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**Sep. 17-18, 2012, Toronto, Canada
**

ISBN: 978-1-77136-064-7

*

Laith Jaafer Habeeb; E-mail: laithjaafer@yahoo.com or

dr.laith_jaafer@uotechnology.edu.iq,

ICEIT-2012

Experimental and Numerical Study of Gas-Solid Flow Behavior in the

Standpipe of a Circulating Fluidized Bed

Laith Jaafer Habeeb

a

and Riyadh S. Al-Turaihi

b

a

University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Baghdad – Iraq, laithjaafer@yahoo.com

B

University of Babylon, Dept. of Mech. Eng., Babel - Iraq, riyadh_1974@yahoo.com

Abstract

Experimental and simulation study for steady and unsteady two-phase flow (air-sand) in a vertical pipe were

conducted. The effect of the particle size, the fluidized velocity and heat flux are included to estimate the flow and thermal

behavior. In this work for the unsteady and steady states, three different particles sizes were used (300,550 and 800 µm).

The fluidizing medium was air at different velocities in the range of (1.4-2.1 m/s). The rig provided with a horizontal

heating tube with outer diameter of (3.175 cm) was heated electrically with different power supplies (100, 140, 180 Watt).

Numerical simulation was conducted using commercial CFD package FLUENT to investigate the inner flow behavior of

the study. The fluidized bed temperatures profiles were plotted at different positions. Also these measurements were

monitored by interphase system connected with computer. The results show that the temperature distribution along the

packing height decreases with the increase of particle size and increases with the increase of heat flux. According to the

temperature increases when the air velocities increased with time.

Keywords: two-phase flow, gas-solid, fluidized bed, steady and unsteady cases.

Nomenclature

dp Particle size

F Force

g Acceleration of gravity

j Diffusion

K Exchange coefficient

m

Mass flow rate

p Pressure

q Heat flux

R Homogeneous reaction

9 Interphase forces exchange

S Homogeneous production

t Time

u Velocity

Y Temperature

Greek Symbols

oq Volume fraction

o

q

Mass fraction

µ Density

t Shear

Subscripts

i Species

lift Lift

p Iteration

q Phase number

vm Virtual mass

1.0 Introduction

Recently use of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB)

boilers in power generation became more popular

because of its environmental compatibility and high

efficiency. Circulating fluidized bed is widely used for

various industrial applications which include power

generation, drying, cracking, and combustion. The

increase and diversity in CFB applications demand the

need for the development of more efficient experimental

techniques, realistic simulations, and other research and

design tools. Versatile tool like CFD and related

software’s may be therefore used to accomplish the

research with accuracy and also to overcome the

limitations of experimental aspects. Some information on

turbulence parameters which hard to obtain in laboratory

conditions can be easily estimated using CFD tools. In

addition, CFD models provide (a) more detailed data

profile as a function of space and time without interfering

or disturbing the flow by internal probes [1]. The heat

transfer problem in fluidized bed especially in column

was investigated in numerous experimental and

numerical studies. However, S. Benyahia et al., [2]

simulated the gas-particle flow behavior in riser section of

circulating fluidized bed using commercial CFD package

FLUENT. Sunun et al. [3], investigated the solid motion in

gas–solid fluidized bed via discrete particle simulation. N.

S. Winaya et al. [4], studied the effect of operating

parameters on heat transfer from bed to U-beam impact

separators located in the top region of the riser column.

Karageorgieva et al. [5], presented an information about

ICEIT-2012 - 105 -

a low temperature installation, with which can be

investigated the convective heat transfer in circulating

fluidized bed. Observed the influence of some factors on

the total heat transfer coefficient and also on the

convective heat transfer one. Maan S. Al-Dabbagh [6],

investigated an experimental study of heat transfer

between a shallow fluidized bed and the surface of a

single horizontal tube and a tube bundle, which was

immersed in it. Chang Ahn et al. [7], simulated a

computational modeling study of gas-solid flow in a

fluidized bed furnace by means of three- dimensional

computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Mladen et al. [8],

described the mathematical model of unsteady one-

dimensional gas to particles heat transfer for non-

isothermal fluidized bed with periodic heating of solid

particles. Z. O. Opafunso et al. [9], designed the

pneumatic and hydraulic systems in coal fluidized bed

combustor. U. S. Wankhede [10], Studies related to heat

transfer in a sound assisted fluidized bed of fine powders

were very limited. Investigated heat transfer in a bubbling

fluidized bed of fine powders and immersed heating

surface in absence and presence of acoustic waves. P.

