This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
^OK'A
J^
SJCkit^^
'i»
Os muaI^
d.
^"
\(o
l^d^tht
^^^>
aj
1
tr^efon
Public Library
.
V. London CHAPMAN & HALL. Cornell University. FIRST THOUSAND. Ithaca. Instructor in Mechanical Drawing and Designings N. BY JOHN Sibley College. REID.A COURSE IN MECHANICAL DRAWING. S. NEW YORK. JOHN WILEY & SONS. : O . Limited. FIRST EDITION.
^Uu^ r V \ «. 1898. BY JOHN S.Copyright. C^w « • • « * «' • « • • » c c t* c* • ••• . NEW YORK. RE ID.• « ••• • c ROBERT DRUMMOND. . ELECTROTYPER AND PRINTER.
PREFACE. electrical. high elements of mechanical drawing in technical schools. this is The author does not imagine believes that it work is perfect. although most excellent from certain standpoints. by care the more advanced problems met with in machine construction and design. a com concise statement. Such works as the author has tried. In the course of a large experience as an instructor drawing and designing. of the essential principles of mechanical drawing — all that any young man ful study. has found necessary to prepare the present work. in This course contains. ject that Having tried and failed to find a book on the subhe was entirely suitable it for his use as a textbook. plete and the author's judgment. and colleges than any work he has examined. the author of called this in work has often been drawing to upon to teach the elements of mechanical students in marine. but he in comes nearer what needed teaching the schools. accompanied by examples. railway. and mechanical engineering. The chapter on Conventions will be appreciated by students . evening drawing schools. were either incomplete in some of the divisions of the subject or too volu minous and elementary in the treatment of details. of ordinary intelligence needs to master.
1S98. Cleaves. C. when work. My of acknowledgments are due to E. The Author.PREFA CE. professor drawing. . for reading the manuscript and April making some valuable suggestions. I. called upon to execute working drawings in practical The methods described are considered by the author to be those which have met with general approval by the experienced American draftsmen of the present time. Cornell University. Sibley College.
Illustrated i CHAPTER Instruments Use of Instruments Pencil I. CHAPTER Lettering and Figuring IV. PAGE The Complete Outfit. 74 103 104 106 ii2 118 iii . 7 7 7 Drawing Pen Triangles 1 9 11 11 T Square Drawing Board Sibley College Scale Scale Guard 12 12 13 Compasses Dividers or Spacers 13 Spring Bows 14 14 Irregular Curves Protractor 14 CHAPTER Geometrical Drawing II. 16 CHAPTER Conventions III. 56. 64 CHAPTER Orthographic Projection Shade Lines and Shading Conventions Shading Isometrical Drawings Working Drawings V.1 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.
.
especially in technical courses. direct and progressive way as to instructor to teach. for a textbook that would illustrate the in fundamental principles of mechanical drawing tical. The material should be soft pine i. A NEED has been felt by instructors and students. THE COMPLETE OUTFIT. and constructed as shown by Fig. of the essential principles involved. a practical draftsman and teacher for over fifteen years. is The board for sophomore and junior drawing 20" X X not more than \" in thickness. in a draftsmanlike manner. the greatest number of time. The complete Sibley College (i) is outfit for students in mechanical drawing in as follows for The Drawingboard freshman work is if 26" y^22" X f . and the student to acquire. such a pracenable the lucid. the same as that used for freehand drawing. and the ability to apply them. INTRODUCTION. . the present work has been prepared from the experience of the writer. in the shortest space With this in mind.: MECHANICAL DRAWING.
6H and one 4H Kohinoor or Faber. i" long. a plain pearwood Tsquare with a fixed head is that is necessary for sophomore or junior work. bar. 3'' long. ^\" long. is also one Eagle Pilot No. A A A A A Pen. contains* Fig. 2 with rubber (4) The TSquare for freshman work furnished by the department all . one. with fixed needlepoint. box with leads. 2. " " Spacer." shown by writer. quality and Pencils. ^" long. (2) (3) Paper. pen and lengthening A Spring '* Bow '' Pencil. 2. length.MECHANICAL DRAWING. size to suit. i" long. Fig. Length to suit drawingboard. ''The Sibley College Set. was compiled by the mediumpriced and is recommended It as a firstclass set of instruments. Drawingpen. medium nickelplated Hairspring Divider. . A Compass. tip. (5) Instruments. pencil.
follows: ^' and 2". 3. \" and ^ ^' and %" . J/' and Fig. . 4. Fig. 5.INTRODUCTION. i" and i^' 1 " . (6) 3 A Triangular Boxwood Scale graduated as Fig.
MECHANICAL DKA WING.
(7)
I
Triangle
''
30°
x
60°, celluloid, 10" long.
''
Fig. 4.
I
45°,
f
"
"
(8)
(9)
''Sibley College Set" of Irregular Curves.
Glasspaper Pencil Sharpener.
Fig.
6.
(10) Ink, black waterproof,
S.&H.
Higgins.
Fig. 7. Fig.
8.
(11)
(12)
"
''
red
''
blue
''
,
Fig.
7.
Fig.
8.
(13)
(14)
Ink Eraser, Faber's Typewriter.
Pencil Eraser, Tower's Multiplex Rubber.
Fig.
IN TROD UCTION.
(15)
5
Sponge Rubber
or
Faber's
Kneaded Rubber.
Pig.
10.
Fig.
9.
(16)
(17)
Tacks,
a small
box
of
I
oz. tacks.
Watercolors, \ pan each
Fig. 11.
of Payne's Gray,
Crim
son Lake, Prussian Blue, Burnt Sienna, and
sor
Gamboge. Wind
& Newton.
Fig. 10.
Fig. ii.
(18)
Tinting Brush, Camel's Hair No.
10.
Fig. 12,
Fig. 12.
(19)
Tinting Saucer.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 14.

(20)
(21)
(22)
sides.
Water
Glass.
Arkansas Oilstone. '^" Y^ \" V^t^" Piece of Sheet Celluloid No. 3000,
dull
on both
6
(23) (24)
MECHANICAL DRA WING.
Protractor, German silver, abouts^diam.
Fig.
15,
Scale Guard,
*'
Fig. 13.
Fig.
14.
(25)
(26)
Sheet of Tracingcloth,
Writingpen,
18''
x
24''.
point, ''Gillott"
No. 303.
\i?i,i.i,y,i,u.ih7,i.i,i,i,iTi
Fig.
15.
Fig. 16.
(27) Piece of
SHEET BRASS, 4''X4".
handles.
(28)
Needles, two with
The
all
following numbers of ''The Complete Outfit" are
that the student will be required to purchase for freshman
2, 3, 5, 6, 7,
mechanical drawing (No. 2 Register, 'qZ'qS):
8, 9,
10,
13,
14,
16, 26.
The remainder
of the outfit
may
be purchased during the
sophomore and junior years.
CHAPTER I. Alteneder & Sons. than it is to have an elaborate outfit of question able quality. USE OF INSTRUMENTS. and not until they have acquired the proper use of the instruments should they spend class set. and have them of the best. INSTRUMENTS. but to be finished in pencil. then center. The Z*^. he could not make a good draAving.?^//. kinds are usually worked out in pencil and if to be finished and kept they are inked if in and sometimes colored and shaded. using a set of instruments with which it would be difficult for even an experienced draftsman to make a creditable showing. all the drawing is only the lines except construction. try as he would. It is a common belief among students that any kind of cheap instrument will do with which to learn mechanical drawing. money in buying a first This is one of the greatest mistakes that can be made. are The instruments composing the ''Sibley College Set" made by T. and dimension lines should be made broad and 7 dark. and are certainly as good See Fig. Many a student has been discouraged and disgusted because. .—^Designs of all first. . 17. as the best. If it is necessary to economize in this direction it is better and easier to get along with a fewer number.
should be carefully bared of the wood with y ^ and the wood neatly tapered back from that point then lay the lead outfit. not less than 6H Kohinoor or Faber's). and sharpened to a knifeedge in the following manner: The lead a knife for about . endwise and an contour the other way. of a pencilline is the broad line. leaving a smooth. ideal pencilpoint ing straight lines. knifeedge until the point has elliptical assumed a sharp. using toward the a motion on both sides thin. It will be noticed that this first calls for two kinds of pencillines. upon the glasspaper sharpener illustrated in the and carefully rub to and fro until the pencil assumes a over and last long taper from the wood to the point. The second kind explained above pencil. This point should then be polished on a piece of scrap drawingpaper until the rough burr left by the glasspaper for is removed. the a thin. is when the pencilpoint it blunt the a line. v/ill SO that the drawing stand out clear and distinct.8 MECHANICAL DRAWING. because. draw With such hands of the a point but little pressure is required in the draftsman to draw the most desirable Hne. as it should be drawn with a somewhat softer a thicker point. finegrained lead pencil. now turn it do the same with the other slightly oscillating side. one that can be easily erased when necessary and inked if in to a much nation better advantage than the line had been is made with blunt point. incli to press hard in the upon when drawing it This forms a groove paper which makes very difficult to draw an even inked line. even line made with (either a hard. and All lines not necessary to explain the drawing should be . 4H. say . keen.
The hinged blade is therefore unnecessary. A soft conicalpointed pencil should be used for lettering. The Drazvingpen. Lines should always be drawn from left to right. and making an angle with the plane of the paper ranging from 60° to 90°. spreads the blades sufficiently apart to allow for thorough cleaning and sharpening. that shown in Fig. so as to make a minimum of erasing and cleaning after the drawing is finished.INSTRUMENTS. is —The best form. The pen should be held in a plane passing through the edge of the Tsquare at right angles to the plane of the paper. the pencil should be held of in a plane passing through the edge the Tsquare perpen dicular to the plane of the paper and making an angle with the plane of the paper equal to about 60°. figuring. erased before inking or broadening the pencillines. and all freehand work. The point. The in the writer's opinion. When drawing pencillines. 17. spring on the upper blade Fig. best of drawingpens will in time wear dull on the until the student has learned and from a competent . 17.
should be brought together by means of the thumbscrew. placing the pen in an upright position draw the point to fro and and on the oilstone in a plane perpendicular to it. If one blade has worn shorter than the other. . to give the proper curve to the point. manner for about the same length then clean the blades and examine the extreme^ if points. and finish the sharpening by polishing on a piece of smooth leather.lO MECHANICAL DRAWING. place the lower blade on the stone and slightly turning the move it quickly to and fro. pen with the fingers and elevating the handle a. as long as the bright spots When men inking. or they will cut the The grinding should be continued only show on the points of the blades. The paper. the blades. hold the pen vertically. the upper blade in a similar of time . It is difficult to explain the method of sharpening a draw ingpen. how to sharpen his pens it teacher would be better to have them sharpened by the manufacturer. and there are still bright spots to be seen continue the grinding until they entirely disappear. The blades should next be opened slightly. end of each stroke. the pen should be held in about the same position as described for holding the pencil. The position Many may be drafts varied with good results as the pen wears. of '' The Arkansas oilstones (No. and holding" the pen in the right hand in a nearly horizontal position. little at the little. blades should not be too sharp. 2 i The Complete Outfit ") are best for this purpose. raising lowering the handle of the pen at the same time. Lines made with the pen should only be drawn from left to right. Having ground the lower blade a turn the pen completely over and grind. and.
If the lefthand edge of the drawingboard is is straight and even and the paper tacked down square with that edge and . and 90° can readily be Lines parallel to drawn with the triangles and Tsquare. 45°. Angles of 15°. then place the edge rep resenting the of the other against the corre sponding edge of the lower and by sliding the upper on the left when holding of lines the lower firmly with the hand any line. and left is accom plished by holding the head firmly with the hand against the right the lefthand end of the drawingboard. 30°. 1 THE TRIANGLES. and are celluloid. the rubber is brittle and more easily broken than the celluloid. 75°. oblique lines on the drawing can be drawn with the triangles by placing the edge representing the height hypotenuse first. of one of them so as to coincide with the given line. The use of the Tsquare is very simple. 60°. leaving hand lines. 4 (in " The Complete Outfit ") are lo'^ and y" long respectively. free to use the pen or pencil in drawing the required THE DRAWINGBOARD. The triangles shown at Fig.1 lA^S TR UMEN TS. THE TSQUARE. number may of be drawn parallel to the given The methods drawing perpendicular lines and making angles with other lines within the scope of the triangles and T square are so evident that further explanation is unnecessary. made of transparent The black rubber triangles sometimes used are but very little cheaper (about 10 cents) and soon become dirty when in use.
gV^ ^' and ^' 4'' = 2'' ft. if it is determined to make a drawing twice the full size of an object. I ^^" or full size.g. was arranged to It is suit the needs of the students College.. then where the object measures one inch the drawing would be made 2^\ etc. Sib. 3'' and li'' = i ft. the same size as the object really is — and the drawmade to a to the scale of rule ing said to be made to the scale of full size. 2^' if a drawing to be made 2" = I ft. details are usually is Large machines and large reduced scale — e. This instrument Outfit "). triangular and made of boxwood. then horizontal lines parallel to the upper edge of the paper and perpendicular to the lefthand edge may be they drawn with the Tsquare. 16 (in "The Complete employed to prevent the scale from turning. This fit scale. It is is shown in Fig.e.. the Tsquare. I i'' and i'' = i ft. The six edges are graduated as follows.g... or are sometimes called. 3 (in/' The Complete Outin Sibley ").. THE SIBLEY COLLEGE SCALE.. THE SCALE GUARD..12 MECHANICAL DRAWING. illustrated in Fig. and and = ft. then measured by the standard would be * divided into 12 equal parts and each part would represent i^\ See Fig. Drawings of very small objects are generally shown enlarged — e. and lines perpendicular to these set squares^ as can be made by means of the triangles. full Larger objects or small machine parts are often drawn size — is i. it so that the draftsman can use without having to look for .
take hold of the compass at the joint with the thumb and two first guide the needlepoint into the center and set the pencil or pen leg to the required radius. The sharpening of the commencing them always a drawing lead for the compasses is a very im portant matter. first. about to draw a circle or an arc of a circle. The same as directions for sharpening the compass leads are the has already been given for the sharpening of the straightline pencil. then move the thumb at the and forefinger up to the small handle provided top of the instrument. THE COMPASSES. and then when one of these parts has been subdivided accurately into three equal parts. it will be a simple matter to step off these latter divisions on the remaining threefourths . say 12. THE DIVIDERS OR SPACERS. When fingers. and beginning at the lowest point draw the line clockwise. it Before pays well to take time to properly sharpen the pencil and the lead for compasses and to keep in good condition. The weight of the compass will be the only down pressure required. It is in the same manner as dein laying off equal very useful distances 'on straight lines or circles. .3 INSTRUMENTS. into is To divide a given line it any number of equal parts with the dividers. and cannot be emphasized too much. This instrument should be held scribed for the compass. best to divide the line into three or four parts say 4. 1 the particular edge he needs every time he wants to lay off a measurement.
epicyloids. such as round corners. first.. used as follows when measuring shown in Fig. that curve should be selected that will coincide with the greatest line required.14 cf the given line. such as cycloids. it. It is very important that etc. rotary ellipses. The Sibley College Set of Irregular Curves shown in Fig. This is best. number of points on the THE PROTRACTOR. 15. all small arcs and small circles should be inked then the larger arcs and and the straight lines last. When commencing circles. the small arcs. as in the outlines. and to draw the straight line tangent to than vice versa. cam pump wheels. This Instrument It is is for measuring and constructing angles. When using these curves. IRREGULAR CURVES. These instruments are valuable cles for drawing the small all cir and arcs of circles. should be care fully pencilled in before beginning to ink a drawing. as difficult to ink over them without blotting. It is . MECHANICAL DRAWING. etc. etc. fillets. Care should be taken not to make holes it is in the paper with the spacers. because it is much easier to know where to stop the arc line. 5 are useful for drawing irregular curves through points that have already been found by construction.. cases of gearteeth. Many between good drawings are spoiled because of the bad joints small arcs and straight lines. to ink a drawing. THE SPRING BOWS.
find the figure corresponding to the number after of degrees in the required angle. . place the nick at the point from which it is desired to draw the angle. with the nick exactly on the point of the angle to be measured. draw a line through this point to the nick. and on the outer circum ference of the protractor.5 INSTRUMENTS. of degrees contained in the angle may be read from clockwise. Then the number the left. In constructing an angle. an angle: Place the lower which forms one 1 straight edge on the straight line of the sides of the angle. which will give the required angle. removing the protractor. and mark a point on the paper as close as possible to the figure on the protractor.
CHAPTER II. and the drawings as the size of the squares will permit. with light pencillines. the given lines may be red. the construction lines blue. It will all is than 4''. and given and This is required lines quite broad. The pose : following problems are given to serve a double pur to teach the use of drawing instruments. less made as large The average size of the squares should be not a sheet of drawings erased. time will permit. The drawingpaper tangles as for this work should be divided tem porarily. When may be finished these boundary lines be noticed in the illustrations of this chapter that construction lines are made very narrow. GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. into as many squares and rec may be directed by the instructor. and the required lines black. and to impress them upon the mind of the student so that he may readily apply them in practice. sufficient to distinguish if them. in practical and to point out those problems in geometry that are most useful mechanical drawing. it is as is often the case. the broad and narrow 16 . advisable to ink in some of these drawings toward the last. But even when inked in in black. and employs less time than would be necessary the construction lines were If made broken. In that event.
way than the preceding one. — . 19. should be to quicker and better The constant endeavor every of the student make every drawing he begins more in accurate. It is the little if things like these that make or mar a drawing. success awaits any one who earnestly desires it. radius —Assume the point E above the describe an arc and EB CBD cutting the line AB in the point C. may be bisected in the same way. it . it is a true measure of my ability to make If these suggestions are faithfully followed throughout this course. From C draw a line through E cutting the arc in D. arc of a circle Fig. Draw DB the perpendicular. — With A of and B in turn as centers. correctly. The Same Problem: a Second Method. ing arcs should be exactly tangent. To Erect a Perpendicular at the End of line as center THE Line. so that the joints cannot be noticed. or I should be the same. in as finished until the it A drawing should never be handed is student perfectly sure that he cannot improve is in any way whatever. cannot improve this drawing. Fig. 20. as saying This I is the best that can do. and quickly. To Bisect a Finite Straight Line. All dimensions should be Straight lines join laid off carefully. Join EF bisect ing AB An at C.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. Fig. The ings is principal thing to be aimed at in making these draw accuracy of construction. 1 8. and a radius greater than the half arcs intersecting at AB^ draw E and F. and attended to or neglected they will make or mar the draftsman. lines \J of col would serve the purpose very well without the use ored inks. for the act of handing in a drawing the same.
cutting in D. To Draw a Perpendicular to a Line FROM A Point above or below It. Fig. 21. BC describe an arc CDE with the same radius measure off the arcs CD and DE. — . FB is the required perpendicular. Fig. Draw CD the perpendicular required. center With B and any radiuS as .i8 MECHANICAL DRAWING. With center C and any suitable radius From E and F describe arcs cut the line AB in E and F. With C and D as centers and any convenient radius describe arcs in tersecting at F. Assume the point C above the Hne. 2 1.
