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Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions

CHAPTER 7

PRECURSORS AND INDIRECT EMISSIONS

2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

7.1

Smith (UK) 7. and Ayite-Lo N.2 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories .Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting Authors Michael Gillenwater (USA). Kristina Saarinen (Finland). Ajavon (Togo) Contributing Author Keith A.

.................... Reporting and Documentation .............................3...................2 Introduction ...1 7............1 N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of NOx and NH3 ............. 7.Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions Contents 7 Precursors and Indirect Emissions 7..5 Link to relevant methodology chapters in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook .............................................6 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 7................ 7...............3 ...................................... 7...............................................................4 Precursor emissions ................1 Box 7................................................................... 7....2....7 Methodology .......... 7...15 Quality Assurance/Quality Control.........2... 7............1 Link between the IPCC categories and the corresponding methodology chapters in EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook ......2 7............................... 7.........................................................15 Tables Table 7....2 References ....................... 7.............5 Calculating CO2 inputs to the atmosphere from emissions of carbon-containing compounds ...................................................................................7 Boxes Box 7................................... 7..............................................................................................1 7.................................4 Inventory of precursors .......16 Equations Equation 7. 7...............................................................................................................2 CLRTAP and Emission Inventory Guidebook ............. 7.............1 7..... 7.................16 7...................3..........................................................3 Indirect N2O emissions from the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in NOx and NH3 ........................15 7...........

3 on estimating N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition resulting from all categories except agricultural soil management and manure management. nitrification is the aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium to nitrate and denitrification is the anaerobic microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas (N2). for some 1 Cooperative programme for the monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP). and these methodologies for CO. Only agricultural sources of nitrogen were considered in the Revised 1996 Guidelines (IPCC.1) and covers all source sectors and should therefore be considered as primary source of information for estimation of these emissions. NMVOCs. Table 7. oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Section 7. CO. but is less important for aerosol formation than SO2.Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting 7 PRECURSORS AND INDIRECT EMISSIONS 7. In some countries. 1997). This guidebook has been developed for emission inventories of substances regulated under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (see Box 7.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en). Nitrous oxide is a gaseous intermediate in the reaction sequence of denitrification and a by-product of nitrification that leaks from microbial cells into the soil atmosphere. Countries may use national methodologies to estimate emissions of NH3 not originating from agriculture.3 provides information on NOx emissions. and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are reported in greenhouse gas inventories. Detailed methodologies for estimating the emissions of precursors are provided in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook (http://reports.2 addresses the estimation and reporting of the precursors for national inventories. NOx. However. The EMEP/CORINAIR Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) source categories have been developed to be compatible to the IPCC reporting categories. while the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks inventories are often based on national statistics. Also. and the methods to produce these inventories can differ from those for greenhouse gases. Ammonia (NH3) is an aerosol precursor. Section 7. Some of the methodologies and emission factors in the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook are technology-specific and are relevant to conditions and categories in both developed and developing countries.eea. air pollutant emission inventories are collected via separate procedures than the inventory of direct greenhouse gases.eu. non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). NH3 emissions are also covered in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook. NOx emission plays an important role in the earth’s nitrogen cycle.4 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories . emissions of carbon monoxide (CO). Guidance is provided in Section 7. NMVOCs. Section 7.2 PRECURSOR EMISSIONS Where the country already has inventories for precursors.3 addresses nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions that result from the deposition of the nitrogen emitted as NOx and NH3. The methodologies for ambient air quality emission inventories have been elaborated in detail in the EMEP1/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook (Guidebook). N2O emissions will also be enhanced if nitrogen is deposited in the ocean or in lakes. 2 7. air pollutant emission inventories are often developed using plant specific data. Countries should consider whether there is any scope for improving consistency between inventories or cross-checking estimates. which also play a role in climate change. Exceptions are for sources not well-covered by the Guidebook. For this reason the 2006 Guidelines include guidance for estimating N2O emissions resulting from nitrogen deposition of all anthropogenic sources of NOx and NH3. the results should be reported in the inventory. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOC in the presence of sunlight contribute to the formation of the greenhouse gas ozone (O3) in the troposphere and are therefore often called ‘ozone precursors’. Carbon monoxide (CO). Simply defined.1 INTRODUCTION Although they are not included in global warming potential-weighted greenhouse gas emission totals. Nitrous oxide is produced in soils through the biological processes of nitrification and denitrification. It also includes information on the availability of methods and the significant precursor emissions from particular categories. This table provides information on the specific EMEP/CORINAIR chapters that list 2 methodologies for preparing NOx. Furthermore.1 provides a linkage between the IPCC categories and the corresponding methodology chapters in the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook. 7. Sulphur Dioxide emissions lead to formation of sulphate particles. NH3 and SO2 inventories. and SO2 emissions are referenced in this chapter rather than to be included in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006 Guidelines). One of the main controlling factors in this reaction is the availability of inorganic nitrogen in the soil and therefore deposition of nitrogen resulting from NOx and ammonia (NH3) will enhance emissions.

