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17-18, 2012, Toronto, Canada ISBN: 978-1-77136-064-7

**Experimental Study of Forced Convection Heat Transfer in a Partially Opened Box Filled With Porous Medium
**

Laith Jaafer Habeeb a , Mahmoud A. Mashkour b and Hazim Jassim Jaber c

b

University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Baghdad – Iraq, laithjaafer@yahoo.com University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Baghdad – Iraq, mahmoud_mashkour@hotmail.com c University of Kufa, Engineering College, Kufa – Iraq, hazam_eng@yahoo.com

a

Abstract

This research presents an experimental study of free and forced convection heat transfer for three dimensional laminar steady flows in a cubic space manufactured from glass with dimensions (303030 cm) filled with saturated porous medium. Plastic balls porous media is used with homogeneous in diameter (11.7 mm). Whilst the lower wall is heated by an electrical heater, the other walls are thermally isolated. Two vents were made at the two vertical opposite walls, one for inlet and the other for outlet of air with equal dimensions (6 6 cm). Also, a square section cavity was manufactured with dimensions (66 cm) and (70 cm) length made of transparent plastic for air entering. The experimental work is included the study of porous medium effect on forced convection heat transfer with selected values of heat flux and for (Re,PM) Reynolds number ranges (17.45 ≤ 𝑅𝑒 ,𝑃𝑀 ≤ 22.13) for every heat flux (qw). In this experimental work the air enters from down and exits from up for average Nusselt number ranges ( 41.52 ≤ 𝑁𝑢 ≤ 82.85 ). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds Number and decreases with the high increase of heat flux. Also, in the present work, empirical correlations were obtained. Keywords: Forced convection, Porous media, Laminar flow, Opened cavity.

**Nomenclature A1, A2 Dh ds, dp F g H hy k kf km ks L V Vi VS v total v solid
**

*

Cross section area of the box, m Hydraulic diameter, m Diameter of solid beads, m Friction factor 2 Gravitational acceleration, m/s Height of the box, m The average heat transfer coefficient, 2 W/m .°C The local heat transfer coefficient, 2 W/m .°C 2 Permeability, m Thermal conductivity of the fluid, W/m.K Effective thermal conductivity of the porous medium, W/m.K Thermal conductivity of the spheres (beads), W/m.K Length of the box, m Fluid velocity at the duct, m/s The actual velocity within the pores, m/s Air velocity at inlet of the test section (box), m/s 3 Box volume, m 3 Plastic beads volume , m

2

mS Q Q1, Q2 vdis qw V ti tS

Weight of spheres, kg 3 Air flow rate at inlet duct, m /s 3 Air flow rate through the box, m /s The volume of the water displaced, 3 m 2 Heat flux, W/m Fluid velocity at the duct, m/s The local temperature, °C The lower surface temperature, °C

Greek Symbols 2 αm Thermal diffusivity of porous medium, m /s ∆P Pressure drop, Pa ∆Z Head pressure, m Porosity 3 ρ Density of fluid, kg/m µ Dynamic viscosity of fluid, kg/m.s 2 Kinematic viscosity, m /s Subscripts f Fluid (air) i Local m Effective

Corresponding author: E-mail: laithjaafer@yahoo.com

ICEIT-2012

s y

Solid y - axis

Non-dimensional Numbers

Nu
𝑁𝑢

Pe Pr Re,L Re,PM

**The local Nusselt number
**

The average of Nusselt number Peclet number Prandtl number Reynolds number of the inlet duct Porous Medium Reynolds number

