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Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations The Graduate School
A Choral Conductor's Reference Guide to Acoustic Choral Music Measurement: 1885 to Present
Brenda Kaye Scoggins Fauls
Florida State University
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Fauls, Brenda Kaye Scoggins, "A Choral Conductor's Reference Guide to Acoustic Choral Music Measurement: 1885 to Present" (2008). Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations. Paper 4492.
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FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF MUSIC
A CHORAL CONDUCTOR'S REFERENCE GUIDE TO ACOUSTIC CHORAL MUSIC MEASUREMENT: 1885 TO 2007
By BRENDA KAYE SCOGGINS FAULS
A Dissertation submitted to the College of Music in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Degree Awarded: Summer, Semester 2008
Copyright 2008 Brenda K. S. Fauls All Rights Reserved
The members of the committee approve the dissertation of Brenda K. S. Fauls defended on June 23, 2008.
______________________________ André Thomas Professor Directing Dissertation
______________________________ Richard Morris Outside Committee Member
______________________________ Judy Bowers Committee Member
______________________________ Kevin Fenton Committee Member
The Office of Graduate Studies has verified and approved the above named committee members.
To the Tom's in my life, I dedicate this document. One brought back the music, The other unlocked my heart. Life has begun anew.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The path of a doctoral degree is not walked alone. My journey has been blessed with the guidance and support of a loving family, wise mentors, and wonderful friends - indeed too many to name. I extend my sincere gratitude to the members of my committee. First, my deepest gratitude to my major professor, Dr. André J. Thomas, whose generous spirit and navigational fortitude provided for a future of dream fulfillment. To Dr. Judy Bowers, I extend my thanks for her continued modeling of trailblazing artistry and fierce dedication to excellence in choral music education. I would like to thank Dr. Kevin Fenton for his openness and guidance throughout my degree program. To Dr. Richard Morris, I extend my appreciation for his continued willingness to bridge our worlds with the generous sharing of knowledge, resources, and opportunities. In closing, I thank those who dedicated countless hours, resources, and motivation to the successful and joyous completion of this personal goal.
TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables ............................................................................................................ vi List of Figures ........................................................................................................... vii Abstract ............................................................................................................ viii 1. INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study ......................................................................... Need For Study ................................................................................. Delimitations ..................................................................................... Organization of Study ....................................................................... Introduction of Topic ........................................................................ 2. SELECTIVE REVIEW OF LITERATURE Choral Blend ..................................................................................... Amplitude ......................................................................................... Formants ~Resonances ..................................................................... Frequency .......................................................................................... Quality of Tone ................................................................................. Registration ....................................................................................... 3. HISTORY OF ACOUSTIC CHORAL MUSIC MEASUREMENT 1878-1969 ......................................................................................... 1970-1979 ......................................................................................... 1980-1989 ......................................................................................... 1990-1999 ......................................................................................... 2000-Present ..................................................................................... 1 1 1 1 2 6 7 10 12 17 27 37 44 52 66 75
4. SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... 88 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................................ 93 6. APPENDICES A. Glossary ......................................................................................100 B. Equipment ...................................................................................138 C. Respiratory System .....................................................................153 D. Laryngeal System ........................................................................155 E. Articulatory System .....................................................................157 F. Comparison of Different Interval Naming Systems ....................159 G. Piano Pitch ~ Hertz Chart ...........................................................161 H. IPA English Chart ........................................................................163 7. REFERENCES ....................................................................................................164 8. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...............................................................................176
............... 30 Comparison of the Average Formant Frequencies of Timbre Types to the Average Formant Frequencies of Voice Classifications......... Table 2. Terminology Correlate Chart...... 49 vi ......... 3 Register Definition by Physiological Activity................ Table 3................LIST OF TABLES Table 1......................................
..................................................................... 78 Organization of Choral Formation by Vocal Parts ............ Figure 6.................................................................. 82 A Choral Exercise ...................... Figure 7..................................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1........................... 4 Singing Tasks....... 45 Warm-up Cadence ....... Figure 2............ Figure 5........................................ Figure 8... 74 Chamber Choir Spacings ................................ Figure 3............ 54 Choral Formations ............. 83 vii ..................................................................................................... 4 Spectrogram of the Vowel /o/ at 131 Hz (C3) .................................. Figure 4.. Amplitude Chart............
To assist the conductor. These facets of acoustic choral sound have psycho-acoustical correlates of loudness. The success of individual singers within a choral setting is largely dependant upon the conductor's capacity to identify unconscious vocal habits and provide guidance for their ameliorated vocal function. equipment guides and usage. rehearsal and study. and statistics. The acoustics of choral sound are introduced to provide a unified document in a concise format that can serve as a springboard for informed practice. voice science. This study of choral sound will focus on the measurable physical acoustic facets of amplitude. An extensive glossary has been provided in this document that codifies terminology from music acoustics. Physical acoustics are the aspects of sound that can be quantifiably measured and psychoacoustics is how we perceive what we hear. The goal of this glossary is to facilitate the intermingling of many divergent disciplines present in this document and to provide a resource for reference when reading documents not included in this writing. pitch and timbre. mathematics. A clear understanding of the acoustics of choral sound and the appropriate application of this knowledge can enable choral conductors to better facilitate the creation of a superior choral sound. appropriate solo and speech research literature has been included to provide an historical foundation and additional clarification of apropos subject matter. viii . voice studies. frequency and the quality of sound.ABSTRACT The study of choral sound is accomplished through acoustic choral music measurement. choral studies.
A concise.CHAPTER ONE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purposes of this study were to provide a concise overview of the history of acoustic choral music measurement. The study begins with selected early investigations (18791969) into singing research which have had direct impact on choral research. and children's choir research. thorough reference source is needed to inform conductors. abbreviations. singers. The measurement process is continually changing. and procedures. NEED FOR STUDY Acoustic choral music research is wide spread and can be difficult to access both logistically and physically. 1 . diverse and confusing. ORGANIZATION OF STUDY A review of selected solo voice research articles and empirical choral sound articles are presented first by subject matter and then historically. DELIMITATIONS The present study excludes two areas of acoustic choral music research: bone conducted sound and its effect on the singer. and equipment to aid understanding of acoustic choral music literature. and students alike. abbreviations. The subsequent chapters present sequential researches within each decade up to and including 2007. to provide selective. to provide a detailed glossary of definitions. The wealth of diverse subject matter with each having its own specific language. applicable solo voice measurement studies for a foundational understanding of subject matter. a discussion chapter is devoted to suggested choral applications of research findings for the choral conductor. and procedures makes it difficult to understand and apply to outside settings. multi-subject glossary of terms. Following a summary of research to date. The closing section is an equipment reference guide and a detailed. equipment. and to provide suggested applications of the findings of acoustic choral music measurement.
the sound produced is of greater beauty than would normally be expected from the individual voices involved. The study of choral sound employs both physical acoustics and psycho acoustics. how a produced sound travels. 51 (1). Each time a choir sings forte. and then how the sound is heard. once their voices are lifted together. is it the same degree of loudness as the previous time they sang forte? Choral conductors would agree that a choir will produce forte at a level that is in response to the prior level of sound. when listening to a fine choir. Consider Mayer's (1964) words: On occasion. vibrato amalgamation. Music Educator's Journal. Psycho-acoustics is our reaction to sound – how we perceive what we hear. Acousticians and choral conductors alike are interested in sound – how sound is made. pitch precision. 109110. continually strives toward an amalgamated excellence of such intertwined talents that only one sound is heard – a superior choir. timbre mergence. Musical Acoustics: An Introduction. How we interpret what we hear is the perception of sound. well-informed conductor. create the choral sound. loudness variance. (1964). Each of these components is indigenous to choral sound and equally so. How sound travels is known as the propagation of the sound. that is. and choice of registration would be primary considerations. Physical acoustics is the reality of sound – the aspects of sound that can be quantifiably measured. individual voices. How sound is made is the production of the sound. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Acoustics is the study of sound. pp. diction timing. 1 Is this an occasion made possible by fate or by luck? No! This greater beauty is the result of an educated. 2 . who. while working with and developing exceptional. The relations of blend and intonation in the choral art. 4-6.INTRODUCTION OF TOPIC Choral conductors have the enviable goal of bringing aural life to a composer's work through a group of individual singers who. 2 1 Hall. What is required for a choir to be recognized as superior? How does a choral conductor aid the individual choir singers toward the ultimate choral sound – a perfectly blended choir? Most would agree that vowel unification. D. Amplitude Mayer. F. 2 What then is choral sound? Is there a way to measure a characteristic of a choral sound? The answer is yes and the field is known as acoustic choral measurement: the process of determining the dimensions and/or specifics of the sound of voices singing together. Belmont. has measurable physical properties which can be examined within the acoustic study of choral sound. (1980). one hears tone of such infinite beauty that it is evident that the sum is far greater than the parts.
This is but one difference between what we perceive (psycho-acoustics) as compared to what we can measure (physical acoustics). may feel that the fortes were all equal. timbre and duration. and conductor. This is an example of the crux of this document. the amplitude would most definitely vary – yet the choir. loudness. The sound waves' displacement is usually a measurement in Hertz (Hz). Notice in Figure 1 each cycle is periodic but each has different amplitude from the baseline. and Resonances Duration Length of Sound Milliseconds or Seconds ms Sec FN or RN dB Hz cps kHz Physical Acoustics Measurement Abbreviation Our discussion of acoustic choral measurement is now properly framed for both the choral conductor and the acoustician. 3 . pitch to frequency. pitch. As choral conductors. and duration as it functions in time. for choral conductors and acousticians to understand one another. an agreement in terminology is crucial. timbre to the quality of the sound. we describe music with terms that express our perceptions of music. As you can see. The perceptual component of loudness is relative to amplitude. Formant Frequencies. for instance A4 is 440 Hz or 440 sound wave cycles per second (cps). The correlation of perception terminology to physical terminology is represented in the chart below.is the physical measurement of the choir singing forte. Frequency is diagramed as the number of sound waves for a given duration of time. Table 1: Terminology Correlate Chart Psycho-acoustics (Perceptual) Loudness Pitch Amplitude Frequency Decibels Hertz Cycles-persecond Kilo-hertz Timbre Quality of Sound Formants. If an acoustician were to measure each occurrence of forte singing in a song selection.
Decibels x Milliseconds Figure 1: Amplitude Chart 3 All three lines represent a sound that is the same frequency. Here you will note that the x-axis is in decibels (dB) representing the amplitude of the sample.acs.jpg) 4 . Figure 2 is a spectrogram of a singing sample which shows us both the amplitude and the frequency of a recorded song sample. Figure 2: Spectrogram of the Vowel /o/ at 131 Hz (C3) 3 (http://www. Pitch is that which we can discern as being within a continuum of low to high or high to low.edu/~kms/classes/psy3203/SoundPhysics/amplitude_waves.appstate. The y-axis is in kilo-hertz (kHz) representing the frequency of the singing sample. Listeners would perceive all three sounds as being the same pitch.
This is called the voice source. 4 5 6 Ladefoged. whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency. 14. Illinois. consonants. and soft palate). are distinct characteristics of the singer's morphology. or full. Lagefoged. throat. J. p. these cavities resonate at different frequencies and shape the sound source into vowels. Depending upon the length. The success of individual singers within a choral setting is largely dependant upon the conductor's capacity to identify unconscious vocal habits and provide guidance for their ameliorated vocal function. choral conductors often use the psycho-acoustical term timbre when talking about the physical acoustic component – quality of sound. Air pressure increases until the vocal folds are forced apart and caused to vibrate. shape and degree of mouth opening. A conductor's conscious understanding of the individual's vocal production and its contribution to the synergized acoustical delivery of the ensemble creates that phenomenon known not only to audiences. The air moves from the lungs into the trachea until reaching the closed vocal folds (the vibrator of the laryngeal system). Sundberg. and vocal colors that make up the sound you and I recognize as the human voice. but most especially to the creators of that unique experience – that which we know as the choral experience. such as a piano and a violin. and nose) 6 and is molded into speech sounds by the articulatory system (the tongue. (1996). The Science of the Singing Voice. P. 92. (1996). These resonances. The respiratory system provides the energy – air – for sound production. (1987). sound is emitted. 5 which is a rich spectrum of the harmonics. As the air moves between the vibrating vocal folds. lips. thin. teeth. To assist the conductor. 4 When choral conductors talk about the differences between voices they will often use descriptors such as warm. The sound now moves through the vocal tract (the mouth. The production of human sound requires the interaction of the respiratory system (air). A clear understanding of the acoustics of choral sound and the appropriate application of this knowledge can enable choral conductors to better facilitate the creation of a superior choral sound. and the articulatory system (shaper). In other words. training and habitual use of the voice. appropriate solo and speech research literature has been included to provide an historical foundation and additional clarification of apropos subject matter. 5 . 49. also known as formants. the laryngeal system (vibrator). Northern Illinois University Press: Dekalb.Lagefoged explains the quality of sound quite simply: this is the difference between two notes that are equal in pitch and loudness but have been produced by different instruments.
Meyer would move into perfect fourths and fifths. F. (1964). His method for improving choir intonation involved both just and non-tempered tuning and began by tuning perfect octaves on the pitches of D4 and/or E4. Cashmore (1964) points out that an individual's attempt to lead his or her vocal section is both vocally taxing and is a detriment to the growth of independent singers. Melius Christiansen and Weston Noble are recognized as two important American conductors of the twentieth century. explained Weston Noble’s re-definition of F. Recordings of Noble’s voice matching procedures of two to seven singers were compiled into a cassette perception survey and then was mailed to active choral musicians (N = 218). whereas Noble positioned singers next to other singers whose vocal character was similar. This 7 8 9 Cashmore. Christiansen directed singers to alter their sound to match the person(s) next to them. Melius Christiansen’s concept of voice matching to achieve choral blend. To achieve this perfect choral blend. A good performance. Mayer. his choir was able to master intonation and thereby achieve a more perfect choral blend. 56-57. The Musical Times. D. Vibrato and the tuning accuracy of singers have great impact on the choir's overall intonation. 6 .CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Choral Blend The joining of individual voices to create a combined sound. a choir. Noble believed an acoustic phenomenon would occur when voices were placed correctly. Auditors were not consistent in responses which had only two voices (duets). in his 1991 dissertation. (1964). Meyer would start with the bass section and then add each vocal section. Auditors showed marked preference for Noble’s final arrangement of voices in more than half of the listening survey. Moving gradually through this process. Once the octaves were in tune. F. an individual may have a larger voice than their fellow choir members. requires choral blend. Voice instructors often have issue with conductors who ask such singers to sing with a minimized production in order for the choir to achieve an overall choral blend. Mayer 8 believed the focus needed to be on timbre. 7 Often though. until all of the singers were participating. 109-110. one at a time at a mf level. Giardiniere. 9 This empirical approach is used by many fine conductors. 105 (1451). Ibid. choral blend is adversely affected. dynamics and pitch. When one voice is heard above all others. and would remain there until the intervals were mastered. again centered on D4.
Giardiniere. UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertation Abstracts. n = 10 women and n = 10 men. or an overtone of the F0 (fundamental frequency). as in the pilot study. untrained voices) were recorded speaking the vowel /a/ in soft and loud phonation. However. the amplitude increases and conversely when air pressure decreases the amplitude decreases.study had many responses concerning the quality of the recordings. their effect on choral sound and procedures of inquiry conducted by Weston Noble (Doctoral dissertation. Participants (N = 20. the sound is perceived as louder. Other elements involved are the relationship between the resonances' frequencies of the vocal tract and the partials present in the spectrum. A partial of the sound is a component of a complex sound which can be the F0 (fundamental frequency). how much air pressure increases or decreases is not equal to how much louder or softer the sound is perceived. AAT 9213181. a female participant was recorded speaking the vowel /a/ at approximately 400 Hz. However. New York University. The main controlling element for this amplitude is subglottal pressure. was the loudest. 7 . first in soft phonation and then in loud phonation. in loud phonation. 10 Amplitude Amplitude is the measurable physical attribute of what is perceived as loudness. and its effect on listener preference. which represented an overtone. (1991). the F0 (fundamental frequency) remained louder than the partials in all participants' soft phonation. However. a partial. 11 When measuring the sound pressure level (SPL) of a vowel sound. the process of mailing the tapes. In the first experiment. The F0 (fundamental frequency) is the number of repeating cycles of the vocal folds in one second and is measured in Hertz (Hz). Gramming (1991) designed the following experiments to study the effect of loud and soft phonation on the spectral envelope. The loud phonation revealed all 12 partials below five kHz. amplitude is the extent of the variation in air pressure from normal air pressure. the sound is perceived as less loud and conversely. This single participant pilot study was utilized as a basis for the next study. Specifically. when the air pressure increases. D. in loud phonation. (1996). 1991). Overall. a harmonic of the F0 (fundamental frequency). the varying quality of the listening equipment. When air pressure increases. The first partial of a sound is also called the F0 (fundamental frequency). Again. all with normal. the amplitude of the voice source is the sound produced by the vocal fold vibrations. P. 14-16. When air pressure reduces. 11 10 Lagefoged. 241. Voice matching: an investigation of vocal matches. in soft phonation. the strongest partial in the spectrum correlated with the first resonant frequency. only the first two partials were present and the F0 (fundamental frequency) was stronger. An observed consistency occurred when the resonances frequencies remained the same although the F0 (fundamental frequency) increased.
For each participant. S. the sound pressure level (SPL) increased as the frequency of the first formant increased. more than 60% of the time. College choir sopranos (N = 20) were recorded singing /a/ for representative low. (1992). 12 Sundberg et al. Arizona State University. Weber (1992) was interested in the difference between vibrato and straight tone singing on sound pressure level (SPL). there was no difference between the vowels because the F0 (fundamental frequency) was the strongest partial. (1998) chose an unexplored musician population to investigate voice source characteristics. The patient participants. 1992).the louder phonations had many more partials than the softer phonations. In loud phonation. and high pitches in loud and soft dynamics with both vibrato and straight tone. T. The increases were evident when the F0 (fundamental frequency) was at a lower pitch. The goal of this study was the short term variance in sound pressure level (SPL) in loud and soft phonation. phonetograms were made of the vowel /a/ on a pitch chosen by the participant. middle. this resulted in 24 trials per soprano (each condition was repeated). Weber concluded conductors should determine the use of straight tone or vibrato be based on the acoustic characteristics of the performance location since the sound pressure level (SPL) showed very little variance. The pitch chosen by the participant was evaluated and described in relation to the participant's full range. Analysis of the recordings found no significant difference in sound pressure level (SPL) for any condition except for a slight difference in the loud vibrato condition. chose a frequency in the higher part of their range which showed significantly more sound pressure level (SPL) variation. as in the male participants. who used soft phonation. An investigation of intensity differences between vibrato and straight tone singing (Doctoral Dissertation. 12 8 . Grammings' third study utilized both healthy (N = 20 men and women) and non-healthy (N = 10 female patients diagnosed with non-organic dysphonia) participants. ProQuest Dissertation Abstracts International. the sound pressure level (SPL) differences between the vowels reduced. Singing participants (N =6 premier male country singers) Weber. AAT 9223155. In soft phonation. The averaged phonetogram results showed the vowel /a/ was ~10 dB higher in sound pressure level (SPL) than /i/ or /u/ when the participant sounded a low F0 (fundamental frequency). As the F0 (fundamental frequency) rose. Again. The resulting sound pressure level (SPL) variation mean for loud phonation was 2 dB whereas in soft phonation the sound pressure level (SPL) variation mean was 5 dB which led Gramming to conclude voice control was more difficult when the patient participants used soft phonation. and /u/. Participants (N = 22 speech therapy students) in the second experiment were recorded speaking the vowels /a/. /i/. one of which was intensity.
and 4) a sustained Sundberg. the participants used similar or slightly higher closed quotient (CQ) values. Voice source characteristics in six premier country singers. and intensity as in a performance.. 168-183. But.. J. Cleveland. This characteristic. The participants reported that the amount of pressedness heard in the samples increased with higher pitches that were coupled with louder volume. the participants spoke the syllable /pae/ to the pattern of a limerick in soft. (1999). Journal of Voice. often considered a cause of vocal damage (pressedness). & Iwarsson. 13 Miller. The participant was encouraged to sing with all the same inflections. The correlation between the pressedness of the voice on higher pitches with increases in sound pressure level (SPL). which would be expected to also double the subglottal pressure (Ps). the greater the perceived pressedness. T. 2) an Ab4 arpeggio. medium. as expected by the authors. medium and loud voice. J. One third of the samples were replayed to test for reliability. The second singing condition had the participants sing The National Anthem at a starting pitch of their choice. The authors concluded that a voice source characteristic of country singing was very high closed quotient (CQ) values in loud singing. 13 (2). Extensive detail was given to the recording and analysis process including the equipment used. The singing conditions were also two fold. 13 9 . dynamics. Participants (N = 2) were fitted with an electoglottograph collar and an esophageal balloon while singing into a microphone four vocal tasks: 1) a sustained Ab4. The speech condition was two fold: in speech condition one. Schutte and Doing (2001) explored soft phonation in professional tenors. was not evident in the results. and loud voice. imitating in speech the pitch pattern of an arpeggio. The participants chose and sang a song from their country repertoire on a starting pitch of their choice without accompaniment. the closed quotient (CQ) and the glottal compliance were greater in loud speech than in soft speech whereas in singing. Listening participants (N = 19 singing experts) listened to a perception test designed to answer the question “How much pressedness do you hear in this voice?” Answers were given on a 100-mm visual analog scale which ranged from “None” to “Extreme”. Listening participants’ perceptions included an awareness of different voice quality between the chosen country song and The National Anthem. the participants started at basal pitch (lowest comfortable pitch) and repeated /pae/ in soft. 3) a sustained note in falsetto. The results suggested that the smaller the sound pressure level (SPL) gain. This pattern was repeated at four successive thirds. had not manifested itself in the vocal fold pathology of these participants. R. In the second speech condition.wore a Rothenberg mask and were recorded speaking and singing the CV (consonant-vowel orientated) syllable /pae/. Stone..
/o/. and /ɑ/. 16 It is the unique morphology of each singer that requires individually specific training to achieve maximum resonances from the vocal tract. Doing. (1970).. Specific frequencies increase with individual vowels that are articulated in a specific region of the articulatory system. /i/. not a vocal task.. 16 15 14 Fant. /ɨ/. /i/ and /ɑ/. J. 17-20. 483-491. The second frequency peak (F2) is generated in the front cavity of the mouth for the back vowels /u/. /o/. This data prompted the authors to suggest that messo di voce is a voice register. Journal of Voice. Fant. These peaks of amplitude are formants. G. The fourth and fifth frequency peaks again have front of the tongue influence on the /ɑ/. 10 . Each formant rises in frequency. One participant’s vocal timbre was described as lyrical while the other voice was described as robust. H. This was accredited to a longer closed quotient (CQ) phase that was incomplete and a steeper slope on the electroglottography (EEG) that became significantly shallower in the very soft level. The third frequency peak (F3) is dependant upon the front of the tongue. The lyric tenor maintained a steady subglottal pressure (Ps) throughout the entire task. D. 14 Formants ~ Resonances Pulsating air flow through the glottis (the space between open vocal folds) is known as the voice source. The fifth peak is strongly impacted by the larynx tube. The first frequency peak (F1) is usually associated with the pharyngeal space (back cavity of the mouth) particularly with the vowels /e/. (2001). and /e/ whereas the back of the tongue influences /u/. Mouton: The Hague. /o/. the fundamental frequency (F0) will have the greatest amplitude. Each cavity of the vocal tract will have a resonance that will be represented in the source spectrum envelope as peaks of amplitude at various frequencies. F2. The robust tenor experienced a moment of silence as the voice would equalize from a louder production to a softer production. K. Acoustic Theory of Speech Production: With Calculations Based on X-ray Studies of Russian Articulations. especially in vowels /u/. Schutte. When sound is measured at the voice source. and /ɨ/. The lyric tenor had no difficulty with the requested tasks. and /i/. Beginning with the first spectral peak occurring at the lowest frequency. Knowledge of the production and Miller. Soft phonation in the male singing voice: preliminary study. 15 (4). the formants are labeled in order F1. (1970). 121-122. G. Each vocal task was performed in a soft level and then in a medium level gradually down to a very soft level while maintaining the same vocal production.note in modal production. F3…and so on. 15 The resonance frequencies change as the vocal tract molds articulation. pp.
G. 19 Miller and Schutte (1992) continued their research into subglottal pressure and formant measurement by recording professional male singers (n = 2). J. equipped with two glottis transducers. Formant tuning in a professional baritone. Ibid. J. 13 (1)..and sub-glottal pressures were measured and well as the formant frequencies and harmonics. 18 A leading Netherlands opera baritone was recorded singing melodic patterns on a variety of vowels and CV nonsense syllables with a catheter (fitted with a miniature wide band pressure transducer) inserted through the neck and into the glottis area as well as an EGG (electraglottographic) neck band. an electoglottograph (EGG).. The recorded singing tasks were four scales on the vowel /a/ and sustained /a/ vowels on four range. 231.representative pitches. In other words. K. One of the most cited articles in voice research is Fant et al. Sundberg. Measurements were taken of the first through third formants (F1.. H. Miller. The same equipment was able to accurately measure 17 18 19 Fant. and a microphone at a distance of 30 centimeters. 001-012. 11 . (1972). (1990). and F3) of the recordings of participants' speaking the CV (consonant-vowel) syllable /pa/. K. Supra. Formant measurement data garnered in this study was used to develop computer models of synthesized voices. the participant reduced the sub-glottal pressure (Ps) and modified the vowel to make a smooth transition into head voice. Ishizaka. 17 Miller and Schutte (1990) defined formant tuning as using vowel modification to approximate one or both of the two lowest resonances of the vocal tract to harmonics of the glottal source. Subglottal formants. Schutte. Weak and/or breathy voices showed more subglottal formant traces than those of normal voices. STL-QPSR. Vocal production began once the topical anesthesia had faded. G. Conclusions included confirmation of measurement tools to show center frequencies of pitches when vibrato was present in the singers' vocal production.propagation of these resonances will aid in developing voices that are capable of singing healthily over orchestras and in producing full rich choral ensembles. Journal of Voice. 4 (3).'s (1972) article on the measurement of subglottal formants. Phonations were made at the participant’s choice of pitch and ranged from 230 Hz to 380 Hz (Bb 3 to F4) – an area where vocal tract realignment is usually needed to move baritones into full head voice.. F2. Results of this study suggested the glottal strength of participants had a direct impact on the measurement of subglottal formants. Lindqvist-Gauffin.
and /a/ (divine). In the barbershop world this is referred to as locked and rung! 21 Success for this quartet was achieved through varied vowel production versus attempting to sing exactly the same vowel – the opposite of choral singing. and the relationship of partials in both individual and ensemble measurements. When we measure frequency it is expressed in hertz (Hz). International Congress on Acoustics. (1995). The recordings were analyzed through inverse filtering utilizing Decap software to determine the identity of formant frequencies. G. In phonated sound this means the number of sound wave cycles per second (cps). & Kalin. 9 (3). D. as a variable in determining formant frequency modulation. Journal of Voice. Results suggested singers separated their formants from each other as evidenced in wide. S. The recordings included the participants singing together but with each singer placed in one of the four corners of the room. (2007). 290-296.the frequency distance between harmonics and a dominant formant. 22 Frequency Frequency is the rate of vibration of a periodic event. 23 The lowest note that we can hear is what would be the lowest C (Csub zero) on the piano if it were extended two whole tones. Ternström. Three four-track recordings of Paper Moon were sung by the participants in an absorbent room. 21. Our available hearing range of frequency is approximately 20 Hz to 20. September 2007.. in other words. Barbershop quartets may be able to increase their resonance by adjusting their vowel quality. in this study. We assign a specific name to a pitch because we do not hear frequencies. the measurements of the spread of formant frequencies. Madrid.. The spread formant frequencies may have been in an effort to hear oneself better so that the combined sound might have seemed larger and more expanded. Svec. J. each participant singing alone. more resonant. G. Formant frequency adjustment in barbershop quartet singing. Lagefoged. H. Each singer wore a small microphone taped on the end of his nose. Miller. /i/ (be).000 Hz. and then all participants speaking together. Formant frequencies were often on or close to a partial of the individual singer as well as to the common partials of another singer.. 1-6.spread formant frequencies. 22 23 20 21 Ibid. each participant speaking alone. (1996). The vowels chosen for analyzing were /u/ (to). Each successive C going from left to Schutte. 12 . Measurement of formant frequencies and bandwidths in singing. 20 Ternström (2007) chose to investigate formant frequencies by using a professional barbershop quartet. The vocal tract configuration was confirmed.
The singer participants' variance of vibrato pitch was within ± 0. Comparison of the nine modes' average sound pressure level (SPL) revealed that the neutral mode and the free mode appeared to be interchangeable descriptors of the same mode of singing. However. Fall 1979. or increased use of vibrato did not vary the spectral Shipp. loud. recorded participants (N is not provided. and extra vibrato. n = not provided number of spastic dysphonic patients) singing a variety of sustained vocal lines utilizing targeted frequencies throughout their ranges. (See Appendix D). T. free. (1979). The patient participants had very large cycle-to-cycle variations whereas the singer participants' variations were very small. light. A4 is the fourth A on the piano from right to left and is commonly known as A440 because the vibration of the air stream as it passes through the glottis is 440 cycles per second (cps) or 440 Hz. n = 7 male and n = 7 female) in an anechoic room singing the nine Dutch vowels for one to two seconds in each of the following tone qualities: neutral. 56. we are speaking in absolutes using a term of measurement of the number of sound waves occurring within a second. Elements of frequency and amplitude modulation in the trained and pathologic voice. stimulation of muscle nerves in areas of the vocal tract (including the respiratory system) that cause muscles to engage that are not needed for phonation. & Izdebski. Perhaps patients and less experienced singers allow. K. C4 is commonly referred to as middle C.5 semitones whereas the patient participants had very little vibrato as reflected in their signal amplitude. n = 10 professional operatic singers. When we speak of pitch. Comparison of the nine modes spectral compositions showed that the presence of. These terms were taken from accepted vocal pedagogy and the participants confirmed knowledge of and an understanding of each of the terms. Bloothooft and Plomp (1984) first recorded each singer (N = 14 professional singers. In 1979. or do not suppress. 1 (66). When we speak of frequency. C2 and so on. pressed. 24 13 . Acoustical Society of America Supplement. Acoustic analysis revealed many differences between the sub-groups. the variation mean rate of vibrato was similar for both the singers and the patients.right on the piano is ordered numerically – C1. straight. dark. soft. we are using a perceptual term of relativity that functions on a scale from low to high. yet. Shipp et al. These notes are said to be an octave apart. The results suggested the physiological manifestation of vocal tremor and vibrato are similar. 24 The next three landmark studies investigated the understanding of singers' vowel production in a variety of singer modes of phonation. singers may have mastered a stabilizing technique in which the nerve pulses of muscles are inhibited except for the superior laryngeal nerve which stimulates the cricothyroid muscle.
Male and female variants were consistent with one another. An experimental study of coupling between vocal tract and voice source. 47-54. Sundberg. 1259-1264. G. Bloothooft and Plomp reduced the number of modes to six. light. /α /. The vowels were represented as the most important single source of spectra variance for low fundamental frequencies (F0). 27 Bloothooft. variation due to differences between vowels. soft. (1981). 77 (4). dark. the results showed a lower singer’s formant for women. Spectral analysis of sung vowels. (1984). and modes of singing. great detail was given to the measurement process and results. however. Each vowel was measured in dBs and at increments of ten milliseconds with a 1/3-octave band filter spectrum that was “normalized” for SPL (sound pressure level). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 1580-1588. Acustica. and /ε/ showed half of the variance than that of the vowel /u/. Spectral analysis of sung vowels: I. From these conclusions. J. The effect of Fundamental frequency on vowel spectra. Formants and fundamental frequency control in singing. R. the first formant (F1) is very close to the fundamental frequency (F0). Bloothooft.. When the fundamental frequency (F0) was higher than 392 Hz. authors suggested sopranos and tenors needed better intelligibility of vowels. Plomp. 49. The sopranos and tenors showed twice the spectral variance in the F0 (fundamental frequency) across the vowels and modes of singing as that of the bass and alto participants. The greatest vowel variance for all the participants was the vowel /u/. A comparison was made between the perception-oriented spectrum space (formant frequencies) and the production-oriented spectrum space (from 1/3 octave spectra). Although no perceptual data were taken. pressed and loud. The information was not provided regarding measurement tools used for the vowel variances. singers. The vowels /a/. (1985). G. Each singer’s classification was used to determine the fundamental frequencies (F0) used for each participant (five for men and four for women). R. Plomp.compositions. The relationship between the average sound level of the singer’s formant (Fs) and the fundamental frequency (F0) was found to be vowel dependant. Bloothooft references Sundberg's (1981) results which showed strong acoustic coupling between glottis and vocal tract 26 and suggested this was a possible cause for these results.. II. neutral. The modal register had less variability in the first formant (F1) than the falsetto register and it was hypothesized that in singing higher frequencies. 75 (4). 25 Bloothooft and Plomp's (1985) second article used the same subjects and data to discuss the vowel spectrum for each participant with respect to the main effect of the four vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 27 26 25 14 .
