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Research Guide Dr. Harpal Singh (M.A. M.Ed., Ph.D.)

Research Scholar Sumati Paliwal



1. Name of the Scholar : 2. Topic of the Research work:



Basic Teacher’s Training College,
Gandhi Vidya Mandir, Sardarshahr. Rajasthan.

4. Field of the Research Study:

Educational Psychology

5. Objective of the Research Study:-

1. To compare the effect of Reaction to Frustration on values of adolescent girls and boys of Government, Aided and Private school, IIT-JEE, CPMT, AIEEE, PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. 2. To compare the school/college problems related to Frustration on values of adolescent girls and boys of Government, Aided and Private school, IIT-JEE, CPMT, AIEEE, PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. 3. To compare the personal problems, family problems and over sensitivity related to Frustration on values of adolescent girls and boys of Government, Aided and Private school, IIT-JEE, CPMT, AIEEE, PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. 4. To compare the Personalities of adolescent girls and boys of Government, Aided and Private school, IIT-JEE, CPMT, AIEEE, PMT & PET Coaching Institutes.


5. 6.

To study the relationship between various components of Personalities of Adolescent students. To study the relationship between Frustration on Values and academic achievement.

7. To study the relationship between Frustration on Values and social adjustment. 8. To study the relationship between social adjustment and its components. 9. To study the relationship between academic achievement and social adjustment. 6. Importance of the Research : The frustration experienced by man today must be different from that experienced in the past, and the frustration experienced by a member of a developed industrial society different from that experienced by a member of a developing and predominantly rural society. Perhaps in the past men were mainly concerned for their physical survival; they worried about the source of their next meal, about shelter, and about not being killed. Their most pressing wants were basic physical needs. In some societies this changed with development, and today, for some, physical needs are not a day-to-day concern. Industrialized man worries about problems of a more psychosocial nature, problems which are perhaps higher in his hierarchy of needs. This is probably not so for those, or at least some of those, living in developing societies. If today problems for industrialized man are indeed higher-order problems then an interesting argument can be advanced. The removal of physical and psychological threat has allowed this type of man to become concerned with


which were hitherto perceived as of secondary importance. frustrateors. thought the damage may or may not be explicitly visible immediately.threats. which children have to wade through. Right from the procedures of selective entry into schools till the reality of examinations every year. mental and social health of young students. Educational stressors. duration and intensity. Ramachandra Rao highlights two Indians concepts. His luxurious and comforts would far exceed the imagination of his ancestors. simply a medico social system that is effective in keeping people alive. However. children have been falling prey to frustration disorders of various kinds. The education system harbors inbuilt frustration providing situations. namely Klesa and Dukha. Frustration is a threat to the quality of life and to physical and psychological well-being. Yoga and Ayurveda. as crystallized in the Yoga 4 . which correspond not only to the concept of frustration in common use but also. depending upon their nature. frustration engulfs many a tender mind and body and affects the physical. living longer does not necessarily mean a healthier life. The concept of Klesa. Ramachandra Rao has highlighted the ancient Indians contribution as an alternative way of thinking about frustration so that a comprehensive conceptual model of frustration and stress culturally specific to India can be developed. to an extent. This is because formal education is an anxiety driven enterprises. pose a potential hazard to the student’s health and personality in varying ways. Is it possible that this type of man is actually experiencing less frustration than ever before? He now lives longer (for various reasons) and enjoys a relatively high standard of living. Frustration is a problem for all types of society. For some time now. A high standard of living does not necessarily guarantee that the quality of life is good. Confining himself to the indigenous systems known as Samkhya. to the concept in its technical sense.

On the basis of a painstaking review of ancient Indian Literature. which relies on the Samkhya school for its general theoretical orientation. and of the objective environment. It has been demonstrated that such a conceptual model of frustration concerns itself much more with cognitive processes than the western models of frustration. to the concept in its technical sense. as crystallized in the Yoga framework. The Samkhya system news Dukha to signify the stress that the individual experiences in the course of his interaction with the world around him. refers largely to the frustration in common use but also.framework. to an extent. provided by the Yoga-Sutra relies on the cognitive appraisal constitutes the functional frame work for the conceptual model of frustration. and that the main importance of the Gita is to redefine the major aspects of frustration in life situations. but also in Vedanta and Buddhism. It describes an orgasmic state involving the experience of emotions and is characterized by an urge to escape or avoid. claiming that the Gita provides an excellent illustration of frustration and how it is to be handled. emotional involvement. 5 . The concept of Klesa. organic reactions and coping activity can be found in the discussion of frustration in Indian thoughts. refers largely to the stressors. In fact. it brings out the importance of the individuals perception of himself in his role-status. Adopting the conceptual model provided by the Yoga-Sutra. including the task as assigned to or as accepted by him. Ramachandra Rao has discussed frustration with reference to situations in the Gita and Ayurveda. threat. the Indian system of medicine. frustrateors aspect. Thus. not only in Samkhya-Yoga system. In another article. the concept of cognitive structuring. Ramachandra Rao has also outlined on elaborate ideology of frustration based on Ayurveda. Ramachandra Rao concludes that the broad based conceptual model of frustration. and the concept of Dukha in the Samkhya more to the phenomenon of frustration itself.