1. Introduction

The theme of convective heat transfer in channel filled with saturated porous media is important in many practical fields are good examples for petroleum technology and mechanical and chemical engineering, civil engineering, petroleum and environment engineering, and the field of farming engineering. Heat transfer problems through porous media have become an intensive research topic for last few decades because of their possible applications in many members of science and technology [1], [2] and [3]. Chan et al. [4], studied the natural convection heat transfer in a rectangular cavity of porous media filled with gas used the Brinkman model that was differentially heated in the horizontal direction. They performed a numerical finite difference solution. Their numerical computations indicate that the Darcy number dependence was unimportant for most situations, resulting in a correlation of dimensionless heat flow rate with dimensionless temperature difference and aspect ratio. Kumari and Nath [5], studied the unsteady natural convection flow in a two-dimensional square cavity filled with a porous material. He took the flow initially steady where the lefthand vertical wall has temperature (Th) and the righthand vertical wall was maintained at temperature (Tc). (Th>Tc) and the horizontal walls were insulated. At time (t>0), the left-hand vertical wall temperature is suddenly raised to which introduces unsteadiness in the flow field. The partial differential equations governing the unsteady natural convection flow have been solved numerically using a finite control volume method. It was found that the average Nusselt number attains a minimum during the transient period and that the time required to reach the final steady state is longer for low Rayleigh number and shorter for high Rayleigh number. Prakash and Satyamurty [6], studied the free convective flow and heat transfer, within the framework of Boussinesq approximation, in an anisotropic fluid filled porous rectangular enclosure. The temperature difference has been investigated using Brinkman extended non-Darcy flow model. The studies involve simultaneous consideration of hydrodynamic and thermal anisotropy. The flow and temperature fields in general were governed by (Ra) the Rayleigh number, (Ar) the aspect ratio of the slab, (K*) the permeability ratio and (k*) the thermal conductivity ratio, and (Da) Darcy number. It has been found that average Nusselt number, ( Nu )decreases, due to inclusion of Brinkman viscous terms and this decrease in the average Nusselt number increases as the Darcy number increases, for anisotropic medium (also characterized by permeability ratio (K*)and the thermal conductivity ratio (k*). The influence of anisotropy in permeability diminishes as ( Da) increases and becomes negligible for (Da>0.1). However, the

influence on anisotropy in thermal conductivity was practically independent of the Darcy number. Nasr et al. [7], studied the forced convection heat transfer from a cylinder embedded in a packed bed numerically. It was found that the Reynolds number or effective Prandtl number resulted in heat transfer enhancement. The effect of decreasing Darcy number (Da) was an increase in the Nusselt number. The effect of Forchheimer number on heat transfer was found to depend on the product of Darcy and Reynolds numbers (Da, R𝑒𝐷 ). Basing on the numerical results that obtained, an increase in Reynolds number was found to enhance heat transfer. This enhancement was found to be consistent with that obtained from the predictions of the boundary layer theory, which shows a Nusselt number dependence on the Reynolds number to the one-half power. The effect of increasing Darcy number was found to yield a decrease in heat transfer. Jiang et al. [8], simulated numerically the forced convection heat transfer of water and air in plate channels filled with sintered bronze porous media using a local thermal non-equilibrium model with consideration of the wall effect caused by heat conduction in the plate wall and in the unheated section of the sintered porous media. The numerical model was used to analyze the effects of the assumed boundary conditions, the porosity at the wall and the wall effect caused by the heat conduction. It was observed that the wall porosity in sintered porous media is less than that in non-sintered porous media, which increases the convection heat transfer in sintered porous media. Also the wall effect reduces the heat transfer coefficient near the front of the heated section and slightly increases the heat transfer coefficient near the heated section outlet. Waheed et al. [9], studied numerically the mixed convective heat transfer in a fluid-saturated porous medium using the generalized non-Darcy model. They were observed strong dependence of the heat distribution and the fluid circulation within the enclosure on the flow governing parameters including the Richardson, Darcy and Péclet numbers, and the length-to-height aspect ratio. Due to the complex boundary condition occasioned by the position of the moving plate, the flow above and below it was characterized by instability and stratification respectively. Consequently, different rate of heat transfer was obtained at the same coordinate point on both sides of the plate for some flow parameters. The designer of heat transfer equipment with this kind of flow geometry must therefore put this factor into consideration to achieve results that will improve and optimize the performance in practical applications.

2. Experimental apparatus and data reduction:2.1 Rig Description:The test rig is designed and manufactured to fulfill the requirements of the test system for a forced convection heat transfer. The experimental apparatus consist basically of: 1. The test section and ducts. 2. The constant heat flux heater. 3. The air velocity range supply section. 4. The measuring devices. Most of these parts are manufactured, and carefully prevented any air leakage between the connected sections during operation and fixing. The total