852-864. The greatest masking effect within a choir occurs within one's own vocal section. The presseddark mode of singing in the participants clearly showed increased pharyngeal volume which was directly influenced by the height of the larynx. 2) white noise lessons and normal practice.and post-recordings of participants. considerable progress. Five options were provided for the ranking: great progress. From these recordings of the first two experiments. The listening tape contained excerpts from the pre. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. same. pre-experiment and post-experiment recordings were made of each participant prior to and after each experiment. the main difference was associated with the glottal opening. the inability to hear oneself sing is often the result of a masking noise – which sometimes is the loudness of the surrounding singers. same. 28 15 . and n = 3 lay musicians). For the third experiment. or worse (studies one and two). The third experiment was a 10-week longitudinal study with four treatment conditions: 1) normal lessons and normal practice (CG – control group). In each study. the judge participants were asked to rank the singer participants' vocal progress between the first of the paired excerpts as compared to the second of the paired excerpt. random point. In singing. This same procedure was executed for an intonation comparison of the paired excerpts. and worse. Characteristics of singers and modes of singing. and 4) white noise lessons with white noise practice. 3) normal lessons and white noise practice. (1986). n = professional non-voice musicians. Plomp. The judges’ perceptions of the first experiment participants’ samples found white noise adversely affected participant intonation and voice quality. n = 3 voice teachers. participants (N = 24 college voice majors) were recorded singing vocalizes and song excerpts with and without masking noise.Again. which compared the individual participant's spectra of the different modes of phonation. the same data is used in Bloothooft and Plomp's third study. The overall conclusions confirmed that primary differences in the fundamental frequency (F0) were associated with the differing lengths of the male vocal tract whereas in the women. It was not surprising that the judges were able to detect Bloothooft. G. The second experiment recorded participants (N = 15) as they sang “The Star Spangled Banner” in a key of their choosing in which masking noise was added at an unknown. 28 Maxwell (1985) investigated the effect of masking on a singer's ability to sing in tune. 79 (3).. In the first of three experiments. for those singers are singing the same frequencies (what we think of as pitches). some progress. R. Spectral analysis of sung vowels III. Masking is the obscuring of one sound by another. a listening tape was made for judge participants (N = 9. The judges ranked the voice quality of the first excerpt as compared to the voice quality of the second excerpt as better.
sharp sustained notes. participants tended to flat ascending passages. 118-126. However. Journal of Research in Singing. The effect of white noise masking on singers. (1988). R.. 24. 31 Hemholtz. The average ensemble flutter level was found to be between 10-15 29 30 Maxwell. The relationship between changes in voice and pitch loudness. Non-singers showed no difference in pitch. and would provide a roadmap from which to apply the information garnered. editing. Singers were found to use a stronger fundamental frequency (F0) and an elevated frequency with increased noise in the environment. and playback equipment are unknown for the listening participants' perception listening tape. Hemholtz believed that intervals which were not "purely" tuned caused a "beating" which would be heard as a dissonance. S. Sundberg. (1986). W. The most defining interval of Western tuning systems (Pythagorean.. The sample group of the third study. Gramming. had masking noise during their lessons and practice time. pure. and equal temperament) is the major and the minor third. 8 (2). Ternström. D.the point when masking noise had been introduced in the second study. synthesized violas were used because they most closely resembled human sounds once a flutter component was added. 16 . Additionally. Leanderson. sharp descending passages. In all studies. (1885). Perkins. The same participants were asked to read a lengthy (non-related) passage. which received the highest mean score ranking. (1988) wondered what the relationship was between the changes in voice pitch when loudness was considered as a factor. These specifics would aide in understanding the conclusions drawn. Male and female singers and non-singers (N = 20) were recorded singing triads (singers) and pitch glides (non-singers) to provide data for phonetograms. However. Participants without teacher guidance of white noise regressed. first in a quiet environment.30 Nordmark and Ternström (1996) looked at intonation from a very different angle. The recording. Teacher guidance with white noise indeed produced greater results. 31 Nordmark and Ternström created synthesized non-beating ensembles sounds to add to the existing knowledge of beat ensemble sounds and their relationship to intonation. 9-19. the production of white noise is unknown. Also.. 2 (2). J. great detail is given to the statistical analyses of the listening participants’ responses. the perceptions of the auditors. followed by three additional readings in steadily increasing noisy environments. this may be a reason for reduced pathology in similar life settings. P. comparison of variance within groups found much greater variance within all other groups outside the control group. 29 Gramming et al. Authors proposed singers’ wider pitch range accessibility and familiarity with their full pitch range as an explanation for these results. Journal of Voice. and modify /ɑ / to /ɔ/ or /a/ when masking was introduced. H. To create these sounds.
duration. 65. the dyad was replicated 9 more times at different fundamental (F0) pitches. & Ternström. 34 35 36 37 33 Helmholtz.. TMHQPSR. 32 For this experiment.4 cents . pp. 37 (1). or the effect of one's pronunciation on the tone. 37 32 Ternström. it could be the way the tone begins (onset) or ends (off set). Fillebrown. Ibid. and loudness from another – it is because its quality of sound is different from the others. 66. or register. The headphoned listening participants (N = 16. 7-8. the amount of resonance (or the lack of resonance) in the sound.which is closer to equal temperament than to pure intonation (386 cents). Ibid. The range of cents above the fundamental was 350 to 450 cents. Once created. 34 When one is able to discern one pitch of the same frequency. the second group was set at 390 cents above the fundamental frequency (F0) for a slightly larger major third interval than a pure major third which would have been at 386 cents above the fundamental frequency (F0). 33 Quality of Tone Helmholtz (1885) described the quality of a tone as being sometimes called its color.cents (Ternström. Hemholtz determined that the difference must be in the manner in which the motion is performed within the period of each single vibration. 17 . an expression of the individual which was completely unique to the singer. 19. However. timbre. n = 11 undergraduate choral music education students. 1993). 7. 35 This manner can be perceived as brighter or more acute. nine cents of flutter was added to the synthesized viola sounds. Intonation preferences for major thirds with non-beating ensemble sounds. Each dyad was repeated twice in random order on a 20 dyad perception test. 36 Fillebrown believed the quality of a tone was the result of the singer's mood or emotion. 113. Nordmark. Two groups of three ensemble sounds were used to create versions of major thirds: the first group had the fundamental frequency (F0) set at 220 Hz. participant preference reliability was inconsistent in this study. S. If a participant expressed preference for a deviation above or below this range. (1911). 57-62. (1993). (1996). Participant results suggested that non-beating intervals (pure intonation) are not preferred. (1885). The results showed listener preference for interval size of a major third was 395. the computer would not allow the participant to move on to the next dyad. and n = 5 orchestra musicians) were given the opportunity to tune each dyad to their preference for a major third. 24. J.
tonal intensity. the participant sang it differently. both professional and amateur. and the presence of a high formant lying between 2400 and 3200 cycles per second (cps).D. August. a student of Carl Seashore. There were similar Schoen. the fluctuation of the frequency. anatomical. 38 18 . An Experimental Study of the Pitch Factor in Artistic Singing. M. studied the presence of vibrato in professional sopranos (N = 5). causing the participant to press more breath support which raised the pitch.33 Hz). D5 (~ 587. Ph. it was only present when there was strain in the accompanying muscles. and Emma Destinn singing Bach-Gounod's Ave Maria were analyzed by tonoscope (early stroboscopy). Individual characteristics were provided for each participant. would reveal the physiological structure(s) responsible for various qualities. (1921). Schoen conjectured that this might be due to an attempt to maintain a steady pitch to the end of the tone and that breath support might wane. The participants seemed to sing sharp with respect to both pure and tempered intonation. which the author surmised occurred when the larynx pipe was energized strongly enough that its natural octave began to appear. Movement from tone to tone seemed to be glidelike. Schoen surmised a time interval might have elapsed before the intensity of breath was engaged fully. and the tonal movements leading to the note and away from the note. almost a portamento. With this information. 1921. Each time the same pitch from the same musical phrase was repeated. Schoen suggested the muscle strain was in response to the singer's emotional excitement while singing and that vibrato was the result of a neuromuscular condition characteristic of the singing mechanism and therefore a periodic-pitch phenomenon. Schoen (1921). Bartholomew recorded 46 films and from them defined four characteristics of good male voice quality: vibrato. Professional recordings of Nellie Melba. Each participant's sample was analyzed with respect to the attack of the note. as much as was possible. physiological explanation for the quality of a singer's tone but believed the answer would be found through continued research. Equally interesting was that the release of the note was high in frequency even though the next note was lower. Alma Gluck. Frances Alda. the presence of a strengthened low partial at 500 cycles per second (cps) or lower. 38 Bartholomew (1934) hypothesized that oscillator recordings of singers. The overall conclusions showed this tone was led to from a lower note and resulted in a low attach frequency. Emma Eames. the accuracy of intonation. The selected pitch was the third note of the composition. Dissertation: University of Iowa.Fillebrown did not have a scientific. Schoen concluded [erroneously] that although vibrato was present in every voice. singers. Sometimes another peak occurred around 5700 cycles per second (cps). The vowel quality seemed to have no effect on the pitch accuracy. would be able to consciously control the voice mechanism. the release of the note.
Although a definition of these three voice types is not provided. (1934). 25-33. W. Massachusetts. B. 757. Additional factors taken into consideration were the mood of the singer and the vowel being articulated. Cambridge. 5 (3). Bartholomew proposed twenty-seven classifications of physiological differences visually noted in x-rays coupled with acoustic differences found in spectrograms. Fry. Spectrographic and X-ray studies of singing would allow for voice classification according to the singer’s voice quality. Rshevkin suggested that these peaks occurred only at the beginning of the vowel which the trained singer learned to modify to Bartholomew. Listeners described voices with the singer's formant (Fs) as metallic. 41 Rshevkin (1956) recorded male voices singing vowels /u/. A basis for the acoustical study of singing. and root of the tongue. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. and the coloratura had almost no high formant yet the tone quality was deemed "good" because of its "purity". /i/.indications for female voices but with the following exceptions: the high formant centered higher around 3200 cycles per second (cps). A basis for the acoustical study of singing. 41 40 39 19 . Bartholomew. The three types were determined by the position of the larynx and the configuration of the epiglottis. A physical definition of “good voice-quality” in the male voice. the general thought was that light described a voice that did not have a professional quality to the sound – perhaps lack of the singer's formant (Fs). Program of the Fifty-First Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America’s Joint Meeting with the Second ICA Congress. pharynx. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. lyric. and dramatic. W. (1956). 34. and /o/ on pitches ranging from 94 cycles per second (cps) to 490 cycles per second (cps) for duration of approximately 0. Harmonic analysis revealed two distinct increases within two narrow bands of spectrum. Lyric and Dramatic voices represented opposites of the professional voice spectrum. (1956).1 seconds. 40 Fry (1956) immediately responded with 27 voice classifications. 39 Twenty five years later. 28 (4). at the 51st conference proceedings for the Acoustical Society of America. Bartholomew suggested a classification of singer tones was necessary. D.T. the singer’s expressed mood. /a/. and the vowel sung by the singer. but based the system on three specific voice types – light. 400-600 cycles per second (cps) and 2200-2800 cycles per second (cps) which were not present in untrained baritones. The higher formant frequency in the 2200-2800 cycles per second (cps) region was labeled the singer's formant (Fs).
The second formant (F2) was high in intensity and overall high harmonics. The physiological interpretation of sound spectrograms. /i/. C#5. Spectral analysis of the tones. was apparent in the overall spectra (no definitive information is given regarding this statement). but through an acoustic articulatory comparison of vowel color and its effect on voice quality. 4) moderately dark. The dark vowel spectra had broad formants. Those tones which received the highest agreement on the dark to bright hierarchy were chosen for spectral analysis. A4. and E4. 4) brightness to darkness ratings for each singer. 2) moderately bright. which the auditors found to be very bright. Cambridge. and 5) brightness to darkness ratings for each vowel as sung by each singer. Analysis of the auditors' preferences included: 1) brightness to darkness rating for each vowel. /u/. These results agreed with the findings of his earlier research (1927) and those of Bartholomew who found a high singer's formant around 2800-3200 cycles per second (cps). A4. F#4. Some results of the analysis of singing voice. The design of this study was not provided. /a/. 2) brightness to darkness rating for each pitch. The primary study recorded participants (N = 5 sopranos with a minimum of five years of vocal training) singing D4. and /ə/. /e/. 42 Delattre (1958) felt the work of correlating voice formants with types and classes of voices had not yet been successfully accomplished. a third formant (F3) low in intensity.the “vowel singing position”. participants (N = 2 sopranos with perceptually different tone qualities) were asked to sing four different pitches (D4. /o/. The recordings were made in an 8' x 10' acoustically dead room. Each tone was sung on each of six vowels. 34-36. including identification of formants and intensities of harmonics. Delattre. or 5) very dark. B4. 43 42 20 . Massachusetts. revealed narrow formants. N. (1951). Auditors (N = 6 voice teachers and singers) were asked to rate the vowel on a bright to dark ranking scale of: 1) very bright. D5. the tones had both their onset and offset trimmed leaving a two second tone. two different singers with perceptually different tone qualities. 43 Arment's (1960) dissertation sought to compare the spectra of vowel tones with the perceptual designation of the same tones on a bright to dark hierarchy. Program of the Fifty-First Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America’s Joint Meeting with the Second ICA Congress. To make the perception tape. The participants were asked to sing specific tones on a specific vowel in a Rshevkin. Publication of the Modern Language Association (PMLA). 864-875. 3) neither predominantly bright or dark [neutral]. /u/) for a duration of four seconds per tone. D5. Delattre reached the conclusion that the quality of a singer's voice seemed to be characterized by the two or three formants whose frequencies are just above the vowel formants. S. Another variable. P. 66 (5). 3) brightness to darkness ratings for each vowel on each pitch. G4. (1956). /a/. F#5) on three different vowels (/i/. and a broad formant between 3000 and 5000 Hz. For the initial pilot study.
21 . Spectral analysis of each tone was completed for all harmonic. the intensity. or neutral. However. bright tones had strong high harmonics whereas dark tones had strong low harmonics. These spectral data were cross referenced with the listening participants' answers. (1960). 45 44 Ibid. To aid the participant in maintaining the intensity level between singing tasks. Arment concluded the brightness or darkness of a tone may be regarded as a continuum of tonal characteristics 44 . n = 8 men and n = 8 women) were asked to evaluate a series of tones on a Likert 10 point scale from extremely bright to neutral to extremely dark. The recordings were analyzed and the vocal tract resonances (VTR) and laryngeal fundamental frequencies (LFF) were computed for each participant. AAG6002989). The listening participants (N = 16 singing teachers and graduate level singers. dark. A Study By Means of Spectrographic Analysis of the Brightness and Darkness Qualities of Vowel Tones in Women’s Voices. Just as in the pilot study. n = 20 males and n = 20 females) were recorded speaking a variety of speech tasks and repeated some of the tasks using a laryngeal vibrator. Bright tones had narrow formant bands in comparison to wide banded dark tones.particular voice quality – bright. Tones which ranked the brightest showed greater intensity of the second formant (F2) and an increase in the amount of harmonics in the tone. (University Microfilms No.01) with 94% accuracy in identifying the sex of the sample with respect to the laryngeal fundamental frequency Arment. vowel did seem to have a direct effect on the brightness or darkness of tone. but ultimately it stands alone as a significant descriptor of the tone. and vibrato data. auditors' (N = 17 university students) responses were significant (p > . In this test. The first perception test utilized five-second samples from each participant played backwards. Each singer was given time to study the required order of tasks and then given time for a practice run prior to the official recording. formant. The participants were recorded in the same 8' x 10' acoustically dead room with a microphone thirty-two inches from the singer and forty-eight inches from the floor. Varying loudness of tones showed no effect on the brightness or darkness of tones. Two experiments were devised in which participants (N = 40 university students. and/or the pitch of the tone. Each tone in the series was to receive its own evaluation although the auditor was going to hear six tones at a time. H. The target intensity level was 75-80 dB. a decibel meter was positioned in the participant's sight line. 45 Coleman (1973) investigated exactly what physiological components define the quality of a speaker's voice such that the speaker's sex is known. The brightness to darkness continuum might be influenced by the vowel.
and n = 5 voice faculty members) to look at the effect of vocal training on presence of the singer's formant (Fs).(LFF). Teie concluded that the amount of training affects the frequencies higher than the second formant (F2). When the descriptors were jumbled. n = 5 female first year voice students. D4). 46 Teie (1976) used a variety of singers (N = 31. The samples had equal representations of the following descriptors: low vocal tract resonances (VTR) and low laryngeal fundamental frequencies (LFF). The Coleman. STL-QPSR. The auditors (N = 25 university students) were asked to determine the sex of the speaker and the results showed correct sex identification 245 out of 250 times in the first two descriptors above (those in which the VTR and the LFF are indicative of the same sex). 13-22. Accuracy dropped to 56% when the sex of the sample was compared to the average mean of the vocal tract resonances (VTR). /i/. high vocal tract resonances (VTR) with low laryngeal fundamental frequencies (LFF). n = 3 female untrained singers. n = 5 female fourth year voice students. male characteristics (low VTR and low LFF) were perceptually more prominent. Each of the participant's six samples was analyzed through spectrography for the fundamental frequency (F0) and the presence of partials in the tone. R. n = 5 male first year voice students. 14 (2-3). It was also deemed important for one of the pitches to be sung by all participants (288 Hz. Each participant was recorded singing the vowels /a/. n = 3 male untrained singers. These pitches were chosen to represent the upper and lower voice registers of both the male and female participants. 46 22 . (1973). The second perception test utilized the laryngeal vibrator samples which had the highest vocal tract resonances (VTR) for the females (n = 5) and the lowest vocal tract resonances (VTR) for the males (n = 5). The male participants sang at 160 Hz (E3) and 288 Hz (D4) and the female participants sang on 288 Hz (D4) and 512 Hz (C5). The recordings were conducted in a sound proof speech laboratory room. The participants were instructed to sing at full volume and to vary the distance of their mouth to the microphone by watching an oscilloscope so that 125 dB was maintained. low vocal tract resonances (VTR) with high laryngeal fundamental frequencies (LFF). high vocal tract resonances (VTR) and high laryngeal fundamental frequencies (LFF). most specifically the range of 2 kHz to 4 kHz. A comparison of the contributions of two vocal characteristics to the perception of maleness and femaleness in the voice. and /u/ on two pitches. an increase in energy in the 28003200 Hz range. Only two pitches were used for the samples – 240 Hz and 120 Hz. n = 5 male fourth year voice students. The results of these experiments led Coleman to the conclusion that laryngeal fundamental frequency plays a heavier role in our ability to discern between male and female speakers.
Additionally. The information showed the voice classification was dependant on vocal tract size and dimension. 2800-3200 Hz. there was spectral energy peaks in the 6 to 8 kHz region.5 centimeters. baritone. /u/ on the pitches C3. E. for example. or tenor. Teie went so far as to conclude the essence of consistent tone quality is the ability to color all vowel sounds with an /i/ resonance. Cleveland (1977) recorded male participants (N = 8 professional Swedish singers) singing the vowels /i/. A comparative study of the development of the third formant in trained and untrained voices. Teie felt his results were circumspect due to the low participant number for each subset category. (Doctoral Dissertation. /e/. /α/. the vocal tract length of basses singing /i/ was nineteen centimeters as compared to tenors at 15. 6135. 37. E4. the dynamic level chosen may have had an impact on the results and therefore a greater variety of dynamic levels would have provided keener insight as to this effect. Most interesting was that the untrained singer's produced tones with almost as prominent singer's formant (Fs) as did the trained singers on the /i/ vowel. Cleveland also found timbre type classification to be strongly influenced by formant frequency and suggested that its importance outweighed pitch. In closing. formant frequency. The Fs was inconsistent in the female singers' spectra. Little difference between all of the subsets of participants was apparent in the F1 and the F2 when the singers were singing the same vowel at the same pitch. In the trained singers' samples. Some vowel sounds were synthesized by a source-filter network. A3.training effect was present in the intensity levels of the tones for both trained and untrained participants had similar configuration and breadth within the singer's formant (Fs) range. 47 To examine vocal registration. Auditors (number unknown) were asked to determine the voice classification of the singers as bass. This suggests singers should strive to have the /i/ vowel quality in all vowel sounds to enhance the singer's formant (Fs) region. F3. University of Minnesota. Teie conjectured as to the effect consonants would have on the presence of the singer's formant (Fs). Source spectra. and sonogram measurement were employed on the vowel vocalizations. Dissertation Abstracts International. 47 23 . A listening test was designed with three hearings of each vowel vocalization presented in two twenty-five minute sessions each separated by a thirty-minute break (five vowels x four pitches x eight subjects). /o/. (10A). (1976). The correlation between formant frequency of spoken vowels and sung vowels was quite high and could be useful in future voice Teie. 1976).
Auditors (N is unknown) had a high degree of accuracy in identifying the participants' modes of phonation. Perception participants were unable Cleveland. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (1978).classification. P.48 Magill and Jacobsen asked professional singers (n=15) and college music students (n=15) to identify their voice classification and then recorded them singing sustained vowels and major arpeggios appropriately pitched for their self-proclaimed voice categories. even at the ends of the vocal ranges.. Jacobson. Cleveland suggested it is a better indicator of voice classification. Fall 1979. 1(66). There was more singers' formant (Fs) presence in the male voices which Magill and Jacobsen hypothesized may have been due to a lower first formant (F1) that allowed for a greater number of harmonics to fall within the area of the singer's formant (Fs) frequency envelope. Magill. Physiological results were equally definitive of each vocal mode. L. The recorded samples were measured for frequency perturbation (jitter). 61. (1977).F. & Estill. Analysis of the recordings showed the presence of increased spectral energy in the range of the singers’ formant (Fs) in both males and females and in all voice categories. Jitter is the presence of irregular periodicity in the action of the vocal folds and is often perceived as hoarseness. Elements of quality variation voice modes and singing. 50 Murray (1979) explored the presence of jitter in female spoken phonation as compared to sung phonation. 26 (4). A panel of participants (N is not provided) were asked to listen to the recorded samples and determine if the samples were sung or spoken. 1622-1629. Acoustical Society of America Supplement. The results suggested the unique features of each voice mode could provide singers with a roadmap toward a variety of healthy vocal modes of phonation that in turn would offer singers multiple voice qualities. Since vocal timbre exists at an earlier age than full range capability. The acoustical results of the recordings showed definite frequency bandwidths.. R. 456-469. 50 49 48 24 . Journal of Research in Music Education. specific resonant peak locations with representative spectral envelopes to dynamic ranges. J. The strength of the energy in the singer's formant Fs) region showed a direct correlation to the participant's amount of training and experience. T. Colton. 55-56. Acoustic properties of voice timbre types and their influence on voice classification. A comparison of the singing formant in the voices of professional and student singers. (1979). 49 Colton and Estes (1979) recorded participants (N is not provided) singing in four separate voice qualities on selected pitches throughout their vocal range. Female singers (N = 4) were recorded speaking the vowel /a/ and then singing the vowel /a/ in four different conditions (conditions are unknown).
In the second study. all five participants widened the laryngeal ventricles and tilted the larynx forward in covered singing. (1990) used sung vowels to investigate "open" versus "covered" vowels. 51 Hertegard et al. or nil” for the audio recordings. Ten of the subjects widened their pharynx for covered singing. participants (N = 7 males singers) wore a Rothenberg mask (pneumotachograph mask) and were recorded singing /pae/ at a pitch of their choosing near the passaggio. No directions were given for dynamics in either task.to discern differences between spoken and sung vowels. Participants received no training as to the difference between covered and open singing technique as all participants confirmed they had received such training from singing experts during their years of vocal study. A flow glottogram graph (FGG) shows specific activity of the vocal fold cycle peak-to-peak flow amplitude in Murray. 55. The participants were instructed to choose a scale that would cross the passaggio near the top of the scale. The analysis results showed less jitter in spoken vowels than that of the sung vowels. n = five tenors. Visual analysis revealed the soft palate was consistently higher in seven of the subjects in covered singing. F2). n = two phoniatricians and n = one logopedist) to evaluate whether or not the flexible fiberoptic endoscope recordings presented any differences between open and covered techniques. Vocal jitter in singers voice. Salt Lake City. The resulting recordings (both audio and visual) were observed and listened to by participants (N = 3. alternating between open and covered singing. At the end of the scale the participants were asked to sing an octave interval to return to the starting pitch. (1979). The designated form for the participants conclusions had the categories “no difference” and “obvious difference” for the visual recordings and “obvious. n = three baritones. and n = 3 basses) were recorded singing in both head and covered technique with a variety of acoustical equipment in many conditions. The participants then sang a sustained note on the vowel /ae/ near the passaggio. T. November 1979. The recorded samples were inverse filtered and produced a transglottal air-flow wave form (FGG) for analysis of the first and second formant (F1. Of the five participants in which the larynx was clearly visible. Participants (N = 11 professionally trained male singers. 51 25 . The 98th Meeting of Acoustical Society of America. Utah. Obvious differences were noted by the panel participants in the recordings between open and covered vocal production. The first study utilized a flexible fiberoptic endoscope to allow video of the working mechanism during both the open and covered singing of a one octave scale on the vowel /ae/. slight.
S. Was this result due to the increased loudness (averaging eight dB) in covered singing versus open singing? Another factor in the sound spectrum was that the amplitude of the fundamental frequency (F0) was higher in covered singing. (1990). inverse filtering. The highest energy level was located at the harmonic closest to the first formant (F1). the voice source appeared different between open and covered singing – although no definitive information was detailed. These changes were speculated to be due to changes in the voice source. Although the participants produced consistent energy increases in the singer's formant region (Fs) in all procedures. J. The results obtained from the inverse filtering were varied.. Also. the MRI images were obtained while the Hertegard. and the laryngopharyngeal outlet cross section area which would result in a 6:1 ratio. these combined results suggested that covered singing reduced strain on the vocal mechanism and could prevent hyper-functional strain of the larynx. these participants did not meet the 6:1 ratio requirement. Perhaps a relationship existed between the passaggio and this match. The participants from the second study also participated in the third study. F2). The singer's formant (Fs) and the source of the singer's formant (Fs) resonance has a direct relationship between the ventricular spaces in pulse phonation.milliliters per second. Most importantly. The spectrogram of same participant’s open singing was superimposed on the participant's covered singing spectrogram for six of the seven participants. the level of harmonics. Spectral analysis of these recordings gave information regarding fundamental frequency (F0). The energy of the singer’s formant region was unchanged between open and covered production. 220-230. J. but it was unclear whether this was in open or covered singing. When the participant used covered technique to equalize the passaggio. and duration of the quasi-closed phase in milliseconds. Gauffin. 52 Detweiler (1993) designed a study to confirm Sundberg’s concept of the singer’s formant (Fs). Subglottal pressure (Ps) and sound pressure level (SPL) showed little or no variation between covered and open singing. 52 26 . and in both modal and pulse modes. the frequency of the fourth harmonic (F4) would often agree with the frequency of the second formant (F2). and spectral analysis. Open and covered singing as studied by means of fiber optics. Participants were recorded singing a sustained vowel /ae/ near the passaggio at a pitch of their choosing in both open and covered technique. and the frequencies of the first and sometimes second formant (F1. 4. The first formant (F1) was generally lower during covered singing whereas the second formant (F2) was generally higher in covered singing. period time in milliseconds. However. glottal leakage in milliliters per second. Journal of Voice. just as the first formant (F1) was lower. Sundberg. One tenor and two baritones (N = 3) were recorded singing during laryngeal stroboscopy and an MRI procedure..
and vibrato presented in 25% of the time recorded (extremely low percentage). Journal of Voice. 2003). 57 27 . 55 56 53 54 Helmholtz. However. 57 Although Fillebrown purported no vocal Detweiler. Abbott. Fillebrown (1911) acknowledged that head tones. Acoustic evaluation and analysis of the female barbershop tenor voice. the creator of the laryngoscope. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (1885). An investigation of the laryngeal system as the resonance source of the singer’s formant. Abbott (2001) recorded female barbershop tenors’ (N = 27) speaking and singing voices. The female barbershop tenors' voices were characterized with an increased fundamental frequency variation in their speaking voice when compared to existing data for similar aged women. which produced a vertical orientation. closed tones. The Florida State University. Ibid. the participants had great variability in the upper passaggios. chest tones. Fillebrown.participant was lying down. 56 The articles that we are about to examine are built on the foundation Hemholtz provided for us. 101. S. 55 The breast voice (chest or modal voice) was a result of the tissue below the vocal folds pulling at the bottom of the vocal folds. R. yet many surprises are in store. He also asserted the thickness of the vocal folds played a part in the sound of the tone. 8 (4). but also which register the tone originated. The result was an overestimation of the area to be measured (Sundberg. thereby making them in effect heavily weighted. and open tones were accepted vernacular of the day. E. and the weight of the vibrating part less. He supported his claim through a series of statements by surgeons and professional singing teachers. 53 Female barbershop tenors have a very specific voice quality which is perceived as light and having very little vibrato. Acoustic analysis of the recordings revealed consistencies throughout the participant group. higher spectral energy in the fundamental and lower harmonics. (1994). the head voice was thought to be the product of the drawing aside of the mucous coat below the chords (sic) thus rendering the edge of the chords sharper. 303-313. When singing. for example. but strongly advocated that registers were not a natural feature of the voice. who was reported to have confirmed Fillebrown's belief in the "one voice" system. 2. 54 Registration Helmholtz (1885) believed the tension of vocal folds not only determined the pitch of the tone. this study confirmed the existence of singer's formant resonances (Fs1 and Fs2) in the pulse registers of these participants. These included Manuel García. (2001). while the elasticity is unaltered. (1911).
J. 28 . (1963).registers. These three different responses van den Berg labeled as registers. and supported the idea of register equalization. and decreased) of involvement of 18 different physiological activities necessary for phonation. strong. From this chart. Fillebrown (1911). middle. 38. Mid. Register equalization was the process a singer initiated to maintain the sound of one vocal register. From this analysis. chest. 58 Janwillem van den Berg (1963) agreed that vocal registers were produced by the same mechanism. Dec. overlapping regions of vocal instability were evidenced. van den Berg created a chart which defined five registers (Strohbass. Each of these registers had different physiological activities such as resonances that were present in the actual chest when singing in chest voice. 59 Table #2: Register Definition by Physiological Activity 60 Strohbass Contraction of Interarytenoids Contraction of Laterals Longitudinal Tension In: Vocal muscles Longitudinal Tension In: Vocal Ligaments Amplitude of Vocal Folds Closure Time Number of Partials Chest Weak Weak Large -Large Large Large Mid Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Falsetto Strong Strong -Large Small -Small Whistle -Medium ------ Weak -Small -Large Small Small 58 59 60 Ibid. but asserted the larynx had three different audible responses. he classified tones by recording singers and analyzing the recordings by means of a sonagraph to explore the height of each tone as well as the number of significant partials present in the tone. 38. The NATS Bulletin. Chest. 16-31. Van den Berg found this method of register definition incomplete. medium. which brought us back to the opinion of Fillebrown. and falsetto. and Whistle) by the amount (weak. Vocal ligaments versus registers. In response. Van den Berg. produced by the same mechanism. Falsetto. increased. he provided this definition of registers: a series of tones of a characteristic clang or quality.
eventually Increase Increase Increase Increase Increase Stop Increase → chest → mid Increase -- → falsetto Increase → chest -Increase → mid Stop Decrease → chest Van den Berg suggested that register breaks. eventually Increase Stop Increase -- Increase → chest Decrease → mid Increase Stop Effect of increasing longitudinal tension of vocal ligaments (ELTVL): Pitch ELTVL Register. eventually Chest Increase Mid Increase Falsetto -- Whistle Decrease Increase → chest Increase → chest -Increase -- -Increase → chest -Increase → mid → chest Decrease -- Effect of increasing longitudinal tension in vocal muscles (EITLV) on Pitch EITLV Register. occurred at about 300 cps (cycles per second) or between D4 and Eb4. eventually Effect of constriction of laterals (ECL) on Pitch ECL on Register.Table 2 continued: Strohbass Effect of Increasing Constriction of Interarytenoids (EICA) On Pitch EICA Register. the stops listed in the chart above. Van den Berg shared in this article that confirmation 29 . eventually Effect of increasing flow: On pitch Effect of increasing flow: On register.
used an electromyography (EMG) collar to record the activity of the voice source in register overlapping regions of the participant's vocal range. Bel Canto in its Golden Age: A Study of It's Teaching Concepts. heavier register referred to as voce di petto or voce piena. Vennard.. found heavy phonation involved the myoelastic theory of air flow – but not in light registration. or falsetto which was in contrast to the lower. Ibid. P. 66 Large (1973) followed Vennard et al. made an indirect reference to Fillebrown and others who believed in differences in resonances – not different registers. Ibid. 64 Also. (1970). and falsetto. 37. referenced García's earlier conclusions of three registers – not García's later conclusion of one register referenced by Hemholtz. and falsetto registers seven years later. (1950). 63 Particularly interesting was that Vennard et al. the first register was the upper. 61 However. with an historical study which involved young adult female participants (n = 10) who were chosen from voice teacher recommendations at San Francisco State 61 62 Van den Berg. Vennard et al. p. Tosi left notes from lessons suggesting there was a difference from head register (previously called the upper register) and the falsetto register (a new register). 65 Vennard et al. The increased activity of the voice source muscles was in direct correlation with the increase in sung pitches (frequencies). (1970). Vennard began his review of existing literature with Duey's account of Tosi (18th century voice instructor). & Ohala. Results showed identifiable chest and falsetto ranges for both males and females. later in his career. Women were found to utilize a mixed voice when singing in the overlapping register regions. 62 However. lighter register referred to as voce de testa. although no reference was provided to a written source. Vennard (1970) published his own research on the chest. W. whereas the men did not. voce finta. Vennard et al. Chest. 113. J. New York: King's Crown Press. 117. Hirano. The NATS Bulletin. M. 30.. Head voice was defined as that area of the vocal range that existed between chest and falsetto. (1963). December. Air flow in both sexes was the greatest in falsetto and the least in head voice. In conclusion. Vennard. head. a respected vocal scientist. Duey. head.of the results was gained from William Vennard. Differences in loudness of the overlapping regions of vocal range were perceived and reflected the electromyography (EMG) analysis. 21. who firmly stated there were only two voice registers. 63 64 65 66 30 .
68. Each vocalization was sung at a dynamic level comfortable for the participant. Each participant was auditioned to ensure the ability to sing comfortably in modal and chest registers and to sing the following two tasks: A3 to E4 on the vowel /a/ in chest register at a mezzo forte (medium loud. The trained singer maintained energy in the 26003200 Hz range whereas the untrained singer had stronger energy present in the fundamental frequency (F0). The vibrato rate of the trained singer was consistent as compared to the untrained singer's vibrato 67 68 Large. 69 Vennard. Folia Phoniatrica. 39-61. J. (1970). A pneumotachographic system was used to measure airflow rates throughout the singing tasks.College. 25. 69 Schutte and Miller (1984) identified a correlation between the singer's continual focus on even resonance production throughout the entire vocal range (resonance balancing) and scientists' studies of the relationship between the fundamental frequency (F0) and partials found in sung tones. Spectral analysis revealed that chest voice possessed more energy in the third. n = 1 professional tenor [author 2] and n = 1 untrained male singer [author 1]) were recorded with sonagrams and spectrograms singing single vowels and vowel transitions on five different register representative pitches. Fall 1979. 67 Large (1979) continued research into registers by recording participants (N = 10 college voice students. Auditors (n = 12) listened to a paired sample perception test of tone pairs to identify the register. J. 31 . Acoustic study of register equalization in singing. Results of the perception test yielded a 92% accuracy rating. (1970). 37. and the identification of the vowel being sung. The participants maintained a distance of 30 centimeters from the microphone. 1 (66). The laryngeal movements were analyzed by photography. Studies of the Garcían model for vocal registration. Large hypothesized that chest and modal registers used different laryngeal movements.pitch) and sound level (dynamic). and fifth partials whereas modal register had more energy in the fundamental frequency (F0). and A4 down to E4 on the vowel /a/ in modal register at a mezzo forte (medium loud. in agreement with the studies of Vennard et al. (1979). The results suggested that changes in airflow and in laryngeal movement created sensations in singers that supported the feeling of voice registers. male and female) on a high-fidelity tape recorder singing /a/ in an overlapping region of male and female vocal ranges with the same fundamental frequency (F0 . (1973). mf) dynamic. Acoustical Society of America Supplement. The results showed clear differences between the trained and untrained singers. Large. 56. mf) dynamic. Participants (N = 2. fourth. the magnitude of register difference.
The listeners were asked to identify the stimuli as pulsed (fry voice) or non-pulsed. 32 . Resonance balance in register categories of the singing voice: a spectral analysis study. I.rate. Folia Phoniatrica. A lower area of energy is the crossover frequency (Fc) and was found in the pulse register. The trained singer phonated this frequency in multiple timbres in effort to minimize any perceptible difference in the overall sound. and ligaments showed that the amount of vocal fold tissue that is engaged in vibration. Analysis of the vocal folds. Journal of Voice.. 71 This measurement is in decibels (dB) per octave. Titze created a synthesized listener perception test. the amount of tension in the vocal folds. Miller. 80 Hz. the length or longitudinal tension of the vocal folds as they respond to the cricothyroid muscles. (1983). 2 (3). This timbre transition was visually apparent in the spectral slope of the tone. H. The perception test stimuli (samples) were of sung vowels with different glottal flow pulse at F0 of 20 Hz. A periodicity transition occurs when the greatest concentration of energy is actually below the fundamental frequency (F0). Schutte and Miller suggested the trained singer is able to adjust his vocal tract to enhance resonances in all voice registers. A framework for the study of vocal registers. that region of overlapping voice registers in which singers must coordinated resonance balancing. 60 Hz. D. 71 70 Titze. 40 Hz. Also. 289-295. A spectral slope is a visual representation of the measurement of the decrease in amplitude of successive partials of the voice source. the reaction of the vocal folds to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscles. the presences of partials in the trained singer's tones stop around 3200 Hz in contrast to the untrained singer's numerous partials above 3200 Hz and up to 5000 Hz. 183-4. muscles. which was earlier referred to as the Strohbass register or the vocal fry region. The single determiner for the listeners was F0. They chose F4 (349 Hz) to compare the trained and untrained singer's passaggio regions. The stimuli were randomized and repeated. To begin the periodicity transition investigation. Schutte and Miller's conclusions begged the question of singer's management of the area of passaggio. and the reaction of the larynx to the involved muscles will determine the success of a singer's resonance balance throughout the vocal range. A timbre transition encompassed all other sudden changes in the vocal range wherein there was a loss or gain of high frequency spectral energy. All of this musculature must work in tandem with the amount of subglottal air pressure and overall air flow. He defined the first transition as a periodicity transition and the second as a timbre transition. 36. and 100 HHHz. 70 Titze (1988) brought this discussion of voice registers full circle by proposing two areas of vocal production as types of transitions. (1988).the amount of time the vocal Schutte. This seems to have been because as the frequency rose . No information was provided regarding the untrained singer's production in the passaggio region.