23. BD in D. Fig. 22. then angle BAD = an^le DAC. From Line B with AC as radius AB. — From lel to ^ with the same cut arc radius describe arc BD. 23. Fhom a Point D on the Line DE to set off an Angle equal to the given Angle BAC. Fig. 24. With B and C as at centers and any convenient radius draw arcs intersecting D. CD is paral \7^ Fig. 19 as center To Bisect a Given Angle. Fig.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. Fig. From any point on AB as B with radius BC describe an arc cutting AB in A. To Draw a Line Parallel to a Given Line ^4^ Through a Given Point C. 22. Join AD. — From . Draw CD. —With A and any convenient radius describe the arc BC.
Angle EDF E and radius = angle ^^(7. 25.24. 25.20 MECHANICAL DRAWING. with any convenient radius describe arc BC^ A From D with the same radius describe arc EF. and EG.2. With center is BC cut arc EF in F. Join DF. . when the Lines do not Extend to a Meeting — Draw the line CD and CE parallel and at equal dis5 Fig. Point. Fig. tances from the lines radius AB draw arcs 1. Fig. With C as center and any With i and 2 as centers and any con . To Divide an Angle into two equal Parts. .
To Construct a Rhomboid having Adjacent Sides equal to two Given Lines AB and AC.. any convenient length. Make /^with line AB as radius and from Join DF ^ AC. venient radius describe arcs intersecting at H. is of the points 2. Draw CA and B>B and produce them Through each one of equal parts. — equal to AB. partly shown. FG Fig. 21 A line through C and H divides the angle into two equal parts. which the line^^i^is to be divided. draw lines to the point E. in Fig.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. etc. of equal parts into set off along this line the number E. To Divide the Line AB into any Number 15. dividing the Hne AB into the required number required This problem is useful in dividing a line when the point difBcult to find accurately — e. 27. Make D= angle A. 26. From radius 2ls describe arcs cutting in G.. and AN Angle equal to a Given Angle A. OF EQUAL Parts. E with line AC and EG. 3. 4. 28 AB is the ptU/i of the spur gear. say of — Draw a From C line CD parallel to AB. which includes a .g. Draw line DE Fig. until they intersect at i.
is space and a tooth and cast gears the space is measured on the pitch circle. the required From A draw AC 2X any angle. 29. if we divide the pitch into eleven equal parts the space will measure y^Y and the tooth tooth is f^. Let AB be the Fig.22 MECHANICAL DRA WING. the proportion being about 6 to — i. etc. The jV which parallel it 1 1 the space is larger than the called the backlasJi. lines 2\ 3^ parallel 4'. — Draw AB parallel to CD at any . Draw CD A' B' at any convenient distance and set off on length. 30. From point draw a which will divide A' B' as required. — given line. Join to CB and through the divisions on AC draw. CB. and lay off on it number of equal spaces of any convenient length. In made larger than the thickness of the 5 tooth..e. the y\. one part and the other To Divide a Given Line into any Number OF Equal Parts: Another Method. Let A' B' be the pitch chord of to the arc AB. 5 equal spaces of any convenient Draw CA' and DB' line to y^y j5" intersecting at E. dividing ^^ Fig. as required in the points I^ To Divide a Line AB Proportionally to the Divided Line CD.
distance from it. the divided The Same: Another Method. 30 Fig. 7.. 31. etc.e. The divisions on AB will have the same proportion to the divisions on line CD that the whole line AB has to the whole CD — i. 4. 23 Draw lines through CA and i^^and produce from them till they meet at E. UB points 5. cutting line AB in the A 1 2 3 45 Q 7 8 9 10 1112 13 Fig. 3. the line to be di . 6. of line CD.GEOMETRICAL DRA WING. etc. E Fig. the Hnes will be propor tionally divided. BA. make any angle with —Let BC. Draw lines E through the divisions 2. 29. 8. i. line..
to Draw lines i. and produce them until they cut the base BB.24 vided at B.nd with arcs 1. line CA joining the two ends of the lines. 32. 8. Fig. 33. To Construct an Equilateral Triangle the points ON A Given Base ^4^. and the right angle will be trisected. . parallel CA^ dividing line AB in points 4. Fig.— From The triangle y^i^^' B with AB as radius describe arcs cutting in C. — From the angular point B with any convenient radius describe an arc cutting the sides of the angle in C and 2. A. proportional to BC A and Fig. with the same radius cut off arcs i and From C and A Draw lines iB and 2B. 7. 5. 32 Fig. To Construct an Equilateral Triangle OF A Given Altitude. 34. radius cut off Draw lines from through 2.2. Draw from 2. AB. is Draw lines AC and BC equilateral and equiangular. To Trisect a Right Angle ABC. lines perpendicular to it — From A both ends of AB draw as CA and DB. From A its i. with any radius describe a semicircle on CA' d. MECHANICAL DRAWING. 3. 6.
— Erect a perpendicular at B. From one end Three the — of the base A describe an arc with the line B as radius. Fig. 35. 37. From line other end with Hne first C as radius describe an lines to the its arc. its Base AB being given. and C being given. Fig. From D draw ends of A. 36. 25 its Sides as AB To Construct any Triangle. 36. To <:onstruct any triangle the two shorter B and C must together be more than equal to the largest side ^4. 55 Fig. cutting the arc in D. 34 Fig. Make BC equal . and a triangle will be constructed having sides equal to the sides sides given. To Construct a Square. Fig. Fig.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
From 6" with any radius describe a semi — circle cutting the given circle. is AB into as the polygon to have sides. say 5. DA. Fig. Divide — Draw a diameter AB of circle. 3. \x\D. Draw DF perpendicular to AB. DB. AB at C. andi^^. 6. Fig. Fig. 5. draw "a tangent y^^ to the given circle. 38.26 to MECHANICAL DRA WING. Draw lines frorn C through each division^ cutting the circle in points which will give the angles of the polygon. the Circumscribing Circle being GIVEN. 37. Join AD. as 2. At any point of contact. many equal From A and B parts as with the . the given Another Method. 39. Make CD and 6^/^ each equal to CA. as (7.  D Fig. From A and C with radius AB describe arcs cutting]om DC ^wd. To Construct a Square. — \. Bisect AB in C. Divide the semicircle into as is many I. 4. To Construct a Regular Polygon of any Number of Sides. BF. 39. given its Diagonal AB. equal parts as the polygon required to have sides.
Make BD perpendicular and With B as center and radius AB describe arc equal to AB.GEOMETRICAL DRA WING. 40. say 6. 3. 40. With A ' and any convenient radius describe a semicircle. 41. — Extend many Hne AB. Fig. describe a Bisect line AB C. and erect a perpendicular at the bisection cut ting B2 in With C as center and radius CB circle. center Another Method. With A as center and AB as . 5. 2. 41. the second division of the diameter and produce cutting the circle in D. BD will be the side of the required The line C mu^t always be drawn through the second division of the diameter. as i. whatever the number of sides of the polygon. Fig. Draw lines through every division except the first. draw a line from it C through polygon. sides in the — required polygon. equal parts as there are Divide the semicircle into as sides in the required polygon. Fig. 4. Fig. To Construct any Regular Polygon WITH A Given Side AB. DA into as many equal parts as there are Divide arc DA. Draw B2. line 27 AB as radius describe arcs cutting in C. With AB as a chord step off the remaining sides of the polygon.
first describe an arc cutting the arc in D. the Circumscribing Circle being given. 43. Fig. — I i of the circle. To Construct a Regular Heptagon. B it as center will and BA as radius. be bisected by the radius Ci or C2 is equal to the side of the required heptagon.28 radius cut off MECHANICAL DRAWING. . A2 in C. 44. To Construct a Regular Octagon. «ri. Draw a radius AB. Bisect arcs CA and CB in. Join Ai. B2>. and 2. 42. £F. CB. Fig. D£. Bisect AB in E. describe arc AB.2. — Produce radius. C2. Draw a diameter AB. Fig. and FB. iC. ^5 in Z^. From C with the same ^. 42. Bisect the arcs AB in C and D. 2B. From Z^. cutting the circumference in 3 and 4. etc. With center A and same radius. in D. From j5. the Side AB BEING given. cut the circumference in in C. With B as center and BA as AD2. the Circumscribing Circle being given. ^4 in Join AC. To Construct a Pentagon. Draw lines from and 2 through the Center Fig. radius cut A^ — With 1.
With C and radius line EF cut . line DE. Bisect arc BD in F. off arc Ci and 2 on the semi Draw B2 it will be a second side of the penta FlGf 44. Bisect it and draw a line perpendicular to it at the bisection. 29 line Draw center circle.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. . gon. Draw i. circle • With G as center and radius GA describe a it will contain the pentagon. EF. The perpendiculars from the sides AB and B2 will cut in G. Fig. 45.
To Construct a Heptagon on a Given line Line AB. A. and AE2. 46. 5. — To Inscribe an Octagon in a Given Draw diagonals AD. Join these points and the octagon will be inscribed. 2. 3. AB to C. 46. At i and 2 erect perpendiculars Draw 12 and 34. Bisect AB in Draw arc I line With C Bisect as center and DE . From and B with radius equal to AO describe quadrants cutting the sides of th. C. 2.30 Fig. i line AB in both directions. 47. Fig. Fig. 4. 8. — Extend DE. B. Erect With centers A and B and radius ^^ describe the semicircle rants CEB 2. it Draw line j5i it is a second side of of the circum the heptagon. perpendiculars Sit — Extend A and B. 7. CB intersecting at O. To Construct a Regular Octagon on a Given Line AB. With center A and same radius de scribe an arc cutting the semicircle in D. From B with radius AB E. 45.e square in i. as radius. Square. sides of the octagon. 6. and obtain the center scribing circle as in the preceding problem. MECHANICAL DRAWING. Make the . describe a semicircle. cut off on the semicircle. Bisect the quad CE and and DE in and then Al "and B2 will be two more I. Fig. 3 4 equal to AB.
(less) Fig. 48. Join EG. equal to CD. 50.. be equal to half the circumference of A. ^iven line AB. Complete the octagon by drawing 35. Draw a diamDraw line AC perpendicular to AB and equal to eter AB. — Extend the AE in At E. Fig. Join EC. From E with EG as radius cut EF m H. line From AB to E making BE F with radius E'A delines B where the two given are joined erect a perpendicular to AE cutting the semicircle in G. and 64. — Draw another perpenand radius of the line circle B to AB. To Find a Mean Proportional to two Given Right Lines. Bisect scribe a semicircle. cutting line B in E. — Make ^i^= Draw EG making an angle with EF=z DC. perpendiculars at 31 A and B equal to 12 or 34 — viz. To Find a Third Proportional to the two Given Right Lines ^^ and CD. BG will be a mean proportional to CD and AB. To Draw a Right Line Equal to Half THE Circumference of a Given Circle. A^ and B^. 56. G A C Fig. three times the radius of the dicular at circle. bisect With it center B cut off arc BD. and draw a from the center of the circle through the bisection. Draw .GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. circle Line EC \n\W. 49.
To Find the Center of a Given Arc ABC. M f Fig. EI is the third propor tional (less) to the two given lines. From G lay off GH = EF. 52. Draw GI — CD. B C Fig. 52. Fig. To Find a Fourth Proportional to three Given Right Lines AB. Join HI. 50. Fig. CD. 51. to H parallel FG. and ^i^. chords — Draw the AB and^B and bisect them.32 MECHANICAL DRAWING. GL is the fourth proportional required. . 51. cutting EG in /. making any convenient GH. From draw a parallel to HI cutting GI in L. Extend the bisection lines to intersect in Z^ the center required. D Fig.— Make given line GH = the angle to K AB. 53 Fig.
Join CB. tangent to the circle at To Draw Tangents to the Circle C from THE Points without It.) Join EF and through B draw ABC ABC parallel to EF. 54. Draw any C2D. 33 To Draw a Line Tangent to an Arc of a Circle. cles. dicular to BD. Draw ^(f and bisect it in ^. From ter B is lay off equal distances as BE^ BF. Fig.) When the center is not accessible. To Draw a Tangent between two the centers Cirline — Join A as A 12 and B. CD. 54. Draw BD is and through B draw ABC perpenthe point B. circle C. Fig. 55. When the cen D given. 53. 55. Fig.— (ist. (2d. Let B be the point through which the tangent is to be drawn. radial from A2 and make — the radius of circle B. From E with radius EC describe an arc cutting circle C \n B Fig. From A with radius A—2 describe a circle From center B . Draw AB and AD tangent to the ^ Fig. — and D.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
a Circle of Given Lines. draw tangents BC and BD to circle C2D and at the points C and D by preceding problem. To Draw Tangents to two Given CirA AND ^.— Join A and B. scribe a circle GF.34 MECHANICAL DRAWING.x^ Through E and respectively. 56. Join AC and ^Z> and through the points i^6^ E and F draw parallels i^6^ EH to BD and ^C and Fig. Draw AF and AG extended to E and H. H draw ^6^ and //Z> parallel to BF and ^6^ EC and DH the tangents required. EH are the tangents required. 57. 57. —AB and AC are the two straight r lines. From B draw the tangents BF and BG. To Draw an Arc of Radius Tangent to two Straight Fig. 2. a disinter . Fig. cles 56. by Prob. and r the given radius. 37. tance = draw parallels 12 and 34 to AC At and AB. From ^ with a radius equal to the difference of the radii of the given circles de FiG.
secting at 35 F. which will be tangent to the two straight lines at the points D and E. — BCD Next and EF at right angles to it through the given point G. the given triangle at the points Fig. i and with either as a radius and which will be tangent to the A as center describe an arc lines BC and CD at the points and 2. 60. FD or FE as radius describe the re quired arc. The bisectors will meet AB. From A draw perpendiculars Ai and A2. B\. The A. To Inscribe a Circle within a Triangle ABC. in — Bisect the angles A and B. 58. or at bisect either of the angles FEB CA FED. Outside the circumference of each circle cut off distances 13 and 24 . Draw D\ = D\ perpendicular to i. which bisection line will intersect the central line will be the center of the arc. From With F as center and F draw perpendiculars FD and FE. Then with center D and radius describe a circle which will be tangent to 2. 59. Radius R To Draw an Arc of a Circle of Given tangent to two Given Circles A and B.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. D. 3. Fig. To Draw an Arc of a Circle Tangent TO TWO Straight Lines BC and CD when the MidDraw CA the bisection of the angle position G IS given. Fig. — From A and B draw any radial lines as ^^3.
Then with center A and radius at yi3. 61.36 each MECHANICAL DRAWING. WHEN THE Arc includes the Circles.CB and 6. and 6. Draw CA. and center B and radius B—a^ describe arcs intersecting cutting the circles at 5 C. With centre be tangent C and radius C^ or C6 describe an arc which 5 will at points To Draw an Arc of a Circle of Given Radius R tangent to two Given Circles A and B Fig. — the given radius R." On .— Through ^ and^ draw convenient diameters and extend them indefinitely.
GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
these measure
off
37
equal in
the distances 12 and 34, each
length to the given radius R.
Then with
and A,
5,
center
A
and radius
A2, center
B
and radius ^4, describe arcs cutting
at C.
From
and
ra
C draw
dius
C^ and C6 through
or
6^5
B
With
center
C
C6
describe the arc 6,
5.
which
will
be tangent to
the circles at the points 6 and
Fig.
62.
To Draw an Arc of a Circle of Given
Radius R tangent to Two Given Circles A and B WHEN THE Arc includes one Circle and excludes the other. — Through A draw any diameter and make 12 = R.
Fig. 62.
From B draw any radius and extend it, making 3—4 = R. With center A and radius A2 and center B and radius B^ describe
arcs cutting at C.
With C
as center
and radius
= C^
or
C6
describe the arc
5, 6.
Fig. 63.
Draw an Arc
of a Circle of Given Radraw an
dius
R TANGENT TO A STRAIGHT LiNE AB AND A CIRCLE
of the given circle,
arc of a
CD.
— From E, the center
—
38
circle
i,
MECHANICAL DRAWING.
2
concentric with
CD
at a distance
R
from
it,
and
also a straight line 3,
4
parallel to
^^
at the
same distance
R
from AB.
dicular 06.
Draw £6^ intersecting CD at 5. Draw the perpenWith center O and radius 6^6 or O^ describe the
required arc.
Fig. 63.
Fig. 64.
To Describe an Ellipse Approximately
(F.
BY MEANS OF THREE Radii
R. Honey's method).
Fig.
64.
at
Draw H.
straight lines
RH ^.nd HQ,
making any convenient angle
semiminor and
With center
H and
radii equal to the
GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.
semimajor axes respectively, describe arcs
39
Join
LM and NO.
Lay
off
LO
and draw
MK and NP
parallel to
LO.
Zi
=\
of ZiV.
//'3 for
Join 0\ and draw J/2 and A^3 parallel to Oi.
the longest radius
Take
(=
Z), and onehalf the
(= sum
T),
H2
for the shortest radius
of the semiaxes for the third
radii to describe the
radius
(=
5),
and use these
ellipse
as
follows: Let
off ^4 = Z
AB
and
CD
5.
be the major and minor axes.
Lay
S.
and ^5
=
Then
draw
lay off
CG = T and
C6 =
With G
as center
and G6 as radius draw the arc
5,
6, g:
With
£".
center 4 and radius 4,
arc 5, £; intersecting 6, g at
it
Draw
radius
g^ 8
the line Gg and produce
it
making GS
=
T.
Draw g^
4 and extend
to 7
making
g, y =: S.
With
center
G
and
GC {=T)
arc
draw the
arc (78.
With center^ and
radius
(=5) draw the
7^.
arc 8, 7.
With
center 4 and radius 4, 7
{= E) draw
in the
The remaining quadrants
can be drawn
same way.
Fig. 65.
To Draw an Ellipse having given the
Axes AB and CB.
— Draw AB and CD
With
Divide
center
2, 3, 4, etc.
at right angles to
and
cut
of
bisecting each other at E.
C and
i^
radius
a
EA
AB
in
E and
i'''^
the foci.
i,
EE or ^i^' into
Then with
number
parts as
shown
at
and E^ as cen
c
Fig. 65.
Fig. 67.
ters
and Ai and ^i, and
^2 and j52,
etc., as radii describe arcs
intersecting in R, S, etc., until a sufificient
number
of points
40
are found to
MECHANICAL DRAWING.
draw the
'^
elliptic
curve accurately throughout.
irregular curves
is
(No.
5
of the
Sibley College Set" of
very useful in drawing this curve.)
the ellipse at the point
of the angle
To draw
a tangent to
G\ Extend
is
FG
and draw the bisector
HOP
.
KG
the tangent required.
Fig. 66.
Another Method.
— Let ^j5 and
AB
etc.
semi axes.
circles.
With A as center and radii Draw any radii as ^3 and A4,
and
AC be the AC describe
3 i,
Make
42,
etc.,
perpendicular to
i,
AB, and D2, E^,
etc., parallel to
AB.
Then
2,
5, etc.,
are points
on the curve.
the
Fig. 6^.
Another Method. — Place
CDEF.
i,
diameters as
before, and construct the rectangle
Divide
i,
AB
2, 3
and
and
DB and BF into
B.
lines to
the same
number
of equal parts as
2,
3
Draw from C through
points
on
AB
i,
and
2, 3
BD
on
meet others drawn from ^through points
A.B and
FB
intersecting in points
GHK.
GHK
are points on
,
the curve.
Fig. 68.