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length of the rig is about (2.3m), figure (1) shows schematic diagram of experimental apparatus. 2.2 The Test Section:The experimental model used in the present study is a square box filled with spherical plastic beads. The main dimensions of the box are; length (L=30 cm), width (W=30 cm) and height (H=30 cm). All the walls of the box are constructed from a glass of thickness (6 mm). A glass wool insulation of (50 mm) thickness is applied to insulate all walls except the lower one in order to reduce the heat loss. On the bottom wall of the square box a uniform heating is provided by means of electric tape heater. The partially opened opposite sides of the box are punctured with square holes (66) cm at the right lower and the left upper squares to the entry and exit air. And then a galvanized steel mesh is cited in order not to go out beads. One hole is drilled in the center of the upper wall for entry 25 thermocouples in order to measure the temperatures inside the box. The temperature is monitored with thermocouples. The thermocouples are arranged to form a tree in order to measure the temperature at different locations according to the grid distribution. The grids are distributed horizontally and vertically in order to take into account all the temperature variation in the model as shown figure (2). The square box is filled with plastic (polypropylene) beads which are saturated with air. The plastic beads constant diameter is (11.7 mm) and the physical properties are shown in [10]. The square holes are connected with two square ducts (6 cm×6 cm) with (70 cm) and (15 cm) length. They are manufactured from limpid plastic of (4mm) thickness. The first duct (inlet side) is connected with the air system by a plastic tube and the other duct is for outlet air. The box is fixed by an iron frame to prevent any air leakage from corners, silicon is used. For obtaining laminar flow in the inlet side duct, plastic tubes (diameter 5mm and 20cm length) are used inside the duct. These tubes are designed and citied inside the duct to ensure damping of any disturbance in air stream before entering the test section. Rubber silicon is used to fill the voids between the tubes and to connect them together. 2.3 Layout and Measured Parameters:During the experimental investigation, the main parameters measured are:1. The temperature of air entering and leaving the test section. 2. Static pressure drop between inlet and outlet air. 3. The surface temperature of the box. 4. The temperature distribution within the test section. 5. The velocity of air entering and leaving the test section. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of changing air velocity, influence of heat flux range, and determine temperature distribution in the saturated porous medium. All experiments were performed at different Reynolds numbers and the flow entering from bottom box and leaving from the upper and the parameters were

changed during the experiments. These parameters can be summarized in table (1). Table (1) Parameters range of the experimental work. Atmospheric o temp. ( C) 19 - 22 Heat flux 2 (W/m ) 348.33 1383.55 Air velocity (m/sec) 0.41 0.52 Period to reach steady state (min) 180 - 360

2.4 Experimental Procedures:Experiments were conducted to measure the velocities, temperatures and heat fluxes. The major part of experiments was done in a specially designed square box filled with porous media in which the thermocouples distributed in three dimensions. The general steps which were followed in this experimental investigation for force convection heat transfer is given below: 1. Specifying the heat fluxes and entry velocities to the test section and set the accessories to these selected specification. 2. Supplying the electrical power to the heater. 3. Arranging the required outlet heat flux from the heating system at the bottom of the test section manually by adjusting the voltage regulator. 4. Recording the alternating voltage and current. 5. Calculating the required electrical power which is an input to the heater in accordance to the first heat flux 2 required (348.33 W/m ). The power was measured by a voltage and current measuring devices. 6. Waiting about (180-360) minutes till the steady state condition is reached. 7. Adjusting the air velocity or air flow rate using the voltage regulator and the control valve of the air flow at the required first air velocity (0.41 m/s). 8. Recording the temperatures distribution through the porous media within the enclosure using the 25 thermocouples at (0, 0.5, 9.5, 19, 28.5, 30, 30.6) cm in the y-direction till reaching the upper surface. Then velocity and pressure drop when reaching the steady state. 9. Repeating steps (7-9) for the other three air velocities (0.46, 0.49, and 0.52 m/s) for the same heater heat flux. The time required to reach steady state for each velocity is about (30 min.). 10. Repeating the experimental procedure (1-9) for the other four heat fluxes (575.89, 838.98, 1146.67, and 2 1383.55 w/m ). 2.5 Experimental Data Analysis:The properties for Porous media and saturated fluid must be measured or identified, experimentally or theoretically, to specify the exact condition that the experimental work deals with. So, the air properties are measured according to the mean temperature properties given by standard tables. Where, the air and solid particle physical properties assumed to be constant and in thermal equilibrium at the mean temperature . 2.6 Calculations of Porous media:2.6.1 Porosity Measurement ():The average porosity of the porous medium is compute for each particle with constant diameter of (11.7

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mm). The porosity or void fraction of a porous medium is defined by [11]: 𝑛

= 0.28 − 0.757 𝑙𝑜𝑔 10 + 0.057 𝑙𝑜𝑔10 𝜆

The (km) is found to be (0.08617 W/m.K) .