The singing tasks were a very soft. The results showed an increase in closed quotient (CQ) and in sound pressure level (SPL) when the participants moved from chest to head (female) and from head to falsetto (male). breathy vowel glide in which the second vowel was produced in head voice and the first vowel was in chest voice. Participants (N = 2 experienced choir singers. An electroglottography (EGG) is a measuring device of the changes in electrical resistance at the glottis. the last or top passaggio for men from head into falsetto and the first or bottom passaggio for women from chest into head register. Titze found that all of the major areas of resonance balancing (register equalization) that singers and voice teachers' reference could be attributed to the first subglottal resonance. The authors concluded that register balance is a biomechanical adjustment. Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference. Register shift in the lower pitch range. The listeners also perceived the stimuli in which the crossover frequencies (Fc) were above the fundamental frequency (F0) as pulsed and the reverse as non-pulsed. which had a recognition factor of 3%. 73 Miller and Schutte (2005) continued their foray into register equalization by recording professional singers (N = 4) singing an Ab3 scale passage. 183-194. 33 . n = 1 male and n = 1 female) were recorded in an anechoic room wearing an electroglottography (EGG) collar and singing into a microphone that was 40 centimeters from the lips. 72 Vilkman and Alku (1994) were concerned with the register transition in the lower range from falsetto to chest voice. Electroglottography (EGG) and spectral 72 73 Titze. The difference between bass and soprano tracheal length is approximately 10-20 % or two to three semitones which would allow for the passaggio range which overlaps between men and women. but is not enough of an event by itself to signal the register transition. there are four predictable register breaks (timbre transitions) for each voice type. E. P. This was most evident in the 100 Hz stimuli. Vilkman and Alku warned that the vocal fold closure certainly necessary for the register transition. The researchers modified and duplicated this task with an excised male larynx. 79. (1994).folds were closed (CQ – closed quotient) was decreased. Understanding each of these transitions and the role that subglottal air pressure and air flow plays in equalizing the transitions would provide singers with a vocal range perceived to have no transitions (breaks). & Alku. and a closed quotient (CQ) of 10 milliseconds. Vilkman. Additionally. As for the timbre transition. 271-275. (1988). The pitch was chosen by the participant and was to remain constant as the vowel glided from /a/ to /æ/. These four timbre registrations are further delineated into two that are inhibitory (the lower two) and two that are facilitory (the upper two).
(2005). High frequency components (prominent harmonics of 8 and 10) were present in the chest register examples just as in the falsetto range of men. The syllable /pae/ was chosen because the high first and second formants of the vowel add to the reliability of inverse filtering and the oral pressure during the p-occlusion allows estimation of sub-glottal pressure (Ps). Upon hearing one of the 280 samples. amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram (MFDR – maximum flow declination rate). and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) with respect to the female chest (modal register) and the head register. G. This resulted in a sudden drop in SPL (sound pressure level) at the moment of the register shift. in perception listening tests. all classically trained) were recorded wearing a Rothenberg mask singing the CV (consonantvowel orientation) syllable /pae/ at a pitch of the participant’s choosing in which the participant could sing in both chest and head register. Listening participants (N = 3) performed a perceptual evaluation of the samples with a computerized listening test (Judge by Svante Granqvist). leading to the conclusion that mezzo soprano two better blended the chest and modal registers. the listening participants moved a marker on a 1000 millimeter visual analogue rating scale between “Head” Miller. Miller and Schutte suggested that the mezzo soprano register shifts were comparable to a professional yodeler’s rapid alteration between registers. there was an upward leap in the fundamental frequency (F0) at the moment of register shift that was ‘corrected’ (equalized) within 200 milliseconds. but without the severe pitch changes..analysis of the recorded passages showed the closed quotients (CQ) increased between C4 and D4 for both of the mezzo soprano participants. H. Participants (N = 7 female musical theater singers between the ages of 17 and 43. 57. voice teacher auditors indicated preference for mezzo soprano one’s scale passages because they heard a more “seamless” scale. Furthermore. K. 278-291. but the second mezzo’s closed quotient (CQ) was half that of the first. 74 Björkner et al. (2006) explored the voice source differences of subglottal pressure (Ps) and its relationship to voice source parameters such as closed quotient (Qclosed). peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (Up-t-p). The participant sang three times in each register. D. The pitch was sung initially as loud as possible and then gradually decreased to the softest possible sound maintaining the same vocal register. The participants were also recorded singing a sustained F4 /a/ (first space on the treble clef) in which each participant changed from chest to modal register. “Mixing” the registers: glottal source or vocal tract? Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica. 74 34 . Schutte. Yet. This study's results suggested successful register equalization was a product of resonance management versus muscular adjustment of the glottal voice source.
1-9. Consistent with earlier findings (Sundberg et al. & Stone. a professional theatre singer would require mastery of respiratory and phonation muscles. & Sundberg. T. In this method. To successfully master this. E. Roers.and “Chest” to designate the degree of register they perceived. From the results of this perception test. (2008). 75 Roers et al. maximum flow declination rate (MFDR). J. (2008) details a measurement method to predict the length of singer's vocal folds which in turn would predict the singer's voice classification. Specifically. Article in Press. D. Perceptually.. Ed. Sundberg.. from x-rays of singers. 76 75 35 .. Voice source differences between registers in female musical theater singers. and closed quotient (Qclosed) were higher in chest register whereas the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) was higher in head voice. 20 (2). J. Journal of Voice. The results showed a significant agreement between the voice classification (subjective) and the vocal fold length measurement method (objective). sub-glottal pressure (Ps). Journal of Voice. seventeen samples were chosen as representative of chest voice and head voice each.. measurements of the cartilages and muscles of the voice instrument. 2007. 76 Björkner. Cleveland. this translated into greater register equalization at soft dynamic levels as compared to register equalization in loud dynamic levels. F. The thirty-four samples were analyzed by inverse filtering and suggested that the subglottal pressure (Ps) and glottal adduction were modified when the participant changed from chest to head register and from head to chest register. 2001). Predicted singers' vocal fold lengths and voice classification – as study of xray morphological measures. accepted for publication December 6. (2006). 187-197. the closed quotient (Qclosed) is longer in untrained singers in chest voice... were compared to the voice instructors' classifications of the singers. Mürde.
36 . 79 From this simple hypothesis. Each tone has three specific characteristics that are unique to it: its force. came to the Knudson. (1885). 80 Edmund Meyer (1886.CHAPTER THREE HISTORY OF ACOUSTIC CHORAL MUSIC MEASUREMENT "Throughout the centuries. 1878 – 1969 Helmholtz (1878. Today. the stage is set for acoustic choral measurement. oral surgeon) references Helmholtz's writings which stated resonance is enhanced by the pharynx and head cavities. Fillebrown. (Doctoral Dissertation. 10-11. B. The Florida State University. Fillebrown. From this suggestion. and the acoustician pursued his theories and experiments almost wholly for the benefit of music.” (Knudsen. and its quality. 1937) 77 The following collection of acoustic choral music research article annotations is arranged historically so the reader can learn how the science has also developed to provide a strong foundation of knowledge for the reader as we move into the 21st century. Every effort is made to provide the necessary details of each research effort as they apply to choral sound. To be a musician. Glossaries are provided to aid understanding of the material presented. motivated by his oral surgery patients. (1911). 78 Force was recognized as a perceptual idea. German ophthalmologist) suggested a study to determine exactly which parts of the pharynx and head cavities played an active role in resonance. German physician and physicist) designated all sound as either music or noise determined solely by the hearer of said sound. It could measure the amplitude of the oscillating particle. 135. but not the specifics of the differences in what one hears. 1987). music and acoustics have been closely allied. UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertation Abstracts. and acousticians know less about music. 43. musicians as a group know far too little about acoustics. 19. Helmholtz hypothesized the quality of a sound is how the motion of the amplitude is performed within the time of one oscillation. Ibid. The pitch of the tone is measured by the time taken for one oscillation.. Interviews with selected choral conductors concerning rationale and practices regarding choral blend. it was necessary to know thoroughly the science of sound. AAT 8802564. Fillebrown (1911. its pitch. (1987). 78 79 80 77 Helmholtz. until recently.
and falsetto registers. the chest. New technology included film speed capable of separating frequencies (pitches) in excess of 8000 cycles per second. and emotional power. Ibid. 37 . 83 Bartholomew also recorded female singers. The results compared equally with the men's results except the highest formant centered around 3200 cycles per second (cps) 81 82 83 Fillebrown. another formant peak around 5700 cycles per second (cps). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. (1934). and how to feel the vibrations of the head through a light touch of one's finger will allow development of the entire voice without concern for a break such as the lowest passaggio for women often found between D and D#.informed conclusion that resonance occurred when the vibrations of the air in the resonance chambers of the human instrument. its reach . a strengthened low partial at 500 cycles per second (cps) or lower. the presence of a high formant between 2400 and 3200 cycles per second (cps). 45. its color. A physical definition of “good voice-quality” in the male voice. scientific study of voice acoustics and certainly the first mention of what would soon be labeled “the singer’s formant” (2800-3200 cps). The pipe organ has a separate pipe for each timbre and register.. 82 Good vocal quality possesses each of these descriptors. W. which [then] give tone its sonority. This was in contrast to the practice of the day in which most singers were taught three voice registers occurred. Bartholomew secured forty-six films to evaluate for a scientific definition of good voice quality: possessing vibrato. 81 Fillebrown's informed conclusions came from the life long practice of teaching voice lessons. and sometimes. head. 25-33. Bartholomew. His experiences and knowledge of the human anatomy led him to the conclusion that the human voice had but one voice register. The formant peak around 5700 cycles per second (cps) Bartholomew hypothesized occurred when the larynx pipe was energized strongly enough such that its natural octave would appear. together with the induced vibrations of the instrument itself. Teaching a voice student to focus the voice in the nose and the head. including a coloratura soprano. 5 (3). From both amateur and professional singers. Fillebrown explained his one register belief through a comparison of the human voice instrument to the pipe organ. (1911). This study is considered the first documented. all representative of one register. Not so for the human instrument that is but one amalgamated instrument with multiple timbres and pitches at its disposal. consistent tonal intensity. but what physiological structure provides for this in male baritones? Bartholomew (1934) implemented a study wherein male participants (N is not provided) were recorded singing into a condenser microphone with resistance coupled amplification that led to an oscillator. 38-42.
From these recordings. The contributions of acoustics to the arts. A basis for the acoustical study of singing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. With this technology. but are his words. yet the auditors deemed the tone representative of good voice quality because of its extreme “purity”. and in particular. stereophonic. & Fry. Bartholomew. 25-33. 28 (4).] Amateur singers’ records also showed a decrease in amplitude in pitches 84 85 Bartholomew. Moscow State University) took a different approach in that the male participants (N is unknown) were recorded with an oscillograph singing five vowels (/a/. Another interesting perceptual point was that the auditors (N is not provided) were willing to accept poorer quality tones from the women yet defined the tones as good quality. and vacuum tube amplifiers changed recording procedures and the reproduction of sound into two speakers. It was during this time that we began to understand the vibrations of the vocal folds and the sensation of its reception to the brain. [Rshevkin's choices of adjectives to describe voice timbre are confusing. harmonic analysis revealed energy peaks in the narrow band regions of 400-600 cycles per second (cps) and 2200-2800 cycles per second (cps) in the professional singers. 86 Rshevkin (1956. 311-314. the authors proposed a voice classification system for three primary voice qualities: light. 85 Manen and Fry (1956) of the University College of London had access to the latest technologies including x-rays and spectrographs. and /o/) for one second on a variety of pitches from 94 cycles per second (cps) to 490 cycles per second (cps). loud speakers. D. A perfect example is the coloratura soprano whose films did not show a high formant peak. Improvements in microphones.perhaps due to a smaller larynx. For each of these voice classifications. Measuring equipment was developed and included sound recordings with pictures of frequency and intensity. each singer was said to have a battery of moods and vowels from which to articulate any given music. many leaps were made in technology which created an atmosphere for the study of acoustics. 21 (4). twenty-seven possible combinations of voice classification were defined. 84 From 1929 to 1949. W. Singers voices with the “singer’s formant” (Fs) were described as having a metallic sounding timbre. /i/. arts acoustics. Music directors learned of decibels (dB) as well as the physical and psychological aspects of hearing. 86 38 . transmission changed forever how music could be heard. and dramatic could be created. /u/. From this process. (1956). (1949). L. The singers were x-rayed (for physiological definition) and recorded (for acoustic determination) on spectrographs singing a declared mood and vowel. (1934). Amateur singers’ voice timbre was described as sounding sharp. /e/. 757. lyric. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Manen.
Lottermoser and Meyer used the equal temperament scale and therefore each semitone was Rshevkin.. 61-68. 87 One year later. 88 In contrast to Sacerdote. measurement of air in vocal production. Sacerdote suggested successful study of the singing voice could be accomplished from these perspectives: movement of the vocal folds. Torino.higher than 325 cycles per second (cps). similar discrimination of pitch. The first choir recordings made for analysis were of a soprano monodic choir (N is not provided) singing a fragment of a song. 7. Sacerdote refers to a synchronization phenomenon that occurs when the fusion of timbres. the ear will hear the mean of the individual extremes. Istituti Ellettrotecnico Nazionale. The measurement reporting method used to compare intervals of different sizes was cents. 34-36. which is a logarithmic scale in which the octave is divided into 1200 equal parts or 1200 cents. Perceptually. and glissando ( sung notes of a scale between the first notated pitch and the second notated pitch). educated and un-educated. the outline of voice research. Acustica. Sacerdote supported research into all manner of voices – those trained and untrained. Unlike many of his contemporaries. the movement from one note to another note as in portamento ( a sung glide of notes in between the first notated pitch and the second notated pitch). An interesting conclusion presented by the authors was that singers begin a vowel sound by aligning formants for identification of the vowel and then realign the vocal apparatus to “the singing position”. amplitude and frequency vibrato. 39 . From Sacerdote's guidelines. and the framework for choral sound measurement was defined. (1957). German physicists) studied commercial recordings of polyphonic choirs. sets of resonant cavities used for different registers. Sacerdote (1957. Some results of the analysis of singing voice. Program of the Fifty-First Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America’s Joint Meeting with the Second ICA Congress. 88 87 Sacerdote. Lottermoser and Meyer (1960. (1956). external measurement of sound pressure produced through phonation. fifths and octaves. G. Then Sacerdote recorded a male monodic choir (N = 15) singing a plainsong chant. MA. S. Researches on the singing voice. Acoustical Laboratory. and the relationship between what one hears and what one phonates (auto-regulation). Cambridge. The soprano choir vibrato rate far exceeded that of the male choir. and the blend of individual intensities occur as a possible reason for the differences in vibrato rate. and the total mechanical of vocal emission. Italy) published an update on the measurement possibilities of the singer’s voice: sustained notes could now be examined as to their quality of sound. and beginners to singing as well as life long singers – not just professionals. They were interested in the intonation of intervals – specifically major and minor thirds. The speed with which a singer switches to the “singing position” is a determinant of a professional singer.
Choral formation was not detectable in either the live or recorded samples and therefore preference was not expressed for one formation over another. The recordings were randomized and played again for the same auditors to evaluate. Lambson. The myoelastic theory holds that air pressure builds up below the closed vocal folds (sub-glottic pressure) until the folds open allowing air to move freely through the glottis until the folds come together again and the cycle is repeated. Instead. sectional block (each voice type clustered together). 9 (1). & Meyer. scatter/scramble (a formation created by voice matching small groups of 2-3 singers at a time). auditors (N = 10) used the MENC (Music Educators National Conference) standard adjudication form to evaluate each performance. 89 The next choral study came just one year later and was the first choral dissertation (University of Utah. Lambson concluded this study with an acknowledgment that choral tone could not be acoustically measured at this time. Frequenzmessunger an gesungenen akkorden. The scatter/scramble choral formation received the lowest ratings and was described as acoustically inferior. 47-54. During the recording. An evaluation of various seating plans used in choral singing. These participants were recorded singing two contrasting songs in each of the following four formations. 1958) which Lambson condensed and published in 1961. W.100 cents. Janwillem van den Berg (1963. 181-184. A. Akustica. probably 18-25 years old. (1960). (1961). 90 The decade of the sixties was not a strong period of recorded choral music measurement. The auditors were unable to see the choirs – only hear them – so the choral formation was not a factor in their ratings. The fundamental frequency (F0) was measured by the bandwidth of partial tones and found to have a large range of variation – 6 to 30 cents. The major thirds (400 Hz) averaged large at 416 cents (about 1/6th of a semitone) whereas the minor thirds (300 Hz) were small at an average of 276 cents (almost 1/4th of a semitone). F. The myoelastic-aerodynamic theory of voice production is two theories (myoelastic and aerodynamic) that are not in contention with one another but work simultaneously to produce phonation. and random distribution (singers stood wherever they wanted). 10. quartets (one of each voice type by each other). Journal of Research in Music Education. Lambson’s participants (N is not provided) were members of a college chorale. All three choirs used octaves and fifths in just intonation. much of the measurement continued in which individual voice studies focused on understanding the anatomy and physiology of the voice source. 40 . This cycle is represented numerically as the cycles-per-second (cps) which in turn determines the frequency of the pitch phonated – for instance 89 90 Lottermoser. Dutch speech scientist and medical physicist) conducted extensive research on excised human larynges which led to his theory of the myoelastic-aerodynamic theory of voice production.
/a/. When the arytenoids fully close.A4 is 440 cycles per second (440 Hz). The choral selections were practiced for one hour a week for four weeks. Mendelssohn’s first chorus from Opus 42 Like As the Hart. The study was performed in a recording studio that had been acoustically 91 Van den Berg. explains the increase of the air through the glottis occurring simultaneously with a decrease in vocal fold tension. mid. whether for solo or choral conditions. Initial classification of registers was established by taking into account the height of the pitch and the number of significant partials as recorded by sonagraph. the air pressure stops and must build up again beginning another cycle. 91 Along with register equalization. The information gathered through this process is reflected in a generalized Scheme of Registers table which lists the events of the vocal ligaments in each of the five primary voice registers: Strohbass. was chosen because the author believed more realistic results would be gained from actual serious literature which the participants had prepared in the two modes and each selection possessed the vowels on specific pitches and for a useable duration for analysis. and /u/. Van den Berg recorded vibrational patterns with a stroboscope and delta f generator. when applied to phonation. The decrease in vocal fold tension allows for rippling action as the air moves through – much like a shower curtain's movement when the shower space's air pressure is moved by the force of the shower water. Handel’s Glory to God and Surely He Hath Borne Our Griefs from Messiah. The myoelastic-aerodynamic theory joined with the Bernoulli principle. Indiana University) addressed his concern about the vocal health of singers who must fluctuate between solo and choral singing. singers must also choose the mode of singing for a given situation. and whistle. Each music selection. falsetto. This aerodynamic activity causes the vocal folds to be moved into vibration before the arytenoids are together. 16-31. and Schein’s Who With Grieving Soweth. 41 . Harper's dissertation (1967. The choral portion utilized Mendelssohn’s He Watching Over Israel from Elijah. chest. What information regarding the differences and the similarities between solo and choral singing would aid conductors in preserving singers' vocal health? Participants (N = 12 male and female university music students who had had private voice lessons) were recorded singing in both the choral and solo setting. (1963). The aerodynamic theory speaks to the muscles and cartilages affected by the free flowing air through the glottis. The vowels chosen were /i/. Of particular interest to this effort is van den Berg’s acoustical analyses of the vibrational patterns of the vocal ligaments when singing in the area of register overlapping. supporting the author’s conclusion that the longitudinal tension in the vocal ligaments and muscles is an important factor in register equalization.
There was no notable difference in the soprano voices when they sang chorally – but in the solo mode the sopranos had 42 . The intensity levels reached in the choral sections were identified from the VU meter on the tape recorder. This was supported in the analysis of the spectrograms. This also was supported in the spectrogram analyses in which the partials between the formants had more energy in the choral quality than in the solo quality for most singing participants but not at all pitch levels. The soloist was accompanied by a piano. The choir was seated in two rows facing the conductor. number 15. Variances occurred between subjects. sample B. chosen by voice classification. The participant stood in front of a standing microphone positioned three inches from the participant’s mouth. The participant sang into a standing microphone in a blended fashion to the conductor’s approval. and then a repetition of one of them. n = 14 linguistics majors and n = 17 music majors) were asked to identify which of the first two vowel sounds the third vowel sound matched. and so on …). Listening participants were unable to discern between solo and choral vowels. Using the recorded solo mode intensity levels for each participant. The listening participants were able to discern accurately between choral quality and solo quality more than 75% of the time. and then either sample A or B again – participant determines if the last sample (X) is either A or B). Researchers aided the participants in producing the same or near same intensity level in solo singing that was accomplished in the choral singing. These measurements were logged and used as a reference for the solo sections. The ensemble was accompanied by a piano. In particular. from the same mass works mentioned above. All manner of variables were randomized and represented in a 54 ABX test (sample A. configured to create a 900 angle to the breath stream to guard against distortion from plosive consonants. This was done to rule out intensity level as an effect on mode of phonation. there were no differences between the first and second formants. The listening participants (N = 31. a solo vowel. A plywood box with fiberglass insulation was hung six inches in front of the microphone to shield the ensemble sounds from the microphone. the researchers provided visual cues to direct the participant to sing with more or less intensity as the recording proceeded to approximate matching levels for both modes. Each trio of sound had a choral vowel.treated to reduce outside noise and reverberance. Spoken numbers were inserted before each increment of five (number five. The individual choral singer being recorded stood approximately four feet behind the back row of the ensemble facing the conductor. number 10. The solo portion used appropriate movements. The perception samples were taken from both the solo and choral singing modes of the same vowel at the same pitch.
Harper makes direct comparisons of his data with that of his predecessors and found that unlike Rshevkin (1956). Spectrographic Comparison of Certain Vowels to Ascertain Differences Between Solo and Choral Singing. F2) in choral singing might have been caused by increased nasality or by relaxed musculature. After the scales. recorded participants (N = 4. In heavy registration. Harper. Reinforced by Aural Comparison. 1967). Vennard (1970. were successful in light registration. Harper hypothesized the increased energy in the first and second formants (F1. 92 1970 – 1979 The seventies began with another hallmark study regarding voice registers. the female participants struggled descending and one of the male participants struggled ascending. and Ohala (linguistics professor). 92 43 . the male area seemed to be a clear head voice but the female area was more of a mix.. who had a three plus octave range in both light and heavy registration without a decrease or increase in volume. No enunciation differences were identified by the listening participants. H. voice professor). The alto and tenor had more partial energy in the choral mode when singing the /i/ vowel. Chest and falsetto were present and easily identified in both male and female participant. Hirano (otolaryngologist). n = 2 women and n = 2 men) singing two octave scales in light registration and again in heavy registration in a variety of keys resulting in over 150 recorded scales. The scales. named the pitch region between chest and falsetto as mid-voice or mixed registration which were supported by electromyography (EMG) graphs. providing the necessary equipment finesse for the studies of Vennard et al. which were lighter and more flexible. The exception to this physiology occurred in falsetto where the air flow was the greatest followed by chest and the least in mid registration. Vennard et al. the participants performed messa di voce (swell tones) in light and heavy registration on a variety of tones throughout the vocal ranges established by the scales. both ascending and descending. None of the vowel spectrograms Harper analyzed showed evidence of the singer's formant (Fs).increased energy in the upper formant regions for the higher pitched /i/ and /u/. Jr. Muscular activity was detailed in the graphs leading to the conclusions that in light registration the musculature works minimally with heavy air flow in contrast to heavy registration where the musculature was heavily involved and the aerodynamics provide merely what was needed for the musculature. (Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University. One of the participants. The area between the two was significant and yet different. there was no change of the formants after the initial enunciation vowels. A. (1967). Participants were fitted with new electromyography (EMG) electrodes that had been developed the previous year.
. the participants sang the tone pairs with subtle timbre differences between the tone pairs and then with obvious timbre differences between the two tones. 93 Vernard. 93 This was the first mention of how to manage register equalization – although Vennard does not make this statement. the participants sang /a/ in chest voice on A3 (220 Hz) up to E4 (330 Hz) maintaining the same intensity level and vibrato rate for four seconds. Large (1973). 44 . however. If a participant was successful in the above two tasks. In each task. & Ohala. the participant was reminded to maintain vowel consistency throughout the experiments. (1970). head and falsetto. looks at register equalization from high-fidelity tape recordings of participants (N = 10 female. The singing tasks were twofold: in the first task. December. W.repeatedly readjusted the vocalis muscle involvement. the participant needed to remain equidistant from the two microphones and the sound level meter so that the angle was 90o to the breath stream. Finally.. Hirano. the participant was asked to repeat the tone pairs in a variety of timbres for both tones and then with a timbre change from the first tone to the second tone. never allowing it to become excessive. 30-37. A string was attached to the chin of the participant and run to the microphone of the sound level meter microphone. Chest. to ensure consistent distance. M. college voice students) singing the vowel /a/. Figure 3: Singing Tasks For each task. J. which was in the center of the two tape recorder microphones. The NATS Bulletin. the second task was to sing /a/ on A4 (440 Hz) down to E4 (330 Hz) in mid register maintaining the same intensity level and vibrato rate for four seconds.
Then the thirty-four samples were randomized and presented in the perception test with five seconds between each part of the sample (tone 1 + 5 sec + tone 2). different vowels have different spectral characteristics and those very differences could be incorrectly attributed to register differences or equalization. The reliability of the perception participants was quite high at 92%. Large employed a phonetics specialist to listen to the perception test and identify the IPA symbol of each tone presented. and peak two. The chest voice registration for a fundamental frequency (F0) of 330 45 . For vibrato measurements. Some of the pairs were spliced and rearranged to include created clips which were half chest voice with half mid-voice and half mid-voice with half chest voice. were chosen for a perception test. the perception participant with the greatest amount of error had the most years of teaching experience (41 years) and the participants with the greatest amount of agreement had but one to four years of teaching experience. valley. representing each of the tasks described above. the auditors were asked to ignore any differences in vowel. positive slope. nasality. and acoustic analyses. reliability. Register judgments did not appear vowel dependant in this perception test. thirty-four tone pairs. For both playings of the perception test. pitch. negative slope. The first playing of the test. I represented no difference and V represented a great difference.From the tone pair collection. The presentation of the tone pairs did not affect the reliability of the perception test scores. loudness or vibrato. The acoustic evaluation of the tone pairs was accomplished through sonagraphs of the recordings.4 second segment were selected and analyzed for peak one. Of interest is that in this study. the tone pairs were presented in reverse order when they occurred in the second playing of the perception test. the auditors (N = 12 experts in vocal performance and pedagogy) were asked to identify the register of each tone. To check for consistency. The concern was that variances in vowel presentation could effect the perception of register by the auditors. a 2.5 for auditor response and then the number of the next sample verbalized prior to the sounding of the next sample. 3.4 second segment of each tone was low-band filtered. C for chest and M for mid register. The amplitude was superimposed on the sonagram for a visual record of the overall level. To measure the partials. Additionally. The auditors were able to replay any tone as often as they wished. The second playing of the test followed immediately the first test in which the auditors were asked to rank the timbre difference between the two pairs on a scale from I to V. There was a direct correlation between the changes in the spectral envelope and the auditor perceived register changes. linguistic. Darker vowels could mean chest register to some auditors whereas lighter vowels would signal head register. The results were discussed and supported with specific tables representing the perceptual. twentyfour millisecond samples at five locations of the 2.
rhythm. Acoustic study of register equalization in singing. 39-61.Hz had greater energy in the harmonics above the third partial. /ε/. No author evaluation was provided regarding the suitability or success of spectrograms for choral sound analysis. when the auditors identified the paired tones as sounding from the same register [equalized]. Psychology of Music. Yet. (one junior high. The complete perception test was played twice to check for auditor reliability. University of Kansas) utilizes much of the format explained above to present his study on the effect of loudness on participants’ perceptions of pitch. loudness. /a/) on the pitches of a C major scale. W. Recordings were made of men alone. Folia Phoniatrica. In conclusion. were recorded singing three unison vowels (/i/.. Auditors were also asked to identify the vowel being sung. p. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Although equipment information and usage are not detailed. University of North Texas) stated the purpose of his study was to evaluate the use of spectrograms in the analysis of choral sounds. (Education Degree Dissertation. one college. 86. 95 Haack (1975. J. all partial descriptors used above were minimized in the spectral envelopes. The auditors were consistent in their responses 66% of the time. the creation of the perception tests and the statistical analysis of the responses were quite clear. Good ratings correlated with spectrograms in which the spectral distributions of concentrated sound showed perfect alignment of the frequency bands in the natural harmonic series. Spectrographic Analysis of the Acoustical Properties of Selected Vowels in Choral Sound. Hunt. 96 Seashore. Auditors (N = 7 choral directors from the faculty of a major university) evaluated vocal blend of random ordered recordings as good. and men/women together. one high school. 46 . University of North Texas. (1973). acceptable or poor. (1970).all 40-50 members). 1970). particularly four and five. timbre. Spectrograms of recordings were compared to the auditors’ ratings. the chest and mid registers appeared to be the result of different vocal fold waveforms. Three choirs. and tonal memory. The initial pitch was given by a piano. those naturally occurring overtones produced from the fundamental frequencies of each tone sung. Inc. (1938).. and particularly the high school females. C. 96 94 95 Large. 94 Hunt's dissertation (1970. Therefore. unity of vowel sound is essential to good vocal blend. Hunt concluded good choral blend is achieved when all of the acoustical factors in the choral sound are aligned with the natural harmonic series. in contrast to the mid register’s energy that was found in the fundamental frequency (F0) and the third partial. Female voices in all choirs received the highest ratings. women alone. 25. The thirty perception test questions were taken from the Seashore Measures of Musical Talent.
the initial presentation of the sample material should be at a medium to soft loudness level. Overall. (1975). ten questions presented moderate (75-80 dB) and the remaining 10 presented loud (105-110 dB). split into three equal groups with ten questions presented soft (45-50 dB). 97 47 . Music majors had a higher percentage of correct answers in loud presentations over the nonmusic majors. Hack. /u/ on the pitches C3. only clear examples of the test questions should be used. If indeed a teacher wishes a student to learn to distinguish between different timbres. The listening participants (N = 101. The numbers of participants were managed to ensure the accuracy of the loudness levels and the effect of their bodies on the overall acoustics of the room. The influence of loudness on the discrimination of musical sound factors. although the participants were not present. A3. The 30 samples were randomized for the presentation of the perception test. (1). all vocal pedagogues) assigned a voice classification (bass. then the presentation should be at louder levels to facilitate discrimination. each vocalization occurred three times throughout the perception test. A. Each testing period was designed at a duration of thirty minutes in an effort to reduce the effect of listening fatigue. For reliability.The thirty questions were ranked according to difficulty level. Participants’ timbral discrimination was most accurate when the samples were presented at the moderate level. tenor) to each vowel vocalization. Participants (N = 8 professional male singers) were recorded singing /i/. F3. In conclusion. Haack suggests music factor discrimination tests [perception tests] must have rigorous controls enforced on maintaining a constant level of loudness in the presentation of the samples. baritone. Journal of Research in Music Education. The loudness levels of the recordings were confirmed with the use of a sound level meter that had been placed in the perception testing area. Listening participants (N = not provided. 67-77. voice scientist) explored the use of timbre as a definitive characteristic from which to determine a male singer’s voice classification. No discussion regarding the perception test took place during the break. If the goal is for the student to be able to discern dynamic levels. The perception test divided into two sessions of 25 minutes with a break of 30 minutes between the two sessions. The participants’ results were analyzed for error rate and then compared within the participant subsets. the author concluded that music presented in the loud condition allowed for an increase in harmonic partials. /e/. 97 Cleveland (1977. /o/. /α/. who had an increase in errors – particularly pitch discrimination. E4. thereby making sound discrimination more difficult. Additionally. n = 46 college undergraduate music majors and n = 55 college undergraduate non-music majors) took the perception test in four to eight member groups in an acoustically treated room. P.
also. To rule out pitch as a confounding element. The comparison between the voice classification and the mean formant frequencies (MFF) had a significant statistical correlation (0. This correlation revealed an 0. 25.81 correlation coefficient and therefore. observations were made that have implications for voice pedagogues with regard to non-professional voices of any age.Spectral analysis of each vocalization allowed for visual identification of the four lowest formant frequencies. In these circumstances. However. J. Consider 98 Sundberg. was an influential acoustical property in voice classification. This study linked high formant frequencies with high voice classifications and low formant frequencies with low voice classifications. As Cleveland explored the range extent of the singing participants. The mean formant frequencies (MFF) were compared to the voice classifications that the listening participants’ identified for each participant. Therefore. the conclusion was that the mean of the first four formant frequencies was a determining factor for voice classification.97. 48 . sometimes a voice's timbre will seem to be a mismatch with their voice classification. the fundamental frequencies of each pitch were correlated with the mean formant frequencies (MFF) for each singer participant and the voice classifications of the listener participants. the octave slope was diminished. However. Folia Phoniatrica. experiment two was a comparison of the mean of the center range pitch for each voice classification with the results of experiment showing a correlation coefficient of 0. pitch.001 level of confidence). The lowest four formant frequencies were averaged to obtain a mean formant frequency (MFF) for each singing participant. 87. the voice source information supports Sundberg’s (1973) findings: source spectrum differs only slightly between dark and light voices…and the development of voice timbre in voice training would be a matter of learning a special articulation rather than having the vocal chords [sic] to vibrate in a very special way.” 98 Three more experiments were part of this study: the same procedure as experiment one recreated with synthesized sounds of the information garnered from experiment one. Possible reasons for this diminution could be singer vocal inefficiency as evidenced by greater vocal effort in the voice source spectrum. The source spectrum in professional singing. At the low extremes of the tenor range and the high extremes of the bass range. The next consideration was the voice source spectrum in which Cleveland investigated the presence of the expected -12 dB octave slope. Cleveland suggests the voice timbre should initially determine the voice classification until the range can be developed and then the center range frequency could be identified and aid voice classification. (1973).
the two following tables in which the first table is the average formant frequencies of timbre types and the second table is the average formant frequencies of voice classes. Table 3: Comparison of the Average Formant Frequencies of Timbre Types to the Average Formant Frequencies of Voice Classifications /i/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /e/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /a/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /o/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /u/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass F1 312 9 287 3 278 F1 352 1 348 -1 350 F1 623 19 522 -1.5 530 F1 389 -6 414 13 366 F1 339 4 326 -3 336 F2 1996 7 1864 20 1557 F2 1942 11 1744 14 1533 F2 1005 7 942 1 934 F2 698 -7 750 6 708 F2 683 -2 700 -6 742 F3 2602 4 2500 8 2312 F3 2424 4 2339 13 2075 F3 2620 6 2478 8 2298 F3 2757 7 2569 0 2557 F3 2538 1 2522 5 2404 F4 3116 5 2973 6 2800 F4 3041 3 2950 5 2822 F4 2919 3 2823 3 2741 F4 3010 3 2938 1 2899 F4 2944 4 2843 5 2700 /i/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /e/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /a/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /o/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass /u/ Tenor Δ (%) Baritone Δ (%) Bass F1 304 9 278 -7 300 F1 350 0 350 -2 356 F1 609 15 530 5 503 F1 401 3 391 7 365 F1 330 -1 333 -4 348 F2 1969 13 1744 10 1587 F2 1942 17 1662 8 1539 F2 994 5 944 5 900 F2 724 2 711 -2 729 F2 682 -5 719 -4 749 F3 2567 3 2482 12 2214 F3 2414 7 2247 10 2041 F3 2576 7 2400 1 2386 F3 2706 6 2554 -2 2605 F3 2548 5 2420 -5 2536 F4 3105 7 2897 5 2752 F4 3061 7 2873 4 2754 F4 2909 2 2849 13 2527 F4 2989 3 2906 -2 2969 F4 2957 9 2716 -2 2784 49 .