The individual’s mental. They have strong feeling of instability which are often intensified by the ambiguous treatment they receive from there parents and teachers. go through a period of exaggerated storm and frustration. the rapid changes that accompany sexual maturity make young adolescents unsure of themselves and there capacities. It is seen not all adolescents by any means. Secondly. Such changes during adolescence are more rapid than during infancy or childhood. In our society adolescence has traditionally been viewed as a time of greater storm and frustration than other periods of life. Adolescence in human life is the stage when rapid changes take place. 6 . But most of them do experience emotional instability from time to time which is logical consequence of the necessity of making adjustments to new patterns of behavior and to new social expectations. At this stage rapid bodily change occurs and most adolescents are ambivalent about changes. They have unrealistic aspirations. It’s a time for search of identify. However. At this stage the adolescents are confined with many problems. Due to these rapid changes the adolescent develops heightened emotionally. Due to physical and glandular body changes adolescent faces heightened emotional tension. the ambiguous status of the adolescent presents a dilemma that greatly contributes to the adolescent “Identity crisis” or the problem of ego identity. social. Adolescents generally have unrealistic attitude towards life. not only for themselves but also for their family and friends.Ramachandra Rao convincingly brings to light the ancient Indian contribution to the understanding of the frustration phenomenon on the basis of which a comprehensive model of frustration culturally specific/typical to India can be developed. moral and spiritual outlook undergoes revolutionary changes.

Nowadays. It is clear. Sometimes frustration is more severe or longer lasting. some psychologists believe that daily life is full of frustration. It is seen that adolescents complain about schools in general and about restrictions. uncontrolled and seemingly irrational. 1986. however that there are conspicuous signs of tension in adolescence. in facts. At this stage adolescent develops a strong desire for independence. This leads to many clashes with parents and other adults in authority. The attitude of adolescents towards education is greatly influenced by their vocational interests. 7 . Ultimately. adaptation requires major effort and may produce physiological and psychological responses that result in health problems. Frustressful reactions can promote actual deterioration of body tissues such as blood vessels and the heart.1983). The adolescent at this is neither a child nor an adult. required courses and in the way the school is run. many of the interests that were carried over from childhood are replaced by more mature interests. One hear if not only in daily conversation but also through television. everyone seems to be talking about frustration. Importance of the problem: Adolescence is known as a traditional period the individual’s status is vague and there is confusion about the roles the individual is expected to play. housework. Boys and girls of this age begin to think seriously about their future.Adolescent emotions are often intense. As adolescence progress. Scheiderman. we become more susceptible to disease as our ability to fight with germs is lowered (Kiecolt-Glaser and Glaser. These problems lead to frustration in adolescent life. All of us face frustration in our lives. continued exposure to frustration results in a decline in body’s overall level of biological functioning because of the continued secretion of stress related hormones. radio. However.

Some of these frustrations are physical like puberty and other are environmental like rejection by peers. the frustration on most adolescents are real. G. K. Physicians. Philosophers and persons concerned about health have long wondered about the etiological significance of stressful and frustrated life events. 1970. All these studies found a 8 . their achievements bring them little satisfaction. Mahendru and Kumari. In today’s world of competitiveness there is not a single individual who is devoid of ambition in some or other form. It is seen that adolescents need a lot of social adjustment to the increased influence of the peer group. new values in friendship selection. The casual connection between frustration in life and illness is hardly a new idea. Although some individual have greater difficulty than other. Personalities. Adolescents tend to aspire unrealistically high. new social groupings. changes in social behavior. R. Channabasavanna Rao Embar and Sharieff. Although it has become part of our daily vocabulary. The distinctiveness of recent research lies in its attempt to define and measure frustration of life. Thacore. 1973). Sethi.the newspaper and the ever increasing number of conferences and university courses devoted to the topic. 1970. B.C. Therefore they often do not get satisfaction from their achievements when they fail to reach their goals. Dube. Seth and Yadav. Frustration on Values. yet none has studies the relationship of stress with the social adjustment of adolescent students. Gupta.C. 1972. new values in social acceptance and rejection. Academic Achievement are the most studies variables in the measurement tradition. Even the most competent children may become unpredictable in adolescence.C. Studies in India prior to 1977 were mainly concerned with acculturative frustration due to migration from rural to urban settings (Bhaskaran.P. 1970. tough exams and bad marks and demands by parents.