(6) 𝜀

= 𝑣𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

− 𝑣𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑣𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙

(1)

2.8 Hydraulic Diameter Calculation (𝑫𝒉 ):The calculation of hydraulic diameter for a medium composed of uniform spherical particles requires an appropriate definition of the hydraulic diameter as shown in equation (7) [11].

Where (vtotal) is the test section (box) volume. The main dimensions of the box are length, L=30 cm, width, W=30 cm and height, H=30 cm, and (vsolids) is the plastic beads volume which filling the test section. The plastic beads volume is measured by multiply the volume of one bead by the total number of the small plastic spheres, which gives = 0.422. This measurement is repeated several times with no change noted. 2.6.2 Density Measurement (): - 𝐷

=

2𝑑𝑠 𝜀 3(1 − 𝜀 )

(7)

Where (ds) is the diameter of a sphere. So, (Dh) is equal to (5.695 mm) 𝜌𝑠

= 𝑚𝑠

𝑣𝑑𝑖𝑠

(2)

2.9 The Velocity Calculation:The velocity is computed from air flow rate at inlet duct, which is defined by [11]. For assumption: Q = Q1

Where : (ρs): density of spheres. (mS): weight of spheres. (vdis): the volume of the water displaced. The density of the plastic spheres it is found to be (989.16 kg/m³). 2.6.3 Permeability Measurement (k):The permeability depend on the porosity and plastic sphere diameter [8, 12 and 13]. 𝑉

𝑠 = 𝑄

𝐴1

(8) 𝑘

=

2 3 𝑑𝑆 𝜀 150(1 − 𝜀)²

(3)

Where: VS: air velocity at inlet of the test section (box). Q: air flow rate at inlet duct. Q1: air flow rate through the box. A1: cross section area of the box. Four values of the inlet velocity at the test section (box) are selected in this present work, there are (0.0164, 0.0184, 0.0196, 0.0208 m/s). 2.10 Reynolds Number Calculation:-

Where (dS) is the diameter of a sphere. The permeability of the plastic spheres is found to be 7 (2.0529*10ˉ m²). 2.7 Calculation Conductivity (km):of the Effective Thermal

Reynolds number based on the hydraulic diameter and the actual velocity within the pores is defined by [11]: 𝑅𝑒

,𝑃𝑀 = 𝐷

𝑉𝑖 𝜌𝑓 𝜇𝑓

(9)

An important property of the porous medium is the medium thermal conductivity (km(. In the reviewed previous investigations, [10, 14, 15] a typical mixing rule based on the volume fraction has usually been applied.

Where (Vi) is the actual velocity within the pores or voids, which can be obtained by: 𝑘𝑚

= 𝜀𝑘𝑓 + 1 − 𝜀 𝑘𝑠

(4) 𝑉𝑖

= 𝑄

2 𝑉𝑆 = 𝜀𝐴2 𝜀

(10)

Where (km) is the effective coefficient of thermal conductivity for the porous media, (kf) and (ks) is the thermal conductivity of the air and porous media respectively .Where, (kf) calculated at the average 3 working temperature of 60˚C is (28.65*10ˉ ). And (ks) used in the present work is taken from [10]. The predictions values made by equation (4) was acceptable only if (kf ≈ ks ), i.e. the conductivity ratio, λ= kf / ks ≅ 1. Since the conductivity ratio is less than unity, ( λ=0.1155), therefore it is a better choice to use Krupiczka’s correlation (Prasad 1989) which is based on a two dimensional heat transfer model that predicts more accurate values of (km )[16]. This correlation takes the form:

Also Porous Medium Reynolds number -defined as the ratio of inertia forces to viscous force- is might be calculated according to: 1- Air velocity at inlet duct and inner width of the inlet duct. 𝑅𝑒

,𝐿 = 𝑉

𝐿 𝑣

(11)

2- Air velocity at inlet of the test section and plastic sphere diameter. 𝑅𝑒

,𝑃𝑀 = 𝜌𝑓

2𝑑𝑠 𝑉 𝑠 3 1 − 𝜀 𝜇𝑓

(12) 𝑘𝑚

= 𝑘𝑓 ∗ 𝜆−𝑛

where:

(5)

All the main parameters in the above equations are either calculated from the tables or from the previous calculated.