Another Method.
shown
in
'1
— Place
i.
the diameters
AB
and
CD
as
Drawing No.
Draw any convenient
Fig. 68.
angle
RHQ, Drawing No.
2.
With
center
ZTand
radii equal
to the semiminor and semimajor axes describe arcs
LM and
of the curve.y the points 2 on the major With centers 1.e. of the ellipse and thus complete the curve circles. Given the Directrix BD and the — is equally distant from the directrix ^Z^ and the focus C. from Join LO and draw MK and NP parallel to LO. etc. 70.2. on FD EC intersecting Fig. of Divide AE. = //P lay A and B with axis. A straight line drawn across the figure at right angles to the . the strip of celluloid is now moved over with the axis. the parallel lines in points 4.1^.1 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. the the figure. 6. 69. the Base CD AND THE Abscissa parallel to AB CE i. E is equally distant from the directrix and the focus. lines parallel 3 Through the points and 2. CE is = EB. and — Draw EF through A to CD and DF parallel on AB.. so that the point E is always in contact semiminor axis and necessary the point /^ with the semi major number of points may be marked through a small hole in the celluloid at G with a sharp conicalpointed pencil. Focus C TO Draw a Parabola and a Tangent to It at the Point The parabola is a curve such that every point in the curve 3. Any line parallel to the axis is a diameter. off Then i C and Z^ with a distance the points i^ on the minor axis off and from 2' a distance = HK\2. 3 AF a. To Construct a Parabola.nd AE draw AB. 2' and radii \D and 2^. between the arcs of Fig. being given. draw On a piece of transparent celluloid 2" lay off from the point G. Place the point i^on the major axis and the point If E on the minor axis. and to ED into the same number equal parts. AF. The vertix i. EC. 2 and arcs of circles. GF and GE = the semiminor and semimajor axes respec tively. 4 NO. and through A draw lines to the points 1. respectively. 5.
42 axis is MECHANICAL DRAWING. Thus C\ — \. BD These are points the curve. the Abscissa BD. as always equal to the horizontal distance from that point to the directrix. Fig. From B draw AB to F. Draw parallels to BD through any points in AB^ and i. 3. 71. Draw the curve through the points where the lines correspondingly numbered intersect each other. etc. parallel and equal to BD. having given THE Diameter AB.F in and from A draw lines to the points DF. 4. i'. a double ordinate. into the same number of equal parts. 2 is The distance from C to any point upon the curve. To Draw an Hyperbola. . 70. ACF the axis of the s 3 F A \1 D s ^ Vt /K n 1 * 1 > ^ 2 4 \ ^ 5 c Fig. Divide DF and F4. etc. and either half of it is an ordinate. Make F4. The tangent : to the curve at the point 3 may be drawn as follows Produce Make FF = the horizontal distance of ordinate 35 Draw the tangent through '^F. is Through C draw ACF at right angles to / BD. C2 to 2. — lines to the points in 4. from F. 2' . and Double Ordinate EF. with center C and radii equal to the horizontal distances of describe arcs cutting in the points in these parallels from 2. curve.
— Describe a using the widest limit of the spiral as . — Draw two E I.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. From A and ^ with radius equal to and H.— Bisect and with AB by the line CD in the point ^ as center and radius ^^ draw a circle cutting CD Fig. which will complete the oval. 72. the arcs From AB draw arcs cutting the last two lines in G F with radius i^6^ describe the arc GH to meet AG and Fig. of the G with any radius draw a circle cutting the ellipse in Join these four points and a rectangle will be formed in the ellipse. From ^ and B draw lines through i^. 43 To Construct an Oval the Width AB E. AB and CD. ji. and F. To Construct a circle Sipral of one Revolu tion. Fig. which be the center of the From HIJK. Fig. Bisect 2 in G. Fig. 74. will be the diameters or axes of the With iV or 6^ as centers and radius = GL in the semimajor axis. bisecting the sides ellipse. in BEING GIVEN. parts. Bisect each i of these in 2. Given an Ellipse to Find the Axes and parallel chords Foci. 73. Lines LM and NO. F. rectangle. de scribe arcs cutting the major axis P and Q the foci. Draw will EF touching the ellipse in and This line divides the ellipse obhquely into equal ellipse. 71. BH.
^12 into a number of equal parts corresponding with the required number of revolutions and divide these into the I same number It will of equal parts as there are radii. MECHANICAL DRA WING. 3.. C. sponding radii C. 73. Commence as in the last problem.. line i describe an arc cutting the radial B in i^ From the center conthe corre tinue to draw arcs from points 2. 3. 75. find the points \" 2". etc. etc. cutting 4!. B. 2. Through these points trace the spiral of two revolutions. one from the center of the circle to 12.44 a radius. i Divide the radius into the same number of equal parts as to 12. draw 2. '1 Fig. viz. . A Fig. etc. ing arcs from radii. D. etc. and one from 12 to A... to 12. proceed in the . Divide the circle into any number of equal parts as A^ B. the radius — Divide the circle into any numDivide ber of equal parts as^. in the points 2'. To Describe a Spiral of any Number of e. Revolutions. etc. From 12 trace the Archimedes Spiral of one revolution. The same manner to .g. 3'. From the center with radius 12.. be evident that the figure consists of two separate spirals. to the correspondingly numbered thus obtaining the points marked i\ 2' revolution completed. 2>" y ^tc.. etc. E. first i. C. and draw radii. 4. etc. 3'.
at NPNM. given height into seven equal parts. shown enlarged 3. I. Fig. Fig. 45 Chi To Construct the Involute of the the circle into any cle O.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. Tangent ence of the circle unrolled. Drawing No. 77. and through the point the upper extremity of the third division draw dicular to ter. and on each of Fig. — Divide radii. square NPNM. and the curve drawn through the extremities of the other tangents will be the involute. To Describe an Ionic Volute. 76. Drawing No. and draw Draw tangents at right angles to these i On the tangent to radius la)' off a distance equal to one of the parts into which the circle is divided. AB. number of equal parts radii. Make PM perpendicular to NN and inscribe the 11. iViV corresponds to line 3. — Divide the 3 3. 3 perpen AB. From any convenient point on 33 as a cen with radius equal to onehalf of one of the divisions on describe the eye of the volute 2. . bisect its sides and draw the square 12. 75 the tangents set off the number of parts corresponding to the 12 will then be the circumfer number of the radii.
drawn through the divisions on the diagonals.46 13. it Hold until the celluloid at this point with a needle^ and rotate . will be the centers of the quadcenters for the inner rants of the outer curve. 2. Fig. At the intersections of full horizontal with the perpendicular I. and place the C puncture a small point C tangent to is hole with a the director AB at the point from which the curve to be drawn. celluloid. To Describe the Cycloid. circle. 14. 78. NM^ with center is 3 and radius 3^/ draw arc in a similar ML. lines locate the 3. 14 and divide in them the points as Drawing No. MECHANICAL DRAWING. Then with 2 center i and radius \P draw arc PN. 4. rector. 77 pendicular broken lines. which 2. by using the points on the diagonals cated by the broken lines as centers. with one side dull on which to draw the At any point on the circle sharp needle. —AB is the di CB the generating X a piece of thin transparent circle C. 13 and 12. will The curve be found at the intersections of the horizontal and per FiG. The inner curve drawn indi way. Draw shown the diagonals 11. arc and with center and radius 2N draw etc.. etc.
(Note. Through the point of intersection stick another needle and rotate until the circle is X again tangent to pencil. draw Hnes . until sufficient points have been found to complete the curve. e. de scribe arcs tangent to AB. 80. the points of division parallel to on the generating circle 1. To Find the Length of a Given Arc of a Circle approximately.f. d.. AB. Through the center a draw and divide e. With center A and radius at AC describe arc it CD cut ting the tangent line arc BD Dj and making equal to the BC. d. 79. 79.. C •v B Fig. To Describe the Cycloid by the Old circle into Method.2. Williams. Draw chord and produce it making BA equal half the > / \T 1 A Fig. Fig. the same — Divide the director and the generating number of equal parts. and thrdugh 3. it ag parallel to AB <^. —The thin celluloid was first used as a drawing instrument by Professor H. as AB in the points c. for the line of centers. of Sibley College. and through So proceed the punc ture at C with first a 4H sharpened to a fine conical point. With centers/. the arc of the circle 47 C intersects the director AB. chord. given arc. D.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 78. Cornell University. its — Let BC be the to A. mark the point on the curve. etc.) Fig. and g. etc.
Produce \'f' and 2V until they meet at the center of the second arc 2'f'. 2' . cutting the arcs in the points i^ 2' . c' . ting the circles of centers in From each of these points as centers describe arcs tangent to the directing circle. Thus.. etc. From center A draw circle. 3. 82. etCo Fig. cut ter of the directing circle lines d. arcs through the points of division on the generating cutting the arcs of the generating circles in their several positions at the points i' . etc. draw arc g' i' Fig. An approximate curve may be drawn by arcs of circles. in the curve. the generating circle into any numfrom ber of equal parts. To Describe the Epicycloid and the Hypocycloid. set off these lengths c' . draw e.. and on the inside for the . These will be points in the curve. — Divide i. roll it — Draw the generating circle on the celluloid and on the outside of the gener ating circle BC for the Epicycloid. These will be points Fig. From A d' . 48 MECHANICAL DRAWING. AB 3'. through /. and d' . the cenetc. c. 2. etc. taking/"' as center and f'g' as radius. 81. 80. Another Method. etc.. etc. C on the directing circle CB as /. 3'.
draw the curve.2. 83. passing i^. any distance apart. Hypocycloid.GE OME TRIGA L DRA WING.. 3'. Fig. . for the other divisions. Fig. etc. line to etc. 83. To Draw the to it. Fig. and off from C on the same S''. marking the points similar in the 49 3. Take the length from line to g'\ A to g dis and set off 8' from to 8 C on the same set it Take the tance from 8''.. — Draw circle any line AB and BC perpendicular C On BC describe a circle. 82. From the extremity at of the diameter draw any number of lines. manner to that described for the Cycloid. and through g'\ f . in curve 1.. through the and meeting the line AB it in 2'. Cissoid. etc. 6'\ etc.
draw through point ^4 the line Ai. 4. 2. y.. b. find the points a. Fig. sions. etc. To Describe an Interior circle Epicycloid. etc. its Set off the radius AB on the straight edge of a piece of stiff paper or thin celluloid and placing the point i B on the division of the axis. three divii. . Divide circle /. KF. 3. E. ID. 85. Y into any number of equal parts.. rector as Make Hi BH. Make I2 equal to one of the divisions of the di equal to two divisions. and B\. of the shaft — Let AB be the radius axis. coincides with Then lower 2 the straight edge until the point B and the point A just touches the last line drawn. describe arcs tangent at H.. D. etc. c. the generator and the small circle Y the director. Through these points draw the curve.. etc. 4 5 Fig. JE. etc. each equal to the radius of the generator X.so MECHANICAL DRAWING. To Draw Schiele's Antifriction Curve. With I. centers C. 84. and draw the curve through the points 2. J. Draw radial lines and make HC. 4. 84. 85. as B. H. ^3. and draw a2. Fig. 3. and so proceed to etc. Fig. — Let the large X be etc.
With 4 center 2 describe the semicircle aib. From i. and 3. divide into 2 three equal parts. 86. i draw ab i. 3 2 into three equal parts and make equal to two of these. i. 88. Fig. and with radius equal to I. From drop a perpendicular i. 3. 4. 4 the bottom line. 86. 2 and 2. To Describe the this ''Scotia. I at 5. Draw the fillets i. and 3. bisect i. 3 and divide To Describe the ''Cyma Recta. centers i. 87. 3. may not be out of place here to describe a few of the MOULDINGS USED IN ARCHITECTURAL WORK. Fig. Through the point and radius 2. low. and with center b 4. etc. Fig. 2 and 2.1 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 51 This curve may also be described with a piece of cellu loid in a similar It way to that explained for the cycloid. into five equal parts. describe . 3 respectively describe arcs i 2 and 2. i and 3 with a radius somewhat greater than the half of arcs intersecting at the center of the arc 3. parallel to I. since they are often found applied to mechanical constructions. and radius ba describe the arc a^ tangent to the fillets i. draw and 4. i is the top hne and I." i — as i. 3 and complete the moulding. 4. 1 A i >^ 3 \— i Fig. 2. 87.3." — Join it i. To Describe the ''Cavetto" or ''Holperpendicular i." — Divide the 2. 4. Fig.
" in the point 2."— Draw i.52 MECHANICAL DRAWING. 90.3. describe arcs cutting in the center of the required curve. and bisect in the . Fig. I. the reverse curves. Fig." off five of — Divide 4 into four equal parts and lay these parts from 3 to 2. Fig. 3. Make 2. 89. 3 equal to two of these parts. From the points 2 and 3 with a radius greater than half 1. 3 and bisect and Make From the and 6 — 5 points of I. 2 be the it Drop the perpendicular 2. From points 2 and 4 as centers and radius equal to describe arcs intersecting in the center of the curve. and divide it into three equal parts. 91. To Describe the " Torus. 2 and 3 as centers radii equal to 5 about twothirds Points draw arcs intersecting at and 6. To Describe the ''Echinus."— Let i." "Quarter Round. 2 perpendicular to 2. To Describe the "Apophygee. are the centers of. breadth. 90. 2. 3. 3] Fig. 3. = 2 4. i. Fig. 4. 3 To Describe the Join I. " it Cyma Reversa. I." or " Ovolo. 92.
describe the semi Draw the fillets. equi lateral triangle drawn first. 97. Fig. at the intersection Points 2. is i. corners of a pentagon 2. 93. To Describe the is ''Trefoil. the square 1. as the figure. 5. 94. 2. To Describe the '' Cinquefoil Ornafrom the 6 and draw ment. —The curves arcs of circles. 3. 2. point of the diagonals of the square." — The i. drawn from the three points in of the equi lateral triangle. which also cuts the perpendicular line i. Fig. 93.2. Bisect 4. are all An Arcp£ed shown Window Opening. and the angle 1. 92. Fig.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. the extreme perpendicular height. Fig.3 bisected by 6in the 3 are the line point 6. Fig."— Draw shown 5. 3. " Quatre Foil. 4 of the square are the centers of the small arcs. . 6.2. 96. i. The center of the surrounding circles 2 and the centers of the trefoil curves. Fig. To Describe the 3. the center of the large circles. The center of the surrounding circles. 5 in cutting the perpendicular in the point 7. 4. 4 in the position in the figure. 4. 53 With 3 as center and radius 3. Fig. and lay off — Begin by drawing the center line. point circle. 95. To Draw a Baluster. 3." The curves of the cinquefoil are described i.
i.e. finished. Fig.54 MECHANICAL DRAWING. When we speak of we mean and accurately. perpendicular. shown in the figure. 96. DRAWING TO SCALE. QithG^r a drawing as having been it made to scale^ that every part of has been drawn proportionately full size. reduced ov enlarged.. and finally the curves as Fig. details of Very small and complicated ally machinery are usu drawn enlarged full size. When fullsize a drawing of a machine is made it to a reduced or en larged scale the figures placed upon should always give the dimensions. larger details and small machines may be made while larger machines and large details are shown reduced. 97. the sizes the machine should meas ure when . the intermediate. 94. Fig. . 95. and horizontal dimensions. Fig.
l^l.li usually 8. nio\ 8'7 !. 98.l'lil. then the Hues denoting \" . a. first From A lay off distances equal to and divide the Prob.l. 98. Ulilil.lil ^Jf\  21 S' 5lr' FiCx. ^cule 2.l.lilil. 55 4^'= I To Construct a Scale of Third Foot. 12.— Draw upon a piece of tough white lines Size or drawinglong as 4'' paper two parallel about \" apart and about 14'' shown by <2. 98.l. shown by . in Fig. Fig. 98. Ifoot. it space AB into 12 equal parts or inches by Divide AE in the same way into as many parts as may be desired to subdivide the inch divisions on AB. as . . carefully When the divisions a^^^bdivisions have been and lightly drawn in pencil.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. Fig.l. and numbered i as shown by By made a further as subdivision a scale of 2"=^ foot may easily be shown by {c) in Fig.'j.^' carefully inked i'\ i" and ^" should be {b). 98.
It is often unnecessary if not undesirable to represent cerin a drawing. or traced for blue printing. for occasions will will when such knowledge be demanded. Conventional section lines are placed on drawings to guish the different kinds of materials used distin when such drawings are to be finished in pencil. Watercolors are nearly always used for finished drawings and sometimes for tracings and pencil drawings. CONVENTIONS. espe tain things as they cially would actually appear labor is when much time and required to make them orthographically true.CHAPTER III. It is very necessary. or to be used for a reproduction of any kind. STANDARD CONVENTIONAL SECTION LINES. The color tints can be applied in much less time than 56 it . however. So for economic reasons draftsmen have agreed upon con ventional methods to represent many things that would other wise entail much extra labor and expense. and' be gives one a feeling of greater satisfaction when using artis conventional methods to tically true if it know that he could make them was deemed necessary. and serve no par ticular purpose. that to all draftsmen should know how often arise sides it draw these things correctly.
CON VEN TIONS.
takes to hatchline a drawing.
57
So that the color method
should be used whenever possible.
Fig. 99.
sections
—This
is
figure
shows a collection of hatchlined
almost universal practice
that
now
the
among
draftsmen
standard.
in this
and other countries, and may be considered
No.
rocks.
I.
To
the right
is
shown
a section of a wall
made
of
When
pen.
used without color, as
in tracing for printing,
the rocks are simply shaded with India ink and a 175 Gillott
steel
For a colored drawing the ground work
or burnt umber.
is
made
of
gamboge
To
is
the
left is
the conventional
representation of water for tracings.
For colored drawings
a blended wash of Prussian blue
added.
No.
2.
Convention
is
for
Marble,
— When
colored,
the
whole section
made thoroughly wet and each
for
Chestnut.
stone
is
then
streaked wuth Payne's gray.
No.
3.
Convention
of
— When
colored,
a
ground wash
gamboge with
a little crimson lake
and burnt
umber
is
used.
The
colors for graining should be
little
mixed
in a
separate dish,
burnt umber with a
Payne's gray and
crimson lake added
to
in equal quantities
and made dark enough
color.
form a
sufficient contrast to the
ground
No.
4.
General Convention for Wood.
light
— When colored the
of burnt sienna.
ink.
ground work should be made with a
wash
The
graining should be done with a writingpen and a dark
mixture of burnt sienna and a modicum of India
No.
5.
Convention for Black
Walnut.
—A
in
mixture of
Payne's gray, burnt umber and crimson lake
ties
is
equal quantiis
used for the ground color.
The same mixture
used
for
graining when made dark by adding more burnt umber.
58
MECHANICAL DRAWING.
CON VEN TIOXS.
No.
color
6.
5
9
Convention for
a light
Hard
Pine.
— For
the
ground
make
wash
of crimson lake, burnt
umber, and
gamboge, equal
of crimson. lake
parts.
For graining use
a darker mixture of
and burnt umber.
for
Buildingstone.
No.
color
is
7.
Co7ivention
— The
ground
lines are
a light
wash
of Payne's gray
and the shade
added mechanically with the drawingpen or freehand with
the writingpen.
No.
8.
Convention for Earth.
tint.