Cleveland. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 99 The percentage of differences between these two formant measurements allowed for hypothetical approximations of voice classification by vocal tract length. /a/. All of the male participants showed more energy in the singer's formant (Fs) compared to the women whom 99 100 Fant. More harmonic energy was present in all of the participants singers formant region. the amount of training showed a significant effect on the strength of the singer's formant (Fs) region (2-4 kHz). that indeed this would be a valuable tool – but suggested that this option was still out of grasp. and were successful in supporting the hypothesis that voice timbre types are significantly dependant on formant frequencies and pitch. (1970). the difference was the amount of energy. The most marked difference between participant groups was found between the professional and student female participants. the average of the first four formants of a singer is appropriate for voice classification. These results were approximated by utilizing Fant's formant measurements of the vowel /i/ in which the second formant (F2) is a half-wavelength resonance of the back cavity and the third formant (F3) is dependant on the front resonance cavity. In other words. which showed 222% more harmonic energy present in the 2 kHz to 4 kHz area of the professional participants versus the student participants. Magill (Wright State University) & Jacobsen (1978. the differentiating pharyngeal morphology between tenors and basses seems to be a miniature version of the already established difference between male and female pharyngeal length. 61 (6).The final experiment was a comparison of the singing participant's morphology of the larynx with the voice classification results which suggested that the overall vocal tract length for basses is 19 centimeters and for tenors is 15. Participants (N = 35. 1622-1629. as well as biofeedback equipment to aid the auditionee is producing more or less of the singer’s formant per the conductor’s directions. and /u/) and a major arpeggio in each of the three vowels. (1977). Spectral analysis was accomplished through the newest technology. 50 . United States Air Force) concluded from their study regarding the singer’s formant. Also. The four experiments were linked together by perception test results.5 centimeters. Acoustic properties of voice timbre types and their influence on voice classification. as they are auditioning for a choir. n = 22 college voice students representing all voice classifications equally and with less than 3 years of voice training and n = 13 professional singers equally representing voice classifications) were recorded singing pitch-specific sustained vowels (/i/. Specifically. T. 100 Imagine having the ability to immediately see the actual anatomy of an individual. the fast Fourier analyzer.
[This is probably in the pitch range of A4 to D5. (1979). Acoustical Society of America Supplement. 55-56. The participants sang pitches throughout their vocal range in four different voice qualities. & Estill. 1 (66). thryoarytenoid. (1979). A physiological interpretation of vocal registers. 1 (66). inter-arytenoid. J.102 Large (1979) continued his investigations into register equalization by recording participants (N = 10 college voice students. Computer simulation was utilized to verify conclusions. 104 103 102 101 51 . 104 Participants (N is unknown) were recorded with glottography and electromyography (EMG). & Jacobsen. Large. 56. Fall 1979. was defined as a transitional state that occurred between each of the following vocal events. Acoustical Society of America Supplement. L. and pulmonary stress. 55-56. Elements of quality variation voice modes and singing. Magill. The results suggest changes in airflow and laryngeal movement create sensations in singers that support the feeling of vocal registers.Magill & Jacobsen suggest could have been because the lower fundamental frequency (F0) allowed for a greater number of harmonics to fall within the singer's formant (Fs) frequency envelope. J. The vocal fry region. Acoustical Society of America Supplement. A comparison of the singing formant in the voices of professional and student singers. P. R. Journal of Research in Music Education. Colton proposed singers should explore the unique features (perhaps through spectral analysis and biofeedback) of their voices to provide a variety of healthy voice qualities. chest register.] A pneumotacho-graphic system was used to measure airflow rates and laryngeal movements were analyzed by photography. 1 (66). reported results had definitive spectral envelopes for all dynamic levels produced by participants (N is unknown) as well as frequency bandwidths and resonant peak locations with regard to specific modes of vocal production. Colton. male and female) on a high-fidelity tape recorder singing /a/ in an overlapping region of male and female vocal ranges with the same fundamental frequency (pitch) and sound level (dynamic). 103 At the same convention. The falsetto voice register was still stable but conditions for oscillation are not favorable. (1979). glottal stop. 26 (4). Titze. sometimes referred to as creaky phonation. (1978). The chest register was found to be the most stable voice register with the greatest oscillation [vocal fold vibration] possibility. 456-469. and falsetto register. Titze (1979) described vocal registers as either a stable or transitional region of the vocal range located in a four-dimensional space consisting of cricothyroid. 101 Colton (voice scientist) and Estill's (1979). I. Fall 1979. Studies of the Garcían model for vocal registration. Perception participants were successful in identifying each vocal mode which also matched the physiological results.
Virginia Intermont College) began the eighties by exploring the changes that occurred in his participants’ (N = 30 college sopranos) solo and choral mode of phonation. the participants were recorded singing six sustained vowels (/a. The inherent intonation issues between the two vowels chosen were not present in these results. Goodwin hypothesized this may be due to unconscious vibrato rate synchronization as reflected in the spectral envelope. the effect of loudness. Sundberg (music acoustician) and Hagerman (1980. F0 analysis was performed on each of the chords and found to be quite accurate. /u/. /o/. 119-128. Additionally. A.1980 – 1989 Throughout the seventies. Journal of Research in Music Education. Goodwin’s participants had a reduction in overall intensity in the choral blend mode. The choral mode had lower overall intensity as compared to the solo mode. and fifth) which are also the intervals with the greatest number of Goodwin. Goodwin (1980. /e/. (1980). 105 In barbershop singing. and /i/) on the pitches C4 (261 Hz). Spectral analysis of the recordings showed blended tones to have fewer and weaker partials on frequencies above the first formant whereas the partials in the first formant region were strong. An acoustical study of individual voices in choral blend. When performing in the choral mode. research improved understanding of the singer’s formant. the participant sang in a blended fashion with a soprano choir played through the participant’s headphones. In each mode. and the effect of other singers’ sounds on singers. These same participants did not show a reduction in vibrato rate when comparison was made between solo and choral mode. Goodwin suggested vowel modification occurred in the strength of the formants – not a change in the formant frequencies. Reduction in vibrato rate allows for purer intonation because of less beat influence. The greatest interval accuracies occurred for the simplest intervals (octave. vibrato rate is greatly reduced and therefore pitch accuracy is tantamount to accurate chord singing – a hallmark of barbershop style. Two professional barbershop quartets (N = 8) were recorded singing homophonic chordal exercises on the consonant-vowel (CV) syllables /mα/ and /mo/ with accelerometers (contact microphones) glued to their neck a few centimeters below the thyroid cartilage. 28 (2). technical audiologist) found the greatest challenge of successful barbershop singing is fundamental frequency (F0) adjustment from chord to chord. modes of phonation. This correlated with a reduction in overall partials which served as an aid in camouflaging an individual’s voice through reduction of aural cues (usually in the 200-3500 Hz frequency range). 105 52 . fourth. Solo singing mode had higher levels of intensity in the second and third formant region perhaps suggesting presence of the singer’s formant. A4 (440 Hz). voice registers. and F5 (698 Hz).
voice scientist and music acoustician) explored this idea in the next four studies. & Sundberg.9 cents. The standard deviation of all 192 pitches was 13 cent (range 3 to 24 cent). 106 In choral singing. The recordings were measured and displayed as histograms with the F0 on the y-axis and duration (time) on the x-axis. Fundamental frequency adjustment in barbershop singing. The researchers compared the intervallic ratios of just and Pythagorean intonations and found no clear preference from these participants. The greatest deviations Hagerman. then. Instead. The standard deviations of the F0 disagreement from the target pitch were determined to use as a measure of the difficulty of intonation. The F0 of each bass (N = 6) was measured and compared to the target pitches. The standard deviation of the absolute magnitudes of all the intervals ranged from 4. the most successfully tuned intervals were those in which the reference tone (usually the F0 of the lead singer) had a high degree of accuracy as well as the intervals that shared the greatest number of partials. what acoustical factors influence pitch precision of individual singers? Sundberg and Ternström (1982. participants (N = unknown males) were recorded singing a major third or a perfect fifth over a synthesized human stimulus tone played over loudspeakers at 75 dB for 10 seconds. 3-17. Within all the chords analyzed. The premise was to see if different room acoustic characteristics impacted the participants’ intonation. (If the interval was easy to sing. the accuracy would be high and vice versa). 106 53 . J. which allowed for sound reflections in the booth but controlled for outside noise. Figure 4: Warm-up Cadence Participants (N = 4 skilled male singers) in the second experiment replicated the initial study but in a sound treated booth. First. Journal of Research in Singing. The first experiment had the choir sing a normal eight chord warm-up cadence in their normal rehearsal room until the conductor believed the choir had achieved good intonation (five times). the participants seemed to “stretch” intervals for expression and energy momentum between chords.common partials. The standard deviation of all participants’ 23 tones ranged from 3 to 30 cents. B. (1980).3 cents to 16. 4 (1). The participants were equipped with a contact microphone glued to their throat just below the larynx.
Reliability was significantly high for three of the four repeated tokens. 108 Yet. Sundberg. which suggests vowel properties influence the scatter of F0.. An initial study was Ternström. S. Prog. standing formation. T. College choir sopranos (N = 20) were recorded singing /a/ for representative low. The third experiment took place in an anechoic chamber to focus on the effect of the stimulus tones. The final conclusion of this study was a suggestion that conductors determine the vibrato rate for the choir by the acoustics of the performance space. the pitch range was confined to E3 – A3. high partials. Speech Transmission Lab. and all partials higher that the lowest common partial. and high pitches in loud and soft dynamics with both vibrato and straight tone resulting in 24 trials per soprano (each condition was repeated). AAT 9223155.5%. However. 108 107 54 . one was a single digit off. this effort also emphasized a choir singer’s intonation precision is dependant on the acoustic properties of the reference sound (room acoustics. of Speech Communication and Music Acoustics. 2-3. Weber. (1982). (1992). S. J. Stockholm). Ternström and Sundberg (1983) sought to define the ratio between one’s own vocal production and what one hears from others’ vocal production that would aid intonation between singers in a choir. Royal Institute of Technology. In this experiment. common partials. 76-90 (Dept.occurred when the reference tones were different in vowel – not in pitch. The same set of intervals was manipulated with three different acoustic characteristics: vibrato with a frequency swing of ± 1. two were identical. Weber (1992 dissertation) sought to find out what the differences of intensity were between singing with vibrato and straight tone singing. middle. even if the vibrato rate were varied to best suit the performance hall. Acoustical factors related to pitch precision in choir singing. 107 Vibrato without audible fluctuations of F0 is referred to as straight tone singing – the goal of barbershop singing and of many early music ensembles. and the third had a difference of five. Four of the stimulus tones were repeated to check for participant reliability. The standard deviation of all participants’ (N = 18 sex unknown) fundamental frequency (F0) ranged from 19 to 45 cents. Status Rep. Analysis of the recording found no significant difference in sound pressure level (SPL) for any condition except for loud vibrato. self to other ratios) reaching his/her ears. 1992). An investigation of intensity differences between vibrato and straight tone singing (Doctoral dissertation. Arizona State University. ProQuest Dissertation Abstracts International. and a lack of vibrato – much like the successes recognized in the barbershop study. Intonation accuracy was greatest when the stimulus tones included common partials. a decision must be made regarding how loudly each choir member should sing to facilitate an ensemble sound. Qt.
All recorded samples were measured for fundamental frequency. Should this occur within a song. Speech Transmission Lab. seated in front of a microphone with a sound pressure level (SPL) meter and a small lamp to signal the playing and duration of stimulus tones. The researcher wore binaural headphones and sat in different locations while recording a 30 minute rehearsal for two separate choirs. J. A stimulus test was synthesized utilizing /u/ (poor in spectral components at high frequencies) and /a/ (rich in spectral components at high frequencies) at approximately 40 dB for all tokens. 109 Killian (1985. Stockholm). the choir could feasibly lose intonation. Royal Institute of Technology. alto. Some of the participants’ responses were more dependant than others on the amplitude of the reference stimulus. Sound pressure level (SPL) was evaluated using histograms and showed the basses singing mezzo forte had an average sound pressure level (SPL) that was 90-95 dB. Qt. The average sound pressure level (SPL) of the rest of the choir to the bass was averaged at 80 dB. tenor. Vibrato was removed from the samples with an appropriate filter. Not provided was Ternström.. The linear average and the standard deviation of the samples were obtained from fundamental frequency (F0) histograms. Each token had duration of 9 seconds. 4. 109 55 . The participants were asked to maintain 90 dB on the sound pressure level (SPL) meter. Authors suggested conductors could experiment with louder reference tones. S. and a fundamental frequency around G4 or 196 Hz. or change the acoustic properties of the room. Of Speech Communication and Music Acoustics. 16-26 (Dept. music education. Prog. Status Rep. Participants were directed to sing in unison with the stimulus tone matching the vowel and pitch while maintaining the sound pressure level (SPL) at 90 dB and keeping a distance of 15 centimeters from the microphone until the lamp went off. or bass) in four voice chorales. Sundberg. (1983). Results were fairly similar for both vowels. How loudly should you hear your colleagues and yourself? A study of SPL within choirs. Of note was that the higher pitched vowel /u/ required a higher amplitude of reference for a more accurate fundamental frequency (F0) which the authors suggested was because the volume required to produce the /u/ at higher pitches was louder than the volume needed to produce the vowel /a/. Texas Tech University) investigated if listeners had a preference for a particular voice category (soprano.performed to establish sound pressure levels (SPLs) within different singer locations in a choir. different spacing between singers (closer or further apart). Participants (N = 9 highly experienced choral singers) wore headphones and were recorded in an anechoic room. The standard deviation of the sound pressure level (SPL) was about 10 dB. a vibrato with an extent of ± 1%. The first choir was an amateur choir practicing in a reverberant hall and the second was a professional choir rehearsing on a concert hall stage.
Maxwell (1986. Phrases from the sixth. No significant differences were found for any of the demographic subsets (i. This task was repeated ten times. (1985). Room reverberation of the recorded sound was taken out in varying increments and played so that the singers could sing with the recording. the amount of bass would be dependant on the vocal output of the individual basses. when choosing the amount of the unbalanced part to be utilized for a perfect balance. 58. 33 (1). Participants (N = 85. tenor) in all conditions. (1985).0 meters) and strong dislike for 40 milliseconds (correlates to reflecting wall distances of 6. Yet. Preference was shown for less bass with respect to the other voice parts (soprano. A. The phrases had all rhythmic variation removed so that no individual vocal part could be detected. 55-67. 56 .the phenomenon that one cannot hear a normally audible sound because of the presence of a competing sound. 130-140. music educator) hypothesized Killian.5 meters). Akustica. Marshall (acoustician) & Meyer (1985) hypothesized the room reverberation would have an effect on singer output. A male quartet was recorded in a hemi-anechoic room (floor reflections only). n = 52 high school choral students and n = 35 practiced choral conductors) listened to the first playing of a sample and then on the second playing altered the voice part that was perceived as out of balance to the point of “perfect balance”. Operant preference for vocal balance in four-voice chorales. J.information regarding singer spacing.6-6. the unbalanced part still remained louder (unbalanced). The singers expressed preference for 15-35 milliseconds of reverberance (which correlates to reflecting wall distances of 2. Five conditions were created from the individual tracks: first all voices in perfect balance and then each individual vocal part ~ 11 dB louder which created four unbalanced choral samples. 111 110 Marshall..110 Of course. Another effect is known as masking . alto. reference tones or the room in which the recordings were made. N. The directivity and auditory impressions of singers. Journal of Research in Music Education. 111 Room reflections are but one effect on a singer’s ability to hear themselves and other choir members. A listening test was created with a random mix of 10 of the five conditions from the possible 60 samples. Participants were successful in identifying unbalanced choral samples. fourteenth. & Meyer.e. and twentieth chorales of Loewe’s oratorio Das Sühnopfer des neuen Bundes were sung (singers unknown) and recorded with each vocal part on a separate track. J. Killian summarized fewer basses are needed for a balanced choir. All phrases were sung on an undisclosed neutral vowel to maintain timbre uniformity. conductors versus students) except that men preferred louder levels than women.
Masking noise was added at an unknown. Journal of Research in Singing. For the third study. mode of singing. and n = 3 lay musicians). 8 (2). n = 3 professional non-voice musicians.singer vocalization would be different with and without masking noise showing an effect on both voice quality and voice production. 57 . The judges’ perceptions of the first study participants’ samples found white noise adversely affected participant intonation and voice quality. From these recordings. The effect of white noise masking on singers. and worse. some progress. The sample group of the third study which received the highest mean score ranking was those who had masking noise during their lessons. For each listening pair (pre and post recording of participant) the judges ranked voice quality and intonation as better. Because masking can occur without warning or preparation. sharp sustained notes. Participants (N = 15) in the second study sang “The Star Spangled Banner” in a key of their choosing. Teacher guidance with white noise indeed produced greater results. and white noise lessons and white noise practice. However. 112 How does modifying vowels affect their spectra? Bloothooft (1984. considered the effect of fundamental frequency. In each study. participants tended to flat ascending passages. (1986).3 centimeters from the singers’ mouths) singing nine Dutch 112 Maxwell. random point. Participants with no teacher guidance of white noise regressed. In all studies. In the first of three studies. Maxwell wondered if a protocol for voice lessons should be designed to aid singers in creating an auditory tonal imagery of pharyngeal/laryngeal control such that overall vocal quality and production would be enhanced in the eventuality of the occurrence of masking. normal lessons and white noise practice. Participants (N = 14 professional singers. in three landmark studies. recordings were made of each participant prior to and after the study. n = 7 men and n = 7 women) were recorded on a microphone (0. same. white noise lessons and normal practice. considerable progress. same. participants (N = 24 college voice majors) were recorded singing vocalizes and song excerpts with and without masking noise. physicist and phonetician). D. Not surprising then that the judges were able to detect the point when masking noise had been introduced in the second study. n = 3 voice teachers. The creation of the masking noise along with its properties is not provided. the ranking had five options: great progress. 9-19. sharp descending passages. or worse (studies one and two). and voice classification on the vowel spectra. The third study was a ten-week longitudinal study with four treatment conditions: normal lessons and normal practice (CG – control group). a listening tape was made for judge participants (N = 9. comparison of variance within groups found much greater variance within all other groups outside the control group. and modify /α/ to /ɔ/ or /a/.
77 (4). the spectral variance greatly dropped which the authors attributed to vowel variance. Bloothooft looked specifically for spectral variance. 115 114 113 58 . straight (without vibrato). Plomp. (1981). and extra vibrato for a duration of 1-2 seconds. G. The relationship between the average sound level of the singer’s formant (Fs) and the fundamental frequency (F0) was found to be vowel dependant. (1984). psycho-physician) found the main difference reflected in the male participants’ spectral characteristics was the vocal tract dimensions whereas in female participants. Sundberg. the Bloothooft. singers. Modal register had less variability in the first formant (F1) than the falsetto register and it was hypothesized that this is because in higher singing the first formant (F1) is very close to the fundamental frequency (F0). Spectral analysis of sung vowels II. pressed. The fundamental frequency (F0) of all 10 tokens was averaged for a mean fundamental frequency (MF0). The effect of fundamental frequency on vowel spectra. G. variation due to differences between vowels. Spectral analysis of sung vowels: I. 75 (4). 114. including at least one vibrato cycle. tenors and sopranos had the greatest variance and particularly with the /u/ vowel in a pressed mode of phonation. 1580-1588. Bloothooft. and modes of singing. 47-54. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 115 Characteristics of the participants and the mode of phonation were the focus of the third study. When the target pitch was above 98 Hz. 49. R.vowels on five voice classification specific pitches (including 392 Hz for a falsetto produced tone in the males) in nine different modes of production (neutral. Factor vowels are the single most important source of spectra variance for low fundamental frequency (F0). mode of singing had very little effect on the spectral variance in all voice classifications. 1259-1264. Acustica. For instance. Spectral variation was effected the most by vowel production.. soft (pianissimo). Higher fundamental frequency (F0 = 392 Hz) resulted in a lower singer’s formant (Fs) in women. Bloothooft and Plomp (1985. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Formants and fundamental frequency control in singing: an experimental study of coupling between vocal tract and voice source. dark. light. Overall. and every 300 milliseconds to obtain ten 10 milliseconds tokens. Male and female variants were consistent with one another. Above 660 Hz. 113 The same participant data was used for the second evaluation in which the effect of the fundamental frequency (F0) on vowel spectra with respect to the factor vowels. J. In the first experiment. Bloothooft references Sundberg (1981) “strong acoustic coupling between glottis and vocal tract” as a possible cause. R. Measurements were taken from recorded samples at the point where the pitch had stabilized. free. Plomp. loud (fortissimo). the variance became voice classification specific influenced by the mode of singing.. (1985).
this translates as a smaller than normal frequency 116 117 118 119 120 121 Cleveland. J. The participant being recorded wore earphones which provided the sounds of the piano accompaniment. 117 Rossing et al. When the soprano sang in solo mode. 852-864. (1977). physicist) returns to the comparison of the solo mode of singing to the choral mode of singing. The data collected and the results presented concur with Cleveland’s 116 study of male timbre. Data on the glottal voice source behavior in vowel production. 1259-1264. (1986). 119-128.primary difference was glottal opening. the sopranos showed small changes in the sound level of the first formant and increases in the higher formants which is consistent with Gauffin & Sundberg's (1980) 118 findings for the voice source. 120 In solo singing. However. STL-QPSR 61-70. 1627-1628. Participants (N = 6. both the onset and offset had low sound levels and a reduction in vibrato consistent with authors’ findings for bass/baritones (1984). In choir mode. 59 . 1580-1588. A binaural microphone was head mounted with a stethoscope holder . Goodwin. (1980). (1980). (1985). the soprano was positioned in front of the choir and when the soprano sang in choir mode the soprano was seated in the soprano section. the other singers. the vibrato extent was increased which is consistent with Goodwin (1980) 121 who found that sopranos reduced their vibrato to achieve greater choral blend. n = 5 sopranos. J. 119 In choir mode. Bloothooft. (1984). Bloothooft. when this occurs with trained singers. The authors’ conclusions include that the increasing of the amplitude of the partials around 3 kHz can be achieved by any singer who raises their loudness. In female voices.05 meters from the mouth. Four identical passages from the solo and the choir sections of music were recorded and analyzed using long term average spectra (LTAS). (1986. The average slope of the sound pressure level (SPL) up to 90 dB in choir mode was about 1. and a small amount of the individual. n = 1 mezzo soprano) were recorded singing both solo and choir passages from Mendelssohn’s Hear My Prayer. Vocal effort seemed to be a noticeable factor in the spectral characteristics of the different modes of phonation. Gauffin.05 meters from the mouth as well as a sound pressure level meter . the increase is caused by a clustering of the higher formants – what is referred to as the singer's formant (Fs). LTAS results also suggest that higher frequencies display less variation between solo and choir modes. & Sundberg. Increased pharyngeal volume. influenced by the height of the larynx. Bloothooft.5 as was the case with Bloothooft (1985). seemed to also be a factor in the pressed-dark mode of phonation.
separation of the third and fourth formants. The ability to maintain this clustering of frequencies is what would summarily be one of the characteristics of a trained singer. 122 In an effort to define the most valued spectral characteristics of singers in the choral and solo modes of singing, Letowski et al. (1988, audiologist) designed a research study to record and evaluate vocal production. In the initial design, participants (N = 5 chamber choir sopranos) were recorded singing the soprano part of A Lullaby (by Maklakiewicz) in four conditions: recording of all sopranos; recording of each soprano individually; recording of all sopranos minus one; repeat recording of all sopranos; and repeat of recording sopranos minus one. Author stated the sound pressure level (SPL) was maintained at 75-80 dB for all recordings, but no indication was given of the measurement procedure. The two groups of recordings of all sopranos minus one were blended and compared to the two groups of recordings of all sopranos. The singer participants were unable to distinguish between the finished products. A formal listening test was designed using a 15 question randomized design of all combined recordings. Each question presented three recordings and asked the participant which of the triad sounded most different from the other two. The perception participants’ (N = 10, n = 5 conductors and n = 5 sound engineers) results indicated that the recording procedure was perceptually equivalent. The main study recording was with the entire Warsaw Madrigal Singers (N = 17, n = 5 sopranos, n = 4 altos, n = 5 tenors, and n = 3 basses) singing Befiehl du deine Wege (a four-bar excerpt from Bach’s St. Matthew Passion) in exactly the same order as described above. Only twelve individual singers (three from each section) of the original 17 were used for the solo conditions. Spectral envelope comparisons were made of the recordings and indicated that two of the basses indeed did use increased energy in the singer’s formant region when in solo mode and not in choral mode. Other more amateur participants showed decreased energy in the spectral envelope when in choral mode. The listening test created from these recordings was again triadic but the task was to rank order the three samples on a scale of least pleasant to most pleasant. Participants' (N = 10 – no information is given regarding these participants) test results were consistent with the spectral analysis, even as to the specific singer. Overall results of this study showed a definite effect for vocal training as evidenced in the presence of singer’s formant in soloistic modes of singing. Untrained voices in the choral mode were described as brighter, more stable, and more colorful whereas trained voices seemed to reduce vocal energy with a darker timbre. In the solo mode, untrained singers struggled with maintaining tempo and tone duration
Rossing, T., Sundberg, J., Ternström, S. (1987). Acoustic comparison of soprano solo and choir singing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82 (3), 830-836.
whereas the trained singers were very consistent in all recording conditions. This study suggests that untrained singers exhibited soloistic tendencies (richer, more energetic vocal quality) when in choral mode and that trained singers reduced their singer's formant (Fs) when singing in choral mode. 123 But when singing in choral mode – whether trained or untrained – what is the intonation level of the individual singers? This is the question Ternström and Sundberg (1988) explored through the next four studies. The first study involved a researcher sitting in two different intra-choir locations during two different choir rehearsals in two different rooms (a rehearsal room, a performance stage) wearing binaural head microphones recording 30 minutes of each rehearsal. Recordings were measured for SPL (sound pressure level) and found to be between 50 and 100 dB averaging around 80 dB. To estimate the acoustic (airborne) feedback, individual singers’ mouths were positioned 0.15 meters (the average distance between the mouth and ears) from a SLM (sound level meter) which confirmed the average sound pressure level (SPL) to be about 80 dB for mf singing. The second study involved professional bass choir singers (N = 9) who were fitted with headphones and seated with the sound pressure meter (SPM) 0.15 centimeters from their mouth and able to see the sound pressure meter (SLM) display screen. The vowels /u/ and /α/ were simulated by a synthesizer and played through the singer’s headphones at nine different sound pressure levels (SPLs - 0, -5, -10, -20, -25, -30, -35, and -38). The participant was instructed to match the vowel heard and maintain it at a sound pressure level (SPL) of 90 dB. The fundamental frequency (F0), the mean fundamental frequency (MF0), and the standard deviation were calculated for each of the recordings. The mean fundamental frequency (MF0) results for the participants ranged from 26 to 112 cents. One applicable conclusion was that a reference level can be varied over a range of 25 dB relative to ones own sound pressure level (SPL) without causing pitch errors. However, singers with strong pitch-amplitude dependence might falter earlier. This study bears out the difference in difficulty to sing darker, more closed vowels (/u/) with accurate pitch than those vowels which have more jaw opening and more forward focus (/α/). The third study involved synthesized tones which possessed all, some, or none of the following acoustic characteristics; vibrato, common partials, partials higher than the lower common partial; and ranged in pitch from E3 to A3. Participants (N = 18 bass/baritones) were recorded singing thirds or fifths (as directed by an instruction sheet) above the synthesized stimulus tones played over a loud speaker in an
Letowksi, T., Zimak, L., & Ciolkosz-Lupinowa, H. (1988). Timbre differences of an individual voice in solo and in choral singing. Archives of Acoustics, 13 (1-2), 55-65.
anechoic room. Participants wore microphones fastened to the throat just below the larynx. All conditions of the stimuli resulted in similar dispersion. Results ranged from 15 to 40 cents – much larger than the average unison choral scatter of 13 cents. Authors concluded the reduction in intonation accuracy was due to the total absence of common partials in the synthesized reference tones. The fourth study attempted to recreate the singer’s actual experience within a choir; reference tones were provided by a choral ensemble wherein the conductor first gave pitches then had the ensemble sing the pitch for 9 seconds. Sixteen reference tones were derived from the choirs’ efforts and then were randomly manipulated to add or subtract common partials. The final stimulus tape had the two forms of manipulated tones, the choir tones, and vowel reinforced tones. Individual male participants (N = 17) were then recorded by larynx mounted microphones and air microphones singing prescribed thirds and fifths over a loud speaker sounded reference tone for a duration of 8 seconds maintaining a sound pressure level (SPL) of 90dB. Greatest intonation accuracy was achieved when the lowest common partial has the greatest amplitude. There was no measurable effect for the vowel /a/ even when reinforced, but the vowel /u/ changed as much as 2.6 cents/dB. The sound pressure level (SPL) variance can vary over a 25 dB range without effecting the overall fundamental frequency (F0) agreement within the choir. In conclusion, again, individuals within a choir – just as a soloist – have the greatest approximation of fundamental frequency (F0) when the reference tone is louder than singer feedback, the lowest common partials are audible, high partials are present, and the vibrato rate is small. 124 Building on the studies above, Ternström et al. wondered if intonation would suffer when singers had changes in articulation, for instance when the diction required movement from one vowel to the next while sustaining a tone. The task was to investigate singer success of maintaining pitch accuracy (fundamental frequency stability – F0) while moving through vowels. Participants (N = 6 semiprofessional singers with formal training, n = 2 women, n = 4 men), wore headphones and were recorded through a miniature microphone attached to the bridge of the nose singing vowel changes at a singer chosen comfortable pitch. Participants were encouraged to imagine the pitch before sounding the pitch and to make all vowel changes rapidly. The participants repeated the exercise after a one hour break and in the second session the vowel pairs were reversed. In each run the vowel pairs were sung twice. The first time the vowel pair was sung with masking noise played through the headphones; the second time was without masking noise.
Ternström, S., Sundberg, J. (1988). Intonation precision of choir singers. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 84(1), 59-70.
. the analyzer performed a t-test on the mean differences between the two runs and found the fundamental frequency (F0) stability to be significantly better on the second run indicating a positive effect of training. Cleveland 127 found a gradual increase in the formant frequencies of male singers going from the lowest singers (basses) to the highest singers (tenors).286-297). Vocal Fold Physiology (pp. Relationship between pitch control and vowel articulation. choir singers must blend with other singers such that individual voices are not distinguishable. Bless & J. The peaks of the fundamental frequency (F0) contours. Rossing. 126 In addition to singing in tune. as shown through histogram and spectrum. 31 (June). One way choir singers achieve choral blend is to match their articulation. Articulatory F0 perturbations and auditory feedback. J. The resultant average fundamental frequency (F0) effect was 10 cents. M.. 187-192. fundamental frequency (F0) perturbations increased. specifically on vowels which are determined by the formant frequencies of the vocal tract. K. A. Colldén. Sundberg. 1975-1981. were taller and narrower in the non-masked vowel pairs which were interpreted as having higher fundamental frequency (F0) stability. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. Abbs (Eds. (1986). (1977). 125 Similar results were also seen in /ε/ to /i/ and /e/ to /i/ attributed to jaw opening as well as /i/ to /y/ which is probably larynx height. However. (1988). (1983). the visual analyzer looked for the presence of an obvious fundamental frequency (F0) transient and a bimodal fundamental frequency (F0) histogram as criterion of a vowel transition. Results in this study agreed with speech results in that the vowel pairs' /i/ to /y/ and /o/ to /y/ (high vowels – with tongue movement) had consistent fundamental frequency (F0) effect. singers attempted compensation but not with a high degree of success.). In D.In the analysis procedure. When subjects could not hear their own voices. et al. Ternström. The masking noise was evidenced by a large initial transient in the participants’ fundament frequency (F0) contours. Immediately.. 127 128 126 125 Cleveland. H. San Diego: College-Hill Press. some singers in the masked condition had fundamental frequency (F0) effects in the range of 50 cents which would be detrimental in a choral ensemble. 63 . Of great importance is the conclusion from this study that singers need auditory feedback for accuracy and precision of fundamental frequency (F0). Rossing et al 128 found solo singers reduced the area of the singer’s Honda. 1622-1629. S. When articulation between vowels caused fundamental frequency (F0) feedback and the singers could hear their own voice.
The mean fundamental frequency (MF0) and the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency (SF0) analysis was performed on the third rendering of each condition in addition to the difference between the fourth formant (F4) minus the third formant (F3) to give information regarding the singer’s formant. A comparison was made against a recording of a unison male choir singing the vowel /o/ with a synthesized “choir” singing the same vowel. and /ε/. reverberation. Ternström et al recorded participants (N = 8 bass choral singers) singing and speaking in an anechoic room. Also. /a/. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.8%. The song text had nine locations of the following seven appropriate vowels to measure: /o/. 517-522. & Sundberg. (1989). Formant frequencies of choir singers. The results showed a tendency of the participants to neutralize the vowel when singing. However. and put each voice on its own channel. the lower formants (F1 and F2) define the vowel quality whereas third formant (F3) and the fourth formant (F4) give significant information regarding singer voice timbre. The synthesized choir was found to have fundamental frequency contour variations less than 0. there was but a very slight increase in the fourth formant minus the third formant (F4 – F3) area which suggests that singer’s formant is a solo characteristic – not choral. the fundamental frequency contours of each voice (F). Ternström. Participants were recorded with an air microphone and a larynx wall contact microphone. 86 (2). Finally. in this data group. and vibrato were utilized for each voice. /e/. /ǿ/. The participants sang the excerpt four times and spoke the excerpt four times. the same vowels. J. Goodwin’s 129 participants used less amplitude in choral mode and the higher partials of their spectrum were reduced. S.formant but increased the amplitude of the fundamental when performing in choral mode. No one to date had looked at vowel agreement. 119-128. specifically the vocal tract's production of the first and second formants (F1. LTAS was performed on the entire four measure phrase to compare against the upper formant measures for additional singer’s formant data. To adequately reproduce a choral sound. /i/. This idea was represented in a clustering of scatter in the mean fundamental frequency (MF0) and the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency (SF0) analysis and further substantiated in the agreement of the first three formants in singing as compared to speaking. /ǽ/. 64 . (1980). F2) in choral singing. 130 Ternström and Sundberg created the first choir synthesization which handled six voices independently.. The greatest success of the synthesized choral 129 130 Goodwin. suggesting that choral singers do modify vowels toward a unified sound.
Auditors (N = 5 high school choral conductors) assessed the performances for overall blend on a six point Likert scale and then attempted to identify the choral formation in use. pp. under the direction of the same conductor. F. Rodney Eichenberger. J. S. (1)4. 65 . No equipment or software was used to measure acoustic compatibility of singers. and John Williams.. Acoustic voice placement describes a subjective. In homophonic texture. aural method of arranging singers whose tones blend (cause very little beating). Ohio State University dissertation) explored the benefits of many different choral arrangements as recommended by prominent conductors – Weston Noble. The choir. The perception task had three sections: the first section asked the participant to determine where the soloist’s timbre ranked on a dark-to-bright continuum. the acoustic placement of voices in a sectional formation scored the highest choral blend. (1988). The Ohio State University. 132 Anderson (1993. and a university choir (N = 89). how would the conductor arrange the singers to aid in producing a blended choral sound? Tocheff (1990. Anderson wondered what the ability of auditors would be to identify a vowel if ¼th of the singers sang a predetermined rogue vowel.sound was achieved when a chord was built utilizing one unsteady voice superimposed five times with a healthy dose of reverberation. the second section had recordings of a four-voice ensemble and again the participant rated the 131 132 Ternström. mixed. D. 1990). Two college choirs performed excerpts from Verdi’s Requiem and Bach’s Lobet dem Herrn in four different formations including acoustical placement of voices within section. Intonation was better in the polyphonic selection yet more voices stood out of the texture especially in choral formations that did not use acoustic voice placement. Sectional formations also had the least amount of individual singer protrusion. Sundberg. a community choir (N = 111). 131 1990-1999 If a choir was to have one person who sang with strong energy in the singer’s formant region. Each choir listened to a perception test played over loudspeakers in a normal rehearsal room. and unorganized formations while singing in polyphonic or homophonic texture resulting in 32 recorded performances. 332-335. R. University of Missouri-Kansas City dissertation) was also interested in vowel timbre and the ability of choir singers from three distinct groups to identify aurally vowel timbre and intelligibility.. Three choirs participated in this study: a high school choir (N = 220). Anders. (Doctoral Dissertation. Tocheff. Journal of Voice. Synthesizing choir singing. Acoustical Placement of Voices in Choral Formations. sang the two choral excerpts in each of the formations. (1990). and the rest of the singers sang with strong energy in the fundamental frequency.