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2.11 Calculation of Heat Transfer Coefficient (h):The local heat transfer coefficient by force convection can be calculated by: 𝐹

= 𝑑𝑝

∆𝑃 𝜀 3 . . 2 𝐿 𝜌𝑓 𝑉 1 − 𝜀 𝑠

21

Table (2) gives some of the calculated results. 𝑦

= 𝑞𝑤

𝑡𝑠 − (𝑡𝑖 )𝑦

(13)

**3. Results and Discussion
**

The temperature distributions across the box are presented in figures (3-6), which show the readings obtained by thermocouples inside the box at different planes in three dimensions for various heat fluxes and air velocities. The recorded readings shown in these figures were taken for many planes (in x, y & z-directions) to exhibit the thermal gradient and the effect of heat flux and air velocity. It can be seen that for a given heat flux and air velocity, the temperature in the porous medium progressively decreases away from the heated channel wall. This indicates that the temperature distribution pattern becomes more curvilinear owing to the vigorous convective flow and the thermal boundary layer influence becomes small at these locations. The temperature behavior of planes (z= 0, z= 29 cm) is approximately the same for the same air velocity and heater heat flux. The behavior shown by plane ( z=14.5 cm) is different from other planes. This is because that plane is lies in the center of the flow with equal distance from the entering and exit regions. The region that participates more effectively in the heat transfer process can be identified using the local Nusselt number. The variation of the local Nusselt number (Nu) with the box's height is plotted in figure (7A, B, C, D and E). As seen from these figures, the local Nusselt number decreases with the y-axis along the flow direction and the decrease in the air velocity or Reynolds number. The local (Nu) begins with high values at the inlet of entry length region due to the low difference between the air and the box wall temperature, and a thin thermal boundary layer is formed. Then, a small increase will appear after the middle of the duct ( y=12.5 cm) approximately where this plane considered (cooling plane), it is the way of streamlines from down to up under pressure difference effect by density difference of heated fluid. After that, the local Nusselt number will be constant; this is referring to equate the effect of convection and conduction in the zone above the cooling plane. The convection will be in reverse between the solid beads and the surroundings fluid. This acquired that the heat is transferred by conduction from the lower surface and by convection from the lower hot air layers. So, one can see there is no appreciable change in temperatures and local Nusselt number after the cooling plane by which the porous media box divides into two zones:Lower zone: the zone of severe heat exchange by convection heat transfer from the lower heated surface to the blown air and also from solid beads which get heat by conduction from surroundings air. Upper zone: the zone of low heat transfer, where inside this zone the beads will be relatively at low temperature because it so far from heating surface, and the heat transfer depends on the blown air from the lower zone to transfer heat to the solid beads only. According to the above mentioned the Nusselt number increases as heat flux increases. But if the heat flux is continually increases, the local Nusselt number will decreases especially at (y=0.5 cm, y=9.5 cm) (within the lower zone) as in figures (7-C, D and E). This is because

2.12 Calculation of Nusselt Number (𝑵𝒖):The local Nusselt number ( 𝑁𝑢) can be determined by: - 𝑁𝑢

= 𝑦

𝐾𝑚 𝐷

(14)

Also the average of Nusselt number ( 𝑁𝑢 ) can be calculated as:

1 𝑁𝑢 = 𝐻 𝑦

=𝐻 𝑁𝑢

. 𝑑𝑦
𝑦

=0

(15)

2.13 Calculation of Peclet Number (Pe):To indication of the effect of forced convection to the thermal conduction in flow direction define as Peclet number (Pe): 𝑃𝑒

= 𝑅𝑒 ,𝑃𝑀 ∗ 𝑃𝑟

Where Prandtl number is defined as:

(16) 𝑃𝑟

= 𝑣𝑓

𝛼𝑚

(17)

Also Peclet number is defined as: 𝑃𝑒

= 𝑉

𝑠 𝑑𝑠

𝛼𝑚

18

2.14 Calculation of Pressure Drop (∆𝑷):The pressure drop caused by fluid friction in the test section is depending on the value of spheres diameter, which the packed beds consist of. The pressure drop is calculated using Bernoulli equation:

∆𝑃 = 𝜌𝑓 𝑔

2 2 𝑉 𝑜 − 𝑉 𝑠 + ∆𝑍 2𝑔

(19)

Where: Vs: air velocity at inlet of the test section (box). Vo: air velocity at exit of the test section (box). ∆𝑍: pressure head. The friction factor (F) in laminar flow calculated by [11]. 𝐹

=

72 𝑅𝑒 ,𝑃𝑀

(20)

Also the friction factor was defined as [14].