— Ground
color, India ink
and neutral
The
irregular lines to be
added with a
writ
ingpen and India ink.
No.
9.
Section Lining for
is
Wronght or Malleable Iron.
is
—
When
blue.
the drawing
to
be tinted, the color used
Prussian
No.
10.
Cast Iron.
—These section
The
tint is
lines
should be drawn
equidistant, not very
lines of the drawing.
far apart
and narrow^er than the body
Payne's gray.
used for
all
No.
1
1.
Steel.
—This
section
is
kinds of steel.
The
iron
lines
should be of the same width as those used for castlines
and the spaces between the double and single
should
be uniform.
The
color tint
is
Prussian blue with enough crimpurple.
is
son lake added to
make
a
warm
No.
12.
Brass.
—This
section
generally used
for
all
kinds of composition brass, such as gunmetal, yellow metal,
bronze metal, Muntz metal,
etc.
all
The width
be uniform.
of the full lines,
dash
is
lines
and spaces should
The
color tint
a light wash of gamboge.
Nos.
1320.
—The
section lines and color tints for these
numbers
tion
are so plainly given in the figure that further instruc
would seem to be superfluous.
quite small. both depending some what on the be slightly the drawing. and the length of the dash should never exceed all §•''. a trifle longer than The spaces should of course be short and uniform. (3) Center Lines. —This line used to indicate point paths. In color they should be continuous blue lines. the hidden The dashes should be made line. CONVENTIONAL LINES. The Line of Motion. just shorter than those of dots. When colored inks are used the center line should be made a continuous red line and as fine as it is possible to make are it. never in is ^^" . —These lines made in black with a fine long dash and one short dash alternately. (i) — There size of are four kinds: The Hidden Line. — Most drawings of machines and parts of machines are symmetrical about their center lines. The spaces between the dashes should exceeding (2) be uniform.6o MECHANICAL DRAWING. —This Hne should be made of short dashes of uniform length and width. ioo. Fig. When penciling a drawing these lines may be drawn continuous and as fine as possible. but on drawings for reproductions the black inked line should be a long narrow dash and two short ones alternately. This line is always inked with black ink. . (4) Dimension Lines and Line of Section. The width should always less than the body lines of the drawing.
In working drawings of . 102.\'v<<'^'vV\VVV'>V'^'. i and zz No. CROSSSECTIONS. Fig. as shown at xx No. then only the rim and hub should be sectioned.'VV'>'>'. 2. ioi. gearwheel or other similar object required and the cuttingplane passes through one of the spokes or arms. Colored lines should never be broken. 2. and the arm or spoke simply outlined. because they are so quickly drawn and when made fine they give the drawing a much neater appearance than when the conventional black lines are used.CONVENTIONS. times to show the shape of the crosssection and the kind of material. — When a crosssection is of a pulley. Fig. 61 Colored lines should be used wherever feasible. some ^'^ 3S^ ^^vV. loi show the usual practice. Crosssections of the arms may be made as shown at AA No.. — Breaks is are used in drawings sometimes to it indi cate that the thing actually longer than is drawn. ioi. CONVENTIONAL BREAKS.<^ 1 ^s^^ssss^ss^s^^^^s^^^^^^^^^s^^s^^^s^y Fig. Those given in Fig.'>'^'>'^'.
shows the convention for a double 3. No. 4. No. a single V thread. — No.62 MECHANICAL DRAWING.g. 6. vation of the gearteeth should be The end ele made by projecting only the points of the teeth. any thread of small diameter. Fig. th. 6. viz. a single square thread. 2. viz. 5. U. 7. a double lefthand V thread. No. i. one long dash and one short dash alternately or a fine continuous blue line. standard. 103. CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF SHOWING SCREWTHREADS IN WORKING DRAWINGS. is equal to the diameter distance The between the . dash and two very short ones alternately or a fine continuous red line. the balance is usually shown by conventional pitch line the same as a center line. a long Fig. 99101.. In No. diameter. a double righthand square thread. e. any thread of very small The true methods for constructing these threads are explained on pages 99101. No. The addendum same line {d) and the root or bottom line {b) the as a dimension line. Figs. No.. S. No. 2.. the short wide line of the thread at the bottom. I02. gearwheels only the number of teeth included in one quadrant need be drawn lines. as shown at No. V thread.^ .
After some practice these lines can be drawn accurately enough by the eye. The short dash lines in No. 103. . longer narrow lines is is 63 equal to the pitch. and the inclination equal to half the pitch.CONVENTIONS. ^^ spond to the diameter of the thread at the bottom. 7 should be made to corre rt LJ^ Fig.
All lettering on mechanical drawings should be plain and legible. make them appear more promthat which gives The best form of letter for practical use is the neatest appearance with a quires the least maximum of legibility and re amount of time and labor in its construction.CHAPTER IV. the " Ro man " and Gothic" he should then adopt some one 64 . it '' but be freehand " with any degree will be necessary to spend considerable time of the form in acquiring a knowledge and proportions of the particular letter selected. but the letters in a title or the figures on a drawing should never be so large as to inent than the drawing itself. LETTERING AND FIGURING. It is very desirable then that after the student has care fully constructed as many of the following plates of letters and numbers as time of the '' will permit and has acquired a sufficient least knowledge form and proportions of at letters. " letter. Many otherwise ex cellent drawings is and designs as far as their general appearance concerned have been spoiled by poor lettering and figuring. This would naturally suggest a " freehand fore a letter can be constructed of efficiency. This in subject has not been given the importance it deserves connection with mechanical drawing.
104 and 105. 303 pen is the best to use is when making this letter freehand.) the type specimens given in the following pages Among for a good. its However. until he has its tained some proficiency in freehand construction. is plain and neat and comparatively easy to (See Fig. its will materially modify the objections to drawings. freehand letter. style 65 at and practice that at every opportunity.LETTERING AND FIGURING. and often used with good success on working drawings. . But it lacks legibility. A good style for " '* Notes" on a drawing 70. the lines. clear. 106. they should be made quite large at so as to train The " Roman appearance. and is therefore not a universal favorite. notes on a drawing with this letter. but is " is the most legible letter and has the best also the most difficult to make well. because construct. Soennecken's easy to construct with Round Writingpens. practicing the making and numbers first free hand. steel Gillott's No. is the *' Gothic Condensed shown on page When making pencil. Figs. only guides necessary are two parallel drawn lightly in The letters should be sketched lightly in pencil first. of letters When the hand. adoption for lettering mechanical The '' Gothic" it letter is a favorite with mechanical drafts men. either F. the Boldface Roman Italic on page 70 is one of the best is plain. or the Automatic Shadingpen. either for freehand or mechanically. is The ''Yonkers" a style of letter that It is sometimes used for mechanical drawings. the methods given mechanical construction. single point.
Reinhardt. E. among the best recommended to all who desire to pursue of *' of their kind. Great care should be taken in figuring or dimensioning a mechanical drawing. New York Freehand Lettering. and money through a wrong reading of a dimension. Indeed. Jacoby. Engineering News. because of the the workman to make 4'' mistakes. Cornell University. There should be absolutely no doubt whatever about the character of a number repreagnting a dimension on a drawing.. Many labor. legibly. Chief Draftsman. by Charles W. T. The following books. in Tufts College. instructor in C. FIGURING. so drawings are often ficult to I made to scales which are dif measure with a common rule. . fully Drawings should be so dimensioned that there will be no need for the patternmaker or machinist to measure any part of them. means are taken to prevent him from liability of doing so. . Lettering. improving spacing and proportions to satisfy the practiced eye. Ithaca. Daniels. and especially a working drawing. N. Y. mistakes have been made. and then carefully inked. by F. are further the study Lettering" : Plain Letterings by Prof. Henry S. To have is a drawing accurately. 66 MECHANICAL DRAWING. and neatly figured considered by practical men to be the most important part of a working drawing. incurring loss in time. such as 2'' and = ft.
tt f 1 ^f^5m 0: \ [y v J/(^ 1 m^ ^3:w .— : LETTERING AND FIGURING. 67 nn U 1 — . 1 mt 1 7/ A y /L— / j r^^ ~>k V 'H' <t> <r ^ ^^ / ^ . .'" ' ^ 1 _ 'm y fM T 1 ° 1 J 1 H ..
MECHANICAL DRA WING. S i I) O 11 1 N o § m 7'^ M .
LETTERING AND FIGURING. 69 .
• CDEFGHIJKLMNOP QRSTUV XYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz \ i:iPoint Gushing Italic. ABCDEFOHIJKLMN OPQE STUY WX YZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 i8Point Italic. i8Point Roman. ahcdefghijMmtiopqrst TwoLine Nonpareil Gothic Gondensed. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ThreeLine Nonpareil Lightface A. abcdefghijklm 1234567890 s 3 OPQBSTUVWXYZ rwxyz BCDEFGHIJKL31 1234567890 1234567890 Celtic. BCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQR ataedefghijkl S^rUVAVXYZ mnopqrstuvvv^xyz 1234567890 . )EFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ nopqrstuvwxyz 28Point Boldface Italic.70 MECHANICAL DRAWING.
ABCDEFGHMKLnNOFQRSTUVVXTZ 1234567890 i8Point Quaint Open.LETTERING AND FIGURING. iMiCiEF^HyKLniNKDrilSTyf will fl 234 JiSJaSO 28Pomt Roman. ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghij klmnopqr stu vwxyz 1234567890 28Point OldStyle Italic. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP QRSTUVWXYZ abcdefg hijklmnopqrstuvwxy^ 1234567890 . Jl ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWX YZ abcdefgliijl\lmr\opqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 i8Point Elandkay. i8Point Chelsea Circular.
i2Point Victoria Italic. ^BGDEFGHUKLMNO PQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghi] klmnopqrstu v wxyz 1234567890 Nonpareil Telescopic Gothic.72 MECHANICAL DRAWING. ABGDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUyWXYZ abcdefghijk/mnopqrstuuwxyz 1234567890 Double.Pica Program. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1284567S90 . i8Point ABCDBFQHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrst uvwxyz 1234567890 22Point Gothic Italic. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ 1234567890 DeVinne Italic.
LETTERING AND FIGURING. IKPtrWlJKLnHOPQIITBWIY: r 0) M 22Point OldStyle Roman. y^ abcbdgI]ijkImnopqr stuPtt)xy5 1(23^567890 . 24Point Galilean. 73 MNOPQRSTUVW XYZ 1234567890 TwoLine Virile ABCDEFGHIJKL Open. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST UVWXYZ uvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrst 1234567890 36Point Yonkers.
Orthographic Projection. or Vertical PlanCy H. L. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. one of the divisions of descriptive the other divisions are Spherical Projection. and 74 . by projecting lines from \h& point of sight through the principal points of the object perpendicular to the Planes of Projection. In this course we will take up only a sufficient number of the essential principles of Orthographic Projection. Shades and Shadows. third. P. or Horizontal Plane.CHAPTER V. sometimes tive called Descripis Geometry and sometimes simply geometry . or Profile Plane. as will be seen by Figs. known as the first. Isometric Projection. Isometric Projection. viz. These planes. P. the and the Pf. P. and Shades and Shade Lines. inter sect each other in a line called the /. V. and Linear Perspective. to enable the stu dent to make a correct mechanical drawing of a machine or other object. 107 and 109. second. or Intersecting Line^ and form four angles. Orthographic Projection is the science and the art of rep resenting objects on different planes at right angles to each other.. Projection. There are commonly three planes the of projection used.
object may be situated in any one of the dihedral and its projections drawn on the corresponding co ordinate planes. is The Vertical Projection of a point where a per. An angles.P. Fig. in and nearly English draftsmen project their drawings that angle. H. If a line is passed through the point a per. and of the V.P. Problems in in Descriptive Geometry are all usually worked out the first angle.. 107. the Vertical Plane.P.L. to be situated in space ^' in front above the H. to H. after which the third angle be used throughout. as will be shown hereafter. 3'^ Fig. 107 and 75 109 are perspective views of these angles. line drawn through the point pierces the V.P. the Intersecting Line. fourth Dihedral Angles. is the Horizontal Plane. but in the United States the third angle for is used almost exclusively. 107.P. We first will consider first a few projection problems will in the angle. and I. The Horizontal dicular line Projection of a point is where a perpen drawn through the point pierces the H.P. There is good reason doing so. Figs.P.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. Conceive the point a. and produced until . Fig. V. 107.
The vertical projection (f ^' above 2>" the I. d^ will be the Hor. When jection. The points a'' points a and b will be vertically projected in the and b"". Join a^b"". in the dilet rection of the arrow until coincides with the H.P.P.P. therefore in the direction proj.P. its tion on the other plane ab.P. and joining them with a Let ab be a line in space '^^" long. finding the projections of the straight line. is a line equal to the line perpendicular to the H. . be conceived to coincide with the plane of the drawingpaper. If another line until it is projected through the point a per. in the point a!". and the horizontal projection a^ straight line. parallel to the V. a" is V. 2^'^ One end is resting on the from the V. and perpendicular to the H.P. Fig. of the point a.76 it MECHANICAL DRAWING.L. on the H.P. its a line is perpendicular to one of the planes of prois projection on that plane is a point. pierces the V.P. 107. H. two ends of the line.L.. below the I. when viewed ab will be seen to be a point. a'"b'" is the vertical projection of the line ab.P.P. to the a". both in the same In mechanical drawing the vertical projection a" is called the Elevation and the horizontal projection a!' the Flan. and the H. The by first projections of a line are found in a similar manner. Proj.P. io8. the projections of the point a will appear as shown by Fig. pierces the H.P. and the projecitself. is revolved upon it axis I.L. in the point the ver tical projection of the If point a. its now the V.
On the drawingpaper the plan and elevation of the plane ad'b a would be Fig. io8. the point d"". proj. at the point cd. and the H.P. to project lines and points. pro jected in the point of Join d'b". the line c^d^ perpendicular to itself. the Intersecting Line and equal in size to the line Planes or Plane Surfaces bounded by lines are projected by the same principles used Let acfb^'b. is a line parallel to the H. d"b'" is the vertical projection the front edge ab of the plane. 107. upper corner point b"". The elevation of the front upper corner a a". /7 Conceive now the V. and perpendicis ular to the V. the V. proj. Fig. 108. Fig. be a plane at right angles to and touching both planes of projection. proj. proj. a^b"^ Fig.P.OR THO GRA PHIC PR OJE C TION. shown as a continuous straight line a" to a!' . 108.P. Fig. Its elevation or V. is projected in the point b and the point a" in the bb'" is A straight line joining the plan or horizontal projection of the top edge of the plane. is projected in is the point The elevation of the front lower corner b b" . will be found to be at a^. y 1' The plan of the front a y d a C * h c a h ^ Fig. 107. and its plan or H. 108. revolved as before.
L. is behind of the V.P.P. 108. at C. proj. proj. bounded by plane a cube surfaces are projected by means same principles used to project planes.P.L. vert.. equal in area to any one of the six faces of the cube. 109. lines. 78 Solids of the MECHANICAL DRAWING. Fig. is found at of" and the the Conceive again the V. and is the front and back parallel to the V. and points. 109. in Let us now consider the same problems when situated the //22><3^. as they would The foregoing illustrates a few of the simple principles of projection in relation to points. faces. Fig. a square above I. proj. proj. lines. Fig. Fig. . These projections are shown appear on the drawingpaper. angle. is a similar square below I. P. The point <3..P.. proj. 107. The hor. at (f Draw through a perpendiculars to The Hor. and below the H.L. when placed is and we find that the plan always beloiv and the elevation always above the I.P. the vert. plane of projection. The hor. and solids in the first dihedral angle. to be revolved of the arrow until it in the direction coincides with the H. bounded by six equal sides or sur The top and bottom being parallel to the H. is C.
and H. Fig.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. III. no. is When the pyramid viewed orthographically through each of the surrounding planes. and that in addition to the V. and H. Fig. will 79 then appear at a!' above the I.L. as shown by Fig.L. the planes. at a" belozu the I. With pyramid a is little attention it will easily be discerned that the situated in the third dihedral angle. planes. and the solids. And so with the lines. iii. In order to still further explain the use of the planes of projection. . and the vert. a K d" a C h .y C b a K d V a Fig. one at the right hand and one at the left. four separate views are had. we have passed two profile planes at right angles to the V. with regard to objects placed in the third angle.. proj. let us suppose a truncated pyramid surrounded by imaginary planes at right angles to each other. iio. planes.
Proj. Construction or projectioii lines conti^iuous black lines. at P.P. left profile we now consider the V. exactly as shown by the projections on the opposite planes. drawn with very narrow full or . ii2. viz. which when the "^^^ P 1 // ii( 1 L\ \ / / \ I ~~^^\ ^^\^ ^"\ ^x\ \ "N\ I \ F Fig. . at F. In the drawings illustrating the following problems and their solutions the given black.8o MECHANICAL DRAWING. or Rightprofile Projection at R. and required lines are shown wide and Hidden lines are shown broken into short dashes a little narrower than the are visible lines. or Leftprofile Projection at L. Elevation. If a Top View. . or Vert. and the right and planes to be revolved toward the beholder until they coincide. 112. Proj. Plan or H. \ R )\ imaginary planes and projecting lines have been removed. a Lefthand . a Front View. NOTATION. Leftend Elevation. a Right hand View.. View. Rightend Elevation. the projections of the pyramid will be seen as shown by Fi»g. using the front intersecting lines as axes. will be a True Drawing or Orthographic Projection of the truncated pyramid.
and joints. —A point a situated in the third dihedral angle. In solving the following problems the student should have a model of the coordinate planes for his stiff own use. and the Profile Plane as Pf. 107 or 109. dihedral angle. the Vertical Plane as V. continuous bhie lines are some times used.L.L.P.1 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. Drawings should be carefully made to the dimensions given. I. i" below the It is required to draw H. curves. folded half of the other through when unfolding this half a model All will be had like that shown by Fig. Draw a straight line a!'d". A point in space is designated by a small letter or figure. its vertical and horizontal projec tions.L. The student should continually endeavor to improve in inking straight lines. Fig. and i" behind the V.. and the point l" above I. Prob. projections shall now be is made from the third. letters or figures their projection by the same with small h or re V written above for the horizontal or vertical projection spectively. 113. In some complicated problems where points are designated by figures their projections are named by the same figures accented. The Horizontal Plane is known as the H.P. . the scale to be determined by the instructor.P. 8 When convenient very narrow. o!' and measure off the point a" \" below I.P. perpendicular to I.P. This can be made by taking two pieces of slot in the center of cardboard and cutting a one of them large enough to pass the it .
117. vert.P. 114. of the line f^' 3^^ long. projs. to the vert. plane and and 116. —To draw the is hor. Fig. Fig. with his model. to I. 1 14. plane the vert. and vert. both projections will As the line parallel to be parallel to the I. Fig. by drawing b'" lines perpendicular to b^\ I. f" below the H. proj. proj. of a straight ^" long. Fig. 116. line 4. the horizontal plane and per. Prob.82 MECHANICAL DRAWING. and the hor. proj. par I. plane. per. proj. to the hor. will be parallel to below the I.L. Fig. it. and below it.L. As a point the line per. 115. vert. Fig.P.L. .L. plane. —To draw the plan and elevation of a straight 6" long making an angle of 4^° with the par. a" is the vertical and a!' the horizontal projection in the same straight line a"a!\ this The student should demonstrate Prob. line 3. Draw it the hor. Draw allel to a^b"" the vert. both planes. 3'^ — Draw two projections is of a line long parallel to both planes. Fig. 115. 2" above the I.L. from the points a" and to a^' and Prob. and parallel to making the same length as the Fig. and 2" behind the V. to the vert. 2. 113. will be proj.L.