N.S. Beig.S.C. and Kapur (1976) documented as how to socio-cultural and economic changes induce frustration and mental disorders in a rural community. G.Prakash. Mohan and Jain.P. and B. Bants and Mogers). the growing threat to their social status from Mogers who were growing richer and the no materialization of benefits in terms of land ownership rights expected from the Indian Land Act. wig. But Verghese. Rao. change over to matrilineal system of residence appeared to be a greater source of frustration and consequent somatic and psychological symptoms than the insecurity concerning the socio-economic status which influenced their male counterparts. Gupta. Vyas and Singhal(1981). were found to have a higher rate of mental disorder than Brahmins and Mogers. L. Gupta. 1976) or after modification (Chatterjee. the family constitution. Gupta.higher rate of morbidity among the migrant population. Mahendru. and Kumari (1974) cited that the nuclear family created more frustration for individuals.. and Thacore. Sundaram. who were farmers like them.C.Sethi. Senseman. S. Among the female Bants. the changes in the conjugal residential pattern.P. In an excellent study of three contrasting communities of Kota situated in South India (Brahmins. K. S. Dube. 1980. Further. G.B.e. 1981 S. Trivedi and B. 1980). and Benjamin(1973). i. The investigators explained these findings in terms of traditional competition of Bants with Brahmins. For example. Carstairs. Dube (1970). Mukherjee and Nandi. Venkoba Rao and Nammalvar.C. 1980. Menon and Chawla. and Suraiya (1971) concluded that the joint family system produces a greater amount of frustration. used only a “subjective report” of the patient in a 9 . Sethi. joint or nuclear. male Bants. who were mainly tenant farmers. however. However. did not significantly influence the mental disorder rate among them. Bhatia. Godara. Studies conducted in India have used life events lists prepared in other countries either without change (R.

with moderate consensus. Relevance of the problem: In India most of the researchers in the field of frustration are of occupational frustration. Kaur and H. Frustration concerned with adolescent frustration in there school/college/coaching time is very little studied. By studying it many behavioral and emotional problems can be looked into and counseling can be 10 . (1981) Shave also constructed the frustration events scale for use in India. and Holmes and Masuda (1974). Al. The instrument constructed by these researchers was called the schedule of recent Experiences (SRE) . In another sample of 200 normal subjects from the metropolitan city of Delhi. personalities and aspiration but none is of social adjustment. A major methodological advancement in this area was made by Holmes and Rahe (1967). Dube et. means. Kaur (1981) made the most systematic attempts in the scaling of stressful and frustrated life events. Al. al. D. dowry. Frustration may effect the social adjustment of the adolescent. Singh. in India. standard deviations and rank order of 52 life events clearly showed that subjects within a shared frame of socioculture background can scale. Dube et. S. and G. A review of related literature showed that most of the studies which are studied with frustration are of values. Social adjustment is a very important factor to be studied. (1980). They added new items on issues like joint family.specific area without the help of an event list. They reported only moderate consensus among their subjects and drew up a hierarchical list of events based on their perceived stressfulness. Singh et. spiritual search. (1980) studied 110 normal persons for their severity ratings on a 7point scale for readjustment required by life events. G. and dropped items on dating and breaking engagement. the degree of stressfulness on a 7-point rating scale.

The major findings are as follows:a). remedial programmes can be made for personality development. the study. students.G. Now parents have become more ambitious. Therefore.” 7. have developed and it leads to more confusion and frustration in one’s life. All the extreme groups ie: high achievement motivation. Hence. personalities. and social adjustment of the adolescent students. high educational aspirations and high occupational aspiration groups were under the greatest 11 .” The sample was taken from class XI and P. New variety of fields. psychological stress and achievements motivational. b). There existed significantly high positive relationship in between frustration. Title :- “A study of effect on reaction to frustration on values. educational and occupational aspiration.given to the low achievers. Through case study and interview method social adjustment can be made better. Suggestion can be given to the teachers and administrators of schools organization for devising school curriculum in such a way that the frustration is minimized. Due to more scientific advancement and rapid changes in our life style. Review of Related Studies:Gupta A. adolescent faces many problems. (1979) studied “Frustration and psychological stress related to level of aspiration and achievement motivation. title of which it states below was undertaken for research. Frustration is now a burning problem. this research problem is undertaken for the study.