1 Inventory of precursors An inventory of precursors typically includes oxides of nitrogen. Most NOx emissions resulting from fuel combustion are typically ‘fuel-NO’ that is formed from the conversion of chemically bound nitrogen in the fuel. Public electricity and heat production will likely be the major source of SO2 emissions in countries where coal is used extensively.g. carbon monoxide. like solvents. For example. and also an important source of NOx emissions.org/env/lrtap/welcome.2. Emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx) are primarily related to the sulphur content of the fuel.2 I NDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE Industrial processes can generate NOx. NOx.unece.1. Depending on the combustion temperature. Industrial combustion will also be a source of SO2. BOX 7. Abatement in stationary combustion can reduce the amount emitted. diffuse emissions from the evaporation of solvents and storage and handling of products are typical primary sources of NMVOC emissions. More detailed information on the Convention is available at http://www. When estimating emissions of these air pollutants. abatement techniques. 7.1 CLRTAP AND EMISSION INVENTORY GUIDEBOOK The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution has been in force since 1979 and includes eight protocols with requirements to reduce emissions and technical annexes on abatement techniques.org/unece. CO emissions in countries that produce oil and gas. For large point sources many countries have a registry of individual air quality pollutant emissions reported by the plants.Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions sectors. road transportation will be a major source of NOx.1. and the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook should be used with great care. exceptional emissions (e.g.2. As emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). 7. NOx and CO emissions and residential combustion a source of CO emissions. (UNECE. and emissions of sulphur compounds. differences between the developed and developing countries may be larger. CO. although some sulphur can be retained in the ash. Further guidance on estimating total emissions from an industrial site are provided in the EU IPPC (European Union Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Reference Document on Monitoring of 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 7. the use of detailed process or facility-specific data (bottom-up data) gives more accurate estimates than the use of general aggregated emission factors.1 E NERGY For most countries. non-methane volatile organic compounds. Industrial process and product use emissions include both channelled emissions (e. NMVOC and SO2 emissions. For all pollutants and source categories it is critical to apply methodologies and emission factors that account for the presence of any emission controls or abatement measures. CO. and NMVOC emissions. 7.htm) to provide comprehensive information and methodologies for estimating emissions. When using data reported by the plants it is good practice to ensure that emissions are not double counted with the topdown inventory data. accidental releases) can constitute major emissions from source..html. small combustion sources (biomass in particular) and open burning. and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are reported both to the UNFCCC and UNECE CLRTAP it is important to ensure consistent methodologies and reporting between these two Conventions. The EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook is published by the European Environment Agency (EEA).2. non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). point sources emissions from a stack) and diffuse emission sources. Carbon monoxide and NMVOCs are generated during under-stoichiometric combustion conditions and are dependent on a variety of factors. Oil production will likely be a source of NMVOC.5 . In some cases.. and other conditions. including fuel type and combustion conditions. Data reported by the plants can also be used to check completeness of the inventory. thermal-NOx can also be formed from nitrogen contained in the combustion intake air. carbon monoxide (CO). Emissions of these gases depend on the type of process. and. The content of nitrogen in different fuel varies. 2003) The EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook has been prepared by the LRTAP Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP) and is updated regularly by the Expert Panels under the TFEIP (http://tfeip-secretariat.