Mahanta [1], described a numerical study on the steady

state wall-to-bed heat transfer characteristics of

circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser of cross section 0.15

m × 0.15 m and height 2.85 m. It concluded that bed

temperature and heat transfer coefficient increases with

increase in bed inventory and particle size.

From the previous review it is denoted that the recent

researches in showing the flow behavior and shape

inside the piper for steady and unsteady cases is very

limited. So, my concern in this work is to study the effects

of different particle sizes, heat fluxes and air velocities

experimentally for the steady and unsteady state cases.

A numerical simulation was conducted using commercial

CFD package FLUENT to investigate different cases

behavior.

2.0 The Experimental Apparatus and

Procedure:-

Figure (1) show the experimental equipment and

measurement system which is used in this work to

measure the temperature along the glass tube and the

fluidized velocities with time [12&13]. The experimental

apparatus is consisting of:

1- Air compressor followed by an accumulator storage

tank (1 m

3

) with maximum pressure (4 bars). The

compressor was connected with a filter to get dry air.

This air compressor pumps the required air to the air

container until the pressure inside the air container

satisfies the operation pressure (approximately 2

bars).

2- Orifice meter used to measure the discharge in the

pipe. A mercury manometer is connected across the

orifice to measure the difference in pressure in order

to determine the velocity of the air flow through the

pipe.

3- Voltage regulator used to balance the voltage across

the heater.

4- Heater with capacity (1000 Watt) supported into the

pipe (D= 1.25 inch).

5- U-tube manometer used to measure the pressure

difference across the orifice meter.

6- The fluidization column constructed from main glass

pipe, having an inner diameter of (3.175 cm) and a

height of (125 cm) is placed in a vertical position with

(150 g) sand granules putted inside it.

7- Eight K-type thermocouples fixed on the pipe at equal

distance (10 cm) from the beginning to the end of the

glass pipe.

8- Interface connected with a personal computer so that

the measured temperatures at various eight regions

are displayed directly on the computer screen.

Experiments were carried out to show the effect of

different operation conditions on temperature profile in

fluidized bed. The selected experimental values are

presented in table (1).

Table (1) values of operation conditions used in

experiments.

Heat flux

q (watt)

Fluidized bed

velocity u (m/s)

Particle size

dp (µm)

100 1.4 300

140 1.8 550

180 2.1 800

Fifty four experimental set were conducted for the

steady and unsteady states. Each experiment was

repeated many times to ensure accuracy of the results

for each sand particle size. The experimental procedures

are:

1- Weight a quantity of sand (150 g) of a specific size

and put it into the pipe (column) above the distribution

plate.

2- Turn on the air compressor till the pressure inside the

air storage tank reaches about (2.5 bar).

3- Open the valve for feeding the air into the pipe.

4- Record the pressure drop through the orifice meter to

determine the fluidized bed velocity.

5- Turn on the electrical circuit to obtain the required

amount of heat flux. The heat flux was controlled by

voltage regulator and measured indirectly by an

ammeter and voltmeter.

6- Record the temperature with time along the vertical

pipe using the thermocouples that connected to the

interphase and computer.

Repeat the above procedures by changing the

fluidized bed velocity then the heat flux and finally the

particle size.