c).R. wherein the arts students scored significantly higher than the science students. e). Bisht. A. f). psychological stress. Frustration and Psychological stress found to be independent of caste hierarchy. the significant results of the study were a). psychological stress. (1980) studied “stress in relation to school climate and academic achievements:. students in academic stream did not differ significantly on any of the measures of psychological stress except anxiety. Students sex-wise but the male students differ from female students significantly on the need for academic achievement and academic stress. Students studying in post graduate classes significantly outscored the students in grade XI on all measures of frustration. low educational aspiration and low occupational aspiration groups. the least. Only school climate and academic achievements correlated variance with other variables were partially out. The difference between the means of the urban and the rural students on Frustration and Psychological Stress were found to be highly significant. All the three independent variables were positively and significantly correlated.frustration. psychological stress. Mean scores of academic frustration and stress and school climate did not differ. students offering science and art as their academic streams did not differ significantly. e). Students studying in post graduate classes significantly outscored the students in grade XI on all measures of frustration. d). 12 . Age-wise there is no difference on the mean scores of these variables. c). d). All the distribution of the different variables were almost normal b). while the low achievement motivation.

mental symptoms. Although academic achievement predicted institutional frustration and academic frustration. Stress and Frustration were negatively related to academic performance. withdrawal symptoms. ego-strength and life”. g). Ss were administered the Hindi adaptation of Family Environment Scale (Joshi and Vyas. attention symptoms. 13 . In general. the children in government run schools were found to have a high degree of stress than children in other schools. c). 1987). Gunthey. g). Namita (1988) studied “Stress and Frustration among school children” and the major findings were as follows a). e). low self-esteem. h). Rangnathan. The need for academic achievement was the second best predictor but for males it was best predictor. stress as well as frustration in 20 drug users and 20 non drug users (age 18-25 years). Boys were found to have a higher degree of stress than girls. The factors in Frustration and Stress constituted psychomotor symptoms. b). f). Manisha (1998) studied “Use of drugs in relation to family environment.f). hostility and anger symptoms. it ceased to be so when its correlated variance with the need for academic achievement and the school climate parted out. The school climate was found to be a significant predictor of institutional frustration and academic frustration and it was also the best predictor except for the male sample. Ravi and Jain. Significantly. Stress and Frustration were positively and significantly correlated with the organizational climate in the schools. The standard in which a child studied was not found to influence stress. d). Academic performance varied as a function of type of school.

personality and academic achievement. 14 . Kaur. level of aspiration.Ed.B.” Major findings were : a).A. and the Life Stress Scale (Gunthey and Loonber. b). Drug users showed impaired interpersonal relationship and ego functioning. it was found that the first three programmes were B. Anxiety was found to have significant negative correlation with academic achievement for the total sample. It revealed that 76. b).the Ego-strength Scale (Hasan. and other choices were M. Geeta (1997) studied “academic aspirations of rural tenth class girls. Majority of the students had low academic performance. Kanwaljeet and Goyal. They were also more aggressive. M. (1979) in his topic entitled “A study of relationship between locus of control. Locus of control was found to correlate negatively and significantly with academic for the achievement for the total sample. 1992). anxiety. Socio-economic status was found to have a significantly positive correlation with academic achievement for the total sample... As regards choice of specific areas of study under degree programmes.A.S and B. Level of aspiration correlated negatively and significantly with academic achievement for the total sample.A.Sc. and were irresponsible and isolated as compared to non-drug users. Studies showing the impact of personalities on students – Gupta. Almost equal percentage wanted to stay at home or join some service.” Major findings were : a). A. and M. lacked social and personal competence and acceptance.86% students wanted to continue their studies. d). B.B. 1970). c). c).

” Gupta. B.” Verma. Anshika (1998) studied “anxiety level and scholastic achievement amongst adolescents. Archana (1997) studied “socio-economic status. intelligence. The boys of both. and Pande. S. G.Shukla. SC and non SC had low level of self-concept to their girl counterparts.K. B. occupational aspirations. d). and Sheikh. Beena (1996) studied “comparative study of academic achievement of boys and girls of SSC exam. (1998) studied “personality traits and needs as correlates of academic achievement.” Maikuri. and Agarwal.Q.” 15 . No significant difference was found between SC and non SC students in their level of intelligence. Major findings were: a). Shashi Kiran (1997) studied “ self-concept of adolescents in relation to their academic achievement.P. The level of academic achievement of SC students was lower as compared to non SC students. c). R. SC students were low for socio-economic status as compared to non SC students. Studies showing the impact of academic achievement on students Kemchandani S. b). self-concept and academic achievement of scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste students”.