They can be calculated from emissions of methane. 7. CH4.2.1. CO. Most of the carbon emitted in the form of non-CO2 species eventually oxidises to CO2 in the atmosphere and this amount can be estimated from the emissions estimates of the non-CO2 gases. which is available from website http://eippcb. N2O.1 in EU IPPC Reference Document on Monitoring of Emissions. Therefore. The primary sources of the NMVOC emissions are burning of crop residues and other plant wastes. CO and NMVOCs. In making these estimates inventory compilers should assess each category to ensure that this carbon is not already covered by the assumptions and approximations made in estimating CO2 emissions. Relevant examples include carbon from. 3 Chapter 3.2 CALCULATING CO2 INPUTS TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM EMISSIONS OF CARBON-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS Methane. 7.jrc. Chapter 5.4 for Non-CO2 emissions from biomass burning in Cropland. forest fires.2. FORESTRY AND OTHER LAND USE The burning of crop residues emits NOx as does the addition of nitrogen to the soils from nitrogen fertilizers and other nutrients.1.6) The carbon content in NMVOCs will vary depending on the source. AFOLU emissions where non-CO2 gases have been explicitly deducted. and biomass burning due to forest management practices are discussed in these chapters of Volume 4 for AFOLU sector. The basic calculation principles are: From CH4: From CO: From NMVOC: InputsCO2 = EmissionsCH4 • 44/16 InputsCO2 = EmissionsCO • 44/28 InputsCO2 = EmissionsNMVOC • C • 44/12 Where C is the fraction carbon in NMVOC by mass (default = 0. CO and SO2 are emitted when biomass is burned. Biomass burning when forest and grasslands are converted to other uses. mainly trees and cereals.5 C ARBON EMITTTED IN GASES OTHER THAN CO 2 The 2006 Guidelines estimate carbon emissions in terms of the species which are emitted. NOx).Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting Emissions (EC.4 for Non-CO2 emissions from biomass burning in Grassland (CO. carbon monoxide (CO) or NMVOC emissions will eventually be oxidised to CO2 in the atmosphere. NMVOC emissions can originate from wastewater treatment plants and solid waste disposal on land. and the anaerobic degradation of livestock feed and animal excreta.2. Box 7.1. 2002) 3.htm. BOX 7. Plants. In some cases the emissions of these non-CO2 gases contain very small amounts of carbon compared to the CO2 estimate and it may be more accurate to base the CO2 estimate on the total carbon. • • • Fugitive emissions from energy use.2 provides an approach for making this calculation.4 for Non-CO2 emissions from biomass burning from forest. 7.6 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories .4 and 5. These CO2 inputs could be included in national inventories. The EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook does not fully cover emissions from burning of biomass. Examples are fossil fuel combustion (where the emission factor is derived from the carbon content of the fuel) and a few IPPU categories where the carbon mass balance can be estimated much better than individual gases.3. Chapter 4. and SO2 are produced by domestic and municipal waste incineration processes as well as the incineration of sledges from wastewater treatment. 7.2.4 W ASTE Emissions of NOx. and Chapter 6. therefore additional guidance is given in AFOLU Volume.es/pages/ FActivities. also contribute to NMVOC concentrations in the atmosphere.3 A GRICULTURE . Carbon from Non-CO2 gases from IPPU.3.2.2.4 and 6. an inventory based on the speciation of the NMVOC compounds gives more accurate results.

. The following codes are used to indicate whether the emissions from the specific source are relevant and covered by the Guidebook: A NI B = = = Emissions of this gas from this category are likely to be emitted and a methodology is provided in the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook. B3310. The table includes information on the availability of methodologies in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook and the expected significance of the emissions for each IPCC category under the 2006 Guidelines (see Table 8. CO. B3323 B111 and B112 B3321 B111 and B112 B3311. B332. B3320. B3319. it is advisable to attempt to find a similar category (e. B3318. Beverages and Tobacco Non-Metallic Minerals Transport Equipment Machinery Mining and Quarrying Wood and Wood Products Construction Textile and Leather Non-specified Industry B111 and B112 B132 and B136 B142. In case the inventory compiler does not find a corresponding category to a specific IPCC 2006 category in Table 7. Emissions of this air pollutant from this category are likely to be emitted and the methodology may be included in the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook in the future. B324. Emissions of this gas from this category do not occur.1. The Guidebook’s codes are equivalents in function to the IPCC reporting categories under the 1996 Guidelines. B3313. and SO2. B339. B338. NMVOCs. but a methodology is not currently included in the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook. NS = NO = TABLE 7. a corresponding boiler size for another industrial branch) in Table 7.1 and apply the corresponding methodology in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook for this category or to search for other sources of information (see also Chapter 2 of this Volume). A mapping between the EMEP/CORINAIR Nomenclature for Reporting (NFR) and the IPCC common reporting framework (CRF) of the 1996 Guidelines with categories under the 2006 Guidelines is also provided in the table.2.1 provides specific information on methodologies for preparing national emission inventories of NOx. B3312. B337.g. Emissions of this gas from this category not expected to be significant. B323. Paper and Print Food Processing. B3314.7 . B146 and B152 B111. Emissions of this gas from this category are likely to be emitted. B331. B3322. B333 B336.2 Link to relevant methodology chapters in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook Table 7. B3323 B111 and B112 B111 and B112 B111 and B112 B111 and B112 B111 and B112 B111 and B112 B111 and B112 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Source Sector CRF NFR EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter NOx 1 NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) CO A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 1A2 Manufacturing Industries and Construction 7.1 LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category 1 ENERGY 1A1 Energy Industries 1A1a 1A1b 1A1c 1A2a 1A2b 1A2c 1A2d 1A2e 1A2f 1A2g 1A2h 1A2i 1A2j 1A2k 1A2l 1A2m 1A1a 1A1b 1A1c 1A2a 1A2b 1A2c 1A2d 1A2e 1A2f 1A1a 1A1b 1A1c 1A2a 1A2b 1A2c 1A2d 1A2e 1A2f Main Activity Electricity and Heat Production Petroleum Refining Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries Iron and Steel Non-ferrous Metals Chemicals Pulp.Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions 7. B112.2 of Chapter 8 of this Volume) and gas. B325.