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that most of the duct filled with beads and so, the effect of conduction appears clearly. This decreases the heat transfer by convection between the air and hot surface, and between the hot air and beads which is initially got heated by conduction. The averaged Nusselt number (𝑁𝑢 ) value is plotted as a function of Reynolds Number (Re,PM) for each heat flux (qw) as shown in figure (7-E). The rate of increase of average Nusselt number is clear at (qw1), and the severity of increase (or the slope of average Nusselt number with Reynolds Number curve) begins to decrease with the increase of heat flux. The increase of (𝑁𝑢) values with (Re,PM)is by the increase of the heat flux values until (qw3). So the average Nusselt number will be higher at (qw2) for initial velocities, and then the (𝑁𝑢) values begin to decrease at (qw2) for high Reynolds Number (Re,PM) values. Also, for (qw4), the increase of 𝑁𝑢 curve has less slope value than for (qw5) and with the same 𝑁𝑢 behavior approximately at (qw4) and (qw5). Causes of this behavior are: - At heat flux (qw1), an increase in air velocity will increase in heat transfer by convection, so the heat transfer by convection appears clearly. And this is applied for (qw2) with notice an increase in average Nusselt number because of increase in heat flux. - Heat transfer by conduction appears clearly when heat flux increases which will lead to small increase in heat transfer convection rate compared with the conduction one, especially at heat flux (qw5). So, it is noticed that the increase in Reynolds Number (Re,PM) doesn’t refer to big increase in the heat transfer convection values, because the heat flux rate is higher than the air heat capacity. Also, the solid material conductivity is higher than the air conductivity. Here the conductivity appears as a dominant factor that leads to decrease the heat transfer by convection with the increase of air velocity. In order to describe the relationship between the dependent variable (Nusselt number) and the independent variables (Reynolds number and Peclet number), a correlation have been made based on the following: Each of the correlations in table (3) applies to a specific particle size and packing material thermal conductivity. Such correlation may be valid over a range where the cellular convection pattern does not change, and should not be extrapolated beyond the transition boundaries. The statistical analysis based on the minimum sum of square error (SSE) leads to that relationship.

4. A wavy shape temperature distribution is obtained along lines parallel to the horizontal x-direction. The isothermal lines become wavier in shape as the heat flux increases. 5. There is a minimum temperature value in the middle of the vertical (y-z) plane. A rapid increase in the temperature values and thus more wavy (large amplitude) temperature distribution pattern is observed as the air velocity increased. 6. The average Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds Number and decreases with the high increase of heat flux. Most of the relationships ends reaching a linear behavior because of the conduction heat transfer between beads appear clearly with the decrease of the convection heat transfer when the fluid reaches to thermal stability.

References

[1] D. A. Nield, A. Bejan, "Convection in Porous Media", third ed., Springer, New York, 2006. [2] P.H.Oosthuizen, D. Naylor, "An Introduction to Convective Heat Transfer Analysis", Mc Graw-Hill Companies, 1999. [3] Heinemann," Fluid Flow in Porous Media", Vol 1, DI Barbara Schatz, 2005. [4] Chan, B. K. C., Ivey, C. M., and Barry, J. M., "Natural Convection in Enclosed Porous Medium with Rectangular Boundaries", Journal of Heat transfer, Vol.2, pp. 21-27, 1970. [5] M. Kumari. G. Nath., "Unsteady Natural Convection Flow in a Square Cavity Filled with a Porous Medium Due to Impulsive Change in Wall Temperature M. Kumari",Transp Porous Med (2009) 77:463–474 DOI 10.1007/s11242-008-9285-x. [6] Prakash Chandra. V. V. Satyamurty., "Non-Darcian and Anisotropic Effects on Free Convection in a Porous Enclosure", Transp Porous Med (2011) 90:301 –320 DOI 10.1007/s11242-011-9785-y. [7] K. J. Nasr,t S. Ramadhyani and R. Viskanta, "Numerical studies of forced convection heat transfer from a cylinder embedded in packed bed", Heat Mass Transfer. Vol. 38, No. 13, pp. 2353-2366, 1995. [8] Pei-Xue Jiang, Meng Li, Yong-Chang Ma, Ze-Pei Ren., "Boundary conditions and wall effect for forced convection heat transfer in sintered porous plate channels", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47 (2004) 2073–2083. [9] M. A. Waheed, G. A. Odewole, S. O. Alagbe., "Mixed convective heat transfer in rectangular enclosures filled with porous media", ISSN 1819-6608. vol. 6, no. 8, 2011. [10] Suhad A.H.Rasheed.," Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Saturated Porous Media inside a Circular Tube", University of Technology, 2006. [11] Ron. Draby, "Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics" Second edition, 2001. [12] Pei-Xue Jiang , Xiao-Chen Lu, "Numerical simulation of fluid flow and convection heat transfer in sintered porous plate channels", Heat and Mass Transfer 49 (2006) 1685–1695. [13] Hakan . F, Khaled, Yasin, I. Pop., "Natural convection heat transfer in a partially opened cavity filled with porous media", Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 2253–2261. [14] Kifah hamid hilal, "fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a vertical tube packed bed media" , University of Technology , 2004.