The applicable individual studies are reported separately here in order to provide the specifics not included in the Anderson. the participants’ perceptions of the vowel hierarchy were different than the hierarchy chosen by the author. Participants expressed preference for /u/ (darkest) 81% of the time. self-to-other ratios. mein schwacher Geist. experience. Stockholm). All three groups were consistent in their perceptions identifying the four part unison vowel recordings on the vowel hierarchy. of the effect of wow. Ternström (1991) provided a synopsis for the Journal of Voice of five independent studies. training. S. Each of the 25 recorded samples had a specific design of voice parts performing as well as what vowel(s) were being sung. However. 134 133 66 . (1989). and the third section asked the participant to identify the single voice part which had different timbral characteristics than the other three voices singing the chorale. In the recorded samples. The perception test results showed no effect for subject demographics (age. S. Acoustical Aspects of Choir Singing. (DMA Dissertation. E. the selected voices sang the chorale each time on one of the following three vowels: /u/. ISSN 0280-9850. Department of Speech Communication and Music Acoustics. All examples were from the same Bach chorale number 102. Anderson suggests that a better explanation of terms and perhaps a training period for timbre aural identification would have improved participants’ success in timbre identification. whereas the vowel /u/ was identified correctly 52% of the time.token on a dark-to-bright continuum. 1993). Some samples were only one section singing in unison one vowel – all sopranos singing /i/ and other samples had all four parts singing their individual parts on a unison /u/ vowel. and bass would sing /a/ while the alto sang /i/.D. Royal Institute of Technology. the feedback and reference sounds necessary for choir members. tenor. Ermuntre dich. sources of scatter. 134 The results provide an understanding of the dynamic range of choirs. for example. University of Missouri-Kansas City. 133 Anderson believed a more or less reverberant room (the exact room information is not provided) for the recording of the samples’ would have impacted his auditors’ perceptions. /a/. (Ph. Choral singers’ timbral descriptions and evaluations of recorded choral excerpts using a dark-tobright vowel hierarchy. setting). or /i/ representing from left to right the dark-to-bright continuum. choral timbre. and closes with a discussion of the chorus effect. the soprano. room acoustics. overall choral intonation accuracy. (1993). Ternström. The vowel /i/ was identified correctly as the rogue vowel 61% of the time. flutter and jitter on fundamental frequency. Dissertation. all relating to choir acoustics for his dissertation (1989). education.
But this article is masterful in providing an understanding of relating all of the studies within a given specific parameter. 135 67 . the room reverberation was measured and doubled.fortissimo (ff – very loud). The music binder component of the study revealed a greater effect on clarity of sound in the church than in the hall or the basement for all Ternström. the youth and adult choirs changed their effort in response to the room absorption. a reference sound – such as a fan – can provide a known. S. All of the choirs had an increase of 5-10% in the higher formant frequencies in the basement as compared to the performance hall.overview of this article. 128-143. 135 One of the articles used for Ternström's dissertation explored what the effect of different rooms would be on choirs of different demographics. 5 (2). Physical and acoustic factors that interact with the singer to produce the choral sound. A diffuse field was unattainable in the basement location. Journal of Voice. The boy’s choir sang the soprano part in unison for their recordings and the same songs were sung by the other choirs in four part harmony. and a repeated mf which was obstructed by the singers’ folders being held in front of their faces as they sang. (1991). This distance was to ensure that the recorded sound would be from the diffuse sound field and not the nearest singers. Ternström hypothesized this could be from modifying the vocal tract instead of increased phonation effort. To determine the distance from the microphone to each singer. A boy’s choir (n =16. average age 30) were recorded in the same basement assembly room. a mixed youth choir (n = 30. 4 dynamic levels – pianissimo (pp – very soft). such as loudness. To determine the effect of the room acoustics. accurate power spectrum from which the vocal sound measurements can be compared. and a large stone church. In the basement and the church. mf. The reference sound source used was a Bruel and Kjaer sound generator model 4202– basically a powerful fan – designed to generate a broadband noise which is known to produce a stable 0. Particularly interesting is that the boys choir did not use more vocal effort in the basement but did have a pressed phonation. Each choir was recorded ten times: 2 different songs. The effect of the three different rooms showed a significant variance in the vocal effort of the singers. mezzo-forte (mf – medium loud). Long term averaged spectra (LTAS) analysis was chosen for the measurement method because of its ability to illustrate overall voice timbre across time.1 – 10 kHz noise at an output power of about 91 dB. a custom designed rehearsal hall. average age 18) and a mixed adult choir (n = 27. average age 12).
S. 55-77. R. Singer's formant (Fs) was exhibited in the duet sections with 2. Acoustic and physiologic factors in duet singing: a pilot study. /a/. 2. 136 In his continuing effort to find a measurement process for choral timbre. (1994). Smear was more difficult and less consistent for the participants yet the results show participant preference for 2 to 6% and tolerance up to 12%. Samples were randomly presented to the participants by the perception trial software program. Guide Us Now. 7 (2). 21 dB for the baritone solo sections. The average difference in onset time was 29. 129-135. 138 Ternström.choirs. The Journal of the British Voice Association. otolaryngologist and voice scientist) decided to break down the measurement of a choir to the smallest denominator to evaluate the acoustic and physiologic differences between measuring solo singing and ensemble singing. Journal of Voice.5.to 3. 8 (3). Long-time average spectrum characteristics of different choirs in different rooms. The location for the recording was an empty 1200 seat sanctuary. and /æ/). Ternström created a synthesized choir in which all components of the sound would be known and controlled. (1993). The premise was to evaluate the difference in measuring two voices versus one voice. Choral educated participants (N = 9) listened to twelve stereophonic samples of a synthesized SATB choir singing unison vowels (/u/. All of these results lead to the conclusion that duet singing employs components of both solo and ensemble techniques.3-kHz energy enhanced regions. The microphone was placed on the supra-sternal notch. The sound pressure level (SPL) range was 28dB in the duet sections. In conclusion. Vibrato was reduced by 50% in unison sections of music as compared to harmony sections (where two pitches were sung simultaneously). Coleman.6 ms. The synthesized singer representation of /u/ had the greatest amount of participant preference and tolerance. Ternström found LTAS to be an incomplete measure of choir timbre. 137 138 136 Ternström. S. Perceptual evaluations of voice scatter in unison choir sounds. O Great Jehovah and Hiding in Thee were sung by a vocally trained tenor and baritone who have performed together ten years. and 24 dB for the tenor sections. Participants expressed preference for 0 – 5 cents pitch scatter but would tolerate pitch scatter between 10 to 15 cents. Participants were given six options for the pitch scatter (fundamental frequency dispersion – how in tune is the sound) and for the spectral smear (vocal tract length differences – vowel clarity and timbre) and were asked to choose the “maximum tolerable” modification to the sound and then the “preferred” modification of the sound. 202-206.137 Coleman (1994. 68 . Journal of Voice. The dynamic variations’ from pp to ff reflected a maximum amplitude difference of 12-20 dB. (1993).
The six recordings of each participant were measured for SPL (sound pressure level) variations and showed great intra-group dynamic variance. 139 140 Ternström. A hypothetical choir was created by blending all of the individual choir members’ recordings. F. and piano (p) level of ~90 dB. 128-143. From this improved choral blend.The next step in Coleman’s (1994) line of research was to look at one component of choral sound. (1994). pp) at a pitch chosen by the participant. Journal of Voice. The sound pressure level (SPL) was an average of 3 dB greater in the vowel recordings as compared to the song recordings. n = 10 males and n = 10 females) were recorded singing the vowel /a/ for four seconds and the first verse of Amazing Grace three times each at mezzo forte (medium loud. Individual church choir adult singers (N = 20. fortissimo (very loud. 69 . Sustained vowels had a total range of 28. 139 Coleman suggested choir directors reduce the sound pressure level (SPL) output of strong. Is there a way for a singer to know that he/she is singing too loud or too soft? From what vantage point could a researcher explore the answers to these questions? Ternström determined the best location would be from within the choir. R. Coleman. The dynamics produced by this choir were fortissimo (ff) at 114-117 dB. 196-201. These sound pressure level (SPL) measurements are consistent with Ternström’s choir sound pressure level (SPL) measurements. technically advanced singers so that the ensemble could reach an overall improved choral blend. Descriptive language was designed to facilitate quick understanding of research design and implementation: research study of the SOR relationship (self to other ratio) of an individual’s own voice (feedback) with the referent sounds (other singers. The microphone was positioned 15 centimeters from each participant’s mouth. the dynamic range possibilities of the ensemble could be determined.8 dB and the song 22 dB. The total dB variation of all twenty singers was 11 – 33 dBs from pianissimo (pp) to fortissimo (ff). Trained singers were more successful in softer phonation than untrained singers but the difference in maximum sound pressure level (SPL) showed no training effect. Dynamic intensity variations of individual choral singers. All participants sang mezzo forte (mf) closer to fortissimo (ff) than they did to pianissimo (pp). and pianissimo (very soft. mezzo-forte (mf) at 110 dB. 8 (3). mf). The participants expressed preference for their usual performance space (very large church choir loft which is surrounded by a 32 rank pipe organ) as compared to the small recording space (room information not provided) and felt the room had a direct effect on the volume with which they sang. ff). (1993). 140 Coleman’s suggestion to conductors leads a singer to perhaps wonder just how loud a choir singer should sing. the room.
reference. rooms. etc. Results found that years of choral experience and voice lessons had little or no significance. This is known as the Lombard effect. different rooms would have a significant impact on the results. It was hypothesized that a different standing arrangement. Ternström. 8 (4). One influence was the masking of one’s own voice by the surrounding singers. 70 . walls. The singers were outfitted with harmonica holders for their microphones to ensure microphone placement and consistency throughout the recording. 141 Tonkinson (1990. Hearing myself with others: Sound levels in choral performance measured with separation of one’s own voice from the rest of the choir. In the solo condition the average self to other ratio (SOR) was +15.85 dB with a mean magnitude of 3. The first step was to record individual chamber choir singers (N = 12) with two miniature binaural microphones singing the first two phrases of a homophonic chorale with the ensemble followed by a solo of the next phrase. the individual singer will sing as loud as necessary to hear one's own voice without respect to the ensemble. 142 After the pre-test.2 dB.46 dB. Journal of Voice.instruments) in an ensemble. R. bone conduction. (1994). and of course. prior to the second recording. All of this information was designed to aid in the development of acoustic choral music measurement tools and procedures. tenor and bass subjects sang the solo sections an average of 1. Church choir singers and college singers (N = 27) were recorded singing The Star Spangled Banner twice while listening to a choir and themselves singing through headphones. The introduction provided a detailed explanation of sound pressure level components. S. Background noise was measured twice with each member of the choir standing silently in the room and was found to be consistent at approximately 50 Hz in each location. The self to other ratio (SOR) results in this initial study reflected an average of +3. Often when this occurs. In the discussion of the results. Ternström noted the chamber choir utilized in this study rehearsed and performed in a u-shaped single row configuration. and measurement principles. feedback.) was included in addition to all mathematical algorithms proposed for future measurement of self-to-other ratio. 142 141 Sataloff. A chart of feedback and reference components and their possible impact on physical properties (singers. 293-302. (1988). the singers were informed of the Lombard effect and asked to resist succumbing to the Lombard effect by maintaining a consistent energy output (intensity). The analysis section provided explanations and reasoning for channel gain correction and de-emphasis of a DAT machine. music educator) continued the journey into understanding an individual choir singer’s contribution to the choral experience. Alto.7 dB softer whereas sopranos sang the solo sections at the same level or louder than in the ensemble condition.
217-227.7 and 7. However. The participants’ vocal production post-concert showed clear characteristics of vocal fatigue – reduced ranges and reduction in successful soft vocal production.. medium.and post-concert participant recordings began with a comparison of the pitch and amplitude ranges which were perceptibly decreased. The Lombard effect in choral singing. The last questionnaire included a perceptual listening test of the participant’s voice production recorded before and after the performance. Journal of Voice. and loud levels. The acoustic analysis of the pre. immediately after the concert and then two weeks after the concert. Next. The vocal tasks recorded were a prolonged /a/ on low. Demographic and voice self-analyzing questionnaires were completed by the participants before the concert. 2. J. (1996). and again the bottom notes of scales. bass) ensemble (N = 8) was recorded in an anechoic room singing first with a soloistic. 144 71 . 24-29. fully resonant. 8 (1). speech pathologist) found also that training was not reflected in perception test scores. Singers were chosen based on their ability to sing in both of these styles as needed. tenor. S. Kitch. K. alto. (1990). less resonant. Journal of Voice. A. The participants were men with a mean age of 38.. Choir tenors (N = 10) were recorded by both an electroglottography (EGG) collar and a condenser microphone approximately one hour before and within 30 minutes after the performance of Mahler’s Symphony No. comfortable sounding notes – both in pitch and in dynamics – were evaluated for an increase or decrease in harmonic-to-noise ratio and were found to have decreased. (1996.5 years of formal voice training. 10 (3). Kitch et al. greatly reduced singer’s formant style. Greenwood. and high pitches at soft. In the 143 Tonkinson. and strong singer's formant (Fs) and secondly in a weaker. high soft notes. J. Oates. 144 Did the tenors perform the Mahler with a strong singer’s formant (Fs) throughout the performance or did they reduce energy in the 2800 – 3200 Hz range (Fs range) and instead use increased energy in the fundamental frequency (F0)? Ford (1999 dissertation) wondered if auditors would express preference for singer's formant (Fs) or increased F0 in ensemble performance. medium.There was an overall decrease of approximately five dBs in the post-test suggesting that education and specific direction to correct for the Lombard effect was successful. Performance effects on the voices and 10 choral tenors: Acoustic and perceptual findings. 143 Although training can improve singer performance. the participants reported in the perception questionnaires no reduction in vocal abilities in both the post concert and the “two weeks later” questionnaires. A small SATB (soprano. and ascending and descending midrange scales on the vowel /a/. Jitter was present in the bottom notes of scale singing and its rate increased in comfortable pitches.
(1999). The Preference for Strong or Weak Singer’s Formant Resonance in Choral Tone Quality. n = 80 experienced musicians and n = 80 inexperienced musicians) also had significant agreement in their expressed preferences. J. It was determined that the tenors were louder than the rest of the ensemble.75m from a suspended microphone. greatly reduced singer’s formant style where the individual singer's used "blended" technique and reinforced the fundamental frequency. The choral excerpts were of participants (N = 46 high school choir singers) singing a homophonic choral excerpt (Ubi Caritas by Maurice Duruflé) in three spacings (close. Auditor participants (3 groups – n = 49 college music majors. 145 Daugherty's (1999. Tallahassee. A panel (N = 6 of music faculty and doctoral students) was unable to discern recordings by the presence or lack of presence of the singer’s formant. and e) not sure. lateral. I heard a) no difference. so they were moved to . b) second performance. Results suggested musical training had no effect on preferences.92m from the microphone.recording session. The auditor listening task was to listen to 10 pairs of recorded choir excerpts and to answer the following questions: comparing the overall sound of the choir I these two performances. n = 47 instrumental music majors. c) much difference. the singers stood in a circle . d) very much difference. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. b) a little difference. I preferred the overall choral sound of the a) first performance.08 dB to -4. Ford. 145 72 . and circumambient) and two formations (block sectional and mixed). K.84 dB. and n = 43 college students with no music training) showed overall preference for the less resonant. So the recording was altered by adjusting the gain to make the strong singer’s formant recordings more sonorous. Differences between the two techniques ranged form -4. Florida State University. music educator) auditor participants (N = 160. c) both sounded the same. Measurement of the singer’s formant was measured by the total root mean square (RMS) power output.
and choral sound: Preferences and perceptions of auditors and choristers. Spacing. Soprano. (1999). The participant would hear the synthesized choir begin the sung vowel and then would join in as if to blend with the choir. the basses preferred block section formation. 47 (3). however. J. n = 6 tenors.6% preferred spread spacing and believed that it facilitated vocal ease and improved vocal production. alto. Singer reported SOR (self-to-other ratio) was improved in the spread spacing in the block section formation (90%). Journal of Research in Music Education. Auditors overwhelmingly expressed preference for spread spacing yet showed no preference for block sectional or mixed formation. n = 6 basses. the participant would push a hand Daugherty. the participant would move forwards and/or backwards until their perfect self to other ratio (SOR) had been achieved. While singing. n = 6 altos. and n = 5 sopranos. formation. 146 Ternström (1999) gave participants (N = 23. At that point. and tenor preferred mixed formation. 224-238. The synthesized choir was projected from four loudspeakers placed equidistant from the participant’s average location. 146 73 . The singer participants filled out a questionnaire from which the conclusions were that 95.Figure 5: Choral Formations All recordings of the different spacings and formations were made utilizing a video tape of the conductor to ensure consistency of direction. all member of Swedish choirs ranging in age from 19-62) the opportunity to determine their individual preference for self to other ratio (SOR). Each participant was outfitted with a pair of binaural head mounted microphones and instructed to move closer or further away from a stationary microphone while singing either in unison (18 samples) or in a chord (18 samples) with a synthesized choir.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. choral mode in random seating. Reverb is added to a sound to add the feeling of more or less space to the sound. and Recording. n = 5 sopranos. p. 148 In other words. The recordings took place in an intimate 100 seat auditorium. (2007). Mozart's Ave Verum Corpus. the synthesized choir would become louder or softer in correlation with the participant’s movements. D. The choral excerpts were taken from Victoria's O Magnum Mysterium (measures 1 – 39).2 dB. Eckholm asked the experienced conductor to "conduct in the same manner over Ternström. Choristers completed a perception survey regarding ease of vocal production for each recording. 105 (6). and Messiaen's O Sacrum convivium (measures 17 . Eckholm wanted the recording to sound as though it were recorded in a larger space with more reflected sounds.1 dB with the lowest self to other ratio (SOR) preference expressed by the basses and the highest the sopranos. San Diego: Plural Publishing Co. n = 6 altos. 147 2000 – Present The new millennium began with Eckholm's (2000) dissertation on singing mode.. Acoustics. Bruckner's Locus iste. seating arrangement. Preferred self-to-other ratios in choir singing. As the participant would move. Ternström believes choral conductors could benefit from allowing singers to determine their self to other ratio (SOR) within the choir formation and arrangement. Reverb was added to the mixing of the perception survey recordings to make the excerpts sound realistic. These same eight choristers were recorded individually singing the excerpts as a solo with piano accompaniment.end). All conditions were sung to a videotaped conductor to ensure consistency between recordings. The average preferred self to other ratio (SOR) was +6. Ternström hypothesized the self to other ratio (SOR) preference expressed by the individual participants may very well be due to their usual location within a choir which would have direct impact on the amount of choir one usually hears and therefore a habitual preference may have been cultivated. Eight choristers were individually recorded on headset microphones during the entire recording process. However. and choral mode in voice matched seating. and choral blend. solo mode in voice matched seating. There was no noticeable difference in self to other ratio (SOR) preference expressed by the participants when singing unison as compared to harmony (part of a chord). the standard deviation in the self to other ratio (SOR) preferences expressed in this study varied only 2. 3563-3574. 74 .held signal button for five seconds all the while singing. 129. and n = 5 basses) were recorded singing a cappella four polyphonic choral excerpts in four conditions: solo mode in random seating. 148 147 Howard. n = tenors. Voice Science. An ad hoc balanced chamber choir (N = 22. S. (1999).
The microphones were rolled off at 75 Hz to remove low frequency noise from the recordings." 149 Evaluators (N = 4. The University of Oklahoma. n = 32 professional non-vocal musicians) evaluated 160 excerpts and showed preference for soloistic singing in voice matched seating. and choir directors.all four experimental conditions. N. Journal of Research in Music Education. voice matching received the highest ratings. University of Oklahoma dissertation) was interested in the interaction between voice-matched singers in an ensemble that would facilitate natural vocal production in choral and solo mode of phonation. E. 48 (2). 151 Woodruff (2001. Voice teachers (N = 12) listened to all recorded conditions of the individually microphoned singers and expressed overwhelming preference for the solo mode of singing in all conditions. windowed formation. and trio formation. Woodruff. Auditors (N = 65. If a conductor needed to choose either voice matching or lateral spacing. duet. Ternström. 152 These conclusions were Eckholm. Three cardiod microphones were arranged in a "v" pattern one foot in front of each singer. 150 151 149 Ibid. 9. (2000). 2001). Perceptual data were taken from singers (n is unknown). n = 33 voice teachers. (2001). n = 3 experienced choral conductors and n = 1 experienced chorister) observed the videotaping of the recording session and completed a Conductor Consistency Observation Form in which no significant differences were found between each of the recordings. The acoustic interaction of voices in ensemble: An inquiry into the phenomenon of voice matching and the perception of unaltered vocal process (Doctoral dissertation. Woodruff concluded from the acoustical and perceptual results that lateral spacing which is 24" wide and windowed between rows of singers. (2003). but the best would be achieved if the singers were first voice matched and then put in a lateral. Eckholm surmised acoustic seating would benefit solo singers in a choral setting for it would allow for a soloistic vocal production without detriment to overall success of choral blend or harmful vocal technique. AAT 3075332. may provide a choral setting requiring less voice modification to blend in a choral setting. 123-135. voice teachers (n is unknown). 152 75 . The effect of singing mode and seating arrangement on choral blend and overall choral sound. Two groups of three male singers each (N = 6) were recorded in every possible solo. UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations. 150 An expressed concern of this study was the perception surveys were mailed to the listening participants with no directions as to the quality of equipment that should be utilized when listening to the perception survey to ensure a consistency.
153 Vibrato was one of the five different types of voice production that Smith (2002. Each participant wore a head-set microphone with the windscreen positioned ¼ inch from the mouth. Thurman and Daugherty hypothesized. P. Results suggest participants’ vibrato rate was different in solo mode than in choral mode. Folger (2002. /i/. Singers who have a wide and inconsistent vibrato rate must be placed carefully within the ensemble to not have a negative location effect on the overall ensemble sound. music educator) included in spectrograph comparison of solo singing and choral singing. 2002). /e/. areas of passaggio. The spectrographs were analyzed for formant peaks in the different modes of phonation (choral or solo) and in each of the five types of voice production. The final task was to sing the vowel series with as straight (vibrato-free) a tone as possible. The authors reiterate Folger. 154 A year later. was from two 21 year old singers. and /ɔ/ for two seconds in a voice lab (not anechoic or semi-anechoic). 31-43. key of G for song. The types of voice production were "straight tone". Balance or blend? Two approaches to choral singing. three at a time. basses A-220 Hz for vowels. The data provided by Perry. falsetto. 154 153 Smith. M. 43 (5). The participants were directed to sing all samples at a mezzo forte level. thereby one must evaluate the validity of a trio representing a choir. W.reached from recordings of three singers. (2002). (2002). Unifying the choral sound through voice matching: An empirical study of the adjustments in vibrato frequency modulation and amplitude modulation (Doctoral dissertation. Each voice type was given a specific beginning pitch from a Yamaha upright piano (soprano A-440 Hz for vowels. singing 8 bars of Bach/Gonoud’s Ave Maria and five representative vowels (/a/. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Folger hypothesized that choral singers were more likely to experience the "chorus effect" when the singers maintained a constantly varied vibrato rate. 76 . Choral Journal. University of North Carolina-Greensboro dissertation) used this same grouping of singers (n = 3) to differentiate between solo and choral modes of singing. key of E for song). Thurman (specialist voice educator) and Daugherty (2003) proposed a different perspective of both the data and the interpretation of data in the Smith (2002) article. /u/. forte production and piano production. Then each participant sang the song sample individually three times. Participants (N = 41 undergraduate bass/baritone and soprano choir singers) were recorded.
43. the most rhythmically accurate were placed on the outsides of the formation. Balance or Blend? Are these the only vocal approaches to choral singing? (A rebuttal).the transfer of information from two singers applied to a choral context is inappropriate. and bass). & Daugherty. 155 77 . 155 Daugherty (2003) continued research into choral spacing and formation. whereas in lateral the singer's arm was 24" from the next singer's arm. alto. 35 . J. interpretation of the data. The specific location of the singer pairs was determined first by loudness so that the loudest pairs would be in the center of the formation.. A university choral ensemble (N = 20. tenor. These were almost the same conditions as the 1999 study. The singer pairs were then arranged on four tiered risers in a window formation. Next. and circumambient). The mixed choral excerpts (SATB – soprano. The Choral Journal. the one variable was that a mixed formation was used in 1999 as compared to the synergistic used in 2003. and synergistic) and in three different spacings (close. and conclusions. L. (2003). the arm of one singer was one inch from the next singer. n = 10 female and n = 10 male) was recorded in two formations (random block sectional. Thurman. In close spacing. lateral. See Figure 6. Questions are posed and answered with regard to Perry's verbiage. 43 (7). Figure 6: Chamber Choir Spacings The synergistic formation was comprised of ten pairs of singers who were of the same relative height and the same vocal loudness.
each a different team’s fans) singing during football games. 156 157 158 Jers. in Latin. (2004).7 seconds of reverberation. and gender-specific chamber choir placements. A university graduate choir (N = 30) was recorded singing a homophonic and a polyphonic choral excerpt in three formations (block sectional. Auditors preferred random formation for mixed gender groups. Select acoustic and perceptual measures of choral formation.. mixed. 157 Aspaas et al. alto. J.. J.9 seconds confirming the singers' impressions of a "live" and "reverberant" room.. I heard a) no difference. choral music educator) continued the investigation into choral formation with a return to LTAS analysis (long term average spectra). 48-59. b) second performance. 1 (1). C.. Singers expressed greater vocal ease and less vocal tension with circumambient spacing. Morris. voice scientist and acoustician) obtained from radio stations recordings of football league fans (N = 20 different recordings. Preference was shown for female groups in circumambient formation whereas male groupings were preferred in lateral formation. mid-range were at 2. 1-5. c) both sounded the same. (2003). Auditors showed clear preference for circumambient spacing in all formations and within all gender groupings. tenor and bass) choir. F. Choir spacing and formation: choral sound preferences in random. the homophonic choral excerpt had higher energy levels than the polyphonic choral excerpt. R. The recordings were conducted in a 600 seat recital auditorium. 156 The preferences expressed here agree with acoustical findings of Jers (1998). c) much difference. International Journal of Research in Choral Singing. Higher frequencies had a measured 2. (2007). The recordings were analyzed with long term averaged spectra (LTAS) and no differences were found between formations with one exception. 2 (1). b) a little difference. and primarily homophonic. the women only (soprano and alto).158 Howard (2004. 11-27. and column sectional). The recordings were completed by the SATB (soprano. Daugherty. C.Palestrina's Adoramus Te and Jacob Handl's O Admirabile Commercium. Aspaas. and I preferred the overall choral sound of the a) first performance. (2004. Altos preferred the column sectional formation for it allowed the greatest hearing of other vocal parts. a 12 paired sample perception test was created in which the auditors (N = 60 with choral experience) were asked for each pair: comparing the overall sound of the choir in these two performances. e) not sure. 78 . synergistic. The choristers completed a survey following the recording session in which sopranos expressed preference for the column sectional formation citing this formation allowed greater ease of vocal production and a greater ability to hear ones own voice. International Journal of Research in Choral Singing. d) very much difference. were chosen because they were a cappella. Fowler. McCrea. From these recordings. L. and then the men only (tenor and bass). R.
D. a form of acoustic research such as the next study. 1-3. (2004).3 to 38. In the acoustically created condition.2 cents. Historic recording gives choir “alien” feeling: In anechoic space. Olaf Choir (N = 80) singing Almighty and Everlasting God by Orlando Gibbons in an anechoic research chamber. Participants were encouraged to listen to the entire perception test in a variety of seat locations so as to experience different locations within the "perceptual room". Freiheit (2005. (29) 2. Four of the participants became claustrophobic and left the concrete "building within a building". acoustic ceiling panels. However. Lay Language Paper presented at the ASA/NOISE-CON 2005 Meeting. thereby the making of the recording was difficult. The participants' relative tuning accuracy (represented in the standard deviation in cents) was 3. 77-83. Then participants listened to the recording again. R. Freiheit. 159 In stark contrast to the football stadium recordings. no one can hear you sing.Each recording was analyzed for pitch accuracy and the degree of sharpness or flatness for each note measured. Reliability of this pitch measuring method was tested and resulted in less that 1% difference. no periodicity. and audience acoustic "clouds". 160 Jers (2005. Pitch identification was made by aural match of recorded tone to a matching synthesizer pitch. the dynamics and volume were strictly controlled. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: An English premier football league table of fans’ singing tunefulness. members of a community choir (N Howard. greater clarity of diction. listeners reported volume increases in the sound clips. MN. The flatness or sharpness of the pitch was shown through the plotting of the standard deviation in cents of each pitch and then representing those figures on a graph. 2005. Each listening participant heard each example twice in an ABAB design. Olaf pure sound recording. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. Measurement methods (spectrograph and cepstra) used for solo singing did not work with these recordings for the resulting graphs were noise-like without any identifiable closings of the vocal folds. conductor and music acoustician) was also interested in acoustic reverberation and the impact that it would have on amateur versus professional choirs. acoustician) recorded the St. the resulting anechoic recording was a representation of pure sound and was utilized for auralization. a room with no sound reflections. Participants (N is not provided) chose a seat in the anechoic chamber and listened to 33 seconds of the St. The participants reported difficulty in hearing themselves and others. 160 159 79 . First. In each playing. but this time the recording was treated with acoustic parameters (sound reflections) as if the recording had been made in a normal high school auditorium complemented with a sound shell. Minneapolis. and an overall brightness to the tone which suggests audiences too prefer sound with acoustic reverberation.
1-6. the accuracy of fundamental pitch was more stable in the slower tempo. (1) 47. MFON. Because the recording studio does not allow as much referent sound or echo. TMH-QPSR. MFOV (averaged fundamental frequency of all the participants).V (the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency and the scatter of the fundamental frequency for all participants) for the entire 8 bars and for 4 selected notes of longer duration. 162 161 Jers. their same note repetitions were more accurate and the vibrato synchronization of notes with longer duration was quicker. Recordings were analyzed for MFON (averaged fundamental frequency over the duration of the tone). The singers were arranged in a semi-circle facing the conductor. The professional choir had clearer individual step movement.is not provided) were recorded in a church singing an eight-bar unison phrase from a Praetorius canon. the greater the inaccuracy in both choirs as well as ascending scale notes were sharp and descending notes were flat (overall). S. The next set of recordings of the same sequence was performed in a radio studio. The amateur choir had greater diversity in the beginning of the pitch onset and took longer to synchronize the pitch. there was greater pitch accuracy achieved when coming down a P4 than when going up a P5. What are the differences between amateur and professional choirs? ASA/NOISE-CON 2005 Meeting Lay Language Papers Minneapolis. 162 Amateur choir singers (N=16) were dressed with individual miniature electret microphones over their noses and recorded singing a Praetorius 8 bar canon in both slow (1/2 note = 80 beats per measure [bpm]) and fast (1/2 note = 125 bpm) tempos. & Ternström. and SFON. (2005b). Both choirs pitched fifths and octaves high and low pitches had a higher degree of inaccuracy. Intonation analysis of a multi-channel choir recording. The larger the interval. SFOV (the standard deviation of the stability of the fundamental frequency for all participants). (2005a). 161 Jers next investigation explored defining parameters of the "chorus effect" – the combined sound of many sources that are similar but uncorrelated at the level of the waveform of the sound. 80 . Sound pressure level (SPL) was not measured at this time but future studies are Jers. Then professional choir singers (N = 8) were recorded singing the same selection in the church. MN. SFON (the standard deviation of the stability of fundamental frequency for one singer per one note). the differences between the choirs was magnified. H.V (averaged fundamental frequency and scatter of fundamental frequency of all participants for each note). Analysis of the mean fundamental frequency (F0) of the singers revealed the standard deviation of singer accuracy. The results showed there was some attempt to synchronize vibrato. H. 1-4. and downward stepwise movement had greater pitch accuracy than upward stepwise movement which showed a tendency to pitch high.
The highest peak in the averaged spectral analysis for all conditions was around 500 Hz. once in each of the following formations. and 10 meters from the choir in the audience for a diffuse field recording. The LTAS of the homophonic selection in the near field had 5-8 dB more signal amplitude than the column formation. microphones were placed at three staggered locations: 0.5 meters in front of participants for near field recording. voice scientist) examined the effect of three different choral arrangements on the output of LTAS (long term average spectrum) as well as the effect of polyphonic versus homophonic musical selections in each of the arrangements on the long term average spectra (LTAS) analysis. Figure 7: Organization of Choral Formation by Vocal Parts LTAS analysis was performed on each of the excerpts from each of the microphone locations. 3.0 meters from choir and close to conductor for a mixed field recording. 1-6. n = 13 tenors) was recorded in a 480 seat concert hall singing the homophonic section of Mocnik's Christus est natus and the polyphonic section of Lajos' Cantemus! To evaluate microphone placement.planned. an improved understanding of the chorus effect might be achieved. 163 Morris et al. The participants sang each music excerpt three times. The mixed arrangement had more signal amplitude above 2000 Hz in the homophonic and polyphonic 163 Jers. 81 . and mixed. sectional in columns. block sectional. n = 11 altos. n = 9 basses. A college graduate chamber choir (N = 30. n = 8 sopranos. (2006. Jers suggested that in understanding the experience of individual singers within a choral experience.