3.0 Numerical approach:-

The numerical model using a computational fluid

dynamics (CFD) is consists of a two-dimensional

unsteady and steady state. Eulerian-granular model

(EGM) is used where, both particle-wall and particle-

particle interaction are taken into account. The numerical

study has been carried out with the commercial finite

volumes package ANSYS (Fluent 13.0) designed for the

solution of incompressible fluid dynamic problems with a

two-dimensional model. The investigation deals with the

cases of multi heat fluxes, air velocities and particle

sizes. The analysis uses a mesh structure with square

grids. A total number of about 41283 nodes are

employed for the entire flow domain to attain grid

independent solutions. The volume fraction is (o=0.598).

The Eulerian multiphase model equations of continuity,

momentum, and energy can be written as follows

[13&14]:

ICEIT-2012 - 106 -

- Continuity:

(1) m ) u (

t

) (

n

1 p

pq q q q

q q

¿

=

= · V +

c

c

µ o

µ o

Where: (oq) is the volume fraction for the q

th

phase.

- Momentum for q

th

phase:

(2) ) F F F (

) u m ( g

p ) u u (

t

) u (

q , vm q , lift q q q

q

n

1 p

pq pq q q q

q q q q q

q q q

+ +

+ + 9 + · V + +

V ÷ = · V +

c

c

¿

=

µ o

t µ o

o µ o

µ o

Where the first left hand side term is referring to the

transient and the second one is refer to the convection.

In the right hand side, the terms are referring to the

pressure, body force, shear stress, (interphase forces

exchange and interphase mass exchange) and (external,

lift, and virtual mass forces) respectively. Hence, solids

pressure term is included for granular model. The inter-

phase exchange forces are expressed as:

) u u ( K

q p pq pq

÷ = 9

Where Kpq is the exchange coefficient and in general

Fpq= - Fqp.

- Energy equation for q

th

phase can be similarly

formulated.

Multiphase species transport for species i belonging

to mixture of q

th

phase

(3) ) m m (

S R J

) Y u ( ) Y (

t

i j j i

q p

n

1 p

q p

q

i

q q

i

q q

i

q

q

i

q q q q

i

q q

÷

+ + + · V ÷

= · V +

c

c

¿

=

o o o

µ o µ o

Where the first left hand side term is referring to the

transient and the second one is refer to the convection.

In the right hand side, the terms are referring to the

diffusion, homogeneous reaction, homogeneous

production and heterogeneous reaction respectively.

Each of the computational iteration is solved implicitly.

The convergence of the computational solution is

determined on scaled residuals for the continuity,

momentum and energy equations for many of predicted

and standard variables. The settings for the scaled

residuals for solution convergence are set to 10

-3

for all

computed residuals approximately. The solution is

considered to be converged when all of the scaled

residuals are less than or equal to these default settings.

4.0 Results and Discussion

4-1 Experimental Part:

4-1-1 Steady State:

Figure (2) shows the effects of particle size on

temperature gradient distribution curve along the column

for different fluidized bed velocities at the heat flux values

at the steady state condition. For a certain value of

fluidized bed velocity and heat flux, the temperature

gradients increase as the mean solid particle diameter

decreases. This is due to that the finer particle can cause

higher heat transfer coefficient because the small particle

have small thermal conductive resistance and the smaller

particles can increase the effective heat transfer area

covered by particle.

Figure (3) describes the effects of heat flux on

temperature gradient distribution curve along the column

for different particle size at different fluidized bed

velocities for the steady state condition. For a certain

value of fluidized bed velocity, the temperature gradients

increase as the heat flux increases this is due to increase

of amount of heat to the fluidized bed flow.

Figure (4) illustrates the effects of the fluidized bed

velocity on temperature gradient distribution curve along

the column for different particle size at the heat flux

values at the steady state condition. Also, for certain

value of heat flux, the temperature gradients increase as

the fluidized bed velocity increases this is due to increase

the amount of air which have amount of heat therefore

increase the heat transfer to the solid particle and

increase the temperature profile.