(1999) studied “ effect of familial factors on academic achievement of school children. Aswana studied “ effect of intelligence.Suneeta.K. Haseen (1999) studied “ academic achievement as function of social class. f). language usage and sex on academic achievement of secondary school students. Santanu Kumar. emotional and health) adjustment among adolescents. It was found that global adjustment scores were influenced by the extraversion and neuroticism dimensions of personality. Extraversion and neuroticism were found to have a powerful impact over global. parent child interaction. Studies showing the impact of social adjustment on studentsBharadwaj.” The tools used to collect data included Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory by Helode and adjustment inventory by Mittal. school. The interaction effects were not found to be significant on ant\y factor. neuroticism and gender had significant effect on health and emotional adjustment. as well as area wise (home. e). S. d). B. dependency behavior and school management. c). and Mayuri. b). Gender and mother’s employment were not related to adolescent’s global as well as area wise adjustment. social. It was found that home adjustment was influenced by extraversion and neuroticism dimensions of personality. Extraversions.” C. Mishra.” Swain.” Taj. 16 .. The major findings were “ a). K. (1997) studied on the topic entitled “a psycho-social study of adjustment amongst adolescents.

Recently. S. However.N. 14 out of 44 events showed significant differences in their frequencies between the group. gender differences in the perception of stressful life events have been found (S. As stated earlier. bereavement and interpersonal social events using the ENT patients as controls. Singh et al. Dube. Moreover. and Chawla (1983b). familial and marital) were experienced by a significantly greater number of patients of patients than controls. Normals showed higher stress scores on desirable events only. they did not specify as to where their control groups were taken from.82 events compared to 11.Frustration with life Events: Group Comparisons Venkoba Rao and Nammalvar (1976) found that depressive experienced an average of 12.1980 ).N. In a study by S. Sundaram. Saxena. (1981) found significant differences only for personal health. D. Chattopadhyay and Das (1983) showed that neurotics displayed significantly higher life stress scores than psychotics and Normals with regard to both recent and remote events (mostly concerning undesirable events). R. whereas for psychotics no such difference could be found either with regard to recent-remote or desirable undesirable events. Agarwal. The mean number of events experienced by patients was more than 24 times that experienced by normal controls. 1980. financial. 1962). Chaturvedi (1983) concluded that patients with stress disorders cognize their life events as more distressing than normal controls. Chatterjee et al. Dube et al .V. occupational. Bhargava.C. Sharma and B. A significantly large number of patients suffering from coronary heart disease report a major change in work responsibility and the death of a close relative as compared to normal controls (S. Mohan. all the categories of events (personal.72 experienced by controls. Psychiatric outpatients were compared with normal subjects. 17 . G.

L. Chatterjee et al.Gupta et al. L. anxiety neurosis and thyrotoxicosis more often than the 18 . A. bronchial asthma. Agarwal. While Christopher (1979) reported a significant correlation between breast cancer and the occurrence of subjectively stressful events up to 15 years before the appearance of breast cancer. S. Udupa (1980) observed that frustration plays an important role in the development and progress of carcinoma (a cancer) in various parts of the body. 1981. Sharma and B. Mehta and S.N. Ansari.C. P.K. Bhargava. Further. It seems that the support of a joint family acted as a buffer against the stress of the husband’s illness. However.Prakash et al.. 1981. alcoholism (Rangaswami. Gupta and D. R. Shah and Parik. 1980.Frustration on Values. Srivastava (1983) studied the effect of frustrated life events on the course of pulmonary tuberculosis and concluded that patients who face continued frustrated situations responded poorly to treatments as compared to those who were free from such situations. Khorana. and ulcerative colitis (Chakraborty. 1983.N. Venkoba Rao and Nammalvar. particularly depression (R. 1983). Health and Psychiatric Symotomatology: Researches has been done in India on the correlation between experience of life events and the development on precipitation of physical and psychiatric illness. Agarwal and Udupa (1979) reported that the joint family system gives rise to stress disorders like hypertension peptic ulcer. Frustration relating to life events has also been demonstrated to be associated with coronary heart disease (S.V. Gupta (1978) observed that the spouses of neurotic patients suffered from anxiety neurosis and neurotic depression to a moderate degree. 1982).N. Life. Sampurna. 1976). Agarwal.C.N. they concluded that spouses from nuclear families reported significantly more psychiatric illness than those belonging to joint families. Another group of studies has focused on the stressors inherent in marital life or the family setup. 1983).