165 164 82 . A comparison was made between the overall intonation success of the participants in both equal temperament and just intonation. (2006). 87-94. The participants were recorded singing an a cappella thirteen chord exercise which began on a C major root close voicing chord (bass C3) and ended on a C major root close voicing chord (bass C4). C. and microphone location. 1 alto... a SATB quartet (1 soprano. No difference was present in the long term average spectra (LTAS) of the conditions recorded in the diffuse (far) field. 165 Morris.selections. Howard hypothesizes that these results support that conductors who ask singers to sing a cappella are in actuality requiring the ensemble to stray in pitch in order to stay in tune. A. musical selection. (2) 32. singers were asked how each of them sang in tune. The participants were fitted each with an electrolaryngograph and miniature microphone 30 centimeters from participants' lips. Equal or non-equal temperament in a cappella SATB singing. (2007a). Fowler.. 21 (5). D. L. C. 164 Howard (2007a. Acoustic analysis of the interaction of choral arrangements. The result was an overall reduction in cents out of tune. 568-575. R. Howard. 1 tenor. McCrea. Just intonation average pitch variation comparison revealed singers naturally tuned approximately 23-26 cents below the pitch versus equal temperament was at 49 cents below pitch in this quartet. Journal of Voice. Aspaas. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. Figure 8: Choral Exercise After the first recording. conductor and music acoustician) used a "mixed" arrangement of singers. and 1 bass) to investigate intonation.. Mustafa. Howard suggested the singers listen to the voice that had their next note and to tune each chord from that point.
the basses sang the tenor part and the tenors sang the bass part. a barbershop quartet. Building upon the advice given to the quartet in the study above. the sopranos sang the alto part and the altos sang the soprano part. (2007b). the first recording was with each participant singing their voice classification part. (21) 3. Howard hypothesized one of the factors of good choral blend could be the result of a smooth distribution of closed quotient (CQ) values. Howard (2007b) uses an SATB quartet fitted with an electrolaryngography (EGG) collar and a miniature microphone placed 30 centimeters from each participant's lips to form a 45o angle. especially if modulations occur. (PACS: 43. Plotted EGG results suggested there was a difference in CQ values and F0 (fundamental frequency) for each vocal part. The amount of variation between vocal parts was also different for each quartet. 168 167 166 Ibid. Singers were directed to not tune their line individually but to re-tune to the common chord tone each time. Howard asked the participant who had the common chord tone to hold for two beats while the singers with moving tones would hold the first chord for one beat and then rest to clearly hear the common chord tone and establish a new tuning from that note.Again. September 2007. 168 Ternström (2007) also looked at a quartet. alto. Howard again suggested conductors would do well to be aware of the difficulties in singing “in tune” through out an entire piece of a cappella music. 1-6.Cs). Howard. 300-315. All individual notes were measured for accuracy of F0 (fundamental frequency pitch) using a time domain cycle-by-cycle (cpc) analysis. Three four-track recordings of Paper Moon were sung by a professional barbershop quartet Howard.55. Measurements were averaged and compared against just intonation pitch frequency and equal tempered pitch frequency and reported in cents deviated. The results showed the singers most closely followed just intonation – although consistently sharp except for one musical excerpt in which the singers were sharp only as the chords went upward (chords 1-6) and then flat as the chords went lower in pitch (chords 7-13). Each participant was equipped with an electrolaryngograph (EGG) collar to measure the larynx closed quotient (CQ). tenor. Journal of Voice.167 This measurement is obtained by the electrolaryngograph (EGG) through a close fitting neck collar with two electrodes positioned on either side of the larynx. D. Each quartet was recorded singing six songs. D. The larynx closed quotient is a measurement of each vocal fold cycle for which the folds remain in contact. 19thInternational Congress on Acoustics. 83 . In the second recording. Larynx closed quotient variation in quartet singing. Intonation drift in a capella soprano. Madrid. bass quartet singing with key modulation. 166 Howard's (2007c) third study used two SATB quartets. (2007c). For each of the songs. to investigate formant frequency adjustment.
normalized. Formant frequency adjustment in barbershop quartet singing. The lateral artificial singer (AS) measurements showed very little change in singer directivity as compared to solo level. and /a/ (divine). Vowels chosen for analyzation were /u/ (to). 1-6. 75 centimeters in front of first singer. 170 169 84 . International Congress on Acoustics. 1-5. Recordings were of ensemble performance. These recordings were then synchronized. Jers suggested this supports the use of risers and looks to do future studies in this area. Singer directivity was directly influenced by surrounding singers. individual performance. 170 Libeaux (2007) created an artificial choir by recording live singers (N = 8) singing 3 dynamically varied song excerpts in an anechoic environment. Other artificial singers were placed in three different positions: 75 centimeters lateral to first singer. Madrid. 19th International Congress on Acoustics. September 2007. and 4 surrounding singer with adjacent singers at 50 centimeters and front singers 75 centimeters in front of singer and 50 centimeters between the front singers.Rs). as well as spoken and sung portions. more resonant – locked and rung! Barbershop quartets may be able to increase their resonance by adjusting their vowel quality. Success for this quartet was achieved through varied vowel production versus attempting to sing exactly the same vowel – the opposite of choral singing. Results included confirmation of different singer directivity as measured by sound pressure level (SPL) when in a choir surrounded by singers using choral mode versus solo mode of singing. & Kalin. September 2007. The results suggested singers arranged their vocal tract such that the formant frequencies were more spread. Directivity measurements of adjacent singers in a choir. The results were presented in 3-D spherical plots with color differentiation for dB level.three times in an absorbent room. (2007). Each singer wore small microphone taped on nose. 169 To look at choral blend.75. The first artificial singer (AS) was recorded simultaneously by 14 microphones placed 265 centimeters from the artificial singer (AS) in an almost complete half circle. H. Jers designed an artificial singer (AS) and placed it in an anechoic room.. The added frontal singer met expectations in that measurements showed increases in the higher frequencies. /i/ (be). (2007). Ternström. Sound pressure levels (SPL) varied with a 20-25 dB reduction in the frontal region and an increase of 10 dB in the rear region. (PACS: 43. The overall sound pressure level (SPL) increased 5-10 dB – even for low frequencies and for the gaps between the singers. The singer's formant frequencies were often on or close to a partial as well as the common partials of another singer. Jers. S. G. The spread formant frequencies may be in an effort to hear oneself better so that the combined sound may seem larger and more expanded. Madrid.
When the live singers were asked: How was the musical integration with regard to rhythm. Each participant’s vocal part was removed from the virtual choir during their recording session. 171 85 ..57. This study shows the validity and possibility of virtual choir studies and sets a framework for future design of virtual choir studies. The microphones were mounted seven centimeters from the left corner of the singers’ lips. (PACS: 43.Rs). The virtual choir was played sometimes from loud speakers in the corners of the room. In other words. In each condition. T. Alto 1.and stored as wave files and then utilized to create the virtual choir. 19th International Congress on Acoustics. Soprano 2. Voice assessment in choir singers using a virtual choir environment. M. The participants were recorded singing two excerpts in four conditions. Tenor 1. & Kob. the surrounding singers were one meter from the center singer. A. Bass 1. The LTAS (long term averaged spectra) of the singing power ratio (SPR) and the energy ratio (ER) of the excerpts showed more relative energy in the higher frequency range where the singer’s formant (2800 Hz to 3200 Hz) occurs in chorus mode when compared with solo singing mode. n = 12 designated singers and n = 14 surrounding singers) to revisit the differences between choral singing mode and solo singing mode. singers of the same voice classification surrounded a singer of the same voice classification. Tenor 2. 171 Reid et al. In the first condition. The virtual singers (VS = 8) were arranged in a half moon with lowest voices (basses) on the singer’s left to the highest voices (sopranos) on the singer’s right. Each singer took a turn in each condition as the designated singer in the center of the group. and Soprano 1. Live singer participants (N=35) concluded that the experience was more realistic (75% amateur. voice scientist) utilized live participants (N = 26 professional opera chorus singers. The second excerpt was the last sixteen bars of Torna a Surriento by Di Curtis. always a double quartet comprised of Bass 2. All sang the first excerpt as part of the ensemble. September 2007. (2007). the center singer remained silent while the other singers sang as part of the ensemble. intonation. and soundpressure level (SPL). the virtual choir had seven virtual singers and one human singer participant. 67% semi-professional) singing with the loudspeakers. 1-6. again the loudspeakers were preferred. (2007. Both of these conditions were repeated with all singers at a distance of two meters. Alto 2. In the second condition. Houben. There were four such groups. D. and sometimes played directly into the live singer’s headphones. The final task was an individual recording of each participant singing the second excerpt as a soloist... Participants (N = 35) individually sang with the newly created virtual choir. In other Libeaux. Madrid. The first excerpt was the last twenty-one bars of the Easter Hymn from Mascagni’s Cavalleria Rusticana. Lentz.
J.. S. 1987 and Goodwin. There was no significant difference in vibrato rate or extent for either vowel. Participants in this study stated they used only one vocal technique for both the solo and choral mode.words. P... But. 1980) who found that soprano singers reduce their vibrato extent when singing in ensemble.. D. The acoustic characteristics of professional opera singers performing in chorus versus solo mode. 172 86 .. Reid et al. & Chapman. that would account for the difference in the energy ratio. 1988) wherein a liturgical choir’s singers used a “dampened technique” for choral mode resulting in reduced energy ratio. Both singing excerpts utilized were in Italian to provide for same vowel excerpts for long term average spectra (LTAS) calculations of vibrato rate and extent. (2007). This is different than in previous studies (Letowski. 1986. these singers did not reduce the energy level in the singer's formant (Fs) range when singing in either mode – ensemble or solo. Black. The Journal of Voice. M. J.. One proposed reason was if the singers sang louder in choral mode than they did in solo mode. 21 (1). The vowels /o/ and /a/ were chosen. Cabrera. acknowledged singers in an opera chorus may be required to remain in solo mode even when singing in ensemble which would explain the high energy in the singer’s formant region. Davis. Ternström.. there was a significant difference in the energy ratio (ER) for the choral mode of vowel /a/. K. Oates. 35-45. 172 Reid. The lack of difference in the vibrato rate and extent between the solo and ensemble modes also conflicts with prior research (Rossing et al.
could be greater than the individual voices. the ability to self-regulate pitch. & Sundberg. spacing between singers is critical. Daugherty. Few conductors are given the opportunity to staff their choir completely with solo singers and often supplement with choir singers. 175 To provide singers the greatest success in managing their self to other ratio (SOR). singers increase energy in the F0 whereas in solo mode of production. (1999. Rossing et al. Moving from the imagined into the world of absolutes. fourth. The payoff for this direction can be that choir singers often will be more vocally productive when solo singers revert to choral mode. loudness. a choral conductor who understands the acoustics of choral sound is well prepared for the challenge of perfect choral blend. (1999). The preferred spacing seems to be 18-24 inches between singers both horizontally and vertically. 174 Singers expressed preference for a 6. the area known as the singer's formant region (Fs). 87 . In the choral mode.CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY Mayer (1964) believed the sum. the choral sound. (1988). S. and voice quality is greatly compromised. When the singer is unable to hear oneself. J. the expert of the desired sound. 178 The cost for this direction can be that solo singers may choose not to participate in choral singing so as to focus entirely on the development of solo technique. Ternstrom.1 dB self to other (SOR). a number of specific components of choral sound must be understood and applied. 173 174 175 176 177 178 Tonkinson. and fifth resonance peaks that enables the singer to project over orchestras without amplification. This is the scenario in which choral conductors may ask the solo singers to revert to the choral mode of singing in an attempt to improve overall choral blend. J. Ternström. Letowski et al. more energy is focused in the 2800 – 3200 Hz range. The choral conductor is the determiner. (1986). (the Lombard effect) 173 . In order for the sum to be greater. Perfect choral blend implies that no one voice is heard above the others. (1990). (1988). S. S. We have learned the impact of self-to-other ratio (SOR) within a choir can have an effect on the ability of a singer to hear oneself. 2003). 176 Another factor of ensemble singing is the mode in which the singers produce their sound. 177 The Fs is the clustering of the third.
which in a semi-anechoic room would require reflecting wall distances of 2.6-6. Remember the tenors who were recorded before and after a performance of Mahler's Symphony No. (1996). and no effect is present for the amount of training. the ensemble will have greater amplitude. Marshall & Meyer. f) was produced. (1994). Kitch et al. reducing the singer's formant (Fs) and increasing energy to the fundamental frequency (F0). (1985). 180 Singers have expressed preference for rooms with early reflections. Singers. The impact of the room's acoustics can reflect an amplitude variance of 12 to 20 dB in a choir's output. 183 These factors lead us directly into the psycho-acoustical realm of perception. The effect of training did not have an impact on the preference for room reverberation. 184 179 180 181 182 183 184 Goodwin. the choral conductor can move forward to decisions of the ensembles' acoustic possibilities regarding loudness (amplitude).. f) as produced earlier in the composition. Trained singers are able to sing softer phonation with greater resonance and pitch accuracy and are able to produce a variety of dynamic levels. 88 . 179 Another factor impacting the overall amplitude of the ensemble is the amount and timing of sound reflections in the room. focusing energy in the region of the singer's formant (Fs). Coleman. This amplitude will be perceived as louder than if the singers were producing in the choral mode of phonation. 2 who reported no effect of vocal fatigue after the performance. This type of error is consistent in perception research literature. 15-35 milliseconds of reverberation. yet.0 meters. 1980. ff) than to pianissimo (very soft. R. and choral conductors. 181 The amplitude of a trained singer's phonation is measurably different than that of untrained singers. Ibid. Ternström. 1993. but the recordings indicated marked reduction in vocal and dynamic range abilities.From these beginning decisions. 182 Both trained and untrained singers tend to sing mezzo forte (medium loud. when asked will report the same forte (loud. mf) closer to fortissimo (very loud. and pitch (frequency). If indeed each of the choir singers is utilizing the solo mode of phonation. have difficulty reproducing exactly the same forte (loud. pp). timbre (quality of sound).
The training effect is much evidenced in singers' quality of sound. Untrained voices are perceived as brighter, in contrast to trained voices which are often perceived as darker. 185 This directly correlates with continual preference expressed for covered vocal production, in other words, a vocal production in which all areas of the voice sound as one "color". Physiologically, when the quality of the sound is perceived darker, the singer raises the soft palate, widens the pharynx and laryngeal ventricles, and tilts the larynx forward. 186 Anderson's auditor participants expressed preference for a dark vowel (/u/) in 81% of his recorded choral samples. 187 In order for a choral ensemble to sound perfectly blended, the choral conductor must determine the exact vowel and the "color" of the vowel expected from the ensemble. Ternström found that increased resonance could be accomplished by complete singer unity of the vowel. 188 The effect of the quality of the vowel (bright to dark) has been found to influence pitch accuracy. Vowels produced more forward in the vocal tract (/a/, /i/) have less intonation errors than those produced further back in the vocal tract, the darker vowels (/u/, /ɔ/). 189 More importantly, less pitch accuracy is produced when the singer cannot hear a clear, harmonically rich reference tone. 190 When singers are provided with a clear reference tone prior to producing their tone, the amount of error was reduced by 50%. Additionally, when singers are given the opportunity to tune without the pre-determination of a prescribed tuning system, and instead tune from the fundamental frequency of the previous chord, most especially if the fundamental frequency is a common tone with the next chord, greater pitch accuracy was achieved. 191 Both the quality of the sound and the frequency are influenced by vibrato rate and extent. Interestingly, studies have found no effect for vowel on vibrato, yet a direct correlation to the energy ratio
185 186 187 188 189 190 191
Letowski et al., (1988). Hertegard et al., (1990). Anderson, (1993). Ternström, (2007). Ibid. Ternström & Sundberg, (1988). Howard, (2007a).
of the sound was significant in the vowel /a/ as compared to /i/. 192 The energy a singer produces is influenced by so many factors; physiological, self to other ratio (SOR), mode of phonation, and choral formation. Choral formation is a conductor's best opportunity to empower the success of the individual singers and thereby significantly impact the overall ensemble performance quality. Choral singers expressed an overwhelming preference for circumambient formation – that which spaces singers 18 to 24 inches between each other to the side, front, and back. Singers of the second row stand in the 18 – 24 space such that no singer is directly behind another, but to the right or left of the front singer. In addition to circumambience, the singers expressed preference for block sections of each vocal part. Singers found this block/sectional circumambient formation encouraged vocal ease of production and excellent self to other ratio (SOR) which in turn allowed for the greatest access to vocal abilities. 193, 194, 195 An understanding of vocal abilities with respect to how they function within a choral setting was a primary goal of this writing. Choral sound is foremost composed of individual singers whose morphology, habitual voice use, and training have a direct impact on the ensemble's choral blend. The ensemble's sound is then molded by the choral conductor. The underlying power of the conductor is the foundation of knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge. The acoustics of choral sound have been introduced here to provide a unified document in a concise format that can serve as a springboard for informed practice, rehearsal and study. Armed with the basics of acoustic choral music measurement, the educated, well informed choral conductor can create an atmosphere wherein the ultimate goal – perfected choral blend - is not only attainable, but well within artistic reach. Once choral blend is firmly in the grasp of a superior ensemble, a synergized aural experience can come to both the composer's music and the joyous work of the ensemble, creating the phenomenon known as the choral experience.
192 193 194 195
Reid et al., (2007). Daugherty, (1999, 2003) Aspaas et al., (2004). Jers, (2005).
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
alto. Daugherty. software. 198 . Some of these decisions can be aided by knowledge of the current physical understanding of choral sound. Aspaas. In each of these arrangements. positive impact on the ensemble sound. How large are these spaces? Prevailing knowledge garnered from auditor and singer preference is that vocal ease of production and the ability to hear not only one's self but also other singers is best accomplished with 1824" between and around singers. One such decision is influenced by the rehearsal and performance spaces. (1999). Woodruff. Spacing between singers has been described in the literature as the self-to-other ratio (SOR). 199 . 92 . (2004). (2001). (2003). Voice matching is a process whereby a conductor determines aurally where each singer should stand within a given vocal part (soprano. Ternström suggests the conductor first voice match the singers. improved upon. From the outset. Ternström.CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The investigations of vocal science researchers have illuminated aspects of individual sound that can be developed and monitored by educated choral conductors within the choral rehearsal that will have direct. 200 If a conductor's rehearsal space is not able to accommodate this spacing when singers are horizontally arranged in rows. 197 . the standard singer windowing would apply – that is a row of singers should space themselves 18-24" of space between their row members such that each singer stands in the 18-24" space between the singers in front of them. Each new investigation provides new insights into the phenomenon of perfect choral blend that can aid a choral conductor in perfecting their craft. a choral conductor has a vast myriad of decisions prior to hearing a single sound. bass) such that no 196 197 198 199 200 Daugherty. or series of circles. Certainly the process of acoustic choral sound measurement is slow and often tedious – yet the knowledge gained by each experiment brings the collective understanding to newer plateaus which are discussed. tenor. 196 . Conductors could allow the singers to determine their own best spacing. a conductor could investigate arranging the singers in a circle. and result in new equipment. and processes for choral sound measurement. around the centrally located conductor. (1999).
Among singers overall. (2003). Maxwell and Meyer's singer participants expressed preference for 15-35 milliseconds of reverberation and extreme dislike for 40 milliseconds of 201 202 203 204 205 Ternström. (2004). Aspaas. 18-24" spacing. Daugherty. Sopranos described this arrangement as one that afforded greater ease of vocal production as well as a greater ability to hear themselves. and separation of voice parts.one individual voice is heard above the others. 93 . Tonkinson found that informing the singers about the Lombard Effect had a 5% reduction in intonation errors in the subsequent music rehearsal. The formation and spacing of singers can also aid in combating the Lombard effect. edgier vocal timbre from which intonation errors can result. To hear. (1999). a conductor could allow for more space between sopranos and less between basses. In 1985. The Lombard effect occurs when singers are unable to hear themselves singing. conductors would do well to experiment with this formation of singers. (1990). After voice matching is completed. 203 Auditors expressed overwhelming preference for random formation and circumambient spacing – windowed. The individual singer joins the section on the unison vowel and then moves within the assigned individual's location until the singer can hear equally their own voice and that of the vocal section. 202 In this arrangement. In addition to the Lombard Effect. Ternström refers to the singer's individual sound as the feedback and the other singers' sound as the reference. Daugherty. the singers often use a brighter. 201 Knowing this. 204 Perhaps. each voice part was equally spaced both horizontally and vertically such that a block was created for each voice part. have the vocal section (soprano. Tonkinson.1 dB of reference sound with the lowest preference expressed by basses and the highest preference expressed by sopranos. 90% of the participants found the best self-to-other ratio (SOR) balance was achieved in a block sectional arrangement. a conductor's ears must be sensitive to the amount of reverberation in the rehearsal and performance space. (1999). for example) minus one sing a unison vowel. 205 This is another example that supports conductors sharing their interpretation of the rehearsal challenges so that singers can be an active part of improving the choral experience. Singers have expressed preference for 6. Altos expressed a greater ability to hear other vocal parts when arranged in a block (also known as column) sectional formation.
(1988). /α/ requires the most amplitude. 212 When masking was added into a study design. However. 206 Yet. for instance. resonant voice quality which is measured by the number of partials and harmonics present in the tone. sustained notes progressively sharp. (1982). (1988). when the lowest common partials are audible to the singers. and when the vibrato rate is small. In fact. singers sang ascending scales flat. and therefore the singer cannot hear themselves. Ternström et al. Masking has been found to cause intonation errors in the neighborhood of 50 cents in professional singers. and 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 Maxwell and Meyer.7 seconds reverberation of higher frequencies and 2. when high partials are present in the reference tone(s). (1983). Choirs that have a high degree of intonation accuracy often sing the fundamental frequency with little vibrato and a full. often louder. reference tones need to be approximately 25 dB for accurate pitch matching. 210 Accurate intonation is most successful when the reference tone is louder than the singer feedback. (2003). (1982. Ternström and Sundberg. 211 Reference tones are what choir singers use to move from one note to the next. Daugherty. descending scales sharp. 209 This is more important than one would expect. masking will also lead to intonation errors for the singer cannot auto-correct what they cannot hear. 1988). 208 Different vowels require different amplitude for in tune singing. a live room as described by Daugherty had 2. Sound references are a key component for good intonation.9 seconds of mid-ranged frequencies. 94 . Ternström and Sundberg. Masking occurs when the singer is surrounded by other singers who are singing the same note. (1985). accuracy of intonation is said to be high.207 A conductor may consider changing the formation and spacing of choir members to help singers adjust to the timing of the receipt of sound references.reverberation. Ternström and Sundberg. for the vowel of a reference tone was found to have more impact on intonation than did the amplitude of the reference tone. When other notes that sound simultaneously have matching partials and/or harmonics. Just as in the Lombard effect. Ternström and Sundberg. another effect that causes intonation errors is masking.
(1988). 217 Conductors are often guilty of asking singers to modify the vowel because of a higher or lower frequency. 214 The spectral variation in a tone. and quite often toward /ɔ/. Ternström et al. (1988). presence of the singer's formant (Fs) and vowel intelligibility are often sacrificed for these goals. 215 Many conductors list vowel unification as a primary element of good choral blend. and the presence of partials and harmonics. The participants were successful (81%) in identifying the rogue vowel /u/. Yet. 218 One area of the singer's voice that will require a conductor's understanding is the area of the passaggio. somewhat successful (61%) in identifying the rogue vowel /i/. Miller and Schutte. Ternström and Sundberg. Anderson asked participants to identify a rogue vowel (sung by ¼th of the choir while 3/4th of the choir sang the target vowel) in choral excerpts. (1990). an area of frequency production that requires vocal fold/tract realignment.vowels were modified from /α/ to /ɔ/ or /a/. is present in all voices as the singer moves from one vocal range area to another. Ternström and Sundberg. (1982). 213 Vowel glides and darker vowels (/u/) are particularly vulnerable spots for intonation errors when masking is present. Additionally. the accuracy of the frequency target. 216 Ternström and Sundberg noted the tendency of choir singers to neutralize vowels. To that end. Anderson. (1989). Yet. and completely unsuccessful identifying /α/. One aspect of the spectral variation has been attributed to the vocal tract in men and the glottis in women. (1993). 95 . 219 The conductor must be aware of the passaggio areas of the singer's vocal range 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 Ibid. Bloothooft. The passaggio is an active area of research for a clear explanation for its existence has yet to be developed or explained. is most affected by vowel production. the vowel production has direct impact on the singer's formant (Fs) and the fundamental frequency (F0). because more space is desired in the sound.. The passaggio. because more of the singers will then be able to sound as if they are in vowel agreement. modifying the vowel with a more open pharynx and reduction of sub-glottal pressure has been found to allow the singer progression through the passaggio without the listener being aware of a change in vocal sound or production.
Singing in tune could be thought of as moving within tuning systems from chord to chord which in the end would result in overall excellent intonation. 220 Formant tuning refers to the process by which a singer adjusts the vocal tract to create the most resonance possible for a given sound. Isolate two chords within in a phrase that have a common tone from one chord to the next. For example. and intensity successes of the choir singers. a conductor could identify vowel occurrences and work with increasing or decreasing the pharyngeal space to achieve a unity of vowel pronunciation and an increase in resonant sound. (1970). None of the standard tuning methods fit each chord. all vowels have an area of the vocal tract wherein the informed conductor could guide choir singers into accessing better enunciation and improved resonances. Have the choir sing 220 221 222 Ternström. each singer seemed to stretch (add or subtract cents) each target frequency to create the most excitement. In doing so. (2007). and /ɨ/.and abilities and consider its impact on the music being performed. Conductors could consider tuning from chord to chord within musical phrases instead of from the beginning of a phrase to the end of the phrase. or what some now call R1 221 ) is associated with the pharyngeal space and particularly /e/. /i/. the singers did not all sing exactly the same vowel but instead vowel variances that once sung together sounded as if one vowel were being produced. (2004). 222 When doing IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) score study. Score study will allow identification of areas of the music where areas of the passaggio will influence the intonation. or tuning. Specific frequencies are enhanced by molding the vocal tract for target vowels. to create more resonance. conductors should be aware that they will be assisting in the acquisition of the singer's formant (Fs). 96 . but was designed for first help with intonation. in a highly resonant vocal technique by spreading their formant frequencies so that more common partials were accessed. The following exercise could be used for formant tuning. Joliveau. yet intonation was perceived to be excellent. The accuracy of the target frequencies of the choir singers will enhance the amount of partials and harmonics in the sound which can then be resonated throughout the vocal tract. In contrast to existing pedagogy. Fant. Conductors can aid their singers in understanding what areas need adjustment. In other words. Additionally. the first resonance reflected as a frequency peak (F1. or partials in the sound. dynamic. Similarly. Ternström found that a quartet of male singers was able to sing a choral passage.
223 This procedure will help the choir singer to identify the reference tones from chord to chord – creating a horizontal singer in harmony with the standard vertical singer. (2004). If intonation is a constant struggle.6 millisecond difference. (1994). The common tone should be held and then the vocal section that has the common tone in the next chord should join in unison. A vertical singer will understand the function of his/her note within a chord and will constantly strive to tune vertically which may or may not aid in creating the line. Coleman. (2005a).the first chord. Jers. (2005b). Comparison of amateur choirs versus professional choirs showed many of the same differences as did a comparison between solo and duet singing. (2007a) and (2007b). Professional choirs were identified as having cleaner individual step movement. the onset of sound had a 29. consider slower tempos with notes of longer duration to encourage vibrato synchronization which in turn will improve the fundamental frequency (F0) accuracy. 97 . Once a unison has been achieved. Other suggestions from research literature include that conductors should carefully select compositions with vocal ranges that match the pitch range of the choir singers. choirs tend to more accurately sing downward perfect fourths versus upward perfect fifths. conductors could choose repertoire with more downward step motion verses upward step motion which tends to sharp. vibrato reduction of 50% as compared to solo singing. and synchronization of vibrato was quicker. same note repetitions with less deviation in frequency. 227 This information emphasizes the need for rehearsal of each onset (and offset) to establish ensemble timing through symbiotic reaction to the conductor's gesture. Jers. Howard. Have the three vocal parts tune and enter with the held common tone. Cut off the three vocal sections that do not have the common tone for the next chord. 226 In duet singing. 223 224 225 226 227 Howard. Additionally. Amateur choirs had a greater diversity of beginning frequency onsets and struggled with vibrato synchronization. the first vocal section should drop out to prepare for the next chord. 224 If the choir has great variance in vibrato. 225 Being aware of these consistent intonation errors can provide conductors with composition areas of rehearsal focus.
Letowski. no reduction in vibrato rate or extent was found between choral and solo modes of singing except in very loud singing and the vowel /a/ at any loudness level. Goodwin. 228 Untrained singers exhibited richer. a glottal voice source difference. both professional and amateur. For instance. (2000). 234 Now the circle has returned to its starting point. 229 Yet. (1988). the singer's formant (F0). 231 . sing with less amplitude in choral mode of singing which suggested the use of flow phonation. The sound pressure level (SPL) required for pianissimo (pp) to fortissimo (ff) has been found to not significantly vary in professional singers. (2007). (1986). instead of the fundamental frequency (F0)? Will all of the singers phonate the same vowel in the same way or will some of the singers vary the vowel to enhance spreading the formant frequencies in hopes of matching partials with another singer(s)? Will the rehearsal and performance space allow for 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 Eckholm. (1980). musically educated auditors express preference for the solo mode of vocal production within a choral setting and especially when the singers were voice matched. And yet. more vocally energetic voice quality when in choral mode versus solo mode. choral singing is deemed successful when every person's sound is in perfect unison with every other singer's sound joined together to create an ideal choral experience. will reduce their singer's formant (Fs) when singing in choral mode and increase the fundamental frequency (F0). If indeed researchers can determine the difficulties and/or the differences two professional singers have when singing together – then the choral experience will improve. Conductors have many decisions to consider before hearing the very first sound. 232 So often professional. or more advanced singers. (1980). 230 However. 98 . (1992). Goodwin. Rossing. research has found that singers. 233 Choir singers who are able to increase energy in the singer's formant (Fs) region will be able to produce greater dynamic diversity thereby providing the conductor with a broader range of sounds from which to convey the music. Will the singers use the choral mode of phonation in which they enhance the fundamental frequency (F0) and subdue the singer's formant (Fs) or will the singers be asked to use the solo mode of phonation where energy will be focused in the 2800-3200 Hz region. Reid.Many would say that duet singing was not a valid comparison to choral singing. Weber.
The knowledge that a conductor brings to this music experience affects creation of an experience that is not only unique to the moment. 99 . but has the possibility of achieving choral blend through a process that respects and develops each individual singer to create a musical experience of lasting significance – the choral experience.18-24" of space between each singer? Will the singers determine their own self-to-other ratio (SOR)? Will the conductor voice match the singers? How will intonation errors be addressed? How will the repertoire be selected? Indeed. conductors are the fortunate ones who are empowered to create a single sound from the mouths of many.
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY 100 .
101 . the lowest of the female singing voices. acoustic: relating to sound. the ratio of the sound pressure to the volume velocity due to a sound wave. aftersound: the second portion of a sound decay having a longer decay time. its electrical output indicates its acceleration. Older definitions are explained in the review of literature annotations. 2. including its production. choral studies. alto: short for contralto. acoustic feedback: sound from a loudspeaker picked up by a microphone (either in the direct field or the reverberant field) and re-amplified. voice science. a cappella: without accompaniment. a measure of the difficulty of generating flow (as in the vocal tract). acoustical signature: the unique sound of a space as determined by the room size. A graph of acoustic impedance of a musical instrument as a function of frequency shows peaks that correspond to the resonances of the air column. the sum of the qualities of an enclosure that determines the nature of the sound generated within it. The goal of this glossary is to facilitate the intermingling of many different divergent disciplines that are utilized throughout this document and to provide a resource when reading documents not included in this writing. acoustic impedance: 1. affricate: a speech sound that involves the two phases of a stop (vocal tract obstruction) and a prolonged frication. the ratio of sound pressure to volume velocity. the acoustical properties of all surfaces. 2800 factor: a strong set of overtones in the frequency range between the 3rd and 4th speech formants. transmission and effects. algorithm: step-by-step directions for solving a problem (as in multiplying two numbers).GLOSSARY An extensive glossary has been provided in this document that codifies terminology from music acoustics. acoustics: the science of sound. voice studies. room shape. accelerometer: a device used to measure vibration. Many definitions have evolved over time and in such cases the most recent definition is used in the glossary. equipment guides and usage. mathematics. and statistics.
Analog media (such as vinyl or cassettes) make a permanent record of the sound using a continuously varying signal. the degree to which sound appears to come from many directions. 2. 2. opposite in effect to a formant. 2. 3. anechoic: 1. arise because of divided passages or constrictions in a vocal tract. echo free. refers to a signal (for example. a reflection-free and therefore reverberation-free room or environment. playback. teeth. The radiated sound-pressure waveform of speech is an analog signal because its amplitude varies continuously in time.ambience: spaciousness. the height of a wave. lips. in electrical or magnetic signals) that directly represents an acoustical signal. a device in which a small amount of input power controls a larger amount of output power. antiformant: a transfer function property in which energy is not passed effectively. analog: 1. an electronic circuit that increases the level of a signal. a statistical test to assess the null hypothesis for the observed difference between two sample means. jaw) that change its shape and volume. the maximum of displacement of a vibrating system from equilibrium. amplitude: 1. Amplifiers are used to increase signal gain for purposes of recording. tongue. lips. 102 . or analysis. in phonation amplitude is controlled by subglotttal pressure. which modify the acoustic properties of the vocal tract. analytical listening: listening to a complex tone in a way that individual components or partial tones are heard as separate entities. articulator: tongue. amplifier: 1. a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. hard and soft palates. a device that increases the amplitude of a signal. 2. analysis of variance (ANOVA): 1. a signal that has continuous variations in amplitude. aural harmonic: a harmonic that is generated in the auditory system. 3. articulation: moving those parts of the vocal tract (for example. or zeros. 2. Antiformants. The waveform of a sound is represented on a two-dimensional graph in which amplitude is plotted as a function of the sound. the magnitude of displacement for a sound wave.
auralization software: utilizes pure sound recordings from anechoic chambers to predict how a room will acoustically sound by adding in the room size. the autocorrelation will not have conspicuous peaks at any time-shift value. usually the observer's bearing. If the signal is a periodic. and thus has a bandwidth of 3100 Hz. There are many female barbershop groups and larger barbershop choirs. 2. barbershop: a style of popular music for unaccompanied single-sex voices in close harmony. the acoustical properties of all surfaces. autocorrelation: 1. 2. A sequence that repeats identically receives the maximum autocorrelation value when the delay equals the length of the repeated segment. beats: periodic variations in amplitude that result from the superposition or addition of two tones with nearly the same frequency. especially the resonance. the autocorrelation function will have a peak at the time-shift value corresponding to a fundamental period. The sound on normal telephone links. bandwidth: 1. bias: 1. an analytical procedure in which a signal is correlated with a time-shifted version of itself (auto=self). If the signal is periodic. azimuth: the angular distance along the horizon between a point of reference. a mathematical tool for describing how similar one segment of a sequence. a measure of the frequency band of a sound. Autocorrelation is sometimes used to determine the fundamental frequency of a speech signal. bass: the lowest male singing voice. the frequency range of a signal. the comparison of a signal with a previous signal in order to pick out repetitive features. Beats occur when mistuning an interval slightly so that partials with nearly equal frequencies will sound together causing beats. Conventionally. basal pitch: the frequency at which the periodic fundamental frequency is no longer able to be analyzed. is a delayed segment of the same sequence. originally four male voices. Both the higher and the lower frequencies that define the bandwidth are 3dB less intense than the peak energy in the band. bandwidth is determined at the half-power (3 dB down) points of the frequency response curve. and another object. 103 . baritone: the male singing range between bass and tenor. Bernoulli effect: the effect in which the pressure in a fluid is decreased when the flow velocity is increased. in this instance a sound. for example. room shape. 3. is restricted to frequencies from 300 Hz to 2400 Hz. the ratio between the parts of the distribution lying left and right of the mode.
A supercardioid microphone is similar to a hyper-cardioid . channel gain correction: small asymmetries in microphone position and physical differences between subjects that night cause small variation in gain between the left and the right microphones. at the first harmonic (note the transliteration from harmonic). since they are good at rejecting sounds from other directions. Voiced speech tends to have a strong cepstral peak. channel: 1. the frequency ratio for one cent = 1200√2 = 1. cardinal vowels: eight vowel sounds that serve as a standard of comparison for the vowels of various languages. for example. cepstrum: a Fourier transform of the power spectrum of a signal. This factor is then used to adjust the channel balance for 104 . 2. cardiod: The most common unidirectional microphone is a cardioid microphone. A hyper-cardioid is similar but with a tighter area of front sensitivity and a tiny lobe of rear sensitivity. that which is added to the desired signal to produce a composite. which has time-like properties.2. cent: one-hundredth of a semitone or half-step. a path for electronic signals within a computer and a peripheral device. The equivalent level (Leq) (average power) in the two channels must be measured and compared to reveal a channel gain correction factor to the nearest 0. a path for electrical current. The transform is described in terms of quefrency (note the transliteration from frequency). bimodality: the simultaneous use of two pitch collections. a path for computer signals.1 dB for each participant. In the case of magnetic tape recording. the bias may be either a constant magnetic field or a field that varies at a high frequency.000578. the number that when multiplied by itself 1200 times equals the frequency ratio of one octave. The equal tempered semitone is subdivided into cents with one cent being one hundredth of an equal tempered semitone. The cepstrum is used to determine the fundamental frequency of a speech signal. cepstral fundamental frequency analysis: the cepstrum operation to determine the fundamental frequency of a tone. binaural: second reproduction using two microphones (usually a "dummy" head) feeding two headphones in order for the listener to hear the sound he or she would have heard at the recording location. except there is more front pick up and less rear pick up. These three patterns are commonly used as vocal or speech microphones. so named because the sensitivity pattern is heart-shaped. cardinal microphone: a microphone with a heart-shaped directivity pattern designed to pick sound in one direction preferentially.