4-1-2 Unsteady State:

Figure (5) shows the effect of particle size on unsteady

state temperature profile along the column for fluidized

velocities at different values of time, namely changing

between (0 min) to (4.85 min) along the vertical pipe

distance (m). It can be observed that the temperature

profile increase when decreased the particle size. Also

because the small particle can cause higher heat transfer

coefficient due to that the smaller particles can increase

the effective heat transfer area covered by particle itself.

Figure (6) describes the effects of the heat flux and

different fluidized bed velocities on temperature profile for

different particle size at the same values of time of figure

(5). It can be observed that the temperature profile along

the fluidization column increases with increasing the heat

flux and as the velocities of fluidized bed increases, the

temperature profile increases. Because when the velocity

of fluidized bed increases, the solid particles will be more

action and as a result, the temperature distribution

increases.

4-2 Numerical Part:

The sand properties were (density=1400 kg/m

3

,

specific heat=800 J/kg.K, thermal conductivity=0.2

W/m.K), granular diameter=450 µm and pacing limit=0.5.

The air velocity was 2 m/s with pressure-velocity coupling

(phase coupled SIMPLE) solution method. Figure (7)

ICEIT-2012 - 107 -

depicts the volume fraction of the flow (air-sand) behavior

at different time steps for pressure based Eulerian

laminar flow transient conditions. Figure (7-A) shows the

sand volume fraction at time 0.0 s with the whole pipe

height. It is clear in the figure the 10 cm granular height.

Figure (7-B) presents a zoomed picture to the column at

time=0.03 min. (1.8 sec.). to clarify the two phase flow

behavior. The zoomed picture is enlarged near the

bottom because the upper zone is containing air only.

Figures (7-C to 7-G) show zoomed pictures to the

column at time steps (0.57, 1.1, 1.65, 2.18 and 3.78 min.)

respectively. A turbulent fluidization regime with small

bubbles can be noticed. When time increases, the two

phase zone increases till reached a certain distanced as

described in figure (7-H) for the whole pipe height at

time=4.85 min. then the distanced remains constant. This

mixed zone (air+sand) height is approximately equal to

(0.5-0.6 m) and this is why the temperatures distributions

fall clearly near this distance. Because there is no sand

to carry the heat with it and no particles transfer the heat

to the pipe by conduction, there is only the convection by

air.

5. Conclusion

In this work it have been studied the effect of the

steady and unsteady state conditions for different particle

size, fluidized bed velocity and heat flux on the thermal

behavior of two phase flow (gas-solid). From this study, it

can be concluded that, the decreases of the particle size

will increase the temperature profile for different fluidized

bed velocities and heat flux values. The temperature

profile increases as fluidized bed velocity increases for

different particle size and heat flux values. And the

temperature profile increases as the heat flux increases

for different particle sizes and fluidized bed velocities.

References

[1] P. Mahanta, R.S. Patil, and M. Pandey, "Effect of

Particle Size and Sand Inventory on Wall-to-Bed Heat

transfer Characteristics of Circulating Fluidized Bed

Riser", Proceedings of the World Congress on

Engineering, ISSN: 2078-0966, Vol. II, London, U.K.

2010.

[2] S. Benyahia, H. Arastoonpour, T. M. Knowlton and H.

Massah, "Simulation of Particles and Gas Flow Behavior

in the Riser Section of a Circulating Fluidized Bed using

the Kinetic Theory Approach for the Particulate Phase",

Powder Technology / Elsevier, Volume 112, Issues 1–2,

Pages 24–33, 5 October 2000.

[3] Sunun Limtrakul, Ativuth Chalermwattanati, Kosol

Unggurawirote, Yutaka Tsuji, Toshihiro Kawaaguchi and

Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon, "Discrete Particle Simulation

of Solid Motion in Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed", Chemical

Engineering Science,58, pp.915-921, 2003.

[4] N. S. Winaya, P. Basu and B.V. Reddy, "Experimental

Investigations On Heat Transfer From Suspension to

Impact Separators in the Riser Column of a Circulating

ﬂuidized Bed Combustor", International Journal of Heat

and Mass Transfer 46 pp. 71–75, ,2003.