L.P. Fig. to I. draw a line par. to LL= convenient distance below is it. line 5. determined by aJ't^' dropping perpendiculars from the end of the hor.L.L. and the broken line again its true length. Let abed be the plane surface ^" long X 2" wide. to the V.L. —To find the true length of a straight it oblique to both planes of projection and the angle m.L. 118.L. The plan or hor. to Prob. at a par. If we conceive lines to be projected from the four corners of the . will be above the I. revolve the line ^V' until a^' it becomes par. and it. Fig. a'b'" and a^'b^' are the projections of a straight line oblique to V.P. to I. as shown by a" b^'a^^. 6. line a^'b^' is the is true length of the line ab. the true angle which the line makes with To find the angle b'' it makes with H.P.akes with these planes. be below and par. proj. and H. : Using as a pivot. situated in the third angle and par. a straight line a^b"' 6" long. to I. cutting the per. From the point b^ erect a per. revolve the line a"b'" becomes parallel to I. — To project a plane surface of given size. until it Using a" as a pivot. 117. ^_ a^' Draw from Draw the point ci'U' at any convenient distance from I. making an angle 45° with I. to I. at the point draw a is line par. Through the point b^'.L. as shown by b^' a'b^''. The length the points of the elevation or vert.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. Through the point per.P. proj. a"b'".L.P. Prob. proj. intersecting the a^o the angle which the line ab a^b"" is makes with H.P. From the point drop a per. proj. in the point The broken and the angle V. 83 make an will angle of 45° with The elevation or vert.
of 30° with H. 119 and 120. (2) when making when makwhen an angle.P. 119. 9. ..P.P. Prob. surface of 7.L. —To draw the X 2'' projections of a plane given dimensions when situated in the third angle perpendicular to the H. ^^^^^ and from the points project lines at right angles to I. To draw the plan At a convenient distance above of 60° with per. and making an angle with the V.P.P. proj. And as the plane surface is par. Figs. Prob. or elevation of the plane surface abed.. Prob.L. I. of the plane surface abed. 8. we plane surface to theV. to V. Fig. projection a^b'"c"d'" and shown by Fig.P. to V. to both planes.L.P. ii8. it must be per to the H. ii8. (3) ing an angle of 60° with H.. projection be a straight line equal in length to one of the sides of the plane surface. 2" long. Let the plane surface be 3" angle it as before and let the makes with V. (i) — To draw the projections parallel to the of the same plane surface when H. 119 shows the projections. —To draw the projections of .P. to the V. unnecessary. draw a straight line. From <^/' drop a ^ cC'b'" in the point b^ and ifd'" in the point d^ then the rectangle d"b^d^c" will be the vert.P.P. and per. further explanations are Fig. al^'b} cutting the straight line in the points The line a^U' is the hor. and (4) per. So the plan or H. cutting it. be 60°.P. 118. Fig. and join them with straight Hnes will have its V. and per. At a convenient distance above I. and making an angle draw a!'bl\ Fig.: 84 MECHANICAL DRAWING. since the planes of projection are at right angles will to each other. proj.
proj. With a piece of celluloid or tracingpaper trace the hor.P. 119. its hor.P. proj. Its elevation will be the straight line d^U" parallel to I. Fig. to the position d'b^ which is its vert. will remain unchanged. when making of 30° with an angle of 30° with H. revolve it as in the 8. proj. Fig. H. the true size of the plane.P. as shown by al'd'V'd^^ draw the plane parallel to Fig. First. and in addition to that. through an angle of ^ 30°. second position of Prob... 119. and revolve the .. Fig. the same plane surface the planes of projection. as the plane it is to make an angle after has been revolved through an angle of 30° with relation to the V. through at angle of 30°.P. using a" as a pivot. 120.L. Fig. 119. Its plan is projected in a!'bl'(^'dl\ still Now H. a!'bl'd'dl\ lettering the points as shown. 85 angles with when making compound Let the plane make an angle of 30° with H. 118. Next revolve d^b".ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION.P.
When making an angle of 45° with the H. 120. Through the points 2^A. intersect ing perpendiculars from Fig. the projections of the plane when making an angle of 60° with the 10. parallel to I. Fig. Draw =: the hexagon above be its i^2^3V5^'6''. angle of place the tracing so that the line <^V will make an 60° with I. Draw Prob. making the inscribed 2''4''6''i'' 2\" . 120. after the revolution. proj. proj. Fig. 119.. elevation will be found at cfb'\ Fig.P.P. 120. and per. in a straight line drawn through from b^^ Fig. of the points bl'dl' will be found at ^jV/. and intersect ing pers. This will 1^2^' hor. to the (2) When one diagonals V.L. And the vert. in a straight line drawn through <^V'.P. to the points 6^^5/*4i^3i^ and . to the H. join with straight lines the points Draw the projections of the plane when making an angle of 30° with of 60° with relation to H. Fig. Fig. or. as shown by Fig.L. the same diagonal has been revolved through an angle of 60"^. which the same thing.^6^ erect pers. —To draw in is the projections of a plane surface of (i) hexagonal form of its the following positions: par. 121. and with a sharp conicalpointed pencil transfer the four points to the drawingpaper and join them by straight lines. the diagonal I'' being par. 120. is tracing through the angle of 30°..P. 119. and revolved through an angle V. proj.L. 120. V. and making an angle of still 45° with the H. And as the line <^V' retains its position relative to its H. 6'''4''2'' With 2^ as an axis revolve through an angle of 45°..S6 MECHANICAL DRA WING. and its vert. <^jV/'. a^C".P.P. to both planes of proj..P.P. at any concircle venient distance I.
II.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. projs... 122. of 60° with the I. 2/'. is — Draw the V. First position: Draw the circular plane i". plane. it and (3) when re making an angle of 45° with the has been volved through an angle of 60°. Fig.. below the I.L. 123. straight lines. Now i^'2/' trace the hor. . 123 and 124. join the points of intersection with Fig. from the corresponding points of the elevation in Fig. the first 87 projs.. 121. with a radius ficrure it as = \^' and divide and shown. 2". to the vert.P. Fig. 122. etc. and so complete the projections of the second position. These are the i^'. proj. in etc. Fig. Next draw from the 6 points of the hexag onal plane to intersect hors. 121.L. 3''. and join them with straight hnes.P. on a piece of celluloid or tracingpaper and revolve the tracing until the diagonal makes an angle pers. Figs. (2) when still it makes an angle of 45° with the V. 4''. of a cir cular plane (i) when its surface par. Prob. 122. position. Fig.
. . . through the required angle of 45° to the position ij^ Fig. and 'J'^J'" place the tracing so that the diameter makes the required angle of 60° with the I. . ^23 tion and through these intersections vert. and through each division a!' . in . proj. to etc.MECHANICAL DRAWING. lines in drawn through the correspondingly numbered points the eleva FiG. . proj. . The elevation is found by dropping pers. from hor. This is the hor.P. a^ draw arcs cutting of i^' in points 2^3^' . proj.P. Since the plane straight line i^\ is par. V. a!" . 123. . its hor. the points in the .L. . i'' . and transfer to the drawingpaper. proj. will be a 2^ For the second position revolve the said hor. the plane when making an angle of 45° with the V. .\^ to intersect hor. numbering the points as before. . . a!" . . proj. For the third position make a tracing of the elevation of all the second position. of the draw the elevation or second position.
^^" . 3^^ a!'d!\ and below it another line par. proj. 2. 3. is below the I.4. of the I. true : (i) When axis par. Fig. — Draw the is projs. lines in the points oyb^c'd". parallel to iV> ai"^d a convenient distance from it draw a straight line 1. Fig. join these points by straight lines . Fig. thus completing the elevation of the prism.. lines in points i^2'3V l^t fall pers. draw a circle it. proj. Draw base. 5.L. through the points found by drawing i. and through the three par. 4.4 draw lines 3. 2.4. Fig.. draw the plan or hor. 124. 3. of the third position. Second condition: Draw the edge view or trace of the cutting plane iV> making an angle at of 30° with the base of the prism. The pers. 125. Fig. '2. 124.L. 125. and circumscribe a hexagon about shown by at a b^\ U\ etc. locating the lower end 4' onehalf inch above the base.4 . passing through XX. to it. From the points a!'V'(^'d^\ drop pers. 125. to the V. to intersect hors. Prob. 6 parallel to 1. To project the elevation. cutting these the points i. 2 and 5. result will 89 be the elevation of the third position shown Its hor. draw ±0 convenient distance from the plan a hor. of the through the corresponding points 2d position and through these intersections proj. at a distance of 2^^" on each side of 1. form of a section of the prism when cut by a plane it passing through at an angle of 30° with its (3) Draw the projection of a section when cut by a plane.P. of a regular circle (2) hexagof onal prism.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION... 3^' high and having an inscribed its ^%" the diam. 12. drawn in the hor. cutting these par. of the first part of this prob. line par. = to aJ'. 6. The drawing For the plan with a radius as may now be omitted. to both planes of proj. per.
proj. 125. and hatchline it as shown. of the' prism draw a righthand draw the lines enprofile proj. For the Let third condition of the problem : XX be the edge view of the cutting plane and con ceive that part of the prism to the right of XX to be removed. and through the points XX closing the section. . Fig. and a true drawing of the section of the prism as required will result.QO as shown. From or elevation the hor.. 126.— To draw the development of the prism in the elevation of the last problem. 13. Fig. of the lower part Prob. MECHANICAL DRAWING.
. making an angle of 30° of the with the H. and through the hor.P. When axis is per. 7 be the trace of the cyl. i.7.. Let 7. Lay on these pers. and through the points and extending 2. cutting I. etc. 4".. 7 draw i^'y" at a I. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. i.. 3. 5. Draw a development upper part of For the plan 2\ etc. For the development tion : In line with the top of the eleva draw the circle.. of the first condition. 3. i"'/".4. Fig. per. 4. the cyl. (2) Draw the true form of a section of the cylinder. and through the points 2". 125.. For the second condition: cutting plane. at I. which be a square of sides. for the base. draw pers. 3. b' . to the when cut by a plane (3) V. At draw the hex. 6 for the top. 4. in the points 2. Fig. and divide into 12 equal parts pers. Parallel to the line of section i. 3''. b" Through these points drop and through the points . it Divide the circle into 12 equal parts and through these divisions to the line of section. cd.P. describe the circle \' with a radius will = i^" and from 3'^ it project the eleva tion. lines points 1^2 '3 '4' 2. and long. intersecting the pers. in 4. 3'' —To draw the (i) der i" diam. 127. describe the ellipse. 2. of a right cylinits PrOB. of the last prob. etc. a'. projs. making the point ^" from the top of the let fall pers. etc. etc. At draw be these points erect pers. etc. line ^'^" equal in length to the circumference of it the etc. convenient distance from it. 126. to 1.. prolong the base indefinitely and lay off upon it the distances ab. each equal in length to a side of the hex. 3. and 2 draw the section 14. To line 9I the right of the elevation in Fig.. etc. the distances 6'''W = and S"9"^^S'9'j ^tc. be. a' . to the H.P. intersecting off beyond 6'8'.. a!'y'b^\(^'e^\dh i.
I.. The half only appears in the figure. etc. diam.P. Draw first the plan of the cone with a radius = At 3'' a convenient distance below the plan draw the elevation to the dimensions required. etc. pierced of a right cone j" high. draw a 3'' circle for the top of the cyl. — Draw the projections in diam. 2"^ in Fig. to i. 128. which '2\" will appear as a rectangle 2" wide and each side of the axis of the cone. 3. intersecting the pers. draw hors. 92 I. the curve transfer a tracing of the Prob.. to Tangent any point on the... 15. and ^" long their axes intersecting at right angles 3'' above the base of the cone and par.\" V. and through these points draw a curve. CD.straight line . 127. 3. Fig. 2. in the points 2. with a base 6" by aright cyl. MECHANICAL DRA WING. and about construct the elevation of the cyl.. and tangent to any suitable point on ellipse. above the base of the cone draw the center it line of the cyl. .
line a semicircle with a radius equal that Divide the semicircle into any number of parts. H^ ' Fig.. and through to the semicircle at the point 4. OR THO GRA PHIC PR OJE C TION. Through i. A" \" equal A" draw the and through line^'V' tangent the other divisions of the semicircle draw lines from A" to the Hne \" A^' meeting . and the plan and elevation : Draw to the right of the cyL on the same center of the cyl. \"2"i"a!\ erect it in . as in I. 93 To cone in project the curves of intersection between the cyl. i draw the per. . 3. etc. From all the points l"2" points on the line \" aJ' viz. 4. Fig. 128.. 129. 2. length to the height of the cone.
. these will be points in the elevation of the curve of intersection between the cylinder and the cone. through which trace the curve as shown. 128. d. —To draw the development cyl. to intersect the circle of the plan in the points 2^3^? ai'id lay off the same distances on the other same order. to the center line in the points 1/^2/^3/^4/'^ 3. and on each side of the point lay off the distances 2. 2'3^4^ circle side of the center line of the plan in Through each of the plan of these points on the circumference of the ^ draw radii to its center A' and through the same the base of the elevation . e. Fig. equal to the divisions of the arc in the plan Fig. 16. of the curve.nd with i/^ as the center draw the arcs 2/^2. The plan of the curve is found by erecting pers. 129. of the plan. the center of the arc. Fig. Fig. 3/^3. 128. describe an arc equal in length to the semicircle of the base of the cone. and from these points draw lines to 4" radii . of the showing the hole penetrated by the With center 4/'.' elements A~2' A^\ A— of the cone in the points 2^3'4^. 4. as radius. 3. to in the points 2'3'4' and from the apex on A 3. half cone. 129. on the elevation Fig. 3. and element Ai' of the cone. . 4i^'4 above the center line of the plan. Hor. I Bisect it in the line 4/^1. cutting it pers. Repeat for the other half Prob. points also in the plan of the cone. and through the points 2. through the points in the elevation of the curve to intersect the radial lines of the plan in correspondingly figured points. of the elevation of the cone draw lines to the points 2'3'4' the base. 128.94 MECHANICAL DRAWING. 4 draw hors. lines drawn through the points will intersect the of division 2. viz. cutting it let fall pers. c. 4 on the semicircle 4. respectively. Then with A—a. b. .
—To draw the development of the half of a truncated cone. 130. its center 4/^ as Through the points Fig. draw the curve 17. Divide the semicircle of the plan into any number of parts. . Fig. 129. 130.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. given the plan and elevation of the cone. and center 4/' draw arc arcs intersecting the lines 95 drawn from the of intersection XX to Prob. then with off A it as center and ^ i i as radius. draw an arc and lay upon I from the point the divisions of the semicircle center from to 9. arc draw <^A. Then with is A and radius AB draw the BC. iBCg the development of the half of the cone approximately. shown by Fig. .
. Through the latter points draw the curve Prob. From each of these divisions drop pers. on the half elevation. Fig. 1 8. 133 Fig. — To draw the curve To the left of of intersection of a small cyl. On the half crosssection these pers. the half plan of the small cyl. 2'. say 12. with sides equal to the circum . intersect the circumi'. Fig. and to the right a tion of the two cyls. 132. 132. 19. Prob. 131. —To draw the development of the smaller cyl. 134. Fig. Draw semicircle. with a larger. ference of the large cyl. Through Fig.96 MECHANICAL DRA WING. these points draw hors. in the points Fig. Draw a rectangle. of the last prob. which will be a and divide it into any convenient number of parts. etc. of mtersection C. to intersect in corresponding points the pers. 131 is the centerline of half eleva a half crosssection.
.. When Figs. X ^j" high. It'l" . 21. Apply to the solution of this problem the principles ex plained in Prob. and divide it 9/ into 24 equal parts. Fig. = 26^" (the smallest radius of arcs Tangent to these draw the * . —To draw the development of the top gusset sheets of a locomotive wagontop boiler of given dimensions. Letter or number the drawing and be prepared were found. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. your drawings are completed. etc. Fig. = ft. to explain how the different projections Prob. etc. I 135. plates thick.. First draw the longitudinal crosssection of the boiler to the dimensions given by Fig. 135) = 33f'^ draw arc i. 131. using the scale of \" . No. \' \" Fig. With center j A and a radius = 2y^" (the largest radius of the gusset) 6" (the distance from the center of the boiler to the center of the gusset C. Let the dimensions of the dome and 54'' boiler be J'^ : dome 26\" diam. i Make AB. ference and length of the cyl. 132. boiler diam. With center^ and the gusset) draw arc a radius 2. 135. i'. 18. Fig. and draw the developed curve of intersection. 20. equal to AB. which are the projections required the problem. Then at any convenient point on your paper draw a and upon it straight line. respectively. 131. cylindrical —To draw the orthographic projections riveted to of a dome a cylindrical boiler of given dimensions. 3 3'. Fig. 2' 2". ProB.. lay off a distance AB i^\" long = the straight part of the top of the gussetsheet G. compare them with in 133 and 134.
MECHANICAL DKA WING. 2. draw lines i. A and B per. i. and through the points^ and 2. to i.98 Straight line i. Take a point on the per. 6" from the point i as a center and through the point A draw an arc with a radius = 27 n_n . 2 extended. 2.
Divide both arcs into any number of parts. Prob. 12. off Draw A6 the bottom of the screw. step the length of the with a distance = one of the 12 divisions as follows: =^ On the first Ai and Bi hors. to and intersecting \A and 2B respectively. Through these intersections off draw in definite hors.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. 22. screw and its —To it draw the projections 3^^ of a Vthreaded nut of diam. and on AB the pitch = i'\ beginning at the point A. distance On pitch line 6B from the point 6 lay off a = half the — f ^^ because when the point of the thread has com . total + — 3f'^ 5^''. Fig. and lay off Begin by drawing the center line C. total = The outline of the developed sheet little may now is be drawn to include these dimensions with as waste as possible. as the final dimensions must be found by measurement. as necessary in mak shown by Fig. i' lay off the same points distance to 2' on the second hors. say and through these divisions draw lines per. and on these hors. On now to the two ends or front and back of the gusset we have add i^' for 'clearance plates. 136.2. on each side of the radius of the screw i^'^ Draw AB step and 6D. Through these 12^ draw curves ^13' and Bi2\ straight line. and f pitch. vVith point 2 as a center 99 and 2B line as a radius (26'^) draw an arc through B to meet the 1. Then from etc. Extreme accuracy ing this drawing. 13 will be the developed half of the straight part of the gusset. lay off the length of the arc A\' and B\' respectively. arcs. Join points and 13' with a Then AB 12. for lap + i'^ allowance for truing up the J^^ And to the sides 2^^^ 3§'^ for lap + allowance for truing up. 137.
draw with the 30° triangle and Tsquare the intersecting at the points b . Through these divisions draw hors. From the points of the threads just found.. . semicircles with radii respectively.. D Fig. the bottom of the threads. lOO MECHANICAL DRAWING. pers. also the pitch 'At the point II O on line A6 draw two of equal parts the top and bottom of the thread Divide these into any number of and Pinto the same number and equal parts. f 6D step off as Then from the point 6" on many pitches as may B be desired. it pleted half a revolution will have risen perpendicularly a distance = half the pitch. viz. 137. . intersecting each other in the points as . V of the threads b . Fig. 138.