Stationary (including military) Other. Light-duty vehicles 1A3biii 1A3biii 1A3biii R. Mobile (including military) Solid Fuel Coal Mining and Handling.T. B112.Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting TABLE 7. LTO) Aviation 1A3aii(ii) 1A3aii(ii) Civil Aviation (Domestic.T. B923 and B926 NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI 7. B112.. B216 and Small Combustion Installations *) B810 B A A B A A A A A B A A Off-road/Other mobile sources and 1A3eii machinery 1A4a 1A4b 1A4bi Commercial/Institutional Residential Residential plants 1A4 Other Sectors 1A4b 1A4b 1A4c 1A4ci 1A4cii A A A A A A A A 1A4bii Household and gardening (mobile) 1A4c 1A4ci Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing/Fish farms Stationary A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 1A4cii Off-road Vehicles and Other Machinery 1A4ciii 1A4ciii 1A4ciii National Fishing (mobile combustion) 1A5 NonSpecified 1A5a 1A5b 1B1 1B1a 1B1b 1B1c 1B2 1B2a 1B2ai 1B2aii 1A5a 1A5b 1B1 1B1a 1B1c 1B1b 1B2 1B2a 1B2c 1B2d 1A5a 1A5b 1B1 1B1a 1B1c 1B1b 1B2 1B2a 1B2c 1B2d Other. B112 and Small Combustion Installations *) B111. B112. Heavy duty vehicles 1A3biv 1A3biv 1A3biv R. including Post-mining activities/Solid Fuel Transformation Uncontrolled Combustion and Burning Coal Dumps /Other Solid Fuel Transformation Oil and Natural Gas Oil Venting Flaring 1B Fugitive Emissions from Fuels B511 NO/A NO NI NI NI A NI A NO NI NI B142 and B424 NI B521.T. B112 and B235 B111. Evaporative Emissions 1A3c 1A3d 1A3di 1A3dii 1A3e 1A3ei Railways Water-borne Navigation International Water-borne Navigation (International bunkers)/International maritime navigation Domestic Water-borne Navigation//National Navigation Other Transportation Pipeline Transport/Compressors B842 B810 and B842 A A A A A A A A B561 and B152 B810 B111.8 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories ..T. Passenger cars 1A3bii R. Mopeds & Motorcycles 1A3bv 1A3c 1A3d 1A3di 1A3dii 1A3e 1A3ei 1A3eii 1A4a 1A4b 1A3bv 1A3c 1A3d 1A3di 1A3dii 1A3e 1A3ei 1A3eii 1A4a 1A4b 1A4bi 1A4bii 1A4c 1A4ci 1A4cii 1A3bv R. B216 and Small Combustion Installations *) B111. Cruise) A A A A A A A A NO A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A NO A 1A3b 1A3bi 1A3 Transport 1A3bii 1A3b 1A3bi 1A3bii 1A3b 1A3bi Road Transportation R.. B923 and B926 B521. B112 and Small Combustion Installations *) B111.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category 1A3a Source Sector CRF 1A3a NFR Civil Aviation B851 B851 B851 B851 B710 B710 B710 B710 B760 B810 A A A A A A A A NO A EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter NOx 1 NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) CO 1A3ai Inter1A3ai (i) 1A3ai (i) International Aviation (LTO) national Aviation 1A3aii 1A3ai(ii) 1A3ai(ii) International Aviation (Cruise) Domestic 1A3aii(i) 1A3aii(i) Civil Aviation (Domestic. B112.T.. B235 and B810 B111. B235 and B842 B111..