[5] D. Karageorgieva and R. Stanev, "Heat Transfer In

Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed", Journal of

the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy,

41, 1, 69-74, 2006.

[6] Maan S. Al- Dabbagh, "Experimental Study of Heat

Transfer Between the Shallow Fluidized Bed and a Tube

Bundle Immersed in it", Al-Rafidain Engineering, Vol.14,

No.4, pp.24-33, 2006.

[7] Chang Ahn, Jin-Bok Yoo, Yoo-Taek Kim and Sung-

Chul Yi, "Computational Modeling of the Sintering

Process of Ceramic Particles in a Fluidized Bed

Furnace", Journal 0f Ceramic Processing Research, Vol.

9, No. 6, pp.569-575, 2008.

[8] Mladen M. Stojiljkovic, Branislav V. Tojanovic, Jelena

N. Janevski, and Gradimir S., "Mathematical Model of

Unsteady Gas to Solid Particles Heat Transfer in

Fluidized Bed", Thermal Science: Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 55-

68, 2009.

[9] Z. O. Opafunso, I. I. Ozigis and I. A. Adetunde,

"Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems in Coal Fluidized Bed

Combustor", American J. of Engineering and Applied

Sciences 2 (1): 88-95, 2009.

[10] U. S. Wankhede, "Heat Transfer Characteristics and

Particle Behavior around a Horizontal Heating Surface

Immersed in a Sound Assisted Fluidized Bed of Fine

Powders", International Journal of Dynamics of Fluids,

ISSN: 0973-1784, Volume 5, Number 2, pp. 139–144,

2009.

[11] Tahseen Al-Hattb and Riyadh S. Al-Turhee, "Effect

of Particle Size on Heat Transfer Coefficient in Fluidized

Bed Column" Special issue for the papers presented in

1St Annual Scientific Conference of the College of

Engineering 17-18 May 2009 Part (B).

[12] Riyadh S. Al-Turhee, "Transient Thermal Behavior of

Fluidized Bed Column" Iraqi Journal for Mechanical and

Materials Engineering, 2011.

[13] André Bakker, "Applied Computational Fluid

Dynamics", Lecture 14-Multiphase Flows, Fluent Inc.

(2002).

[14] Fluent User Services Center, "Modeling Multiphase

Flows", Introductory FLUENT Notes, December 2006.

ICEIT-2012 - 108 -

Figure (1) schematic diagram and photograph of the experimental apparatus.

ICEIT-2012 - 109 -

Figure (2) effects of particle size on temperature distribution along the column for different fluidized bed velocities.

ICEIT-2012 - 110 -

Figure (3) effects of heat flux on temperature distribution along the column (pipe) for different particle size.

ICEIT-2012 - 111 -

Figure (4) effects of the fluidized bed velocity on temperature distribution along the column for different particle size.

ICEIT-2012 - 112 -

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=100 W U=1.4 m/s

Particle Size=550 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=100 W U=1.8 m/s

Particle Size=550 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=100 W U=1.4 m/s

Particle Size=300 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

120

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=100 W U=1.8 m/s

Particle Size=300 mic m

Figure (5) effect of particle size on temperature profile along the pipe for fluidized velocities at different values of time.

ICEIT-2012 - 113 -

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=180 W U=2.1m/s

Particle Size=800 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=140 W U=2.1m/s

Particle Size=800 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=100 W U=2.1m/s

Particle Size=800 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=180 W U=1.4 m/s

Particle Size=550 mic m

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Distance (m)

70

80

90

100

110

120

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

(

C

)

Q=180 W U=1.8 m/s

Particle Size=550 mic m

Figure (6) effects of the heat flux and fluidized bed velocities on temperature profile for different particle size at different

values of time.

ICEIT-2012 - 114 -

(B)

(A)

(C) (D)

ICEIT-2012 - 115 -

Figure (7) volume fraction of the flow (air-sand) behavior at different time steps.

(E) (F)

(G)

(H)

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