar idols Dreams of Trishala. monkey. signifying protection through triple gems of Jainism.