You are on page 1of 36

ASCE 77-10 Seismic Provisions

Time-History Scaling for 3Time3-D Dynamic Analysis Liquefaction Provisions

„ „

SiteSite -Response Analysis for Liquefaction
„ „

Model Calibration Array Data & Results
C. B. Crouse URS Corporation

2008 USGS SS and SI Maps in ASCE 7 7-10 will be

Max Sa
H1 t a H2 t 1d d.o.f. f
Acc. in H1 direction (g) Acc. in H H2 direction n (g)

a

H1 H2

2002 USGS SS and SI Ground Motion Maps in ASCE 7-05 7 05 are
S 1*S Sa Sa2 (geometric ( t i mean) )

Geometric Mean = Sa1 * Sa2 Response Spectra Sa Accelerogram Horizontal Components a H1 t a H2 t H1 T H2 T Sa1 Sa Sa2 Ti Ti .

Geomean Sa vs Max Sa Bedrock Response Spectra x 1.1 Based on: Sa x 1.0 T (sec) .3 Max Sa Geomean Sa 1.

R < 5 km Target (geomean Sa) 0.5 T Period (sec) 0.3 x Target Sa ASCE 7-10 ave.TimeTime -History y Scaling g for H1 and H2 components p – 3D Analysis ASCE 7-05 ave.R > 5 km or ave.2 T 1.5 T Period ( (sec) ) .2 T Target (max Sa) 1. SRSS Sa of scaled a(t) records Sa 1. of a(t) records . SRSS Sa of scaled a(t) records . Sa of scaled FN comp.

GroundGround -Motion Records Design g Ground Motion Library y .

Transform FN & FP a(t) into X & Y a(t) Fault .

5 7-10 PGA (geomean) f for or Site Class .Liquefaction Assessment ASCE Standard 7-05 GroundGround -Motion Parameter SS / 2.

MCE Geometric Mean PGA. %g. Site Class B .

2 1.0 1.8 0 8 1.7 0.2 0.0 1.4 0.5 A B C D E F 0.0 1.2 1.3 0.9 See Section 11.0 1. .1 1.0 1.6 2.0 0.9 0.0 1.Site Coefficients FPGA Site Class Mapped Ma Maximum im m Considered Geometric Mean Peak Ground Acceleration.8 0 8 1.8 0 8 1.7 Note: Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of PGA.1 0.2 1. PGA PGA < PGA = PGA = PGA = PGA > 0.8 0 8 1.2 0.8 0 8 1.5 0.4 1.4.0 1.1 0.

Site Response Analysis – Liquefiable Soils .

1964 M7. Earthquake q Damage g from Liquefaction . p . Japan. g .5 Niigata.

1964 M 7.5 Niigata Earthquake Liquefaction Onset ~ 8-10 sec after start of strong shaking Onset .

Japan Earthquake HKD 086 Fault Rupture . oki Japan.3 3 Tokachi Tokachi-oki.2003 M 8 8.

2003 M 8.9 g @ T = 0.0 0.0 25 30 35 40 t .5 3.0 0 0.5 4 .8 3.sec 45 50 55 60 ξ = 5% 2.36 sec Sa-g 1.5 0.6 -0.5 3 3.2 -0.2 liquefaction onset – upper 10m fine sand a-g 0.6 0.5 2 T .4 0.3 Tokachi Tokachi-oki Earthquake HKD 086 NS Comp Comp. 0.sec 2.5 1 1.5 2.0 2.4 -0.0 -0.5 1.

Acceleration Response to HKD 086 NS Comp.2 -0.8 25 30 35 40 45 t .sec 50 55 60 2 9g 2.6 0.9g 35 40 45 t .4 -0.6 -0.sec 50 55 60 30 -2. Comp 4 3 2 1 a-g 0 -1 1 -2 -3 -4 25 0.4 0.9g T = 0.2 a-g 0.36s ξ = 5% .0 -0.

Soil Properties – Liquefied Layer or G (or Vs). d – constants .

9 Wildlife Array. 1995 Kobe M 6. 1987 Superstition Hills M 6.6 .Ground-Motion Data GroundSiteSite -Response Calibration „ „ Port Island. Japan. CA.

. Japan p Vertical Accelerometer Array -10 -20 -30 Depth (m) -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 0 20 40 600 200 400 SPT N values VS (m/s) Ref: Elgamal et al.Port Island. (1996) .

9 Kobe Earthquake Ref.Port Island Array y EW Records 1995 M 6.: Davis & Berrill (1998) .

Port Island – 1995 Kobe Earthquake q VS versus Time Depth p 0m Dis splacement (m m) 16 m 32 m Ref.: Davis & Berrill (1998) .

(1996) 10 20 30 Time (sec) 40 .Port Island – 1995 Kobe Earthquake q VS versus Time 400 VS (m m/sec) 300 200 100 0 0 Ref: Elgamal et al.

Location Map of Wildlife Array Ref.: Holzer & Youd (2007) .

Wildlife Array Instrumentation VS (m/sec) 99 116 116-141 168 Ref: Bennett et al. (1984) Holzer & Youd (2007) .

: Zeghal & Elgamal (1994) .6 Superstition Hills EQ 200 cm m/sec/sec Acc celeration Surface 0 -200 200 Downhole 0 -200 10 20 30 40 50 60 Ti Time ( (sec) ) 70 80 90 Ref.Wildlife NS Accelerograms g 1987 M 6.

Wildlife – 1987 Superstition p Hills EQ VS versus Time VS (m/sec) Ref.: Zeghal & Elgamal (1994) .

Estimation of Material Damping p g Ratio (ξ) Liquefied Soil a(t) records from Port Is. & Wildlife ξ ~ 20% .

Wildlife Site Surface Accelerograph Station .

51 m X VS– m/sec .14 m Depth .10 0.22 m 0 2 1.USGS El Centro Station 6 Y 1.15 X 12 14 0 100 200 300 400 0.m 4 6 8 10 free ee field ed a (t) Z () recorded a(t) 0.

Hz 40 50 60 Ref.Experimental Transfer Function (low strain) 2 Station 6 Recorded Free Field 1 0 10 20 30 f . Crouse & Hushmand (1989) .

Pad Thickness = 6” 10 2 Station 6 Recorded Free Field 1 0 1 2 3 f .Approximate pp Transfer Function (liquefaction) ( q ) VSliq = 1 VSlow strain.Hz 4 5 6 .

Hz 4 5 6 . Pad Thickness = 12” 10 2 Station 6 Recorded Free Field 1 0 1 2 3 f .Approximate pp Transfer Function (liquefaction) ( q ) VSliq = 1 VSlow strain.

i Sa 1 liquef. T T .Site Response p Analysis y (liquefaction & nonnon-liquefaction cases) o Sa T Ratio. o Sa i Sa non-liquef.

Summary New Seismic Provisions in ASCE 77-10 1. 3-D Dynamic Analysis – Accelerogram Scaling Scale SRSS to Target Sa (not 1.5 2 5 or SS / 2.3 X Target Sa) 2. Ground-Motion Parameter for Liquefaction Geomean PGA (not SDS / 2.5) 2 5) „ .

) (con’t ) Liquefied Soil Parameters for Equivalent Linear SiteSite -Response Analysis Use Vertical Accelerometer Array Data VS = 15 – 30 m/s ξ ~ 20% w/o soil-pad interaction Port Island & Wildlife „ .Summary (con’t.