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. and of construction illustrated is the same as for the last 138. shown by lOI Fig. 22. 139. 3'^ —To draw the is proj. —To 3'' threaded screw of its draw the projections of a square double diam. Fig. by Fig. and \" pitch and also a section of nut. Through the points of intersection draw the curves of the helices shown. and 2" pitch. which shows an elevation partly in section of a nut to fit and a section the screw. Prob. PrOB. and also a section of nut. using No. 137. 22. 3 of the " Sibley College Set" of Irregular Curves. The method problem. of a squarethreaded screw its diam. .
The solution of this problem is shown by Fig. 139. Figs. 140. . 141. section of the flat stub end with the surface of revolution of the turned part of the rod. and 142 show examples of engine con necting rod ends where the curve / is formed by the inter FiG. 140. 23. —To draw the curve of intersection that is formed by a plane cutting an irregular surface of revolution. and further explanation should be unnecessarj. 141. Prob. Fig.I02 MECHANICAL DRAWING.
and not essential to a quick if and correct reading of a drawing. with a few problems illustrating their commonest applications. improve the looks of the drawing and make it easier to read. especially lines is a system of shade used. but on working drawings most employers cause it will is not allow shading be takes too much time. 103 The method plainly of finding the curves of intersection are so is shown by the figures that a detailed explanation deemed unnecessary. The shadows which opaque objects cast on the planes of . 142. they give a relieving appearance to the projec ting parts. Fig. SHADE LINES AND SHADING. Shade Lines are quite generally used on engineering working drawings .OR THO GRA PHIC PR OJE C TION. and are quickly and easily applied. Some of the principles of shade lines and shading are given below. The Shading of the curved surfaces of machine parts is sometimes practiced on specially finished drawings.
as shown by Fig. 144. CONVENTIONS. axis so that a . 143. and the direction of the rays of light coinciding with the diagonal of the cube. It is by reason of their location in relation the general practice to shadeline the different proif jections of an object as each projection was in the same plane. the point of sight in front of it. omitted here. shown on projection or on other objects are seldom or never a working drawing. let the point of sight in the same position. as shown by Fig. and the Point of Sight situated in front of the object it. therefore the Rays of Light will be represented by parallel lines. Then the edges a^b"^ b"c'" will be shade lines.g. The Source tance from of Light is considered to be fixed. situated in space in the third angle. Now remain the source of light being fixed. suppose a cube. and conceive the object to be re volved through the angle of 90° about a hor..I04 MECHANICAL DRAWING. The Source of Light is considered to be at an infinite dis tance from the object. e. Dark surfaces are not necessarily to be defined by those surfaces which are darkened by the shadow cast by another part of the object. and as the students in Sibley College are it is taught this subject in a course on Descriptive Geometry. Shade Lines divide illuminated surfaces from dark surfaces. but to the rays of light. and at an infinite dis so that the Visual Rays are parallel to one another and per. because they are the edges which separate the illuminfall ated faces (the faces upon which the rays of light) from the shaded faces. to the plane of projection. 144. Fig.
— ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. Broken should never be shade The lines. the other outlines. \ Fig. they should be studied until understood. . This practice then will be followed in this work. r i2^_ A/ Fig. : Shade lines shall be applied to ^\ projections of an object. 143. considering the rays of light to the same direction. of shown above the and the as the projected rays of light falling in the direction diagonal of a cube make angles of 45° with the hor. plan at the top of the object is 105 elevation. 144. fall upon each of them. from Shade lines should have a width equal to lines 3 times that of lines. outlines of surfaces of revolution should not be shade The shadelined figures which follow will assist in il lustrating the above principles.. then with the use of the 45° triangle we can easily determine that the ele lower and righthand edges of the plan as well as of the vation should be shade lines. viz.
Considering the rays of light to be parallel and the point of sight at an infinite distance. called the brilliant point. face which turns tion. the brilliant point on the sur face of a sphere is found as follows : Let A^C"" and A^'C^. The and ray as after upon the surface is called the incident ray. the point at which a ray of light and a line drawn to the eye line make equal angles with the tangent plane or normal of the —the plane : two lines being normal to the surface. the point at which the reflection takes place is is." — Davies Shades and Shadozvs. Fig. It is ascertained by experiment of the incident '* {a) That the plane and reflected rays is always normal to the surface at the point of incidence " {B) That at the point of incidence the incident and re flected rays make equal angles with the tangent plane or normal line to the surface.— I06 . /' If therefore we suppose it a single luminous point and the light emanating from to fall upon any surface and to be re flected to the eye. The point at which the reflection takes places '^ is called the point of incidence. . MECHANICAL DRAWING. leaves the surface the reflected ray. The shade which light line is of an object is that part of the surface from excluded by the object. SHADING. is The of shade the line separating the shaded from is the illuminated part of an object. Brilliant Points. The brilliant point of a surface then. the ray is it found where the rays — '^ When its a ray of light falls it upon a sur from course and gives another direcit falls it said to be reflected. and of light are tangent to the object.
point on the line of vision). . Join C'V" and through the point i/. at the points B^Bl' where the bisecting lines pierce Therefore B"B^' are the two projections of the brilliant point. plane at A'"C^ At C^ erect a per. the hor. until it becomes parallel to the hor. be a ray of light 107 and A^A^" a visual ray. 145. bisect the angle Z^^^^^^ with the line A^D^. to this bisecting line and tangent to 'the sphere touches the surface it. through C^ at (7/' join CJ^L^ (L may be any convenient Fig. draw a hor.OR THO GRA PHIC PROJECTION. projection of the A plane drawn per. 145. Bisect the angles fol contained between the ray of light and the visual ray as lows : Revolve A^C^ about the axis A" . is cutting C^L!" at Dl\ then A^D^' bisecting line. to intersect a hor.
to A^'G. arcs of circles. EG c /\\x\ j" \ CI i / ^ I at the point L ^/r Fig. From the point P^ drop a per. Through T draw TP' per. Draw A^'G.io8 MECHANICAL DRAWING. Prob. i^ making an angle Join the points E and with a straight line EF. draw a tangent to the sphere T. 24. 145. Lay off on A^G a distance equal to Fig. 146. Fig. 148. Parallel to Fig. The point of shade can be found as follows: of 45° with a hor. EF. —To shade the elevation of a sphere with graded . to P\ P" is the point of shade. 147. and join EG.
50 . Prob. line of shade S'" is found where a plane of rays is gent to the cyl. Fig. 149. 149 shows the stippling method of shading the sphere. and the point and divide the radius i. Find the line of light E" by the same method used to find the brilliant point on the sphere. at and S\ the shading lines are graded from 150 shows how the line of shade to the It will line of light.OR THO GRA PHIC PR OJECTION. this shows where . 146. and draw arcs of circles as shown by Fig. 2 into a suitable number of equal parts. except that the line of light is projected from the point B^ where the bis^ion line A^D tan cuts the circle of the cylinder. Fig. grading them by moving the center a short distance on each side of the center of the sphere on the line B^'2 and varying the length of the radii to obtain a grade of line that will give a proper shade to the sphere. It is desirable to use a horn center to protect the center of the figure. 25. The Fig. Fig.— To shade a right cylinder with graded right lines. First find the brilliant point 109 of shade. little be noticed that the lines grow a 1 narrower to the right of the line of shade on Fig. 150.
or as some draftsmen do. 27^To shade the concave surface of a section of a hollow cylinder. Fig. Prob. —To draw a front and end elevation of a rect angular hollow box with a rectangular block on each face. 26. 152. each . the reflection of the rays of light partly illumine the outline of the cylinder. 153 shows a conventional method of shading a hex agonal nut. stop the lines just before they touch. 148. —To light shade a right cone with graded right lines tapering toward the apex of the cone. Prob. as and draw the shadinglines their width toward the light shown by Fig. Find the elements of and shade as shown by Fig. 148. 151.no MECHANICAL DRAWING. Fig. 151 can usually be avoided by letting each dry before drawing another through it. Fig. Find the element it of light and grade the shading Fig. 28. grading and tapering them toward the apex of the cone. 151. The mixed appearance of the lines near the apex of the line cone on Fig. Prob. lines from to both edges as shown by Fig. 152.
and then the vertical center el line of the end view. About these center lines on the end FiG. Next draw the hidden lines indicating the thickness . Fig. 154. and all III to be properly shadelined and drawn to the dimensions given on Fig. Draw the hor.OR THO GRA PHIC PROJE C TION. block to have a rectangular opening. center line first. Fig. ^evation construct the squares shown and erect the edges of the blocks. 153. 154. 155.
Davidson in the " Perspective of the Workshop. as its name implies (" equal measures ") like it can be made It to is.. — Given the end elevation B and C. box and the openings through the blocks. i. viewed remembering that all all the visual rays are parallel. a front and end elevation. 155. Draw the line the front elevation by projecting lines from the va rious points on the end elevation. Prob. for It is a very convenient system his Projection It is calls it the workshop. boundaries as shown by the figure.112 MECHANICAL DRAWING. Fig. ISOMETRICAL DRAWING. 156. of these sections Draw left of the projections when the part to the is the cutting plane in the direction has been removed. or an elevation and plan." more useful than per spective for a working drawing. Fig. 29. any scale and measured an orthographic drawing. or large objects drawn to a small scale. and assuming the position of off AB measure the lengths of the hor. The principles of isometrical drawing are founded its on a base cube resting on lower front corner. and its . and what remains of the arrow. lines and erect their vert. follow are to be properly These drawings and that may shadelined in accordance with the principles given above. because. mainly em ployed to represent small objects. and sometimes even three views are required. Isometric drawing on the other hand shows an object completely with only one view. of the last prob. however. cut by three planes A. of the walls of the measuring the sizes carefully to the given dimensions. In orthographic projection it is necessary to a correct understanding of an object to have at least two views. whose main lines are at right angles to each other.
the front elevation will appear as shown at 2.. 4. they are shorter than they would actually be on bear the same pro the cube itself. But although these lines and faces appear to be equal. However. with the 30° X 60° triangle.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. as all shown by easily Fig. elevated so that plane.. all be measured with We will nov/ describe the ^ method of making an isomet rical scale. a regular hexagon. we seen. its 113 diagonal is AB is parallel to the horizontal i Then if the cube at rotated on the corner until the i.e. Ai. 156. yet. they can the same scale. so we . through an angle of 90°. make the angle of 45° with the horizontal. Draw These two the half of a square with sides sides will = 2i'\ Fig. diagonal AB i. being inclined to the plane of projection. the lines lA. are equal. etc. is right angles to the vert. 156. Now the sides of the corresponding isometrical square. have will make the angle of 30° with the horizontal. since they all portion to the original sizes. 3. Fig.. Now we know that in a regular hexagon. 157. and are drawn Fig. 156. plane.
3. i. 2 to the line 3. Fig. 2 on the 1 elevation of the hex. making angles of 30° with 2. 2 be taken to represent feet and those on 4 to represent 2 feet. to 4 to cut the line 3.. 30. 3. 4 proportionately to Now if the divisions on 3. differi. 3 and the angle 3 is and the proportion of the isometrical projection to the is actual object as the length of the line 3.114 dravv^ MECHANICAL DRA WING. 2. will divide 3. 4. 2. . these 3. ray of light in isometrical as — The projection the angle of drawing will make with the horizontal shown by the line 3. 4 in corresponding divisions. —To make the isometrical drawing of a > armed cross standing on a square pedestal. 14. 156. And the shade lines wi applied as in ordinary projection. 4 would be an isometrical scale of J. Prob. Fig. then 3. i. ence then between the angle 15°. 3 4. 157 Since isometrical drawings may be made to any scale. 2 And and if the line be divided into any number of equal parts. lines be drawn through these divisions par. may make This is a common isometrical scale. the isometrical lines of the object practice = their true s and precludes the need of a sp( The Direction of the Rays of Light. The 4. 3.
159. Prob. . 160. AD\ make AB a AC dis and AD 2^^' long and erect a perpendicular at sides of the base. 158. draw a center line. Measure from A on the center tance — YV^ ^^d draw two front lines par. and from the A draw AC and AD. —To make first the isometrical drawing of a hollow with square block on each face and a square hole through each block. D and C. 32. making an angle of 30° with the line horizontal. to dimensions given on Fig. As before. etc. —To project an isometrical enclosed in a square. and make an isometrical it drawing of a 2^" cube. exactly as shown in Fig. Fig. 159. 31. cube. The circle is shown by Fig. complet ing the Prob. as circle. Begin by drawing a center point line 115 AB. to AC. and upon each face of build the blocks with the square holes in them.OR THO GEA PHIC PR OJECTION.
7. 2. 4 and the diameters 5. and with center A and same rad. EF.2. O draw CD and EF at right angles to the The points CD. And Fig. The ellipse may be drawn sufficiently accurate as follows With center B and radius BC describe the arc CF and extend it a little beyond the points C and F. 8 at right angles to each other. then with a rad. which will be an ellipse. and GH will be points in the curve of the projected isometrical circle. 2B. iB and 2A. 3. 3. describe a similar arc. diagonal 1. 159 through the center isometrical square.: ji6 MECHANICAL DRA WING. = 2" and describe the square I. 6. Now from the points i and 2^ draw lines lA. 2. making angles of 30° with the' hor. Draw the circle with a radius it. 4 about Draw the diagonals I. which .
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. 163. 160. Fig. Fig. 165. 162. Fig. 164. 161. . Fig. 117 Fig. Fig.
g. 165. and at least one of these should be drawn. the sectioned parts of the . detail pencil. 164. and the face exposed to the The blueprint system for working drawings has many drawing require to drawbacks. desk. Working drawings paper in are sometimes made on brown cloth. and 166 are for practice in the application of the preceding principles. with the sensitized surface in contact with the back of the tracing. traced on tracingpaper or and then blue printed. readily be found may by trial. In printing from a negative the sensitized surface of the prepared paper is placed is in contact with the film side of the light. dent would attempt to make an isometrical projection of his instrumentbox.: Il8 MECHANICAL DRAWING. 166. i6i. or would be better still if the stu Fig. 163.. and the prepared paper placed behind it. draw arcs through the points G and H and tangent to the two arcs already described. WORKING DRAWINGS. or any familiar object at hand. The The latter process is accomplished as follows tracing is placed face down on is the glass in the print ingframe. 162. negative. figures These may be measured with the \y scale and drawn with the 2" scale. it Figs. e.
II9 re jdfeal This takes a great The print has usually to be is mounted on cardboard. using the standard conventions already ferred to for the different materials. made 9'' X 12''. which are much quicker applied than hatchdrawing is The face of the protected with two coats of is white shellac varnish. Changes can be made on the prints with sodawater. and unless is varnished it the frequent handling with dirty. usually The white alcohol. varnish can easily be removed with a little and changes made on the drawing. sunlight not always into con favorable to quick printing. while the back of the card given a coat of orange shellac. all sary information as to and to . size. of thick pasteboard mounted with Irish linen record The drawings colors. oily fingers soon makes unfit for use. and the sections are tinted with the conven tional lines.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION. nished it is We will now try to describe what a working drawing is and what it is for. it although this not always done. sideration the system of So taking everything making working drawings is directly on It is cards and varnishing them probably the best. In size the 24''. the system used by the Schenectady Locomotive Works and many cards other large are engineering establishments. and when many changes is or additions require to be tracing and take a made print. In the hands of an experienced is workman the necesfinish a working drawing intended to convey to him shape. material. of time. and when revaragain ready for the shop. are pencilled and inked on these cards in the usual way. be hatchlined. it is best to make them on the new And the. but it is they seldom look well. 12" X 18''. t8" X they are made paper. true.
.120 MECHANICAL DRAWING.
OR THO GRA PHIC PR OJE C TION. 121 .
And these views should be completely and conveniently dimensioned. it enable him to properly construct structions. without reference to the may be drawn. Figs. fully figured." title it is customary to write or print " finished The number ately below of the drawing may be placed at the upper lefthand corner.122 MECHANICAL DRAWING. without any additional ina sufficient This means that it must have num ber of elevations. and will shortly show working drawings » of two shaft couplings. A secondyear course. The scale dimensions on the drawing must of course give the sizes to> which the object to which it is to be made. . and not very large plain.. sections. sectioned. freehand printed letter —a neat. and the initials of the draftsman immediit. and plans to thoroughly explain and describe the object in every particular. then all below the over. 167 and 168 preparation. f. The is title of a working drawing should be as brief as possible. best for this purpose." Finished parts are usually indicated by the letter " if it is all and to be finished. entitled Mechanical is in Drawing and Elementary Machine Design^ be published. and shadelined.
To draw a. Circle. 53 . i  Bow instruments 2 Brass. To To To To To To To To To draw draw draw draw a right line equal to half the circumference of a a tangent between two 33 tangents to two 34 an arc of a. tangent to two straight lines 34 35 inscribe within a triangle of a. Circle. " Schiele's " 50 53 5 Arched windowopening. To find the center of an Arc of a. Circle.INDEX. bisect an PAGE 19 . . Sheet of thin 5 Center lines Ciuquefoil ornament. Sheet of 6 61 Breaks. approximately 123 47 . a. To draw a line tangent 32 to an 33 31 Circle. tangent to draw an arc draw an arc two circles 36 of a. 60 53 To draw the Arc of a. Circle. Circle. Circle. tangent to a straight line and a circle 37 45 construct the involute of a find the length of an arc of a. To draw an Arkansas oilstones B Baluster. Circle. Board. Drawing . Conventional Brilliant points 106 C Celluloid. Circle. construct an 15 Antifriction curve. Circle. Circle. A To Angle. To Angle.
Dividers.. . .. to find the axes and foci Epicycloid.. 124 INDEX. 50 24 120 Equilateral triangle. 2 54 E Ellipse. To draw the « Cissoid.... The.. To describe an. 38 Given an. . To construct an Examples of working drawings F Figuring and lettering Finished parts of working drawings 66 122 G Geometrical drawing Glasspaper pencil sharpener Gothic letters ^ . PAGE 49 2 Compass Conventions Conventions.. 16 .. 12. . Irregular Cycloid.. of the rays of light. describe an interior . To To describe the 43 48 . .  . Hairspring ^ 104 go 92 93 96 97 75 105 2 i Drawingboard Drawingpen Drawing to scale ». > 4 69 ... To describe the 46 D Dark surfaces Development of the surfaces of a hexagonal prism Development of the surface of a right cylinder Development of the surface of a cone Development of the surface of a cylindrical dome Development of a locomotive gusset sheet Dihedral angles Direction. Shading Conventional breaks Conventional lines Conventional screwthreads Crosssections 56 104 61 60 62 62 3 Curves. Ellipse. Epicycloid.