In analog systems this is sometimes desirable in terms of the perceptual effect it has on the audio material. including dynamics. typically combining smaller groups of singers who sing different parts at different pitches.maximum cancellation of the participant signal. clipping occurs when the signal exceeds 0 dB FS and results in very harsh distortion. aspects that contribute to choral blend. closed phase: the portion of the vocal fold vibration cycle for which the folds are in contact. the amount time in the vibratory vocal fold pattern which the vocal fold pattern in which the vocal folds are completely closed. choral blend: 1. strongly perceived inside the choir. clip: (see distortion) 1. is one of attractions of choir singing. closed phase (CO): encompasses the closing. in phonetics to shorten a speech sound. often referred to as CP. the percentage of a vocal fold vibration cycle for which the folds are in contact. In a cognitive sense. closed and opening phases of the vocal fold 105 . The sensation of this extraordinary phenomenon. also referred to as ensemble. With a digital system. and temporal aspects relating to note onsets and offsets and consonants in the text. each separated by a semitone. choir: an organized group of singers who perform together. 2. although we cannot distinguish any one of them. often referred to as CQ. intonation. clipping: the unpleasant effect that is achieved when a signal exceeds the dynamic range of the medium being used. choral: having to do with choirs. combine and create a quasirandom sound of such complexity that the normal mechanisms of auditory localization and fusion are disrupted. 2. all with flutter and pitch scatter. timbre. chorus: when one hears many singers doing the same thing. Qclosed): 1. chorus effect: the effect that arises when many voices. closed quotient (CQ. chest voice (register): node of singing associated with a heavy mechanism or active vocalis muscles. chromatic scale: an ascending or descending sequence of twelve tones. also known as distortion or clipping distortion. existence of its own. the individuals should strive to make the sound of his or her own voice similar in character to that which is prevalent in the group. the chorus effect can magically dissociate the sound from its sources and endow it with an independent almost ethereal.
consonance: two tones presented together with minimum roughness. every second partial of the upper tone will coincide with every third partial of the lower tone. For example. contralto: (see alto) lowest female singing part. complex periodic waveform: a nonsinusoidal waveform that exhibits a repeating pattern or cycle. based on the same technology as the audio CD. condenser microphone: a microphone in which the diaphragm serves as one plate of a small capacitor or condenser. first appearing in 1982. coarticulation: 1. contact microphone: accelerometer microphone. It is used to store and distribute up to 700 MB of data files or audio material. the electrical charge on the condenser varies.1 kHz and a resolution of 16 bits.vibratory cycle. A CD is two-track and uses a sample rate of 44. combination tone: a secondary tone heard when two primary tones are received. One feature of a speech unit may be anticipated during production of an earlier unit in the string (anticipatory or forward coarticulation) or retained during a production of a unit that comes later (retentive or backward coarticulation). in a pure fifth. Combination tones are usually different tones. 2. complex nonperiodic waveform: a waveform that exhibits no repeating pattern or cycle. he phenomenon in speech in which the attributes of successive speech units overlap in articulatory or acoustic patterns. compact disc-recordable (CD-R): a digital data storage format. As the diaphragm moves. common partials: those partial tones of two sounds that coincide in frequency when the two sounds are playing a harmonic dyad. correlation: in statistics. compact disc (CD): a popular digital recording format. surpassing vinyl record sales in 1988. modification of speech sounds when they are connected to other sounds in a spoken sequence. 106 . although summation tones are possible. the degree to which two or more variables are related when compared to each other. closed quotient (CQ): the amount of time in the vibratory vocal fold pattern in which the vocal folds are completely closed.
critical distance: the sound source to listener distance at which the levels of the direct sound and the reverberant field are equal. in which the vocal folds are relaxed and vibrating in a low frequency. 107 . critical band: 1. cross correlation: the comparison of two signals in order to pick out common features. covering implies an elevation of the soft palate. Physiologically. the frequency bandwidth at which subjective response (to loudness. critical frequency: the frequency of bending (flexural) waves in a panel that can be excited by sound waves traveling at the same speed. Cronbach's alpha: a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. 2. crescendo: a gradual increase in loudness. the critical bandwidth appears to determine consonance or dissonance. often with more than one closure pure cycle. crico: lower cartilage of the larynx. it is possible to hear each of the tones as autonomous tones. a lowering and forward tilting of the larynx in addition to a widening of the supraglottal tract as well as the hypopharynx and the laryngeal ventricles. This technique allows for the passage between registers without perceptual differences in timbre. cricoarytenoids: muscles that rotate the arytenoids cartilages on the cricoid cartilage. cricothyroids: muscles attached to the front of the cricoid cartilage that can change the relationships of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. etc.countertenor: a male singing voice in the alto range that is primarily based on falsetto. Some voice teachers will direct the singer to sing while yawning to achieve the effect of covered singing. As soon as the frequency separation exceeds a critical band. covered singing: vocal technique introduced by the French tenor Duprez in 1830 used for singing on open vowels which smoothes the register transitions near the passaggio. critical bands of hearing: perceptual relevance of a critical band is that tones of similar amplitudes falling into the same critical band merge into a buzzing sound unit so that the tones cannot be heard individually as two autonomous tones. It is often described as a slight darkening of the voice quality and acoustically at a higher level of the fundamental and a higher air flow. the range of frequencies over which tones simply add in loudness. creaky voice: a voice quality that is low and rather broken up in pitch.) changes rather abruptly. pitch.
decibel (dB): 1. on average be heard). deci-: prefix indicating a tenth. a dimensionless unit used to compare the ratio of two quantities (such as sound pressure. loss of energy of a vibrator. 3." current gain: the ratio of output current to input current. the rate of absorption of sound energy. When the signal is taken from a tape in digital form. introduced in 1987. which is 10-1. diatonic scale: a scale of seven whole tones and semitones appropriate to a particular key. dB SPL: decibel level based in a sound pressure level measurement. de-emphasis: a process used in portable DAT machines which applies to a standard highfrequency emphasis. digital audio tape (DAT): a tape-based digital recording medium. usually through friction. or intensity). 2. if fidelity is important. its frequency response must be corrected. before recording the signal. cycle: a pattern that is repeated in a periodic waveform. dB SIL: decibel level based on a sound intensity level measurement. a dimensionless unit used for measuring sound intensity or sound pressure level. mostly used in studios. current: the flow of electrical charge measured in amperes. ∆: the Greek letter Delta. diaphragm: organ composed of muscles and sinews. separating the respiratory and digestive systems. 2. with a 50 μs/15 characteristic. denoting change in quantity. often abbreviated "amps. power. or to express the ratio of one such quantity to an appropriate reference.cues: the characteristics of speech sounds that help to identify the speech sound. 108 . decrescendo: a gradual increase in loudness. The DAT stereo signal should be transferred in digital form to disc files with a computer interface so that the frequency characteristic is de-emphasized digitally for digital signal processing (DSP). related to bandwidth. and removes it on playback. The decibel measurement is a ratio measurement that measures how loud a sound level is with respect to a reference (usually the softest sound that can. energy loss in a system that slows it down or leads to a decrease in amplitude. partition between the chest and abdominal cavities. damping: 1.
as in harmonic distortion. dynamic microphone: 1. dissonance is described as roughness and results when tones with appropriate frequency difference are presented simultaneously. inter-modulation distortion. 109 . 3. introduced in 1996 and used for film and computer data storage. If properly referenced. a microphone that generates an electrical voltage by the movement of a coil of wire in a magnetic field. this should be called the quadratic difference tone to distinguish it from the cubic and other difference tones.f2 . DSP: digital signal processing. diffraction: the spreading of waves when they encounter a barrier or pass through a narrow opening. Derivatives also include DVD-audio and HD-DVD (high-definition DVD). the original analog is sampled many times per second and each sample is represented by a binary number. Doppler effect: the shift in apparent frequency when the source or observer is in motion. The result can therefore be easily stored and manipulated as part of a computer system. 2. signals that appear in the output of a sound reproduction system that were not present in the original program material. digital-to-analog converter: a circuit that converts numbers from a digital to an analog representation. dissonance: in acoustical sound measurement. or combination of two symbols to represent the onglide and offglide portions. When sound is digitized. digital virtual disc (DVD): a high-intensity recording medium. diphthong: sound involving a gradual change in articulatory configuration from an onglide to offglide position.difference tone: when two tones having frequencies f1 and f2 are sounded together. an undesired change in waveform. direct sound: sound that reaches the listener without being reflected. digital: refers to a signal which is coded as a stream of binary numbers. a difference tone with frequency f1 . digital oscillator: a circuit that assembles a sequence of numbers to represent the desired waveform. a measure of the difference between the output and input signals in an amplifier. distortion: 1. duet: an instrumental or vocal composition written for two performers of equal importance. The usual phonetic symbol is a diagraph.
and this is very evident when viewed as a waveform.) electromyography (EMG): an objective method available to study laryngeal muscle activity by providing information about the electrical activity resulting from the contraction of muscles or motor units. a microphone that generates an electrical signal when acoustic pressure waves cause a conductive coil to vibrate in a stationary magnetic field. 1966. electroglottograph: an electroglottograph offers a signal mirroring the opening and closing of the vocal folds. Fourcin.2. electoaerometer: an airflow transducer that converts airflow into an appropriate electrical signal. expiratory flow volume. early sound: sound that reaches the listener within a short time (about 50 ms) after the direct sound. tidal volume. A dynamic audio signal is said to show significant variation between the loudest and softest parts which is evident when used as a waveform. electret-condenser microphone: 1. (Two electrodes are placed on opposite sides of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx.a material that permanently stores an electrostatic charge. a type of condenser microphone in which the electrostatic charge on the plates of the capacitor is generated by an electret . a condenser microphone that has an electrified foil as a dielectric. electrodes: as in electrolaryngograph electrodes – an electrical conductor used to make contact with a non-metalic part of a circuit. EMG helps determine which laryngeal muscles are being used during different respiratory 110 . It measures vital capacity. and the electroglottography is known as an excellent method for measurements of the fundamental frequency in speech (Fant et al. being the useful variation between the quietist and loudest and softest parts. The resulting waveform generally meets the demands of fundamental frequency detectors. and inspiratory capacity which are compared with predicted values. electroglottography (EGG): a device for measuring changes in electrical impedance (resistance) at the glottis. dynamics: refers to the loudness or softness of an audio signal and its related variation over time. and register a waveform for visual display. dynamic range: the difference in dB SPL between the maximum acceptable level and noise floor of a system or microphone. This is obtained by measuring the variations in a high-frequency current between surfaces electrodes placed on each side of the neck at the level of the glottis. 1974). The variation in the current is caused by the difference in the electrical impedance of the tissue when the glottis is open or closed and thus corresponds to the fundamental frequency of phonation. 2. thus eliminating the need for a polarizing voltage as required in an air-dielectric condenser microphone. In laryngeal muscle study..
among other things. energy ratio (ER): measures the balance in total energy between the low (0-2 kHz) and the high (2-4 kHz) ranges of the spectrum." 2. the envelope determines the attack and decay of a tone. Q factor. often the tuning used for pianos. f-test: statistical test to show the significance of variance changes. and the aryepiglottic folds. equalization: 1. and bandwidth. frequency selective gain. defined by center frequency control. the epiglottis. 3. the arytenoids. and to what extent a muscle is contracting. whether paired muscles fire in synchrony. The process involves invasive needle electrodes placed into the cricothyroid and thyroid parytenoid muscles. for example. organs. equal tempered scale: the state in which no one interval is accurately in-tune apart from the octave. time variation of the amplitude (or energy) of a vibration. equal temperament: 1. A low ER means that there is more energy in the high range and the singer's format region relative to the energy in the low range of the spectrum. changing the gain of a sound system at certain frequencies to compensate for the room resonances and other peaks in the response curve.059. an electronic device used to reduce distortion in a sound system by internally adjusting the system's response to different audio frequencies.the twelfth root of two. and every interval apart from the octave therefore has a degree of dissonance associated with it. a system of tuning in which all semitones are the same. epiglottis: a thin piece of skin that protects the glottis during swallowing. envelope: 1. which is based on each semitone having an ideal frequency ratio . enharmonic notes: two different notes that sound the same on keyboard instruments. epilaryngeal tube: the cavity limited by the vocal folds. 2.and phonation conditions. namely a frequency ratio of 2-12 = 1. cut or boost applied. Christy Ludlow used EMG non-invasively with surface electrodes for studies not requiring the same precision level and high-frequency responses. An EMG can tell the investigator whether muscle is operating. 2. when a muscle starts and stops contracting. 111 . the amplitude of a tone as a function of time. and electronic keyboards. It is calculated by taking the difference between the average energy in the low and high ranges of the LTAS. This results in each octave being perfectly "in tune. Gb and A#. the manner in which amplitude varies with time. equalizer: electronic sound adjuster.
Negative feedback induces amplifier gain but also decreases distortion. fast Fourier transform (FFT): an algorithm commonly used in the micro-computer programs to calculate a Fourier spectrum. and band-reject. 2. a hardware device or software program that provides a frequency-dependent transmission of energy. feedback: 1. if great enough. 3. can cause a system to oscillate. corresponding to a particular resonant frequency characteristic of the audio system in question. flow glottogram graph (FGG): graph that can show the following: peak-to-peak flow amplitude. a band-pass filter allows frequencies within a certain band to pass. 2. 5. an electrical circuit that passes alternating currents of some frequencies and attenuates others. A high-pass filter allows all components above a cut-off frequency to be transmitted. an arrangement by which a portion of the output of an amplifier is applied to the input. in choral acoustics this refers to the sound of one's own voice. A band filter allows frequencies within a certain band to pass. defined as the mean flow during the quasi-closed phase. in milliliters per second. Basic filter types are high-pass. the lower loudness limit dictated by the need for hearing the sound of one's own voice. A low-pass filter passes the frequencies below a certain cut off frequency to be transmitted. the narrower the bandwidth. 112 . The loop continues and results in a high pitched and unpleasant squeal if left unchecked. filters (high-pass and band-pass): acoustic elements that allow certain frequencies to be transmitted while attenuating others. band-pass. and duration of the quasi-closed phase in milliseconds. In analysis. for instance. a microphone signal is amplified and played back through the amplifier and speaker system again. Singers will sing only as quiet as they can hear themselves. a filter is used to exclude energy at certain frequencies while passing the energy at other frequencies. glottal leakage in milliliters per second. Commonly. period time in milliseconds. Positive feedback increases the gain and may lead to self-oscillation. The FFT is a special type of DFT in which the number of points transformed in a power of two. flow phonation: a higher peak amplitude of the trans-glottal air flow waveform. use of an output signal to control or influenced the input. Positive feedback. acoustic feedback occurs when. The number of points expresses the bandwidth of analysis. 4.falsetto: a voice quality that has a high fundamental frequency that is achieved by restricting the vibrating portions of the vocal folds. flow phonation usually presents itself as a higher amplitude in the LTAS in the low-frequency range in choral singing which is compatible with a lower first formant frequency and to a higher amplitude of the voice source fundamental. filter: 1. low-pass. which can be achieved by reducing the degree of glottal abduction activity and by lowering the subglottal pressure. the higher the value.
Typical flutter levels sustained by choir singers are 10-15 cents. rapid changes in the speed of a phono turntable or tape transport that can cause a wavering of the musical pitch. Formants are noted by integers that increase with the relative frequency location of the formants (F1. formant transition: a change in formant pattern. in the approximate range of 5-15 HZ for example. Vibrato is a special type of flutter. small variations in F0 that are too rapid to be perceived in pitch variations. the determination of the component tones that make up a complex tone or waveform. the CV formant transition refers to formant pattern changes associated with the consonant vowel transition. with regard to amplitude and speed. The amplitude and frequency are important in decreasing the occurrence of beating. flutter level: a standard deviation in F0. Fouier transform: a mathematical procedure that converts a series of values in the time domain (waveform) to a set of values in the frequency domain(spectrum). forte (ƒ ): loud. etc. 2. 113 . flutter: 1. Fouier synthesis: creation of a complex tone or waveform by combining its spectral components. typically associated with a phonetic boundary. formant tracking: resonant frequency of the speaker's vocal track are estimated by linear prediction at regular intervals through the signal. F2.). for example. flutter signal: a white noise added to the synthesized sound that has passed through a secondorder resonant filter and usually has its own generator.flow rate: the volume of air that flows past a point and measured per second. and the formants are identified from peaks. formant frequency: the center frequency of a formant. formant tuning: an enhancement in the energy of a song output achieved by moving a formant so that it lies over or close to the frequency of a harmonic. formant(s): a resonance of the vocal tract specified by its center frequency (commonly called formant frequency) and bandwidth. personal in character. Fouier analysis: also known as spectral analysis. 3. fortissimo (ƒƒ): very loud. The spectrum is the Fourier transform of the spectrum. yet too slow to affect timbre.
such as exists outdoors or in an anechoic room. expressed in Hertz (Hz). frequency modulation (FM): the method of radio broadcasting in which the frequency of a carrier wave is determined by the audio signal. fricatives: consonants that are formed by constricting air flow in the vocal tract . that part of the sound field where the sound level decreases by 6 dB for each doubling of distance. allows stations sufficient bandwidth to transmit high-fidelity stereophonic. and even quadraphonic. frequency: 1. frequency domain operation: an operation that is performed in the frequency domain. a speech sound characterized by a long interval of turbulence noise. Fricatives are often classified as stridents or non-stridents. zoo. s. which extends from 88 to 108 MHz. frequency response: how the gain in a system varies with the frequency. 2. In speech analysis systems. for example. for example. Software that performs multiple operations over an extended set of data often performs the operations on successive frames or blocks of data. v. th. a periodic sound has a frequency measured as the number of cycles of vibration per second (expressed in Hertz (Hz). Joe. etc. the rate of vibration of a periodic event. each with higher and higher frequency. the number of vibrations per second. sound. 2. frequency perturbations: jitter. depending on the degree of noise energy. sh. the frame is the temporal interval in which operations were performed. fee and vee. z. frame: a set of points taken as a single unit of analysis. the amplitudes or strengths of which will differ according to the nature of the original signal. that involves acoustic noise as its voice source (voiceless fricatives) and acoustic noise as well as vocal fold vibration (voiced fricatives). show. such as f. The FM band. a speech sound. resulting from the airstream flowing through a narrow gap in the vocal tract. in which sound pressure varies inversely with distance. fricative: 1. a reflection-free environment. function generator: an audio generator that provides several different waveforms or functions at the desired frequency. 2. such as the consonants in Sue. free field: 1. with a FFT or LPC spectrum.Fouier transformation analysis: the Fouier construct of any signal consists of the addition of regularly varying functions of the sine wave type. 114 .
relatively longer closed segments. the lowest frequency (first harmonic) of a periodic signal. harmonic distortion: 1. 115 . head voice (register): 1. F0): 1. In speech. It differed from the falsetto/loft register in that the vibratory cycle and reduced closing time. 2. 2. the frequency with which the vocal folds repeat their oscillatory motion in phonation. fundamental maximum (F0 max): the mode of distribution. smaller amplitude of vocal fold vibrations. harmonic: a series of partials with frequencies that are simple multiples of a fundamental frequency. harmonic-to-noise ratio: the degree of periodicity in the sound. fundamental mode: the mode of lowest frequency. the fundamental frequency refers to the first harmonic of the voice. fundamental frequency (f0. the first harmonic would be the fundamental. the sudden release of a glottal closure. the number of repeating cycles of a periodic waveform occurring in one second. 2. 3. and shorter closing time (reflected in an increased speed quotient). the mode of vibration (or component of sound) with the lowest frequency. clipping the peaks. first harmonic of the pitch being sung 3. Fundamental frequency is the reciprocal of the fundamental period. upper range of the singing voice.fundamental(s): 1. for example. The "fundamental" is another name for the first (lowest) partial tone. the lowest common factor in a series of harmonic partials. fundamental frequency is used to refer to a physical measure of the lowest periodic component of the vocal fold vibration. The unit is the Hertz or Hz. found to differ from the chest/modal register in that it involved higher pitch. The frequency of a periodic waveform is the reciprocal of its period. In a harmonic series. glottal stop: the sudden release of a glottal closure. glide: a consonant sound that has a gradual (gliding) change in articulation reflected by a relatively long interval of formant-frequency shift. Ideally. 2. whose frequency corresponds to the periodicity of the sound (cycles per second). the v-shaped opening between the vocal folds. Pitch should be used to indicate the perceptual phenomenon in which stimuli can be rated along a continuum of low to high (see pitch determination algorithm). harmonics are generated by altering the waveform. 2. the second harmonic of the first overtone. F0. glottis: 1. the creation of harmonics (frequency multiples) of the original signal by some type of nonlinearity in the system (the most common cause is over-driving some component).
heavy mechanism: a term sometimes used to describe the predominant role of the vocalis muscle; "chest voice." Hemholtz resonator: a vibrator consisting of a volume of enclosed air with an open neck or port. hemi-anechoic: used to describe a room with structural reflections from the floor only. hertz (Hz): cycles per second - the international system of units (SI) base unit of frequency. histogram: (fundamental frequency histogram) a graph of a frequency distribution in which rectangles with basis on the horizontal axis are given widths equal to the class intervals and heights equal to the corresponding frequencies. Hixon's kinematic method: a method of measuring usable air volume as it applies to vocal production. Hixon proposes the chest wall is made up of a two part system of the cage and the abdomen. Together, the rib cage and abdomen may displace a volume equal to that displaced by the lungs. To estimate these volumes, one looks at the changes in diameter(s) using magnetometers. Through this line of research, a well defined set of kinematic patterns associated with speech in normal subjects has been documented. hyper-functional phonation: pressed tone quality. hypo-functional notation: breathy tone quality usually caused by poor glottal abduction. impedance: 1. the ratio of the pressure to the velocity in a sound wave. 2. in electricity - a measure of the opposition to the flow of electric current by a circuit element such as a resistor, capacitor, or inductor. Impedance is measured in ohms. 3. in microphones - the ratio of voltage to current. In the case of source impedance, or output impedance, it is the current that the device can deliver. In the case of input impedance, it is the current that the device draws from the source. inharmonic overtones: overtones whose frequencies are not multiples of the fundamental, as in harmonics. inharmonic partial: 1. a partial or overtone that is not a harmonic of the fundamental. inharmonicity: the departure of the frequencies of partials from those of a harmonic series. intensity: power per unit area; rate of energy flow that indicates changes that are measured by reference to a sound level matter. interference: the interaction of two or more identical waves, which may support
(constructive interference) or cancel (destructive interference) each other. inter-modulation distortion: 1. generation of sum and difference tones. 2. (IM) distortion - the creation of sum and difference frequencies from signals of two different frequencies. interval: 1. a frequency ratio expressed in a logarithmic unit. 2. the distance between two frequencies (pitches). inverse filtering: a technique that compensates for the effect of the vocal tract resonances (formants). Ideally, this provides a graph showing the transglottal air flow wave form during phonation. This is done by tuning so-called inverse filters to formant frequencies so that a smooth spectrum envelope, unaffected by formant peaks, and a smooth flow glottogram are obtained. The FGG mirrors the transglottal airflow variations. jitter: irregularity in the period of time of vocal fold vibrations; cycle-to-cycle variation in fundamental frequency. Jitter is often perceived as hoarseness. just interval: occurs when the ratio of their frequencies can be expressed by small integers. If a just interval is formed by two tones with harmonic spectra, then some of the partials from the two tones will coincide in frequency. For example, fifth - 3.2, major third - 5.4. just intonation: intervallic tuning based on integer ratios taken from the natural harmonic series that attempts to make thirds, fourths, and fifths as constant as possible. It is based on major triads with frequency ratios 4:5:6. Chords tuned in just intonation will have the maximum degree of consonance associated with them because the maximum number of neighboring harmonies of each note is in unison and the tuning is maximally beat-free. kilohertz (Hz): 1,000 Hertz. laminar flow: a type of airflow in which the air moves in smooth layers, contrasts with turbulence. larynx: 1. the source of sound for speaking and singing. 2. the organ in the neck that is used for voiced sounds; sometimes referred to as the voice, is the source of sound for speaking and singing. The larynx is the human sound generator comprised of quasiperiodic pulses of air which cause vibration of the vocal folds, often referred to as the gatekeeper of the lungs. 3. the section of the vocal tract, composed mostly of cartilage, that contains vocal folds. larynx closed quotient measurement with electrolaryngograph: larynx closed quotient (CQ) is measured from the electrolaryngograph output waveform. This allows the nature of vibration of the vocal folds to be monitored non-invasively via two electrodes that are placed superficially on either side of the neck at larynx level and held in place with an
elastic neckband. A constant amplitude high frequency voltage is applied between the electrodes and the electrolaryngograph monitors the current flow which varies as the electrical output waveform, usually denoted Lx, is indicative of the inter-electrode current flow. light mechanism: term sometimes used to describe dominant vocal-ligament activity; may refer to head voice. limen: just notable difference (jnd). linear predictive coding (LPC): 1. describes a speech waveform in terms of a set time-varying parameters derived from speech samples. 2. class of methods used to obtain a spectrum. Linear predictive coding uses a weighted linear sum of samples to predict an upcoming value. logarithm: the power to which 10 or some other base must be raised to give the desired number. logarithm scale: a scale on which moving a given distance right or left multiplies or divides by a given factor. Lombard effect: 1. the tendency to increase one's vocal intensity in noise. 2. First described by Etienne Lombard in 1911, the Lombard effect is the spontaneous tendency of speakers to increase their vocal intensity when talking in the presence of noise. long-term average spectrum (LTAS): an average of a number of short-term spectra. loudness: 1. the subjective assessment of the strength of a sound, which depends on its pressure, frequency, and timbre; loudness may be expressed in sones. 2. the perceived level of a sound which changes as acoustic intensity changes. loudness level: sound pressure level of a 1000 Hz tone that sounds equally loud when compared to the tone in question. Loudness level is expressed in phons. major diatonic scale: a scale of seven notes with the following sequence of intervals: two whole tones, one semitone, three whole tones, one semitone. major triad: a chord of three notes having intervals of a major third and a minor third respectively. manner: a description used with voice and place to describe the way in which speech sounds are articulated. masking: 1. the obscuring of one sound by another. 2. the phenomenon that one cannot hear a normally audible sound because of the
dimensions. such as an average or expected value. mHz: an abbreviation for mill Hertz. lowered a semitone from the corresponding major scale. MFOV. MFON: mean fundamental average of all participants. In the key of C-minor.presence of a competing sound. mezzo-piano (mp): medium soft. mezzo-forte (mf): medium loud. microtone: any interval smaller than a semitone. mean: intermediate value in mathematics. millihertz or megahertz. while the loudness is varied from soft to loud and then from loud back to soft with no change in timbre. a value that is intermediate between other values. maximum flow declination rate (MFDR): amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram. MF0: the arithmetic mean of the distribution. the three minor scales are: natural: C D Eb F G Ab Bb C harmonic: C D Eb F G Ab B C melodic (ascending): C D Eb F G A B C melodic (descending): C D Eb F G Ab Bb C 119 . measurement: an act of or the process of ascertaining the extent. quantity. messa di voce: singing the same pitch. etc. N: one value of the mean fundamental average of all participants and the scatter over the singers. microphone: a device that converts sound pressure variation into an electrical voltage signal. MFOV: mean fundamental average of all participants. middle register: a combination of light and heavy mechanism that lies between the head and chest registers. meantone: see Pythagorean tuning. mezzo-soprano: the female singing voice that is between an alto and a soprano. the time averaged such that the voice pitch is perceived to match a target pitch. minor scale: a scale with one to three notes.
nasal formant: the low frequency resonance associated with the nasal tract. near field: that part of the sound field where the sound level varies from point to point because of the radiation pattern of the source. nasals: consonants that make use of resonance of the nasal cavity such as m. 120 . The monitor mixing desk in a large PA system is located on or near the stage. either with or without an accompanying oral radiation. ng. the loudness at the listener's position will faithfully track that of the source (MTI close to 1): while in rooms with much reverberation the loudness at the listener will be smeared to an almost constant level (MTI close to 0). nasal cavity: nose. loud speakers are sometimes called monitors. monaural: sound reproduction using one microphone to feed a single headphone. The monitor speakers (also known as wedges) are those used to project sound to the performers rather than the audience. The MTI value correlates rather well with the intelligibility of speech in a room. the nasal formant has a frequency of less than 500 Hz.minor triad: a chord of three notes having intervals of a minor third and a major third. Also that aspect of a PA system that relates to the onstage performers. modulation transfer index: a measure used in room acoustics that predicts how well the variations in the loudness of a source are transmitted to a listener. respectively (as C: Eb : G ). A narrow-band analysis is preferred when the interest is to increase frequency resolution. as in the analysis of harmonics for a man's voice. For men's speech. such as is used in telephone communication. nasal: a speech sound that involves nasal radiation of sound energy. n. monitor: generally refers to listening to the output of an audio system. modulate: to change some parameter (usually amplitude or frequency) of one signal in proportion to a second signal. In rooms with little reverberation. Hence. monophonic: sound reproduction using one microphone to feed one or more loudspeakers with one signal musical staff (pl: staves): a five-line graph on which musical notes are written. narrow-band analysis: an analysis in which the analyzing bandwidth is relatively narrow (such as 45 Hz in speech analysis).
normal modes: independent ways in which a system can vibrate. model. An open phase does not include the process of opening or closing the vocal folds. oral cavity: mouth. Speaker normalization refers to the correction or scaling that reduces variability in acoustic measures such as formant frequencies. the sampling rate of digitization should be at least twice the highest frequency of interest in the signal to be analyzed. a point or line where minimal motion takes place. Some use it to indicate the highest frequency of interest in an analysis. oscilloscope: a device that depicts on a screen periodic changes in and electric quantity. 2. using a cathode-ray tube or similar instrument. . graduated for different variables so that when a straight line connects values of any two. Notes judged an octave apart have frequencies nearly in the ratio 2:1. normalize: to conform to a standard. the portion of the vibration cycle for which the folds are apart. open quotient (OQ): the percentage of a vocal fold vibration cycle for which the folds are apart. as as voltage or current. others use it to refer to twice the highest frequency of interest. Nyquist sampling theorem: This theorem states that a digital representation requires at least two sampling points for every periodic cycle in the signal of interest. nomogram: a graph usually containing three parallel scales. 2. Therefore.node (or nodal line): 1. to the sampling rate needed to prevent aliasing. that is. Time normalization refers to the correction or scaling that reduces variability in the duration of sound sequences. only the complete open stage. omni-directional: a microphone directivity pattern that is perfectly uniform. non-voiced sounds: see voiceless sounds. the microphone is equally responsive to sounds indicated from any angle. the related value may be read may be directly from the third at the point intersected by the lines. normalization: a correction for variance. 121 . octave: the basic unit in most musical scales. points or lines that do not move when a body vibrates in one of its modes. or pattern. open phase (OP): 1. ohms: measures impedance in electricity. the part of the vocal fold vibratory cycle is which the vocal folds are completely open. the term Nyquist Frequency is inconsistently used. that is. Unfortunately.
overtone(s): 1. a mode of vibration (or component of a sound). a mode of vibration (or component of sound) with frequency greater than the fundamental frequency. peak clipping: omitting the amplitude of a waveform so that peaks in the waveform are eliminated. upper partials or all components of a tone except the fundamental. paired t-test: for matched paired samples where two groups are matched on a particular variable (see t-test). where the first overtone is the first tone over the fundamental (the second harmonic). this distorts the waveform. included the fundamental plan plus the overtones. 3. 122 . 3. Pearson product-moment correlation (Pearson correlation): a statistical measurement obtained by dividing the co-variance of the two variables by the product of their standard deviations. the second overtone is the third harmonic. passaggio: the point of transition between the chest/modal register and the adjacent higher register. period: 1. palate: the roof of the mouth. It may or may not be a harmonic of the fundamental. oversampling: a method for increasing the rate of digital samples to the DAC in order to avoid the need for an analog filter with a sharp cutoff. partial tone: (partial) 1. one of the components in a complex tone.other-signal: the sum of all external sounds perceived by the singer. etc. such as the Chinese. peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (Up-t-p): the measurement between the peak and the trough of a waveform. harmonics that are over the fundamental. the time duration of one vibration. periodic quantity: a period that repeats itself at regular time intervals. 2. pentatonic scale: a scale of five notes used in several music cultures. the minimum time necessary for the motion to repeat. 2. and Celtic cultures. 2. Native American. the time that a repeating cycle lasts. the smallest increment of time over which a waveform repeats itself.
but can also come from an internal battery. 2.periodicity pitch: pitch determination of the basis of the period of the waveform of a tone. they are in opposite phase. and this can result in a signal of lower amplitude than the original. Phase is often expressed as an angle that is an appropriate fraction of 3600. in a vibration cycle. and hence are not in phase. especially in the laryngeal waveform. (If the phase difference is zero. perturbation measures: indices of irregularity or instability. or additional peaks or troughs in the overall frequency response. Peaks and troughs in the signal waveform do not line up. Although only used for condenser type microphones. the lower part of the vocal tract connecting the larynx and the oral cavity. that are usually supplied from the microphone input of the mixing desk. 2. if it is 1800. lower part of the vocal tract which connects the mouth to the trachea. pitch determination algorithm (PDA): (also known as pitch distraction. is it is often used in 123 . phase difference: 1. The common measures of perturbation include jitter. pitch: particular frequency of a single note. the vocal tract region between the larynx and the velum. pharynx: 1.) piano (p): soft. also the relative positions. 3. pianissimo (pp): very soft. a measure of the relative positions of two vibrating objects at a given time. phantom power will not damage the internal workings of a dynamic microphone if used in error. they are in phase. of a vibrating object and a driving force. measured from a reference. perturbation: term for describing a complicated system (phonation) in terms of a simpler one. phase cancellation: occurs when two acoustic (or electric) signals are added together that are not exactly matched. Although the term pitch strictly should be used to refer to a perceptual phenomenon.) a procedure used to extract the fundamental frequency of a speech signal. phantom power: 12 to 48 v DC applied to pins 2 and 3 of the microphone connector required to make non-electret condenser microphones work. the difference in phase angle between two simple harmonic motions or waves. phase: the fractional part of a period through which a waveform has passed. shimmer. and signal-to noise ratio. Phase cancellation typically occurs when a signal plus a very slightly delayed version of the same signal are added together and thus may happen due to reflections from a surface being added to the direct sound at a microphone or due to timing difference when using multiple spaced microphones.