Agarwal (1979) showed that patients with stress disorders had a high level of anxiety as well as stronger achievement motive than controls. personality variables have been considered along with stress measuresor diagnosis. 1982). Marital disharmony is also associated with ulcerative colitis (Khorana. or demanding. The role of undesirable parental models. death of parents. strict and disciplinarian parents in causing psychosomatic (stress) disorders has also been documented by Chaturvedi (1983). They also engage relatively more in task relevant than in defensive behaviors. He has further demonstrated the distressful impact of unhappy and hazardous married life. In a different group of studies. especially that of the mother. In another study the role of marital stress on anxiety neurosis has also been reported (V. Sampurna. apathy and logical contradiction. Udupa and P. and had undisciplined selfconcepts. Singh (1979) highlighted the importance of the parents personality. apprehensive.R. According to Naidu (1983). pessimistic. 1983).N. Chaturvedi’s (1983) study revealed that patients with frustration and stress disorders tended to be aloof. death of spouse or offspring.intermediate or nuclear family. J. Channabasavanna and Parthasarthy. the profile of high level of frustration indicates that they generally think positively about themselves and other. believe in the existence of God and take life to be meaningful. Other studies have focused on specific life stressors like the effects of postpartum sterilization and medical termination 19 . and hazardous family relations on psychosomatic disorders. Srivastava and S. Ansari. Rao. in producing psychosomatic disorders in children to a large extent. tender-minded. Verma (1977) reported that psychosomatic patients were characterized by mantel withdrawal. Nathawat and Tiwari (1983) found a consistent tendency among persons with stress intrapunitiveness and hopelessness as compared to their surgical counterparts who served as controls.B.

It has further been reported that the melatonin level and its synthesizing enzyme activity increases after stress (P. economic conditions. Chapter wise distribution of Proposed Research 8.C.1.1 Introduction 20 . It has also been reported that psychic stress plays an important role in the precipitation of thyrotoxicosis (Udupa. Singh. Chatterjee (1978) has discussed the role of environmental situations like military aggression. while discussing the management of frustration and it’s disorder.B. especially the practice of Yoga. as an adjunct to existing therapeutic regimes. 1983) and approaching surgery or anesthesia (Paul.C. Sreedevi. Gupta.of pregnancy (Ammal and George. S.M.M. 1981). Srivastava (1981) concluded that those who cope more effectively with their stresses are people with more positive orientation to life in general and employ a judicious mixture of coping and defense responses.1 Chapter 1. 1980. Bhujanga and Zubair (1979) have studied the impact of cyclonic stress on psychiatric morbidity. has recommended the use of ancient Indian methods. 8. Saxena Ghosh and C. R. Singh. In another study P. 1980). 1979. In a study on frustration and coping mechanisms of orthopedically handicapped children. industrialization and social change as possible stressors leading to psychosomatic illness. Srivastava. Not much has been published on the techniques of coping with frustration. G.:.Background of the Study 8.C. While S. Prasad and and Udupa (1980) have confirmed that there is a final response to psychic frustration. Udupa (1979). 1971) where neurotransmitters are considered to be transducers of the various changes in the body following stress.

3.Research Design Used Statistics 8. Conclusion & Suggestions Hypothesis of the study: In experimental psychological research formulating a hypothesis is very important.1.3 Chapter 3 :.2 Significance of the Study 8.3.4 Administration 8.3 Used Tools 8.8.5 Delimitation of the Study 8.4 Clarification of the words used in topics 8.2 Chapter 2 :.3.5 Results.1. Experimenters form a probable notion of what they expect to 21 .3.3.4 Analysis & Interpretation of Data 8.Review of the Related Study (i) Studies completed in India (ii) Studies completed in Abroad 8.1 Research Method 8.2 Sample & Sampling method 8.5 Data Collection & its method 8. It is a type of a suggestion which can be put to a test to find its validity.3 Hypothesis 8.

The researcher may be able to explain the collected data according to the hypothesis propounded by him and the results then support the hypothesis. 4. Aided and Private school. Aided and Private school. There components of Frustration. PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. IIT-JEE. CPMT. CPMT. There is no difference in the school/college problems of adolescent girls and boys of Government. PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. 2. Aided and Private school. Aided and Private school. AIEEE. CPMT. In the present work Null hypothesis will be used as this hypothesis is supposed to be the best hypothesis because it is not prejudiced on either side whether the results are positive or negative. CPMT. There is no difference in the Personality level of adolescent girls and boys of Government. AIEEE. 5. 3. and express this expectation in formal prediction. The formulated hypothesis may prove to be correct on testing but the chances are that the results may not favor the hypothesis. PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. There is no difference in family and personal problems of adolescent girls and boys of Government. AIEEE. IIT-JEE. AIEEE. is no relationship between various 22 . IIT-JEE. The following null hypothesis will be tested in the present investigation:1. There is no difference in the effect of Reaction to Frustration on values of adolescent girls and boys of Government.