B923 and B926 B521.Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions TABLE 7.9 . B923 and B926 B521 and B561 B570 NOx Exploration Production and Upgrading Transport Refining Distribution of Oil Products Other Natural Gas Venting Flaring Other Other Emissions from Energy Production NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) A A A A CO A A A A A A NO NO NO NI NI NO NI A A A A/B NO A NI NI NO NI A A A NO NO NO NI NI NO NI 1B Fugitive Emissions from Fuels 1B2aiii2 1B2aiii3 1B2aiii4 1B2aiii5 1B2aiii6 1B2b 1B2bi 1B2bii 1B2biii NO NO NO NI NI NO NI 1B3 1C CO2 Transport.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category 1B2aiii1 1 Source Sector CRF 1B2ai 1B2aii 1B2aiii 1B2aiv 1B2av 1B2avi 1B2b 1B2c 1B2d 1B2e NFR 1B2ai 1B2aii 1B2aiii 1B2aiv 1B2av 1B2avi 1B2b 1B2c 1B2d 1B2e EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter B521 and B541 B521 and B541 B521 and B541 B521 and B541 B551 B521 and B541 B521 and B561 B521. and Storage 1B3 1B3 1C Emissions from CO2 transport injection and storage 2 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND PRODUCT USE (A = fuel rated. process rated depends on the process) (A = fuel rated) 2A1 2A1 2A1 Cement (decarbonizing) B3311 (A = fuel rated) (A = fuel rated) (A = fuel rated) 2A Mineral Industry 2A2 2A4 2A4b 2A2 2A3 2A4 2A2 2A3 2A4 Lime (decarbonizing) Other uses of carbonites/Limestone and Dolomite Use Other uses of Soda Ash/Soda Ash Production and use B3312 (fuel rated and diffuse) and B461 B4618 B4619 (A = fuel rated) (A = fuel rated) (A = fuel rated) B B (A) depending on the process B B (NS ) depending on the process B B ( NS ) depending on the process B B (A) depending on the process 2A7 2A5 Other 2A7 2A7 2B1 2 B CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 2B2 2B3 2B5 2B4 2B4 2B6 2B7 2B8 2B8a 2B1 2B2 2B3 2B4 2B5 2B5 2B5 2A4 2B5 2A7 2A7 2A7 2B1 2B2 2B3 2B4 2B5 2B5 2B5 2A4 2B5 Other including Non Fuel Mining & Construction 2A3 2A7 2A7 Glass (decarbonizing) B3314 Batteries Manufacturing Extraction of Mineral Ores Other (including asbestos products manufacturing) B461 B461 B461 B443 B442 B4521 B443 B453 B443 B4619 NS/B NS /B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS NS NS NS Ammonia Production Nitric Acid Production Adipic Acid Production Carbide Production/Calcium Carbide Production Caprolactam Production Glyoxylic Acid Production Titanium Dioxide Production Soda Ash Production Methanol Production NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B A NS/B NS NO NS NO NO NO NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B NS B NS NS B NS B B A NS B NS NS/B NS/B NS/B NS/B Petrochemical and Carbon Black Production 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 7.

2 dichloroethane+vinylchloride) Production Ethylene Oxide Production Acrylonitrile Producton Carbon Black Producton Fluorochemical Production Sulphuric Acid Production Ammonium Sulphate Manufacturing Ammonium Nitrate Production Ammonium Phosphate Production NPK fertilizers Urea Graphite Chlorine Production Phosphate Fertilisers Production Storage and Handling of Inorganic Chemical Products Other Propylene Production 1.2 dichloroethane + vinylchloride (balanced process) Polyethylene (low density) Production Polyethylene (high density) Production Polyvinylchloride Production Polypropylene Production Styrene Production Polystyrene Production Styrene Butadiene Production Styrene-butadiene Latex Production Styrene-butadiene Rubber (SBR) Production Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Resins Production Formaldehyde Production Ethylbenzene Production Phtalic Anhydride Production Storage & Handling of Organic Chemical Products Halogenated Hydrocarbons Production Pesticide Production Production of Persistent Organic Compounds Other (phytosanitary ) B441 B443 B443 B443 B443 B443 B443 B443 B443 B443 B443 B452 B453 B455 B456 B456 B458 B459 B4510 B4511 B4512 B4512 B4512 B4512 B453 B4518 B4519 B453 B453 B453 B453 B453 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NS NO NO NS NS NS NS NS EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter B451 B454 B453 B4520 B443 NOx 1 NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) NS NS A NS CO NS NS NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NS NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS A NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS B NS A NS A A A A A A A A A A A NS NS A B B B B B NO NS NO NS A NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NS NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NO NS 7.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category 2B8b 2B8c 2B8d 2B8e 2B8f 2B9 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B10 Other 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 Source Sector CRF 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 NFR 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 2B5 Ethylene Production Vinylchloride (except 1.Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting TABLE 7.10 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories .2 dichloroethane+vinylchloride) Production 1.2 dichoroethane (except 1.

Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions TABLE 7.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category Source Sector CRF NFR Blast Furnace Charging Pig Iron Tapping Open Hearth Furnace Steel Plant Basic Oxygen Furnace Steel Plant 2C1 Processes in Iron and Steel Industries Electric Furnace Steel Plant and Colliers Rolling Mills 2 C METAL INDUSTRY Sinter and Pelletizing Plants (except combustion) Other 2C2 2C3 2C6 2C5 2C4 2C2 2C3 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C7 Other 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2D NON-ENERGY PRODUCTS FROM FUELS AND SOLVENT USE 2D1 2D2 2D4 3D 3D 2A5 2A6 2C2 2C3 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 2C5 3D 3D 2A5 2A6 Ferroalloys Production Aluminium Production (electrolysis) Zinc Production Lead Production Magnesium Production (except combustion) Silicium Production Nickel Production (except combustion) Allied Metal Manufacturing Galvanising Electroplating Other Lubricant Use Paraffin Waxes Use Asphalt Roofing Road Paving with Asphalt B4610 B4611 B432 B432 B432 B432 B432 B432 B432 EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter B422 B423 B425 B426 B427 B428 B331 B4210 NS B431 NOx 1 NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) NS A NS NS CO NS NS A A NS A NS NS A NO NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NO A A NO NS NS NS NS A NS NS NS NO NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NI NI A A NS NS A NS NS A NS NS A NI NI NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NO NS A A NS NS A NS A NS NS NS NO NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NO NS A 2D3 See "SOLVENT USE" below Solvent Use CRF/NFR 3A PAINT APPLICATION 3A 3A 3A 2D3 SOLVENT USE 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3B 3B 3B 3B 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3A 3B 3B 3B 3B Manufacture of Automobiles Car Repairing Construction and Buildings (except wood painting) Domestic Use (except wood painting) Coil Coating Boat Building Wood Painting/Coating Other Industrial Paint Application Other Non-industrial Paint Application Metal Degreasing Dry Cleaning Electronic Components Manufacturing Other Industrial Cleaning B610 B610 B610 B610 B610 B610 B610 B610 B610 B621 B622 B623 B623 NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NS NO NS NS NS NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NS NO NS NS A/B A/B A/B A/B A/B A/B A/B A/B A/B A A NS NS NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NS NO NS NS CRF/NFR 3B DEGREASING AND DRY CLEANING 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 7.11 .