4. Conclusion

The following points can be concluded from the present experimental work: 1. The values of temperature and local Nusselt number remain stable approximately after (y=12.5 cm). Because above this position is the cooling plane and stability of readings is achieved for the case of free convection and the two cases of forced convection. 2. The temperature values in the box vary inversely with the box height and directly with the heat flux. And, a curvilinear temperature pattern is deduced along the y-direction with increasing the heat flux. 3. A rapid increase in the temperature values within the box is deduced as the heat flux is increased due to a strong convective flow that increases the heat transfer within the box.

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[15] Tahseen Ahmad Tahseen., "An Experimental Study for Mixed Convection through a Circular Tube Filled with Porous Media and Fixed Horizontally and Inclined", ISSN

Table (2) Sample of the calculated results.

1913-1844, 2011. [16] Nield D. A. and Bejan A, "Convection in Porous Media", Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999.

Vs (m/s) 0.0164 0.0184 0.0196 0.0208

Vs (m/s) 0.008 0.0156 0.0168 0.0184

P (N/m2)

0.9352018 0.93529383 0.93529027 0.93529443

F 16.6430067 13.2228959 11.6532866 10.3475094

Re,PM ( Vs,dp) 17.4450 19.5725 20.8489 22.1254

Pe (Re,PM,Pr) 12.3738822 13.8828922 14.7882982 15.6937042

Table (3) Specific empirical equations for forced convection. 𝑵𝒖

= C1 (Re,PM) qw qw1 qw2 qw3 qw4 qw5 C1 1.52 2.45 3.847 5.76 6.031 C2

C2

(Pr)

C3

C3 12.03569 1.804582 -1.348 -3.97 -4.21268

R2 88.86 % 86.07 % 78.5 % 83.1 % 93.8 %

2.46303 1.291638 0.783 0.310 0.2666

Air flow duct Contact noiger Plastic tubes Test section Valve Air flow duct Pipe

Air blower

Heater Manometer

Volt meter

Voltage regulator

Frame of iron Volt meter Voltage regulator

Figure (1) schematic diagram of experimental apparatus.

Figure (2) thermocouples distribution on grid.

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60 X=0 cm, z=0 cm 50 40 30 20 10 X=14.5 cm, z=0 cm X=29 cm, z=0 cm

60 X=0 cm, z=14.5 cm 50 40 X=14.5 cm, z=14.5 cm X=29 cm, z=14.5 cm

T(˚C)

T(˚C)

30 20 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0

(A)

y (cm)

(B)

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

y (cm)

60 X=0 cm, z=29 cm 50 40 30 20 10 X=14.5 cm, z=29 cm X=29 cm, z=29 cm

T(˚C)

y(c m)

(C)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

y (cm)

(D)

X (cm)

Z=0 (cm)

y(c m)

y(c m)

(E)

X (cm)

Z=14.5 (cm)

(F)

X (cm) Z=29 (cm)

Figure (3) Temperature distributions (A, B and C) and contours (D, E and F) at V=0.41 m/s , qw1 =348.33 W/m².