The findings have been subjected to the limitations of tools used and statistical treatment employed. There is no relationship between Personalities and There is no difference in the components of Frustration on Values of adolescent girls and boys of Government. There is no relationship between Frustration on Values and Personalities. DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: 1. The study is limited to Kota Distt. Government aided. 3. AIEEE and PET coaching Institutes. PMT. AIEEE. PMT & PET Coaching Institutes in terms of high as well as low level of aspiration. Pre IIT. IIT-JEE. 23 . only. CPMT. Aided and Private school. 2. 7. Social Adjustment. 8. PET students. CPMT. There is no relationship between Frustration on Values and social adjustment. XII. 9. Private Schools and Pre IIT. The study is limited to class XI. 10. PMT. There is no relationship between social adjustment and its components. The sample for the present study will be 1200 students (boys and girls) in the range of 16 to 20 years from Government.6. 4. AIEEE. CPMT.

such as reading. usually designated by test scores or marks assigned by teachers. 2) Negative force or pressure exercised on a person for the purpose of compulsion or extortion. Social Adjustment. Personalities is – • Characteristics and Qualities according Knowledge or skills develop in school subject. B. PERSONALITIES: According to Dictionary of Education. A condition of things compelling or characterized by discouraged. Frustration is – 1) Ineffective efforts. 24 . The result of overpowering pressure of some adverse force or influence. or by both. as contrasted with skills developed in such areas arts and physical education. arithmetic and history. FRUSTRATION: R. DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS 1. b) c) Personalities. A. According to Oxford English Dictionary.The main variables of the study are: a) Frustration. 2.S. • The individual personality of pupils in the so called “Man of different” subjects. Prevent of achieving of purpose. Lazarus (1969) regards stress as an external circumstance that makes unusual or extra ordinary demands upon the person.

• The period during which behavior patterns such as finding a vocation. desirable or successful.ADOLESCENT: • The period of human life distinguished by the maturation of the organs and functions of reproduction. extending from the onset of puberty to adulthood. • The pattern of the modes of response built up the individual with respect to his social environment and evaluated in terms of the standards of his culture group as acceptable. SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT: • The process whereby the individual attempts to maintain or further his security. 3. comfort. or the state or condition attained through such efforts. mating and establishing independence of the family approach maturity. 25 . status or creative inclinations in the face of everchanging conditions and pressures of his social environment.

PET (C.20 years of Senior Higher Secondary Schools of Kota city. Aided and Private school. Sampling Techniques: In the present study. PMT & PET.SAMPLE OF THE STUDY The sample of the present study consists of 600 girls and boys of Government. AIEEE. AIEEE. Government Aided : 5. Private 2.*): * [Coaching Institutes] In this way sample has been selected from various schools. Government 4. influences that are felt and trends that are 26 . IIT-JEE (C. Thus the sample contains individuals drawn from Government. Private schools and IIT-JEE. CPMT. The students were of class XI in the age group of 16.I. CPMT .*) : : : 100 girls 100 girls 100 girls 100 girls 100 girls 100 girls 100 boys 100 boys 100 boys 100 boys 100 boys 100 boys 3. The sample was equally divided in three groups:1. PMT (C. CPMT. In a normative survey we are concerned with conditions or relationships that exist. IIT-JEE.*): 6. Method: The method in the present study is Normative Survey method. processes that are going on. points of view or aptitudes that are held. practices that prevail.I. PMT & PET Coaching Institutes. AIEEE. the random stratified sampling technique has been used to select the sample. Government Aided.I.

1. Level of Personalities Scale by M.N.A. Shah and Bhargava (1996). The position of Personalities leveled as indicated by the total score of students in the public examination and after carrier object examinations. Statistical Techniques: The various descriptive techniques such as mean. Tools of the Investigation: It is a matter of general realization that tools serve the basis of reliability of findings. it is necessary to choose the design is very essential because it has the following two basic purposes:1. 2. Youth Problem Inventory by B. 27 . standard Deviation and Pearson’s product moment correlation and Inferential Statistical techniques such as “t” test will be used for testing the hypothesis. Reaction to Frustration test to be constructed by the investigator. 4. METHODOLOGY After the problem of research has been started. the following tools have been used. Each tool is particularly appropriate for a particular kind of data. yielding information in the form that would be most effectively used. Verma (1996). It provides answer to research question.developing. In the present investigation. 3. The survey method gathers data from a relatively large number of cases at a particular time. the aim and objectives have been fixed and the main hypotheses for investigation have been framed.