MANUFACTURE AND PROCESSING 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 2D4 OTHER 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 2D4 OTHER 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3C 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D Polyester Processing Polyvinylchloride Processing Polyurethane Foam Processing Polystyrene Foam Processing Rubber Processing Pharmaceutical Products Manufacturing Paints Manufacturing Inks Manufacturing Glues Manufacturing Asphalt Blowing Adhesive.12 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories .) Other (anaesthesia. etc. Magnetic Tapes. refrigeration and air conditioning. Films & Photographs Manufacturing Textile Finishing Leather Tanning Other Glass Wool Enduction Mineral Wool Enduction Printing Industry Fat. etc. Edible and Not Edible Oil Extraction Application of Glues and Adhesives Preservation of Wood Underseal Treatment and Conservation of Vehicles Domestic Solvent Use (other than paint application) Vehicles Dewaxing Domestic Use of Pharmaceutical Products Other (preservation of seeds. 3D 3D See for relevant subcategories under NFR 3D - NS NS NS NS 7. electrical equipment.Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting TABLE 7.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category Source Sector CRF NFR EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter NOx 1 NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) CO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS A NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NS NO A/B A/B A A A/B A/B A/B A/B A/B A A/B A/B A/B A/B B B A/B A B A IE 3A (car manufacturing & repairing) CRF/NFR 3 C CHEMICAL PRODUCTS.) B631 B631 B633 B633 B631 B631 B631 B631 B631 B6310 B631 B631 B631 B631 B641 B641 B643 B644 B641 B646 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NS NO NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NS NO CRF/NFR 3 D OTHER including products containing HMs and POPs 3D 3D B647 NO NO NO 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 2E ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D B648 B647 B641 B641 B651 NO NO NS NS NS NO NO NS NS NS A/B A B B B NO NO NS NS NS 2F 2F PRODUCT USES AS SUBSTITUTES FOR OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 2F 2G OTHER PRODUCT USES 2F.

Beer Food and Drink . B100511. drink and other industries B465 B466 B466 B466 B641 B643 B644 B641 B646 NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NS NO NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NS NO A A A A B A/B A B A IE 3A (car manufacturing & repairing) NS NS NS NS NS NO NS NS NO Mineral Wool Enduction Printing Industry Fat.Chipboard Pulp and Paper . etc. other) Managed Forests (broadleaf and coniferous) 5E 5E Non-managed Forests (broadleaf and coniferous) Other 3B2 Cropland B1040 B1050.) 3D 3D B647 NO NO NO 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D B648 B647 B641 B641 B651 NO NO NS NS NS NO NO NS NS NS A/B A B B B NO NO NS NS NS 3 AGRICULTURE. temperate.Bread Food and Drink . paper pulp..Paper pulp (neutral sulphite semichemical process.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category Source Sector CRF 2D1 2D1 2D1 2H1 2D1 2D1 2D2 2D2 2H2 2D2 2D2 2 H OTHER 2D2 2H3 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 2D1 2D1 2D2 2D2 2D2 2D2 2D2 NFR 2D1 2D1 2D1 Pulp and Paper Processes in wood. electrical equipment. FORESTRY. AND OTHER LAND USE (AFOLU) 3A Livestock 3A1 3A2 4A 4B 5A 5B 3B1 Forest Land 4A 4B 5A 5B Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Changes in Forest and Other Woody Biomass Stocks Forest and Grassland Conversion (tropical. N1090 B112100 B112200 NO NO B A NO NO B B NO B A NS NO NO B B 3B Land 5C 5C B112300 B1101. boreal forests. other) Abandonment of Managed Land (tropical. B110117 B1101.) Other (anaesthesia.) Food and Drink . B110117 B112500 A NI NI NS NS B NI NI NS NS NS A A NS NS B NI NI NS NS 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 7. boreal forests.. food.Wine Food and Drink .. food.Paper pulp (kraft process) Pulp and Paper .13 .Spirits Other B461 B462 B463 B464 NS A A A Food and Drink Processes in wood. grassland.. paper pulp. grassland. temperate. Edible and Not Edible Oil Extraction Application of Glues and Adhesives Preservation of Wood Underseal Treatment and Conservation of Vehicles Domestic Solvent Use (other than paint application) Vehicles Dewaxing Domestic Use of Pharmaceutical Products Other (preservation of seeds. refrigeration and air conditioning.Paper pulp (acid sulphite process) Pulp and Paper . drink and other industries 1 EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter NOx NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) CO NS NS NO NO NS A A A NS A A A Pulp and Paper .Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions TABLE 7.