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80 70 60 X=0 cm, z=0 cm X=14.5 cm, z=0 cm X=29 cm, z=0 cm

80 70 60 X=0 cm, z=14.5 cm X=14.5 cm, z=14.5 cm X=29 cm, z=14.5 cm

T(˚C)

40 30 20 10

T(˚C)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

50

50 40 30 20 10

(A)

80 70 60

y (cm)

(B)

0

5

10

y (cm)

15

20

25

30

35

X=0 cm, z=29 cm X=14.5 cm, z=29 cm X=29 cm, z=29 cm

T(˚C)

50 40 30 20 10

y(c m)

(C) 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

y (cm)

(D)

X (cm)

Z=0 (cm)

y(c m)

y(c m)

(E)

X (cm)

Z=14.5 (cm)

(F)

X (cm) Z=29 (cm)

Figure (4) Temperature distributions (A, B and C) and contours (D, E and F) at V=0.46 m/s, qw2=575.89 W/m².

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100 90 80 70 X=0 cm, z=0 cm X=14.5 cm, z=0 cm X=29 cm, z=0 cm

100 90 80 70 X=0 cm, z=14.5 cm X=14.5 cm, z=14.5 cm X=29 cm, z=14.5 cm

T(˚C)

T(˚C) (B)

60 50 40 30 20 10

60 50 40 30 20 10

(A)

100 90 80

0

5

10

y (cm)

15

20

25

30

35

0

5

10

y (cm)

15

20

25

30

35

X=0 cm, z=29 cm X=14.5 cm, z=29 cm X=29 cm, z=29 cm

T(˚C)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10

y(c m)

(C)

0

5

10

y (cm)

15

20

25

30

35

(D)

X (cm)

Z=0 (cm)

y(c m)

y(c m)

(E)

X (cm)

Z=14.5 (cm)

(F)

X (cm) Z=29 (cm)

Figure (5) Temperature distributions (A, B and C) and contours (D, E and F) at V=0.41 m/s , qw3=838.98 W/m².

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130 X=0 cm, z=0 cm 110 90 X=14.5 cm, z=0 cm X=29 cm, z=0 cm

130 110 90 X=0 cm, z=14.5 cm X=14.5 cm, z=14.5 cm X=29 cm, z=14.5 cm

T(˚C)

70 50 30 10

T(˚C)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

70 50 30 10

(A)

130 110 90

y (cm)

(B)

0

5

10

y (cm)

15

20

25

30

35

X=0 cm, z=29 cm X=14.5 cm, z=29 cm X=29 cm, z=29 cm

T(˚C)

70 50 30 10

y(c m)

(C) 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

y (cm)

(D)

X (cm)

Z=0 (cm)

y(c m)

y(c m)

(E)

X (cm)

Z=14.5 (cm)

(F)

X (cm) Z=29 (cm)

Figure (6) Temperature distributions (A, B and C) and contours (D, E and F) at V=0.52 m/s , qw4=1146.67 W/m².

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12 12 10 10

12 V=0.52 m/s V=0.49 m/s V=0.46 m/s V=0.41 m/s 10 V=0.5 2 m/s 8 6 4 2 0 V=0.52 m/s V=0.49 m/s V=0.46 m/s V=0.41 m/s

Nu Nu

66 44 22 0 0

88

(A)

12 10 8

0 0

10 10

yy (cm) (A)

20 20

30 30

40

40

Nu

(B) 0

12 10 8

10

20

30

40

y (cm)

V=0.52 m/s V=0.49 m/s V=0.46 m/s V=0.41 m/s

Nu

6 4 2 0

Nu

6 4 2 0 40

V=0.52 m/s V=0.49 m/s V=0.46 m/s V=0.41 m/s

(C)

12 10 8

0

10

y (cm)

20

30

(D) 0

90

10

y (cm) 20

qw1 qw2 qw3 qw4 qw5

30

40

Nu

V=0.52 m/s V=0.49 m/s V=0.46 m/s V=0.41 m/s

80 70

4 2 0

(𝐍𝐮 ̅

10 20 30 40

6

60 50 40 30

(E) 0

y (cm)

(F)

15

17.5

Re,pm

20

22.5

25

Figure (7) Variation of local Nusselt number with y-axis at (A) qw1= 348.33W/m2, (B) qw2 = 575.89 W/m², (C) qw3= 838.98W/m2, (D) qw4= 1146.67 W/m², (E) qw5= 1383.55 W/m2, and (F) Variation of average Nusselt number with Reynolds Number.

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