The loudness level in phons equals the sound pressure level in decibels. and the closure is released to create the characteristic sound. a process in which a patient is placed in a sealed box with the face freed for full phonation. d. laryngeal. for a tone of 1000 Hz. k. phonetics: the study of speech sounds. phon: a dimensionless unit used to measure loudness level. A phonetogram is a display of intensity range versus fundamental frequency (f0). b.speech analysis to refer to fundamental frequency. phono: a one signal wire plus screen hi-fi connector carrying a line level signal and used extensively on semiprofessional recording equipment. Subglottal aerodynamic power is converted into laryngeal and acoustic dynamics with fine tuning by the kinesthetic and auditory senses. pitch: 1. 2. that attribute of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a scale extending from low to high. pitch shift: sound recording technique in which the normal pitch or tone of the sound is altered. plethmysmograph: 1. due to changes in fundamental frequency. and articulatory. phonation frequency: fundamental frequency (F0). phonation: 1. essentially. 2. t. The changes of volume within the box. pitch scatter: arises when voices in an ensemble exhibit small differences in mean fundamental. plosives: consonants that are produced by suddenly removing a constriction in the vocal tract (p. but not entirely. the perception of tones on a scale from low to high. which occur as the patient changes thoracic air volume are recorded by connecting the box to a spirometer 124 . requires proper functioning of three interrelated systems: respiratory. g). phonemes: individual units of sound that make up speech. phonetogram: (also called a voice profile) recordings of minimum and maximum phonatory sound level as functions of fundamental frequency illustrated as a graph showing the sound pressure level (SPL) of softest and loudest phonation over the entire fundamental frequency (f0) range of a voice. a sound with a sound source that involves vocal fold vibration. plosive: a speech sound that involves a complete vocal tract closure behind which lung air pressure builds up.
the energy source for sound creation. these frequencies would dominate analysis results if preemphasis were not performed. vibratory. pure sound: sound without sound reflections or echoes. preemphasis: in speech analysis. power source: in the context of voice production. prevoicing means that voicing precedes the stop release (also called voicing lead). or auditory sensation. moment to moment airflow can be measured. pneumotachometer: a type of airflow transducer that converts airflow into an appropriate electrical signal. proximity effect: the bass boost that occurs when using a cardiod type microphone placed close to a sound source. portamento: sliding from one note to another rather than changing the pitch abruptly. The preamp is found in the input stages of mixing desk for boosting microphone levels. relaxation. The closer the microphone. a type of airflow transducer that converts airflow into an appropriate electrical signal. for example. resulting in muscle. also as external stand-alone units and as part of the internal workings of a condenser microphone. for stops. the greater the low frequency boost. prosodic feature: a characteristic of speech. Because speech normally contains its strongest energy in the low frequencies. or function. such as pitch. First described by Mead in 1960 and then modified by Hixon and Warren. proprioception: awareness of stimuli produced by one's own tension. power gain: the ratio of output power to input power. rhythm. a filtering that boosts high-frequency energy relative to low-frequency energy. psychophysics: the study of the relationship between stimuli and the sensations they produce. movement. 2. preamp: an electronic current and the first stage of amplification used to boost a signal level. When added to a ventilograph. Its basic function is to measure airflow. that is used to convey meaning. and accent. emphasis. and emotion. pressed phonation: characterized by an elevated degree of glottal adduction which yields less SPL for a given Ps than a more neutral mode of phonation. prevoicing: the onset of voicing before the appearance of a supra-glottal articulatory event.face. which is provided from the lungs as an outflow of air by the breathing mechanism. Pure sound is utilized in acoustical design research and with auralization 125 . a resultant of recordings from anechoic chambers.
0136 corresponding to 23. 126 .5¢. If one were to tune descending P5ths (around the circle of 5ths).software. quantization: the assignment of discrete values to the amplitude dimension of an analog signal. a high pass filter). The divisions were based on a philosophical numerological principle rather than on the acceptability of the sounds of the intervals themselves. quadraphonic: sound reproduction using four microphones to feed four loudspeakers. It is typically expressed as a 6 dB per octave increase in sound energy (hence. real-time: an operation which takes no more time than the incoming signal itself. which could all be derived by the simple operation of numbers one to four. usually two are in front of the listener and two are behind or to the sides. The level difference between the reference and the feedback is one of the more important acoustic factors in choir singing. fourths and fifths. radiation characteristic: the term in source filter theory associated with the radiation of sound from the lips to the atmosphere. The Pythagorean comma illustrates the small difference between two kinds of semitones (chromatic and diatonic) in the Pythagorean tuning. quartet: four persons singing and/or playing an instrument. Pythagorean comma: a formula supporting equal temperament tuning of pianos for it shows that if one were to tune the piano by securing ascending P5ths as one moved around the circle of 5ths. pure tuning: pure intonation (also known as just intonation) is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by ratios of whole numbers. Weak feedback or reference generally leads to intonation problems. Quantization is the process by which a continuous variation in amplitude is represented as a sequence of discrete values. a system of tuning based on perfect fifths and fourths. Pythagorean Comma = [3/2]12 = 129. Qclosed: closed quotient of the vocal fold wave.01364 7 128. quantization noise: a signal distortion that results from an inadequate number of quantizations levels in digitizing a signal.000 Pythagorean tuning: 1. the result would be flat octaves.746=1. the result would be sharp octaves. Therefore. This process is necessary to represent the signal in a digital computer. a frequency ratio 1. reference: (in choral acoustics) the sound of the rest of the choir as the singer hears them. the frequency ratio of the interval of the major third was the rather complex one of the 81:64. 2. the only intervals constant in Pythagorean tuning are the octaves.
reverberant sound: 1. roll off frequencies: frequencies selected to be filtered out of the sound so that other frequencies predominate. in electricity. 2. sound that reaches the listener after a large number of reflections. a preferred frequency of a system which in the case of the vocal tract is the set of formants associated with different articulations that create various vocal tract shapes during speech and singing. a difference between male and female voice character. for example. as one moves away from a sound source. rhinomanometer: a device used to measure nasal inspiratory flow and pressure. 2. 3. roughness implies that one can hear the individual air pulses during phonation. a phonation frequency range in which all tones are perceived as being produced in a similar way and possessing a similar quality. 2. sound that builds up and decays gradually and can be "stored" in a room for an appreciable time. In extreme forms. rounding is associated with a lowering of the frequencies of all formants. reverberation time: the time required for the stored or reverberant sound to decrease by 60 dB. reverberation radius: the sound source to listener distance at which the levels of the direct sound and the reverberation field are equal. rf: radio frequency. 127 . rounding: an articulatory description referring to the rounding or protrusion of the lips. a group of related notes on a musical instrument. When a vibrator is driven by a force that varies at a frequency at or near the natural frequency of the vibrator.register: 1. Roughness is dependent on the critical bands of hearing. Male voices tend to have roughness whereas female voices will be more smooth. roughness: 1. Rothenberg flow mask system: see pneumotachometer. the sound level reaches a steady value called the reverberant level. As applied to vowels. the natural frequency of a system at which its response to a mechanical or electrical force reaches a maximum. may include all notes whose pitch corresponds to the lowest resonance of an air column. reverberant field: that part of the sound field in which sound level is independent of distance from the source. resonance: 1. one register.
typically for microphones. SFOV: standard deviation measurement of scatter in FO across singers. signal-to-noise ratio: 1. the ratio (usually expressed in dB) of the average recorded signal to the background noise. SIL: sound intensity level. 2. the SOR decreases with increasing reverberation. 3. 128 . one step on a chromatic scale. self-to-other ratio (SOR): the level difference in decibels between self and others.059. usually measured as variation in the amplitude of successive glottal cycles. a measure of the ratio between signal energy and noise energy. hence. a half-step.second-order beats: beats between two tones with frequencies that are nearly but not quite in a simple ratio. In equal temperament. because the direct sound from immediate neighbors becomes weaker with distance. also beats between mistuned consonances. semitone: 1. 2. 2. The SOR will increase with increased spacing between singers. which is dominated by the other sound. the unloaded output voltage of a microphone determined by placing it in front of a reference sound source with a measured sound pressure level of 94 dB at 1 kHz. with a stronger self signal represented by a positive SOR value. sidebands: sum and difference tones generated during modulation. self-signal: the sum of the airborne sound (not counting room reflections) and the boneconducted sound that the singer perceives of his or her own voice. SFOV. the ratio between the measured noise floor or noise level of a medium and a reference signal transmitted through this medium. a semitone corresponds to 100¢ or to a frequency ratio of 1. The amount of reverberation in the room governs the intensity of the diffuse field. SFON: standard deviation of fundamental stability of one singer. voltage or power generated in a microphone at a given sound pressure level (SPL). a 1 kHz test tone at 94 dB SPL. shimmer: an index of instability in the laryngeal waveform. short term spectrum: a single spectrum. N: standard deviation measurement of the fundamental average of all participants and the scatter over all the singers. sensitivity (microphone): 1. normally 1/12 of an octave. In speech analysis S/N usually refers to the periodic energy relative to noise energy. This value for SPL is the same as a pressure value of 1 Pa.
For example. doubling the number of sones should describe a sound twice as loud. solo: one person singing and/or playing an instrument. a pure tone or frequency of vibration. 5. located at an optimal frequency. Because it is generated by resonance effects alone. sinusoidal force: a smoothly varying force with a single frequency. it calls for no extra air pressure. 4. singing formant: quality singing that has a characteristic "ring" identified as a harmonic strength centering around 2. sone: a unit used to express subjective loudness. singing power ratio (SPR): a measure of the singer's format energy. 3. a resonance in the 2.simple harmonic motion: smooth. high enough to be in the region of declining orchestral sound energy but not so high as to be beyond the range in which the singer can exercise good control. often described as its ring. 6. singers project their voices over an orchestra by adding an additional region of energy peaks within a particular frequency region of the voice spectrum corresponding to the shape of the epilaryngeal tube. singer's formant: 1. for vowels.8 Hz. source-filter theory: a theory of the acoustic production of speech that states that the energy from a sound source is modified by a filter or set of filters. 129 . widely used by classical singers and teachers 4. The SPR measures the difference between the peak levels in the low range (0-2 kHz) and the high range (2-4 kHz) of the spectrum. the waveform is described as a sine wave.5 kHz to 4 kHz region that gives a voice projection over an orchestra. a resonance around 2500-3000 Hz in male (and low female) voices that adds brilliance to the tone. smear: the standard deviation over voices of the scaling factor up or down of formant clusters. a tone without harmonics or overtones) and also simple harmonic motion. soprano: the female singing voice above mezzo-soprano. This timbral quality is relatively independent of other factors. 5 which in turn generates the singer's formant (Fs). sine wave: a waveform that is characteristic of a pure tone (that is. regular vibrational motion at a single frequency such as that of a mass supported by a spring. sinusoidal: pertaining to a sine wave. 2. occurs when singers cluster formants 3.
A spectrogram can be printed as hard copy or displayed on a video monitor. This analysis is based on the Fourier theorem which states that any periodic waveform can be analyzed into a series of sine waves with different frequencies. a pattern for sound analysis containing information on intensity. amplitudes. spectrogram: 1. sound pressure level: Lp = 20 log p/p0 where p is sound pressure and p0 = 2 X 10-5N/m2 (or 20 micropascals) (abbreviated SPL or Lp). 2. and phase relations. frequency on the vertical axis. 130 . frequency and time as recorded on a sound spectrograph or similar instrument. and the intensity on the grey scale. spectral dominance: a view that certain partials dominate in the determination of the pitch of a complex tone. or air being forced past a constriction in the vocal tract for a voiceless sound. which in speech is either the vibrating vocal folds for voiced sounds. spectral analysis: (also known as Fourier analysis) determination of the component tones that make up a complex tone or waveform. sound spectrographic analysis: primary tool used in acoustic analysis of the voice. sound power level: Lw = 10 log W/W0 where W is sound power and W0 = 10-12W (abbreviated PWL or Lw). The typical spectrogram provides a three-dimensional display of time on the horizontal axis. sound source: the mechanism that converts power form the power source into sound. a graph of sound level vs. source spectrum: a plot of amplitude against frequency. but does not establish a cause for the problem. and time. time on the horizontal axis. sound modifiers: the cavities of the vocal tract which lie between the sound source and the lips and/or nostrils. 3. The fundamental (repetition) frequency and harmonics (integral multiples of the repetition) can be determined. which is plotted either in color or grey scale with frequency on the vertical axis. the output plot from a spectrograph. spectral smear: defined as such dispersion of formants 3 to 5 as arises form differences in vocal tract length.the vibrating vocal folds usually are the source of sound energy and the vocal tract resonances (formants) are the filters. and the color or degree of grey indicating the energy level at that frequency at that point in time. sound spectrograph: an instrument that displays sound level as a function of frequency and time for a brief sample of speech or song. frequency. The fundamental frequency value gives a clue to abnormalities.
spoiler: an obstacle in the path of airflow. in and out of which a patient breathes while movements are recorded. stop: a speech sound characterized by a complete obstruction of the vocal tract. and the color or degree of grey indicating the energy level at that frequency at that point in time. and an average of a number of a short-term spectra is known as a long-term average spectrum. 2. spectrum analysis: used to track formant frequencies I singing. the upper and lower teeth may serve as spoilers. A single spectrum is known as a short-term spectrum. stroboscope tuner: a tuning device that make use of a rotating pattern illuminated by flashing lights. the "recipe" for a complex tone that gives the amplitude and frequency of the various partials. stop gap: the acoustic interval corresponding to articulatory closure for a stop or affricate. SD is the deviation of the values from their mean. also called a sibilant. time on the horizontal axis. resting in water. usually followed by an abrupt release of air that produces a burst of noise. defined as the rootmean-square (RMS). a graph showing the distribution of signal energy as a function of frequency. making possible a photographic record of motion. is plotted either in color or grey scale with frequency on the vertical axis. /s/ is an example.spectrograph: a machine or computer program that carries out an analysis of the energy in an acoustic signal across frequency and time. or as the square root of the variance. known as the spectrogram. stereophonic: sound reproduction using two microphones to feel two loudspeakers. spectrum: 1. or LTAS. strident: a fricative with an intense noise energy. SPL: sound pressure level. standard deviation (SD): a measure of the dispersion of a set of values. In the production of fricative sounds. . A spirometer records vital capacity. The nonstrident fricatives have less energy. spirometer: consists of a cylinder. a plot of intensity by frequency. 3. 131 . The output. a plot of energy against frequency. stroboscope: a light that flashes as a regular rate. to modify the definition of vibrato.
a perceived difference between sounds that is not related to a change in pitch. an attribute of auditory sensation by which two sounds with the same loudness and pitch can be judged dissimilar as determined by the spectrum. generally by means of voltage-controlled modules. Some equipment utilized are: radar x-ray devices. glottal effort closure. tessitura: the pitch range that predominates in a piece of music. that provides a restoring force during vibration. 5 are used to ascertain voice timbre. nasal airflow devices including rhinomanometer. palatal sensor devices. 2. timbre: 1. the flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope and the rigid laryngoscope. subglottal pressure: 1. tenor: the male singing voice above the baritone and below the countertenor. 132 .stroboscopy: comes in two basic forms. or around the periphery of a membrane. expressed in terms of the normalized excess pressure. and swallowing. defined as the ratio between the excess pressure above the threshold pressure and the threshold pressure. synthesizer: an instrument that creates complex sounds of generating. thyroid-arytenoids: muscle arising below the thyroidal notch and inserted into each arytenoids. oral sensory. lingual and palatal pressure. support: a term employed by voice teachers to indicate control of the power source from the region of the diaphragm. syntonic comma: the small difference between a major or minor third in the Pythagorean and just tunings. phonation. synthetic listening: (holistic listening) listening to a complex tone in a way that focuses on the whole sound rather than the individual partials. perception and visualization techniques. main physiological control parameter for vocal loudness. craniofacial research which includes intra-oral airflow and pressure. altering. 2. 4. aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of the area superior to the larynx. TIME: the total sample time defined as the sum of the period times considered in the calculations. and combing various electrical waveforms. or duration. thyroid cartilage: the largest single cartilage of the larynx. Formants 3. Both provide visual analysis of respiration. loudness. tension: the force applied to the two ends of a string. supraglottal studies: studies of the spatial.
such that high vowels tend to have a closed jaw position. 2. tongue height relates primarily to the relative frequency of F1. 133 . usually by varying the air pressure. Turbulence contrasts with laminar flow. the flow velocity tends to vary randomly. a major triad as frequency rations 4:5:6 while a minor triad has ratios 10:12:15. truncated: shortened by having a part cut off or removed. the lower F1 tends to be. in the just tuning. turning point: 1. tremolo: (tremulant) a device on an organ that produces a vibrato. tongue advancement: an articulatory description referring to the relative position of the tongue in the anterior-posterior (front-back) dimension of the vocal tract. t-test: any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a student's distribution if the null hypothesis is true. tremolo: rapid reiteration of a note. word. It is applied when samples are small enough that using an assumption of normality and the associated z-test lead to incorrect inference. tongue advancement relates primarily to the relative frequency of F2. As applied to vowels. This condition is associated with noise energy (therefore we speak of turbulence noise). Tongue height also varies with jaw position. the higher the vowel. acoustic energy to electrical energy. for example. turbulence: a condition of airflow in which eddies (rotating volume elements of air) are generated. for example. syllable. turbulent flow: fluid flow characterized by eddies and vortices. and utterance. calculations performed with respect to the waveform of a sound. or to the frequency difference between F1 and F2. tongue height: an articulatory description referring to the relative position of the tongue in the inferior-superior (low-high) dimension of the vocal tract. tubing. the point at which reflection of a wave occurs at the epen end of the bell. the point in a musical instrument at which most of the sound wave is reflected back toward the mouthpiece. a trill. or vocal tract. As applied to vowels. token: each measured unit of speech.time-domain operation: an operation that is performed in the time domain. Front vowels tend to have relatively high F2 values and a relatively large value of the F2-F1 difference. song. triad: a chord of three notes. transducer: a device that converts one form of energy into another.
vibrato: 1. ultrasonography: first used by Hertz (1970) to visualize vocal chord movement and then by Kelsy to study pharyngeal wall motion.3137 x log10 (fine tuning value/440).5 and 7. variable-pitch recording: the spacing of the groove on a disc according to the amplitude of the recorded material. Often a pneumotachometer is added to this equipment. value in cents: 1. velum: the soft palate. frequency. frequency modulation (FM) that may or may not have amplitude modulation (AM) associated with it. virtual pitch: subjective pitch created by two or more partials in a complex tone (for example." "pitch vibrato" and "timbre vibrato" as separate entities. and the rate is typically between 5.Tx: the measurement of fundamental period. 3. involves the use of a transducer to produce a frequency in the ultrasonic range. The modulation in pitch varies approximately ± 1-2 semitones. Some musicians speak of "intensity vibrato. velocity microphone: a microphone that responds to particle velocity rather than to sound pressure. such as rapid reiteration of a note or even a trill. and/or phase. Sound waves are reflected off target structures and picked up by a sensor. laryngeally based. 2. the reflection of high frequency sound from the the air/tissue interface of the vocal fold motion during phonation. tonal effect in music resulting from periodic variation of amplitude. periodic modulation of the fundamental frequency often associated with operatic singing. wherein moment to moment airflow speed can be determined. Vibrato is characterized by the rate (the number of undulation cycles per second) and the extent (the magnitude of the greatest departures from the average typically varying from ± 6 to ± 12%). Sometimes the term tremolo is used to describe other things. 4. a formula for converting tine tuning frequency values to cents wherein one cent is 1/100th of a semitone. ventilograph: equipment used to provide information on basal minute ventilations and maximum breathing capacity. In other words. the "missing fundamental" of a filtered tone and the strike note of a bell). others understand vibrato to include all three. which can be moved up to close off the nasal cavity from the airstream and down to open it. corresponds to a regular undulation of fundamental frequency. 5. a phenomenon with an aesthetically pleasing modulation in pitch and intensity.0 undulations per second. 134 . value in cents = 3986. and there are twelve semitones in one octave. 2.
The reed ends are therefore more flexible and their ability to open and close more rapidly accounts for its bright tone. vocal cords: 1. a "frying" sound produced through nonperiodic vocal-fold vibration. the pharynx. and the mouth. vocal tract can be elongated by protruding the lips. the source of sound energy for singing and speaking." considered by some researchers a separate low voiced register. but to the experienced listener. 2. does not leave any excess material in the thin portion of the reed. vocal personality: due largely to the voice timbre determined by the higher formants (F3. the tongue. the tube connecting the larynx to the mouth consisting of the pharynx and the oral cavity. the jaw. a term replaced by vocal folds that refers to the folds of ligaments extending across the larynx that interrupt the flow of air to produce sound. the manner of vocal cord motion in generating such a source spectrum is suggested by the analogue to the sound-producing action of oboe reeds. vocal tract: 1. vocal fry: prolonged vocal-fold rattle. 2. 135 . Several different scraping techniques have been developed. the resultant tone is almost as distinctive as the tone of a particular singer. 4. a resonant chamber something like the tube of a horn or the body of a violin. F4. vocalis muscle: the thryoarytenoid muscle. The American scrape leaves a small spine extending into the thinnest portion of the reed. 5. rattle or "click. This extra material makes for a slightly stiff reed that opens and closes more slowly. 6. 3. and the larynx. The French scrape. vocal chords: a popular but misunderstood term for the vocal cords or vocal folds. a glottal scrape. vocal folds: the vibrating muscles in the larynx that provide the sound source during voiced sounds. comprised of the larynx. and results in a mellow tone. 3. The specific reed-making procedures employed by the professional oboist are the result of extensive practice and personal preference. F5) which are directly related to the vocal tract length. each of which produces a characteristic timbre. 2. on the other hand. vocal folds moving open and closed emitting puffs of air.viscosity: the property of a fluid that resists the force tending to cause the fluid to flow. vocoder: a combined speech analyzer and synthesizer ("voice coder"). the oral cavity (mouth) and the nasal cavity (nose). shape is determined by the positions of the articulators: the lips. the measure of the extent to which a fluid possesses this property. vocal fold vibration: 1. another term for vocal folds.
a series or range of consecutively phonated frequencies which can be produced with nearly identical vocal quality. by means of an air stream from the lungs. the quality of the produced vibrato. the vocal folds (an oscillator). and then by the rest of the larynx. or to be more precise. 2. voice source: 1. voice onset time (VOT): a measure of the time between a supraglottal event and the onset of voicing. 3. sounds generated by the voice organ. For stops. voicing: adjusting organ pipes to have the desired sound. voice organ: that which facilitates phonation. including the vibrating vocal folds. 2. perceptually distinct regions of voice quality that can be maintained over some ranges of pitch and loudness (modal or chest. the raw material for speech or song. voiced sounds: sounds in speech or singing that involve the vibrating vocal folds. and mouth (a resonator). and the larynx. falsetto for example). head. volume velocity: the rate of air flow in a tube (vocal tract). 4. 2. a complex tone composed of a fundamental frequency (determined by the vibratory frequency of the vocal folds) and a large number of higher harmonic partials or overtones. voiceless sounds: sounds in speech or singing that do not involve the vibrating vocal folds. a synonym of "voiced sound. description used (with place and manner) to describe whether a speech sound is voiced or voiceless. modified first by the vibrating vocal folds.voice: 1. the sound made by the human vocal instrument. 2. voice quality: 1." voice box: common popular term for the larynx. pharynx. defined by the two lowest formants f1 and f2. expressed in units of volume per 136 . the sound generated by the air stream chopped by the vibrating vocal folds. the mouth and sometimes the nasal cavities. and the spectral character of the vocal sounds. is a display of intensity range versus fundamental frequency. the relation between loudness and pitch over the entire vocal range. voice range profile: interchangeably used in the literature with phonetogram and Stimmfeld. VOT is the interval between release of the stop (usually determined acoustically as the stop burst) and the appearance of periodic modulation (voicing) for a following sound. and the pharynx. voice prints: speech spectrograms from which a speaker's identity may be determined. voice registers: 1. 3. Voice organs include the lungs (power supply).
window: a weighting function applied to a waveform so that its amplitude gradually increases and decreases. determined mainly by the frequencies F1 and F2 of the two lowest formants. 137 . wow: slow periodic variation in the speed of a turntable or tape transport. 2. vowel formation: formed by changing the frequency relationships between the first two formants through adjustments of the vocal tract. wideband spectrogram: a spectrogram which uses a wide band filter. vowel quality: determined by the frequencies of the two lowest formants. 2. whistle register: the highest female singing voice which can extend over two and half octaves above middle C. a plot of a measured quantity against time. the length of one cycle of a periodic disturbance in space. waveform: 1.unit of time (such as m3 /s). relies on the identification of the spectrum envelope peaks that correspond to the two lowest formants. vowel identity: 1. It consists of the following sequence of components: amplifier → clipper → band pass filter → frequency discriminator → demodulator → oscillograph. wowmeter: makes a graphical record of small speed variations in any sound recorder capable of producing a milli-volt output at about 1000 cps. usually given the Greek letter lamda (λ). 2. wide-band analysis: an analysis in which a relatively large analyzing bandwidth is used (such as 300 Hz in speech analysis). white noise: noise whose amplitude is constant throughout the audible frequency range. the window acts like an acoustic "lens" to focus the analysis on a representative part of the signal. Wilcoxon signed rank test: a non-parametric alternative to the paired student's t-test for the care of two related samples or repeated measurements on a single sample. wavelength: the distance between corresponding points on two successive waves. a graph showing the amplitude versus time function for a continuous signal such as the acoustic signal of speech. A wideband analysis is preferred when the primary concern is to reveal formant pattern or to increase time resolution.
APPENDIX B EQUIPMENT 138 .
The first tool. An overview of the function of the main components utilized in voice research is provided here. the learned and the affirmed. followed by a spreadsheet which lists the specific equipment authors have provided in their articles.EQUIPMENT An understanding of acoustic voice measurement is best accomplished with at least a cursory knowledge of the voice measurement equipment utilized. (http://en. Mirrors provide good visualization of the larynx – especially mirrors which magnify. was a mirror.wikipedia. showing the reflection of the first mirror's image. Manuel Patricio Rodríguez García (1805-1906) first published pictures of his own vocal cords (sic) and larynx using a small dental mirror in the throat with another mirror. The earliest tools of acoustic voice measurement were the eyes and ears of the curious. which remains one of the best to this day. illuminated by sunlight.org/wiki/Laryngoscope) 139 . The spreadsheet also serves as a page reference to the pictures and data sheets provided in this section. A Miller laryngoscope on an infant handle. García is also credited with inventing the laryngoscope in 1854.
Fiberoptic Nasal Endoscopy (used to visualize internal nasal and sinus anatomy) 140 . Sawashima and Hirose created the first flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope in 1968. The patient is given the choice of a local anesthetic spray but most find this procedure not painful.wikipedia. just uncomfortable.org/wiki/Laryngoscope) Moving ahead to the mid twentieth century.A Macintosh size 3-blade on an adult laryngoscope handle. (http://en.
141 . Expected image in this position shown to the right.Fiberoptic Nasopharyngoscopy (used to visualize the back of the nose for velopharyngeal function as well as discerning any masses leading to eustachian tube dysfunction and subsequent ear problems).
Stroboscopy has a powerful light source attached to the end of the scope that flashes (the model above flashes every 5 microseconds) to take clear. concise pictures of the vocal folds in motion.mac. 142 . Many researchers have found the frame-by-frame analysis of the glottal cycle to be of extreme value in the study of the voice. (http://homepage. Expected image in this position shown to the right. which can be performed with the flexible fiberoptic laryngoscope pictured above or with the rigid laryngoscope pictured below.com/changcy/endo.Fiberoptic Laryngoscopy or Nasolaryngoscopy (used to visualize the voice box and surrounding anatomic structures).htm#fne) Another tool used for visual analysis is stroboscopy.
the impact of air pressure both above the voice source (supra-glottal) and below the voice source (sub-glottal) are not measured nor adequately visualized with laryngoscope or stroboscopy.(http://www. A spirometer measures the volume of air (both the rate of air flow and the amount of air flow) that is taken into the lungs (inspired) and expelled by the lungs (expired).kaypentax.htm) However. 143 .com/Product%20Info/Strobe%20Systems/9295. An early measurement tool (still in use today) is the spirometer.
SPIROMETER 144 .
com/probes/spr-bta. this approach can be a problem for participants who suffer from claustrophobia.html) Another measuring device for air flow is a ventilograph which gives additional information of the maximum breathing capacity of the participant.uni-kiel. When you combine the spirometer.jpg) A pneumotachometer is primarily "head gear" and presents many problems for singers to produce normal phonation while wearing the mask.de/img/physio1.ipds. Another approach is to use a plethysmograph which is a sealed box that allows free phonation without the cumbersome mask of a pneumotachometer. 145 .(Air Flow) X (Time) (http://www. the ventilograph and a facial mask (as in the Rothenberg Mask pictured below) you have a pneumotachometer which measures the speed of moment to moment air flow. (http://www. Participant using a pneumotachometer. However.vernier.
Acoustic analysis begins with listening to the participant(s) sing or talk. After this initial evaluation. This technology is based on the 146 . Information regarding air flow can help explain why vocal folds are moving as depicted in the pictures taken with laryngoscopy or stroboscopy.jpg#file) The plethysmograph and the pneumotachometer are transducers (a device that converts one form of energy into another) that convert airflow to an electrical signal.org/wiki/Image:BodyBox_Empty.(http://en. the primary measurement tool used is sound spectrography.wikipedia.
one must obtain acoustic signals from one or more of the following: microphone. amplitude. Participant is wearing an EGG collar and speaking into a microphone. (UCLA voice lab) 147 . Neck accelerometers. To analyze a tone with spectrography. and point of phase or cycle. resonances. photoglottographs and EGGs record the acoustic signal directly from the voice source without input of the vocal tract. vibrato. Microphones record the acoustic signal as it leaves the body – therefore. electroglottograph (EGG). overtones. and/or an oral flow mask (such as the Rothenberg Mask). both the voice source and the vocal tract have provided input.Fourier theorem which when applied to sound means that any waveform which repeats (periodic) can be analyzed as a reoccurring group of sine waves defined by their frequency. neck accelerometer. harmonics. jitter. formants. Spectrographic analysis has been successfully applied to the study of fundamental frequency. and shimmer. photoglottograph.
signals are combined at the main EGG output. can be adjacent locations on the neck. These two seen here.EGG – Electroglottography Measurements of the signal-to-noise ratio The dual-channel electrodes for the EG2 made using the LS-1 Larynx Simulator and EG2-PCX measure the translaryngeal and a comparison to the EGG unit electrical resistance at two marketed by other manufacturers. 148 .
but results are limited to medium to low frequency responses and less precise muscle feedback. this measurement process requires the insertion of needle electrodes placed directly in the muscles to be studied.An EGG waveforms in VFCA polarity (movement up indicates an increase in vocal fold contact area) from a 4 year. Electromyography (EMG) has had wider use and its proponents are increasing. EMG is used to study all of the laryngeal muscle activity during phonation. 3 month old boy producing a sustained vowel /a/. 149 . However. There have been efforts to use an exterior electrode approach. The horizontal time scale is 2 milliseconds/div. Ultrasonography has been used briefly for voice research to look at the movement of the vocal folds.
The external hardware module provides proper signal conditioning specific to each transducer. and solid state manometer. (http://www.Patient is wearing external and internal electrodes.htm) 150 .kaypentax. nasal cannula. System transducers include (from left) tongue array. Two auxiliary channels are provided for other signals of interest. stethoscopic microphone.com/Product%20Info/7120B/7120B. EMG electrodes.
and psychological histories. 151 . emotional. New equipment is being developed daily and old equipment is being applied in new ways. X-rays can provide information regarding the participant's morphology which can be considered when analyzing other data. Quite often the greatest tool is a complete personal history which would include medical.The last large piece of acoustic sound measurement equipment is x-ray devices. This is merely an introduction to some of the basic vocal acoustic measurement tools used by researchers and health specialists alike when a participant's history does not suffice.
APPENDIX C RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 152 .
wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Respiratory_system_complete_en.svg) 153 .RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (http://commons.
APPENDIX D LARYNGEAL SYSTEM 154 .
svg) 155 .org/wiki/Image:Larynx_external_en.LARYNGEAL SYSTEM (http://commons.wikimedia.
APPENDIX E ARTICULATORY SYSTEM 156 .
Pharynx. teeth.png) The articulators are the tongue.wikimedia. and Larynx. and soft palate. 157 . lips.org/wiki/Image:Sagittalmouth.Sagittal View of the Nose. (http://commons. Mouth.
APPENDIX F COMPARISON CHART OF TUNING SYSTEMS 158 .
Table X. The value in cents for the interval f1 to f2 is 1200xlog2 (f1/(f2). could have other ratios. such as augmented second for minor third. each semitone is exactly 100 cents. In particular the tritone (augmented fourth or diminished fifth). 17:12 (603 cents) is fairly common. Some assert the 7:4 is one of the blue notes used in jazz. Comparison of Different Interval Naming Systems Comparable Just Interval Common QuarterEqual Just Diatonic Comma Temperament Intonation Name Meantone 1:1 16:15 9:8 6:5 5:4 4:3 45:32 600 64:45 3:2 8:5 5:3 16:9 15:8 2:1 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 610 702 814 884 996 1088 1200 621 697 (wolf fifth 737) 814 889 1007 1083 1200 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 112 204 316 386 498 590 0 117 193 310 386 503 579 Number of Semitones 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Interval Class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Generic Interval 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 Common Diatonic Name Perfect unison Minor second Major second Minor third Major third Perfect fourth Augmented fourth/ Diminished fifth Perfect fifth Minor sixth Major sixth Minor seventh Major seventh Perfect octave 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 5 5 6 6 0 It is possible to construct just intervals which are closer to the equal-tempered equivalents. In the diatonic system.Cents The standard system for comparing intervals of different sizes is with cents. but most of the ones listed above have been used historically in equivalent contexts. every interval has one or more enharmonic equivalents. it is 31 cents flatter than an equal-tempered minor seventh. This is a logarithmic scale in which the octave is divided into 1200 equal parts. The 7:4 interval (the harmonic seventh) has been a contentious issue throughout the history of music theory. In Equal temperament. 159 .
APPENDIX G PIANO PITCH ~ HERTZ CHART 160 .
APPENDIX H ENGLISH IPA CHART 162 .
THE ENGLISH PHONEMIC CHART VOWELS tea i: /ti:/ ɑ: /fa:ðə(r)/ u: Father happy i /hæpi/ ɒ /dɒg/ ʌ Dog bit ɪ /bɪt/ ɔ: Daughter /dɔ:tə/ ɜ: leg e /leg/ ʊ /ʃʊgə/ ə Sugar cat Æ /cæt/ say eɪ /seɪ/ aɪ /maɪ/ ɪə my DIPTHONGS əʊ (BR) /bəʊt/ ɔɪ /bɔɪ/ eə Boy boat oʊ (US) /boʊt/ aʊ /waʊ/ ʊə wow boat /tu:/ Too /kʌp/ Cup /bɜ:(r)d/ Bird /əbaʊt/ About /nɪə(r)/ Near /heə(r)/ Hair /pʊə(r)/ poor CONSONANTS p /pen/ f /feɪə(r)/ h /hɒt/ Hot Fire Pen b /beɪbi/ v /vɪdəʊ/ m /əmeɪz/ Amaze Video baby t /tɔɪ/ θ / θʌm/ n /nju:z/ News Thumb Toy d /daɪəri/ ð /ðeɪ/ ŋ Building /bɪldɪŋ/ They Diary K /ki:/ S /sɪŋ/ L Laugh /la:ʃ/ Sing Key g /geɪm/ z /zi:rəʊ/ r /reɪn/ Rain Zero Game tʃ Cheese /tʃi:z/ ʃ /ʃɒp/ j /jes/ Yes Shop dʒ / dʒʌmp/ ʒ /vɪʒɪn/ w /wʊd/ Wood vision jump Photocopiable: © 2007 English Skool. http://www.com 163 .englishskool.
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Brenda began teaching high school chorus in 2000 at East Wake High School in Wendell. oratorio. Louisiana where she lived for six weeks. Her father served in the United States Air Force and therefore the family enjoyed a full life of travel which culminated at Langley Air Force Base in Hampton. and church music as well as a voice instructor and vocal coach. During this time. Brenda graduated from Poquoson High School and promptly entered James Madison University in Harrisonburg. Brenda began teaching choral music at Martin Middle School in Tarboro. ten years had passed once again. This effort completes Brenda's program and she has been awarded her Doctorate of Philosophy in Music Education with a concentration in Choral Conducting. Throughout this time Brenda enjoyed a successful career as a soprano soloist in opera. Brenda also was the North Carolina South East Region Solo and Small Ensemble Coordinator for MENC (Music Educators National Convention). 2005. Her new home will be in Macomb. In 1997. Virginia.BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brenda was born in Lake Charles. North Carolina while simultaneously earning a North Carolina K-12 Music Teaching Certificate. Illinois as she begins her new career in Choral Music Education as a member of the faculty at Western Illinois University. 176 . Interestingly enough. Virginia. JMU awarded Brenda a Bachelor's of Music Degree with a concentration in Vocal Performance. Ten years later Brenda reentered JMU and earned a Masters of Music Degree in Choral Conducting. Brenda was admitted to the Doctoral program at The Florida State University College of Music and began her studies in August. North Carolina during which time she served on the MENC Repertoire Standards and Selection Committee.
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