2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories . B922.org/unece. B9203. B9106 NO A NO A NO A NO A A/B NI/B A A NO A NO NO 5B 7 7 Geothermal energy extraction B570 NO NO NI NO/B Other *) Chapter Small Combustion Installations is available from website http://tfeip-secretariat.1 (CONTINUED) LINK BETWEEN THE IPCC CATEGORIES AND THE CORRESPONDING METHODOLOGY CHAPTERS IN EMEP/CORINAIR GUIDEBOOK Reporting category IPCC category 3B3 Grassland 3B4 Wetland 3B5 Settlem ents 3B6 Other land Source Sector CRF NFR Natural Grassland and Other Vegetation (grassland. B924.swamps) Other EMEP/CORINAIR Inventory Guidebook Chapter NOx 1 CO NMSOx VOC Relevance of emissions from the category (see codes above the table) A NI A NI 4D 4D B1104 B110117 B1105 B1060 3B Land 4D 4G 4D 4G NI NO NI NO NI NO A NO 3C AGGREGATED SOURCES AND NONCO2 EMISSION SOURCES ON LAND 3C1a 5B 5B Forest and vegetation fires (man-induced. B1020 and B1105 A NO A NO 3C7 3D1 4C NA NA NA 4C NA NA NA NA NA 4D Rice Cultivation Harvested Wood Products Volcanoes Gas Seeps Lightning Wildlife animals Waters B1010. B992 B9101 and B9107 B9101. tundra. B1020 A NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO A B NO NO NO NS B NO NO A NO NO NO B 3D OTHER B1108 B110900 B111000 B1107 B1106 NO NO A NO NO 3D2 NA NA 4D 4 WASTE 4A and 4B 4C 4D 4E 5A Indirect N2O emissions 6A 6C 6B 6D 6A 6C 6B 6D Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal and Biological treatment of solid waste Incineration and Open Burning of Waste/Waste Incineration Wastewater Treatment and Discharge/Wastewater Handling Other waste B940 B921. B927. B970. scrub…)). other) Field burning of agricultural wastes B1103 A A A A 3C1b 4F 4F B1030 A A A A 3C1c 4D 4D Prescribed burning of savannas B B B B 3C4 4D 4D1 Agricultural soils. other low vegetation.htm > Expert Panels > Expert Panel on Combustion and Industry 1 7. B925.Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting TABLE 7. direct soil emissions B1010. B9105. Soils Wetlands (marshes .14 5 OTHER 4D WASTE Current references are to the version of the EMEP/CORINAIR Guidebook available when these guidelines are published. B991. other vegetation (Mediterranean.