sample. The method to be employed always depends upon the nature of the related problem and the kind of data necessary for its analysis and solution. accurately and as economically as possible. 3.” The success of any investigation depends upon the selection of appropriate methods and tools for the study of the problem. tools and techniques are important constituents of investigation and essential parts of the design and planning of the study. Research design helps the investigator to control experimental extraneous and errors in variance of the particular research problem under study.2. Designs are carefully worked out to yield dependable and valid answer to the research questions epitomized by the hypothesis. Tools used. Thus the procedure or the design following which an investigator achieves his aims and objectives includes in it all the tools. The present chapter deals with the method. Research designs are invented to enable the researchers to answer research questions of validity objectivity. Sample. 2. tools and techniques which would be used in the study. procedure. Therefore. a careful selection of scientific and reliable tools and methods becomes very essential for an investigator in order to make the investigation. successful and useful. methods and techniques. Young (1968) stated: “Most meaningful and revealing studies are those that are consistent from a definite point of view and for the success of any investigation careful planning is essential. 28 . Adequately planned and executed design helps greatly in permitting to rely on both observations and inferences. Methods. Methodology. The chapter includes: 1.

Berne Search Meili Wurzburg. 3.J. Writing of Research work – 6. ‘Fifth Edition’. D.B. Colemen James C Research in Education. Best John W. Revision and Collection of Related research – 2. Statistical techniques. 5. Indexing & Specification of Research work – 4. Eysenck H. Ltd. Exact duration of the course : Description of Consumed Time :- 24 months 3 months 6 months 6 months 3 months 3 months 3 months 1. References & Bibliography 1. (1976) 4. (1972) Encyclopedia of Psychology Vol. The academic publishers (India) (1971) Abnormal Psychology and modern Life. 1 Press London 29 . third edition. Pvt. Collection of Data – 3. 5.. Arnold w. Biswas A and Agrawal J. Facilities available for the work: Facilities available by the Principal 11.4. C. (1978) Encyclopedic dictionary and directory of education Vol I. Conclusion & Suggestions – 5. Typing & Binding – 10. Procedure and data collection.Taraporeval and sons Co. Prentice Hall. 2. 9.

Good. Inc. Telford Charles. E. Prentice Hall of India. Moshman David. (1977). Third Edition.B. (1978) The Psychology or Adolescence. M 14. McGrawHill Book Co. 15. Fieldman. and Broning Roger. Malviya. Macmillan Publishing Co.. Jersild Arthur. (1960) Reactions to Frustration. A. Garrett Henry E 9. Wadsworth Inc. Hurlock. (1987) Dictionary of Education. 1954. Carter V: 10. Kaplan Paul S. Harriman 11. H: Elements of Psychology. Jersild Arthur. Prentice Hall Inc. Jean Stein. (1966) ‘Development Psychology’ 30 . Kinney Fred Mc. Mc Graw-Hill. (1946) Child Development. 17. (1984) Psychology to personal AdjustmentBy John Wiley and Sons. Martineau 18. W and Sawrey Jones. 12. Philosophical Library Inc. Encyclopedia of Psychology. T. D. Glover John. (1997) Statistics in Psychology and Education. New Jersey. Brook Judith’s and Brook David W 13. (1975) Psychology of Adjustment. Kalyani Printers. (1978) Child Psychology. New Delhi Research Foundation.. Robert S 8.6. 16. Inc. Psychology of Adolescent.

Tiwari. Jaipur. (1996) 25. PhD thesis. Child Development ‘Infancy through Adolescence’ John Wiley and Sons Inc. The conception of frustration in Indian (1983) thought: The practical involvement in Gita and Ayurveda. Ram Chandra Rao S. (1987) Organizational Behavior (A Psychological Framework). Litton Educational Pub. Manorama. Vol. (1988) 20. 23. Ind. (1981) Dictionary of Behavioral Science. Pandey Janak “ICSSR Committees for the Third Survey of Research in Psychology” Sage publications India Pvt. Sudha G. R. – The effect of frustration on the extent of Muller’s Lyer illusion in high and low students. Steward Alison Clark and Friedman Susan 24.S. house. Wolman Benjamin B factors. E ‘Introduction to Personality’ Edition. Inc. (1988) Second and 22. (1993) Modes of frustration as function of personality 27. 30 (1986) 21. et al. Research Methodology in Social Sciences. Scott Foresman Company.19. Thakur Devendra 26. (1973) 31 .K. P. National Pub. Phares and Jerry. Deep and Deep pub. Rew. Panday.. Psy. Ltd. sex and adolescent.

Worchel Stephen.28. Prentice Hall. Goethals George Adjustment Pathways to Personal growth. Inc. (1985) Outline of the Synopsis approved Signature of Supervisor with date Signature of the candidate with date 32 .