To draw a. of a circle. The "Cavetto " or " Hollow " Moulding. The " Apophygee " Moulding. The. To construct a Hyperbola. of 4 4 2 93 two cylinders 96 102 Intersection. To draw an Hypocycloid. 13 64 106 to another 19 21 To divide a Line of motion Line of section 60 60 M Mechanical drawing and elementary machine design 122 81 Model of the coordinate planes ' . To describe the . Moulding. The. The Moulding.INDEX.' . parallel Line. To construct the 45 113 Isometrical cube Isometrical drawing Isometrical drawing. of a plane with an irregular surface of revolution Involute. 116 Examples of 117 Isometrical scale. The 114 L Leads for compass Lettering and figuring Line of shade Line. The ''Torus" 51 52 52 52 52 . The. 12$ H Heptagon. Direction of the rays of light in 112 114 115 Isometrical drawing of a twoarmed cross Isometrical drawing of a hollow cube Isometrical drawing. The " Echinus." or " Ovolo " Moulding. " " Quatrefoil. of a cylinder with a cone Intersection. The " Cyma Reversa " Moulding. The ' Scotia " 51 51 *' Cyma Recta" Moulding. PAGE 28 42 48 I Ink eraser Inks Instruments Intersection.
Pencil . 32 Protractor 6 Q Quatrefoil. To construct an Orthographic projection Oval. of the cone go 93 Projection of the helix as applied to screwthreads Proportional. . 2 To construct a 41 2 Pencil eraser Pencil. To construct the Right angle. The Polygon. To sharpen 8 . To trisect a Roman letters 67 . of plane surfaces 84 Projection. The. . . To draw the 53 R Rays of light . Visual 104 21 24 Rhomboid. of straight lines Projection. The. of solids Projection. fourth. To construct an . to two given lines z. Pen. Drawing Pen. The.126 INDEX. N PAGE Needles Notation 6 80 O Octagon. The. To sharpen the drawing g 10 28 17 75 Pentagon. Rays. To To To find a find find mean. 74 43 P Paper Parabola. to three given lines. To erect a Planes of projection. To construct a Perpendicular. 28 . IC4 . 4 the . Proportional.. To construct a 26 82 Projection. 99 31 31 Proportional. to two given lines a third.
Third dihedral angle Tinting brush Tinting saucer Title. To construct a 25 3 Triangular scale Type specimens 70 U Use Use of instruments of pencil 7 8 . To draw Screwthreads. . Section lines. To. To. of a working drawing Tracingcloth Trefoil. To Sheet brass Sheet celluloid . 25 Stippling 109 T Tacks Tsquare 5 2 . . Drawing 54 55 To construct a Schiele's curve. 104 To describe the 44 5 . S Scale guard Scale. 75 5 5 122 6 To describe the 53 3 Triangles Triangle. PAGE 6 to 12. the elevation of a sphere Shade. To. a concave cylindrical surface no no 8 Sharpen pencil. To construct a . Scale. Regular 50 62 100 56 58 Section lines. To Sharpen pen. Conventional Screwthreads. — 10 6 6 " Sibley College * ' " set of irregular curves 3 Sibley College " set of instruments 2 Source of light Spiral. Sponge rubber Square. a right cylinder 109 Shade.INDEX.. The. a right cone Shade. To. Standard Shade lines and shading 103 108 Shade.
Examples of 19 . 5 5 Water glass Writingpen 6 » Working Working Working Working drawings drawings. of dividers or spacers of spring bows of irregular curves of protractor 14 14. Method of making iiS 119 drawing. 104 describe the " Ionic " To 45 W Watercolors . What is a 119 1 drawings. of Use Use Use Use Use Use Use Use Use Use drawingpen PAGE g ii i of triangles of Tsquare of r drawingboard U I2 . of scale of compasses 13 13 14. V Visual rays Volute.128 INDEX.
Armsby's Manual of Cattle Feeding. 1 75 The Principles of Modern Dairy (Woll. Svo. 8vo. 4 00 1 Loudon's Gardening for Ladies..) 12mo. " Architectural Iron and Steel " " " Compound Riveted Girders 2 00 3 00 Skeleton Construction in Buildings Svo. E tc . . 7 50 3 00 3 50 Birkmire's American Theatres — Planning and Construction. New York^ London: CHAPMA]^ & HALL. Etc. 50 on the Diseases of the " Treatise on the Diseases of the Dog Ox 3 50 Svo. Limited. 8vo. Cattle Feeding— Dairy Practice Diseases of Animals Gardening. .. Steel's Treatise (Downing. 3 50 . ARRANGED UNDER SUBJECTS. Building — Carpentry— Stairs —Ventilation . ARCHITECTURE. AGRICULTURE. books are bound in cloth unless otherwise stated.' — — 5 00 . . Books marked with an asterisk are sold at net prices All only. OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF JOHN WILEY & SONS. Lloyd's Science of Agriculture 12mo. Svo.12mo.SHORTTITLE CATALOGUE .) 12nio. Oflace Buildings. Svo. Practice. 6 00 2 50 1 50 Stockbridge's Rocks and Soils WoU's Handbook for Farmers and Dairymen. Berg's Buildings and Structures of American Railroads 4to. Descriptive circulars sent on application. 12mo. Downing's Fruit and Fruit Trees Grotenfelt's . 2 00 2 50 Kemp's Landscape Gardening. Planning and Construction of High 1 Svo. Svo. 8vo.
4to. ?3 00 Downing. Military Engineering— Ordnance Bourne's Screw Propellers Bruff's Etc. morocco. 1 25 World's Columbian Exposition of 1S93 2 50 ARMY. 2 00 1 Dietz's Soldier's First Aid . Svo. morocco. flap. 13 00 1 50 .ISmo. Law (Carr. . 4 00 3 00 Chase's Screw Propellers Cooke's Naval Ordnance Cronkhite's Gunnery for Noncom. Svo. 20 00 " Record of the Transportation Exhibits Building. Dyer's Light Artillery Svo. Hoff 's Naval Tactics Hunter's Port Charges Ingalls's Ballistic Tables 50 Svo. . Svo. .8vo. NAVY.4to. American House Carpenter Morocco 5 00 Holly's Carpenter and Joiner . half morocco. 75 Kidder's Architect and Builder's Pocketbook Merrill's Stones for Building 4 00 5 00 and Decoration Svo. Svo. 4to. 2 00 2 50 1 1 Freitag's Architectural Engineering Gerhard's Sanitary House Inspection 16mo. Hospital Archi including Atkinson's Suggestions tecture 12mo. Worcester's Small Hospitals and Maintenance. Sheep. morocco. —Port Charges — Law. 00 50 " Hatfield's Theatre Fires and Panics 12mo. Monckton's Stair Building —Wood. Svo. half 25 * Dredge's Modern French Artillery. De Brack's Cavalry Outpost Duties. 4to. and Stone —Establishment for 4 00 6 00 6 50 Wait's Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence Svo.Carpenter's Heating and Ventilating of Buildings 8vo. World's Columbian Exposition of lS93.). Etc. Svo. 4to. Officers Davis's Treatise on Military 12 50 2 00 7 00 7 50 ISmo. Sheep. half morocco. Svo. 6 00 Bucknill's Submarine Mines and Torpedoes Svo. Iron. 10 00 5 00 3 00 1 Durand's Resistance and Propulsion of Ships. 8vo. Cottages ** 2 50 Hints to Architects c.. . morocco. 12mo.ISmo. 5 00 Ordnance and Gunnery Svo..• kl2mo.
Brasses. paper. 8vo. Mercur's Attack of Fortified Places 12mo. 50 50 " The Chlorination Process 13mo. 3 12mo. 8vo. 8vo. 1 Fletcher's Quant. and Bronzes 2 50 1 1 Wilson's Cyanide Processes . morocco. 8vo.). 12mo. half morocco. half morocco.12mo. Practical. morocco first 2 50 edition 100 ASSAYING. 3 00 1 50 10 00 2 00 3 00 O'Driscoll's Treatment of Gold Ores Ricketts and Miller's Notes on Assaying 8vo. 8vo. Etc. 12mo. 50 Furman's Practical Assaying Kunhardt's Ore Dressing * Mitchell's Practical Assaying. 8vo. 1 50 Very's Navies of the World 3 50 Wheeler's Siege Operations 2 00 2 50 2 50 Winthrop's Abridgment of Military Law 12mo.. 15 2 50 Phelps's Practical Marine Surveying Powell's Army OflQcer's Examiner 12mo.45 18mo.. 8vo. 2 00 . Thurston's Alloys. (Crookes. 12mo. morocco. $1 50 7 50 Maban's Permaneut Fortifications. Assaying with the Blowpipe. . Theoretical. (Mercur. 8vo. 4 00 Mahan's Advanced Guard 18mo. 2 00 Mercur's Elements of the Art of Metcalfe's Ordnance and War 4 00 5 00 1 Gunnery CourtsMartial 12mo. with Atlas. Smeltiitg — Ore Dressing— Alloys.) 8vo. morocco. and Descriptive. 4 00 2 50 3 00 Gore's Elements of Geodesy Michie and Harlow's Practical Astronomy White's Theoretical and Descriptive Astronomy. 8vo.18mo. flaps. Craig's Azimuth Astronomy . 8vo. 4to.8vo. Murray's " A Manual for Rifle. ASTRONOMY. morocco. WoodhuU's Notes on Military Hygiene Young's Simple Elements of Navigation. 4 00 50 Reed's Signal Service Sharpe's Subsisting Armies 18mo. 3 50 Doolittle's Practical 8vo.Ingalls's Handbook of Problems in Direct Fire 8vo. 50 Infantry Drill Regulations adapted to the Springfield Caliber .
) 18mo.. Cantilever Engineering. 8vo. Suspension. 8vo.) {See also Boiler's * " Highway Bridges The Thames River Bridge 8vo. 7 parts. Merriman & & II.) 8vo.BOTANY.. — Draw— Highway— Suspension.8vo. 2 50 10 00 Oblong 4to. Greene's Arches in Wood. for Bridge Engineers). 2 50 2 50 Bridge Trusses " .. Graphic Jacoby's 2 50 Merriman Part & Textbook of Roofs and Bridges. Part IV. Etc. Jacoby's Textbook of Roofs and Bridges. 125 4 00 10 00 Howe's Treatise on Arches Johnson's Modern Framed Structures 4to.Roof Trusses 8vo. 8vo. p. 2 00 2 50 Wright's Designing of Draw Spans . Svo. 2 50 Merriman Part Jacoby's Textbook Statics. 8vo. Svo. 8vo. 12mo. (Schneider. per part. 2 25 2 00 BRIDGES. Cantilever. paper. Crehore's Mechanics of the Girder Dredge's Thames Bridges 25 Du Bois's Stresses in Framed Structures etc 10 00 5 00 Foster's Wooden Trestle Bridges 4to. 8vo. Stresses. 2 50 III. and Arched Bridges *Morison's The Memphis Bridge 8vo. Continuous. ROOFS. Gardening for Ladies. Waddell's Iron Highway Bridges " Svo. 2 00 5 00 3 50 5 00 1 Burr's Stresses in Bridges. 50 Thome's Structural Botany Westermaier's General Botany. Draw. Bridge Design Merriman & Jacoby's Textbook of Roofs and Bridges. Etc. $1 50 1 Loudon's Gardening for Ladies. 4to. 8vo. Baldwin's Orchids of New England (Downing. of Roofs and Bridges. 4to. 4 00 De Pontibus (a Pocketbook of Bridges Wood's Construction and Roofs 4 Svo. Part L. 6. .
(Allen. morocco.). 16th. 8vo.) (Merrill. 3 00 12mo. 12mo. 3 00 1 Mandel's Biochemical Laboratory 12mo. 50 50 by Electrolysis. Handbook 12mo. 50 Drechsel's Chemical Reactions. . 125 4 00 1 1 Hammarsten's Physiological Chemistry.8vo. 6 00 " " " (Johnson.) 8vo.CHEMISTRY. 8vo. Etc. Ladd's Quantitative Chemical Analysis Landauer's Spectrum Analysis. (Schaeffer.) 8vo.) 12mo. 8vo. Miller's 5 00 {In the press. 8vo. (HerrickandBoltwood. morocco . 8vo. (Maudel. (Morgan). Qualitative — Quantitative — Organic — Inorganic. morocco.) 25 Fresenius's Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Perkins's Qualitative Analysis . .) Helm's Principles of Mathematical Chemistry. (Austen. German Edition Fuerte's Gill's . " Handbook for Chemists 5 of Beet Sugar House. 50 Gas and Fuel Analysis 12mo. Adriance's Laboratory Calculations Allen's Tables for Iron Analysis $1 25 3 00 1 1 Austen's Notes for Chemical Students Bolton's Student's Guide in Quantitative Analysis Classen's Analysis 12mo. Power of Fuels Oblong in Prescriptions 3 00 Ricketts and Russell's Notes on Inorganic Chemistry (Nonmetallic) 8vo.8vo. Kolbe's Inorganic Chemistry 50 50 12mo. 8vo.) Pinner's Organic Chemistry. 12mo. 8vo.) 3 00 1 1 Crafts's Qualitative Analysis. 50 Mason's Watersupply Analysis of Potable Water. 12mo. 8vo. Poole's Calorific 12mo. 12rno. 75 2 00 2 50 2 00 Ruddiman's Incompatibilities Schimpf's Volumetric Analysis Spencer's Sugar Manufacturer's 12mo. 50 Morgan's The Theory of Solutions and its Results 00 Xicbols's Watersupply (Chemical and Sanitary) 2 50 2 00 1 00 1 50 O'Brine's Laboratory Guide to Chemical Analysis 8vo. 2 00 1 1 Chemical Physics Mixter's Elementary Textbook of Chemistry 12mo. Qualitative 8vo. flaps. 12mo. . 5 00 1 Water and Public Health 12mo. (Tingle.12mo. . 3 00 " (Wells) Trans.
2 00 DRAWING. 2 50 3 50 1 1 Warren's Descriptive Geometry " Drafting Instruments " 2 vols. 8vo. 4to.) (II. 2 00 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. Wiechmann's Chemical Lecture Notes " 12mo. 00 MacCord's Kinematics " Mechanical Drawing 5 00 Svo. Svo. . and Med. .. OO " Machine Construction Plane Problems 7 50 1 " 12mo. 12mo. Reid's A. 4 00 3 50 5 00 2 00 Mahan's Industrial Drawing. (Thompson. Svo. " Mechanical Drawing and Elementary Mechanical Design. Hill's Shades and i!uadovvs and Perspective Svo. 12mo. . (Macmillan. Reed's Topographical Drawing. Svo. 2 vols. Svo. 25 Freehand Drawing 00 " ' Higher Linear Perspective Linear Perspective 3 50 1 ' 12mo.Stockbridge's Rocks aud Soils Troilius's 8vo. Smith's Topographical Drawing. . Chemistry. Svo. 3 00' 2 Sugar Analysis . Svo.) A Course in Mechanical Drawing Svo. Illumination— Batteries — Physics. Svo. Svo.) Svo. Elementaky — Geometrical — Topographical. 4 00 2 00 3 Barker's Deepsea Soundings Benjamin's Voltaic Cell History of Electricity 6 00 Svo 3 00 . 25 75 " " *• Primary Geometry Problems and Theorems Projection 2 50 1 Drawing 12mo.. 50 Wulling's Inorganic Phar. $3 50 2 00 Chemistry of Iron Wells's Qualitative Analysis 12mo. Svo.. 12mo. Anthony and Brackett's Textbook of Physics (Magie). . 50 " " Shades and Shadows 3 00 2 50 Stereotomy— Stone Cutting Svo. Svo. Whelpley's Letter Engraving 12mo. 8vo. . 2 00 3 MacCord's Descriptive Geometry Svo. Svo.. 2 vols. 12mo.
.. half mor. p. . 1 ENQINEERINQ. S.) 7 12mo. . 00 Godwin's Railroad Engineer's Fieldbook. * Drinker's Tunnelling Eissler's Explosives 20 00 25 00 4to. Black's U. 4to. Etc. 8 Materials op Engineering. 12mo. flap. Svo. Church's Mechanics of Engineering — Solids and Fluids " Notes and Examples in Mechanics Svo. p.) 12mo. 12mo.) . 3 00 Chronograph. half morocco. its 4 00 1 Morgan's The Theory of Solutions and Kiaudet's Electric Batteries. morocco. ^ee also Bridges. morocco. 12mo. (Mottelay. Howard's Transition Curve Fieldbook Howe's Retaining Walls (New Edition. 5 00 3 OQ 5 00 1 50 12mo. 4to. 4to.2 vols. morocco. 50 The Tra^nsition Curve etc. 25 00 7 50 Vol. 00 (Fishback. $ 75 Crehore and Squier's Experiments with a New Polarizing Photo8vo. 50^ * Dredge's Penn. 12mo. form. p. Svo. .Cosmic Law of Thermal Kepulsiou 18mo.11 Gilbert's De magnete. pocketbk. Folio. . 2 50 2 00 Holman's Precision of Measurements Michie's Wave Motion Relating to Sound and Light. Svo. . 2 50 7 50 6 00 6 00 Byrne's Highway Construction Carpenter's Experimental Engineering Svo. Baker's Masonry Construction Baker's Surveying Instruments. 4 Hydraulics. * Dredge's Electric Illuminations. p. Gore's Elements of Geodesy c 2 50 2 50 1 1 Svo. "^ Civil — Mechanical— Sanitary. morocco 50 12mo. Railroad Construction. Svo. Svo. Public Svo. p. 25 . 12mo. 1 50 50 Tillman's Heat. Results . — Nitroglycerine and Dynamite House Inspection 4 00 1 Gerhard's Sanitary 16mo. 11 Steam Engines AND Boilers. Svo. . Works Brook's Street Railway Location Butts's Engineer's Fieldbook 12mo. .) 8vo.. 2 50 2 00 Reagan's Steam and Electrical Locomotives Thurston's Stationary Steam Engines for Electric Lighting Purposes 12mo. 9 Mechanics and Machinery. 2 00 1 1 Crandall's Crandall's Earthwork Tables : Svo. half morocco. 14.
morocco.) for Surveyors.) 8vo. 12mo.12mo. 12mo. 3 00 1 " Railroad Spiral 50 Siebert and Biggin's Modern Stone Cutting and Masonry. 8vo. Sewage Disposal (Wood. Spalding's Roads and Pavements 12mo. of 8vo. . Waddell's De Pontibus (A Pocketbook for Bridge Engineers). Webb's Engineering Instruments 12mo. 8vo. 5 00 Merriman and Brook's Handbook Merriman's Geodetic Surveying " . II 8vo. Vol. 5 00 . 2 00 2 00 5 00 5 00 Hydraulic Cement 12mo. morocco. .Sheet. morocco. 7 50 5 00 1 1 Foundations Rockwell's Roads and Pavements in France Ruffner's Nontidal Rivers Searles's Field = 8vo. 50 Theory and Practice of Surveying 4 00 5 00 1 1 Kent's Mechanical Engineer's Pocketbook Kiersted's 12mo. Thurston's Materials of Construction * Trautwiue's Civil Engineer's Pocketbook. 3 00 6 00 Sheep. 22^ " X 28^ inches. 6 50 2 50 1 Warren's Stereotomy — Stone Cutting.12mo.Hudson's Excavation Tables. 2 00 5 00 3 00 Mosely's Mechanical Engineering.8vo. Wait's Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence 8vo. 8vo. . (Mahan. 8vo. 25 50 Kirkwood's Lead Pipe for Service Pipe Mahan's Civil Engineering.12mo. 8vo. 12mo. 8vo. Laying Out Curves 12mo. 2 00 2 00 Retaining Walls and Masonry Dams 8vo. flaps. $1 00 5 00 6 00 Hutton's Mechanical Engineering of Power Plants Johnson's Materials of Construction Johnson's Stadia Reduction Diagram. . 25 2 00 2 50 * * " " Excavations and Embankments 8vo. morocco. mor. . 8vo. 4to. morocco 12mo. 25 25 Engineering 12mo.8vo. 1 50 Smith's Cable Tramways 2 50 3 00 " Wire Manufacture and Uses " 4to. morocco. flaps. . mor.• 00 Wegmann's Construction Masonry Dams 5 00 Wellington's Location of Railvvays 8vo.. 4to. morocco .. flaps. 8vo. * " Crosssection Sheet. . Kagle's Manual for Railroad Engineers Patton's Civil Engineering .