. as well as from fossil fuel and biomass combustion. 7. EQUATION 7. into groundwater. Before being redeposited.9 in Section 11. such as fuel combustion.3 INDIRECT N 2 O EMISSIONS FROM THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF NITROGEN IN NO X AND NH 3 In this Guidance.1 N2O EMISSIONS FROM ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF NOX AND NH3 ⎡⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎞ ⎛ N 2 O(i ) = ⎢⎜ ⎟⎥ • EF4 • 44 / 28 ⎟+⎜ ⎜ NH 3 N (i ) ⎟ ⎜ NO x N (i ) ⎟ ⎢⎝ ⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎠ ⎝ ⎣ 4 In addition to being redeposited on soils and surface waters.. synthetic or organic fertilizers. and urine and dung deposition from grazing animals. N2O and CO2 emissions from soil amendment. there is currently no method available for estimating conversion of NH3 to N2O in the atmosphere. sewage sludge).2.Chapter 7: Precursors and Indirect Emissions 7. NH3 can also lead to the formation of N2O from atmospheric chemical reactions.5 of Chapter 10. crop residues.1 of Volume 4 can be used to estimate N2O emissions from the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen resulting from NOx and NH3. e.g. or cultivation/land use change on mineral soils. In addition to these direct emissions of N2O.2.2. e. from the inventories identified Section 7.. Emissions from livestock and manure management. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 7. and (2) the leaching and runoff of nitrogen from synthetic and organic nitrogen fertilizer inputs.1 Methodology All anthropogenic NH3 or NOx emissions are potential sources of N2O emissions 4 . which are then transformed to a particulate ammonium (NH4+) form. Therefore the indirect N2O emissions resulting from these various sources are included in these Guidelines using the assumption that same emission factor applies to soil and water deposition. of Volume 4 of AFOLU. deposited manure. while NH3 gas generally combines with atmospheric nitric acid or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to form ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate aerosols.g. mineralization of nitrogen through land use change or management practices. indirect emissions also take place as a result of two different nitrogen loss pathways. The method needs only to be applied where data on NOx and NH3 emissions from these sources are available. are provided in Section 10. Equation 7. or of other changes in inorganic nitrogen in the soil as a result of interventions by management practices in nitrogen cycling. industrial processes. rivers and eventually the coastal ocean. However. following drainage/management of organic soils. This section provides guidance on estimating N2O emissions from the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds from all other sources of NOx and NH3 emissions. crop residues. The deposition of these reactive nitrogen compounds from non-agricultural sources onto soils and waters causes N2O emissions in an exactly analogous way to those resulting from their deposition from agricultural sources.2 of Chapter 11. and industrial processes.2. and urine and dung nitrogen deposited by grazing animals. NOx and NH3 are typically transformed to other nitrogen containing compounds.3. The volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 and NOx results both from agricultural fertilizer applied to land and from manure management. riparian areas and wetlands. These pathways are (1) the volatilization/emission of nitrogen as NH3 and NOx and the subsequent deposition of these forms of nitrogen as ammonium (NH4+) and oxidised nitrogen (NOx) on soils and waters. mineralization of nitrogen in soil organic matter.1 and EF4 from Equation 11. and Section 11.g. and burning of crop residues and agricultural wastes. direct nitrous oxide emissions are estimated on the basis of human-induced net nitrogen input to managed soils (e. Oxides of nitrogen are commonly hydrolysed in the atmosphere or upon deposition to form nitric acid (HNO3). Specific guidance on estimating N2O emissions from that portion of nitrogen compounds associated with the volatilisation of NOx and NH3 from (1) manure management systems and applied sewage sludge and (2) synthetic and organic nitrogen input to managed soils.15 .

Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC). July 2003. Reference document on the general principles of monitoring. This method assumes that N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition are reported by the country that produced the original NOx and NH3 emissions. UNECE (1979). New York and Geneva. if available. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). ISSN 1014-4625.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en IPCC (1997a).eu.AIR/80.2 Quality Assurance/Quality Control. and Callander B.Volume 1: General Guidance and Reporting Where: N2O(i) = N2O produced from atmospheric deposition of N from NOx and NH3 emissions from source i. (2003).org/env/lrtap/welcome.. (December 2005).16 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories .int/technical_report_2001_3/en EEA (2005).unece. Reporting and Documentation It is good practice to estimate and report N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of NOx and NH3 where a country already has an inventory of these gases. Technical report No.8 in Annex 8A. Because N2O emissions may occur outside the country emitting NH3 or NOx. “EMEP/CORINAIR. The activity data NOx-N(i) and NH3 –N(i) are taken from the inventories as identified in Section 7.3..2.. IPCC/OECD/IEA. use of country. European Commission (EC) Directorate-General for Environment. http://www. Emission Inventory Guidebook – 2005”.or region-specific emission factors should be thoroughly documented. in Gg Nitrogen content of NOx emissions from source i assuming that NOx is reported in NO2 equivalents (Gg NOx-N or Gg NO2 • 14/46) Nitrogen content of NH3 emissions from source i (Gg NH3-N or Gg NH3 • 14/17) Emission factor for N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of N on soils and water surfaces (kg N2O-N/kg NH3-N or NOx-N emitted).. third ed. ISBN 92-1-116861-9..htm EEA (2001).es/pages/ FActivities. 7. Meira Filho L. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The method also does not account for the probable lag time between NOx and NH3 emissions and subsequent production of N2O in soils and surface waters. http://eippcb.. 30. and the AFOLU Sector is also reported in Table 3. United Nations.T. In reality the ultimate formation of N2O may occur in another country due to atmospheric transport of emissions. European Environmental Agency (EEA). NOx-N(i) = NH3-N(i) = EF4 = 7. Technical report No 30. Tréanton K.eea. 111 pp. it is assumed that N2O is emitted in the same year that the original NOx and NH3 were emitted.J.eu.jrc. Bonduki Y.. European Environmental Agency (EEA). Volume 1-3. Houghton J.2. References EC (2003).G. Guidelines for Estimating and Reporting Emission Data under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. ECE/EB. Paris. Air Pollution Studies No. For the purposes of calculation.html UNECE. Mamaty I. Copenhagen.eea. EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook. http://reports. (Eds).A. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. It is good practice to estimate emissions ensuring consistency with the emissions estimated for agriculture sources and avoiding double-counting. 15. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. This time lag is expected to be small relative to an annual reporting cycle. Denmark. Lim B. Griggs D. http://reports.2 for all sectors. N2O emissions from atmospheric deposition of NH3 and NOx are reported in Table 5A of reporting tables in Annex 8A. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). France.