Wegmann's Water Supply Weisbach's Hydraulics. (^S^e a^so Engineering. . Metcalfe's Cost of Manufactures 9 5 00 . 2 00 (Trautwine) Bovey's Treatise on Hydraulics Coffin's Graphical Solution of 4 00 2 50 Hydraulic Problems 12mo. . 2 00 1 1 12mo. .) New York . 12mo. 4 00 2 00 Hazen's Filtration of Public Water Supply Herschel's 115 Experiments Kiersted's Sevpage Disposal 8vo. . 4 00 3 00 Svo. 6. 4 00 1 Euerte's Water and Public Health 12mo. Wilson's Irrigation Engineeriug. . . Wood's Theory Aniline of Turbines Svo.8vo. 50 Oanguillet & Kutter'sFlow of Water. Nichols's . . Cyclones. . 10 00 5 00 (Du 8vo. Etc. Allen's Tables for Iron Analysis 3 00 1 Beaumont's Woollen and Worsted Manufacture Bolland's Encyclopaedia of Founding 12mo. *4to. 8vo. 4 00 2 50 1 25 Water Supply (Chemical and Sanitary) 8vo. Huffner's Improvement for Nontidal Rivers 8vo.). 50 Terms 8 00 The Iron Founder *' 12mo. Etc. 5 00 Merriman's Treatise on Hydraulics. MANUFACTURES.Wheeler's Civil Engineeriug Wolff's Windmill as a Prime 8vo.) Bazin's Experiments upon the Contraction of the Liquid Vein 8vo. 2 50 —Boilers— Explosives— Iron— Sugar—Watches — Woollens. (Hering& Trautwine. HYDRAULICS. of the City of Bois. Wolff's Windmill as a Prime Mover 8vo. 8vo.8vo. . and Tornadoes. Svo. Svo. ISmo.8vo. p. 25 50 Kirkwood's Lead Pipe for Service Pipe Mason's Water Supply „ 8vo. 8vo. Nitroglycerine 4 00 1 00 Ford's Boiler Making for Boiler Makers. Eerrel's Treatise on the Winds. Waterwheels — Windmills — Service Pipe — Drainage. 2 50 2 50 " " " Supplement 12mo. Booth's Clock and Bouvier's Watch Maker's Manual Handbook on Oil Painting and Dynamite 2 00 2 00 Eissler's Explosives. 12mo. 12mo. $4 00 3 00 Mover 8vo. Svo.
50 Bovey's Strength of Materials Burr's Elasticity and Resistance of Materials Svo.Svo. 12mo. . Church's Mechanics of Engineering — Solids and Fluids Svo. 00 Patton's Treatise on Foundations 5 00 1 Rockwell's Roads and Pavements in France Spalding's Roads and Pavements 12mo.' — Metcalf s Steel— A Manual for Steel Users 12mo. 4 00 1 Strength of Materials 12mo. 5 00 Carpenter's Testing Machines and Methods of Testing Materials. . nior. 12mo.8vo.) * Reisig's Guide to Piece Dyeing Spencer's Sugar Manufacturer's Handbook. 50 The Lathe and Uses 6 00 5 00 Thurston's Manual of Steam Boilers Walke's Lectures on Explosives West's American Foundry Practice Svo. Svo. . flap. " Handbook Handbook Its . mor.12mo. Engineering. Svedelius's for Charcoal Burners 3 00 1 12mo.) Baker's Masonry Construction Beardslee and Kent's Strength of Svo. Svo. . 7 50 5 00 Byrne's Highway Construction Svo. . Svo. 6 00 Du Bois's Stresses in Framed Structures 10 00 5 00 6 00 Hatfield's Transverse Strains Svo. Svo. Svo. Svo. Wiechmann's Sugar Analysis Woodbury's Fire Protection of Mills 2 50 2 50 MATERIALS OF ENGINEERING. Svo. 4 00 2 50 2 50 12m o. flap. 4to. Svo. " Moulder's Textbook 12mo. 25 2 00 5 00 Thurston's Materials of Construction 10 . p. . 5 00 1 Wrought Iron Svo. (Crookes. for Chemists of Beet Houses. 8vo. Johnson's Materials of Construction Lanza's Applied Mechanics Svo. {See also Etc. . Strength— EiiASTiciTY Resistance. 7 50 " Strength of Wooden Columns and Decoration 50 5 00 Merrill's Stones for Building Merriman's Mechanics of Materials ' Svo. 6. paper. 8vo. $2 00 2 50 25 GO 2 00 Reimann's Aniline Colors.
12mo.. Svo. 150 1 Svo. 1 1 Pyramid Problem Barnard's Pyramid Problem Ballard's Svo.. 2 00 3 00 1 Svo.Svo. 1 50 Bass's Differential Calculus Brigg's Plane Analytical Geometry. 12mo.. Comptou's Logarithmic Computations Craig's Linear Differential Equations 12mo.. 12mo. 12mo. Iron and Steel Vol. Svo. Svo. 75 11 . Yol.. Bois. Partial 00 50 50 Svo. Svo.. 12mo. Svo. 3 50 1 " " Integral Calculus " " Unabridged. Svo..) '• Trigonometry with Tables. II. Baker's Elliptic Functions Svo. Chapman's Theory of Equations Chessin's Elements of the Theory of Functions. 175 150 1 12mo. 2 50 3 00 " " Searles's Differential Calculus Svo. Svo. 25 00 00 1 ' 3 50 1 12mo. Svo. I. inl. (Du 50 Wood's Resistance of Materials Svo. 12mo.. Brasses. (Bass.metallic Yol. . 8 00 3 00 3 50 2 50 1 Non. Svo. Calculus— Geometry — Trigonometry. 8vo. * 12mo. Least Squares 1 Ludlow's Logarithmic and Other Tables. 2 00 MATHEMATICS.. (Bass. 50 5 00 2 00 2 50 2 vols. . 4 00 1 00 50 1 1 50 5 00 1 Davis's Introduction to the Logic of Algebra Svo. Abridgment of Elements of Geometry Differential Calculus. 50 50 Svo.) Svo. 50 Totten's Metrology 2 50 3 50 1 Warren's Descriptive Geometry Drafting Instruments " Freehand Drawing *' Higher Linear Perspective " Linear Perspective " Primary Geometry ' 2 vols. Svo. III. Svo. 50 Geometry " Synthetic Geometry Johnson's Curve Tracing •' Differential Equations— Ordinary and Halsted's Elements of Svo. 12mo. Alloys. 8vo. and Bronzes Weyrauch's Strength of Iron and Steel. Etc. 12mo..Thurston's Materials of Engiueering 3 vols.) Mahan's Descriptive Geometry (Stone Cutting) Merriman and Woodward's Higher Mathematics Merriman's Method of Least Squares Parker's Quadrature of the Circle Rice and Johnson's Differential and Integral Calculus. Svo.
8vo. Carpenter's Testing Machines and Methods of Testing Materials 8vo. Royal 8vo. Kinematics 3 50 Vol. Jones Machine Design. 50 1 1 1 50 50 50 2 00 4to. 18mo. 8vo. Kinematics 8vo. Vol.. Part n. 2 00 2 00 1 00 75 Johnson's Theoretical Mechanics. 2 00 6 00 Church's Mechanics of Engineering " Notes and Examples in Mechanics Crehore's Mechanics of the Girder Cromwell's Belts and Pulleys " Toothed Gearing Compton's First Lessons in Metal Working Dana's Elementary Mechanics Dingey's Machinery Pattern Making Trans. L. 4 00 . 6. 8vo. 12mo.18mo. $1 25 125 2 50 1 50 * 12mo. . 8vo. Lanza's Applied Mechanics 7 50 5 00 4 00 MacCord's Kinematics Merriman's Mechanics of Materials Metcalfe's Cost of Manufactures Michie's Analytical Mechanics 12 8vo. 8vo. " " " Part I. 12mo. 1 50 Machine Parts. 12mo. 12mo.. 12mo.Warren's Plane Problems " Plane Problems " Problems and Theorems Projection Drawing Wood's Coordinate Geometry ' 12mo. World 2 00 5 00 1 8vo. . 8vo.) Baldwin's Steam Heating for Buildings .) An Elementary Treatise. III.11. p... 8vo. half morocco.12mo. Strength and Proportion of 8vo. Statics Vol. {In the press. Kinetics Fitzgerald's Boston Machinist 8vo. 2 50 2 00 Chordal's Letters to Mechanics 12mo.0 00 Du Bois's Mechanics. 12mo. 2 00 " Trigonometry Woolf's Descriptive Geometry 12mo. Exhibits Dredge's Building. 100 3 00 MECHANICSMACHINERY. 00 Flather's " Holly's Dynamometers Rope Driving Filing Hall's Car Lubrication Saw 12mo. {See also Engineering. Benjamin's Wrinkles and Recipes 12mo. 8vo. 12mo. Exposition. 12mo. . 4 00 3 50 1 . Textbooks and Practical Works. 5 00 8vo.
Barringer's Minerals of Commercial Value Beard's Ventilation of Mines oblong morocco. HI. Warren's Machine Construction 2 vols.8vo. Svo. 12mo. Part I..). " The Animal as a Machine 12mo. 50 12mo. Fuel. Mine Accidents— Ventilation— Okb Dressing. IL (Klein. 8vo. 00 . 3 00 Egleston's Gold and Mercury 7 50 7 50 * Kerl's Metallurgy " * " Metallurgy of Silver Copper and Iron — 15 00 Steel. Svo. Svo. Etc. $5 00 1 50 3 00 Robinson's Principles of Mechanism Smith's Pressworking of Metals The Lathe and Its Uses Thurston's Friction and Lost Work H 00 6 00 3 00 1 Svo. Svo.) < Svo. Brush and Penfield's Determinative Mineralogy Svo. Richards's Compressed Air (Mahan. 2 00 3 50 1 25 50 3 00 1 Svo.) Svo. 5 00 Weisbach's Mechanics Sec. 25 25 Key METALLURGY.. 2 00 2 00 3 50 2 50 1 12mo. Svo. 50 MINERALOGY AND MINING. Vol. Iron— Gold— Silver — Alloys.) Wood's Analytical Mechanics " Elementary Mechanics " •' " Supplement and 5 00 3 00 1 1 Svo. 8vo. 12mo. 5 00 Weisbach's Steam Engines.) 8vo.Mosely's Mechanical Engiueering. Vol. Svo. Allen's Tables for Iron Analysis . " Map of South Western Virginia Pocketbook form. (Du Bois. " Mechanics of Engineering. etc Svo. Svo. Chester's Catalogue of Minerals 8vo. Thurston's Iron and Steel Alloys Wilson's Cyanide Processes .. Svo... 12mo. 2 50 2 50 3 00 Boyd's Resources of South Western Virginia Svo.. 15 00 1 Kunhardt's Ore Dressing in Europe Metcalf Steel— A Manual for Steel Users O'Driscoll's Treatment of Gold Ores. Svo. Weisbach's Hydraulics and Hydraulic Motors. Svo. 00 7 50 5 00 (Klein. I. Part I. Sec. (Du Bois. " " " " paper. III. of Engineering. Svo. Dictionary of the Names of Minerals Dana's American Localities of jMineruls 13 Svo. Etc.
Sinclair's Locomotive Running 12mo. 4 00 3 00 16mo. Svo. Reagan's Steam and Electrical Locomotives Rontgen's Thermodynamics. (E. Minerals and Svo. Svo. Svo.. (Smith. Svo. half morocco. Peabody and Miller's Steam Boilers Peabody's Tables of Saturated Steam Svo. $12 50 Mineralogy and Petrography (J.Dana's " " " Descriptive Mineralogy. half morocco. Compounds. Williams's Lithology Wilson's Mine Ventilation " Placer Mining. * Maw's Marine Engines Folio.. Stationaky— Marine— Locomotive (See also BOILERS. half 25 GO 2 50 Synonyms Dynamite —Nitroglycerine and Mining 4 00 2 50 2 00 4 00 1 50 2 00 5 00 7 00 2 50 Goodyear's Coal Mines of the Western Coast Hussak's Rockforming Minerals. Thurston's Boiler Explosion 12mo. Kunhardt's Ore Dressing in Europe Gold Ores Roseubusch's Microscopical Physiography of Rocks. 4to.D. Textbook of Mineralogy. Pupin and Osterberg's Thermodynamics 12mo. Manual of Svo.) Minerals and How to Study Them. 12mo. Etc. 12mo. Svo. O'Driscoll's Treatment of Svo.) Sawyer's Accidents in Mines Stockbridge's Rocks and Soils Walke's Lectures on Explosives. 2 00 1 50 3 50 *Drinker's Tunnelling. Kneass's Practice and Theory of the Injector 50 50 Svo. Etc. 12mo.) 12mo. 4to.) S. Explosives. — Gas Engines. (E.) Baldwin's Steam Heating for Buildings Clerk's Gas Engine Ford's Boiler Making for Boiler Makers Hemen way's Indicator Practice 12mo. (E. . Meyer's Modern Locomotive Construction Svo. 14 2 00 18 00 10 00 4 00 1 00 5 00 2 50 2 50 1 25 2 00 5 00 2 00 1 50 . (Iddings. 125 STEAM AND ELECTRICAL ENGINES. 12mo. " Svo. ISmo. 8vo. 6. p. S. 8vo. Svo.) .) Ihlseng's 12mo. 12mo. and Egleston's Catalogue of Minerals and Eissler's Explosives Rock Drills. (Du Bois. ) Svo. Valve Gears for the SteamEngine Pray's Twenty Years with the Indicator Royal Svo. Engineering.8vo. Svo. morocco. Svo. S. " Thermodynamics of the Steam Engine Svo. 2 50 4 00 1 00 2 00 1 1 Hoadley's Warmblast Furnace. . MacCord's Slide Valve Svo.
50 50 75 25 ISmo. 1 25 (Bass. Structure 8vo. Vol. 1 25 . (Du Bois. (Caruot. 2 00 1 00 2 50 VENTILATION.) " " Stationary Steam Engines.. Svo. 75 1 50 1 ** Power . Svo. and Ventilation Reid's Ventilation of American Dwellings 2 50 2 50 3 00 1 Wilson's Mine Ventilation 15 16mo. Crandall's Railway and Earthwork Tables Egleston's Weights and Measures Fisher's Table of Cubic Yards Hudson's Excavation Tables. Svo. AND MEASURES. of Heat. Adriance's Laboratory Calculations Allen's Tables for Iron Analysis 12mo. WEIGHTS. 4to. Svo. Svo. Design. 25 1 1 Compton's Logarithms.) 12mo. Heat Motors. Steam Heating — House Inspection —Mine Ventilation. 5 00 10 00 6 00 2 50 12mo. 12mo. 12mo. and Operation Philosophy of the Steam Engine Reflection on the Motive II. $5 00 7 50 7 50 Part I.. Svo. ** 8vo. 4 00 TABLES. Svo. 12 00 ** 12mo. Mechanics — Metric Tables. (Flather. Wood's Thermodynamics.) Whitham's Constructive Steam Engineering Steamengine Design Wilson's Steam Boilers. For Actuaries. ) etc Svo.Thurston's Engine and Boiler Trials " Manual of the Steam Engine. and Theory. . . Etc. Manual of the Steam Engine. II Johnson's Stadia and Earthwork Tables Ludlow's Logarithmic and Other Tables. 16mo. 16mo. Svo. Baldwin's Steam Heating Beard's Ventilation of Mines Carpenter's Heating and Ventilating of Buildings Gerhard's Sanitary House Inspection Square Mott's The Air We Breathe. Part Construction. 1 00 Svo. 12mo. 8vo. Svo. Svo. boards. 12mo.Svo. 12mo. Thurston's Conversion Tables Totten's Metrology '. Engineers. 3 00 Bixby's Graphical Computing Tables Sheet. 50 Steamboiler Construction and Operation 5 00 Spangler's Valve Gears 2 50 2 50 Trowbridge's Stationary Steam Engines Weisbach's Steam Engine. Cardboard. Chemists. . 12mo. 2 parts. 00 50 1 00 1 1 25 .
Steel's Treatise on the Diseases of the Ox Svo. 50 Barnard's The Metrological System of the Great Pyramid. 2 50 Paper. half 5 1 00' Green's Elementary Hebrew Grammar. 5 00 75 1 Ballard's Solution of the Pyramid Problem 8vo. (Tregelles. A new Large Svo. 12mo. . Davis's Elements of Law Svo. Ferrel's Treatise on the Winds Svo.BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 3 9999 06662 525 ^''. . 16 1 25 X . Large mounted chart. Sq. Alaska. Language Gilt edges. 3 00 2 00 2 25 " Letteris's Hebrew Chrestomathy Hebrew Bible (Massoretic Notes Svo.Svo. translation. (Mandel. including Atkinson's Suggestions for tecture 1 00 4 00 1 25 2 00 6 OO 3 50 Hospital Archi 12mo. . Sentiment. Mott's Composition. Digestibility. arabesque. 2 50 1 1 00 50 Perkins's Cornell University Oblong Critically 4to. . Hammarsten's Physiological Chemistry. Ruddiman's Incompatibilities in Prescriptions Svo. Talmud Babli Idioms.12mo. 1 50 MEDICAL. Haines's Addresses Delivered before'the Mott's 1 50' 2 00 1 50 4 00 Am. Ry. Gesenius's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to Old Testament. 3 00 Rotherham's " Totten's The New Testament Emphasized. Management in Health and Disease Svo. and Yellowstone 2 An Svo. in English).J A niSCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS. For Schools and Theolopiical Seminaries. " Grammar of the Hebrew Language 25 (New Edition). 4to.8vo.). Svo. 16mo. of The Fallacy of the Present Theory Sound Assn. . morocco. Treatise on the Diseases of the Dog Worcester's Small Hospitals— Establishment and Maintenance. 12mo. 1 50 00' The Emphasized New Test. 25 3 00 HEBREW AND CHALDEE TEXT=BOOKS. Alcott's Gems. Svo. Bull's Maternal 12mo. . and Nutritive Value of Food. Svo.. Important Question in Metrology Whitehouse's Lake Moeris * Wiley's Yosemite.) Small 4to. Bailey's The New Tale of a Tub 8vo. Luzzato's Grammar of the Biblical Chaldaic Language and the 12mo. Ricketts's Histor}^ of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Svo. Emmon's Geological Guidebook of the Rocky Mountains.
/ .