Experiment (2

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Upsetting Test of Forgeability of Metal
Dr. Mohammad Al-tahat Department of Industrial Engineering. University of Jordan. Lab. Of Manufacturing Processes. Course No: 906412

1. Objective: The forgeability of a metal can be defined as its capability to undergo deformation by forging without cracking. Thus a material with good forgeability is one that can be shaped with low forces without cracking. A number of tests have been developed to measure forgeability, although none is universally accepted. One of the more commonly used tests is the upsetting test, which simulate the metals characteristics during upsetting process. The main objective of this experiment is to study and measure forgeability of metals and their capabilities to undergo deformation by upsetting process without cracking. 2. Background: For more information about the subject of the experiments, it is recommended for the student to review section 6.2 of chapter six of the text. 3. Theory Forging is a family of processes in which Compressive forces carry out plastic deformation of the work piece. This group of operation is one of the oldest metalworking operations known, and is used in making parts of widely varying sizes and shapes from a variety of metals. Forging can be carried out at room temperature (cold working), or at elevated temperatures, called warm and hot forging, depending on the temperature. Simple forgings can be made with a heavy hammer and an anvil usually, though, a set of dies and presses are required. There are three main basic categories of forging these are; Open die forging; Impression die forging; and Closed die forging. Open-die forging (Upsetting) In its simplest form, open-die forging generally involves placing a solid cylindrical work piece between two flat dies (platens) and reducing its height by compressing it (Fig1a). This operation is also known as upsetting.

FIGURE 1 (a) Ideal deformation of a solid cylindrical specimen compressed between flat frictionless dies. This process is known as upsetting. (b) Deformation in upsetting with friction at the die work piece interfaces.

Under ideal conditions, a solid cylinder deforms as shown in Fig. 1a. This is known as homogeneous deformation. Because volume is constant, any reduction

The different shape of the bottom section of the specimen (as compared to the top) results from the hot specimen resting on the lower cool die before deformation proceeded. the specimen is subjected to a strain rate. 1b. The bottom surface was chilled. For a specimen that has been reduced in height from ho to h1. Barreling also occurs in upsetting hot work pieces between cool dies. The use of heated platens. Reduction in height = e1 = ho − h1 ho ⎛ ho ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ h1 ⎠ ho − h1 × 100% ho (1) (2) (3) ε1 = ln⎜ ⎜ With a relative velocity v between the platens. or inhomogeneous. Is caused primarily by frictional forces at the die-work piece interfaces that oppose the outward flow of the material at these interfaces. In addition to the single barreling shown in Fig. as can be in Fig. Also. Barreling also occurs in upsetting hot work pieces between cool dies. the specimen develops a barrel shape. Applying an effective lubricant. In barreling. double barreling can also be observed.in height increases the diameter of the cylinder. the material flow within the specimen becomes non uniform. Barreling caused by friction can be minimized by. or a thermal barrier at interfaces will reduce barreling in hot working . 2. e1 = v ho and ε1• = −v h1 (4) Actually. FIGURE 2 Grain flow lines in upsetting a solid steel cylinder at elevated temperatures. or Ultrasonically vibrating the platens. . as shown in Fig. 2. Note the highly inhomogeneous deformation and barreling. thus it exhibits greater strength and hence deforms less than the top surface.

These frictional forces are shown by the horizontal arrows in Fig 3. with a true stress-true strain curve given by σ = Kε n Where K is the strength coefficient.Forces and work of deformation under ideal conditions If friction at the interfaces is zero and the material is perfectly plastic with a yield stress of Y. For simplicity. n is the strain-hardening exponent. it is reduced in thickness and. . As the flat dies compress the part. The ideal work of deformation is the product of the volume of the specimen and the specific energy u. 3). ε1 0 ε1 = ln ⎜ ⎜ Work = Volume ∫ σdε = ∫ Ydε = Yε 0 ⎛ ho ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ h1 ⎠ 1 (6) If the metal is strain hardening. Let's now take an element and indicate all the stresses acting on it (Fig. as the volume remains constant. which is the basic deformation in forging. a) Forging of a rectangular work piece in plane strain. We assume that the lateral stress distribution σx is uniform along the height h. let's also assume that the deformation is in plane strain. This relative movement at the die-work piece interfaces causes frictional forces acting in opposition to the movement of the piece. The force at any height h1 is then F = σA = YA1 where A1 = Ao ho (Volume constancy) h1 (5) A1 is the cross-sectional area and is obtained from volume constancy. the work piece is not free to flow in the direction perpendicular to this page. Y = K ∫ ε n dε 0 ε1 ε1 Kε1n = n +1 (8) The slab method for Analyzing stresses and loads in forging On of the simpler method of analysis.b). 3. Note the correct direction of the frictional stresses. that is. then the force at any stage during deformation becomes F = σA = Y f A1 (7) Where Yf is the flow stress The work done can be expressed as Work = (Volum ) Y (ε1 ) () Where. Also note the difference in the horizontal stresses acting on the sides of the element. then the normal compressive stress on the cylindrical specimen is uniform at a level Y. this method requires the selection of an element in the work piece and determination all normal and frictional stresses on the element. this difference is caused by the presence of frictional stresses on the element. the part expands laterally. average flow stress. Let's take the case of simple compression with friction (Fig.

FIGURE 3 Stresses on an element in plane-strain compression (forging) between flat dies. 1 In general ε 2 = [σ 2 − υ (σ 1 + σ 3 )] E The maximum value for v (or that value for which volume change is zero) is 0.5(σ x + σ y ) as seen in figure 3.5 and there is a volume change). We now have two equations. We obtain the necessary second equation from the yield criteria as follows.The next step in this analysis is to balance the horizontal forces on this element. because it must be in static equilibrium. this element is subjected to triaxial compression in plain strain. there we obtain σ z = 0.σx = ' 2 Y =Y 3 (11) dσ y = dσ x (12) . then we can write ε2=0. Thus. Identifying the stresses on an element (slab) is the first step in the slab method of analysis. (In the elastic range 0< ν < 0. Substitute equation 12 in equation 9 we obtain dσ y + or 2µσ y dx h =− =0 (13) (14) (15) dσ y σy 2µ dx h − 2 µx h ∴σ y = Ce .c (10) According to the distortion-energy criterion for plane strain. assuming unit width. we have σy .e. (σ x + dσ x )hw + 2µσ y dxw − σ x hw = 0 dσ x h + 2 µσ y dx = 0 for unit width (w = 1) dσ x + 2 µσ y dx h =0 (9) Note that we have one equation but two unknowns: σx and σy.50 i. The stress σx is assumed to be uniformly distributed along the height h of the element. Since we have plain strain state. As shown in Fig 3c.

(17) And (18) is replaced by Y`f. σ x = 0. For a strain-hardening material.12 ⇒ σ y = Y` − 2 µa h Y `= Ce ⇒C= e Y` − 2 µa h ∴ C = Y `e 2 µa h (16) Substitute equation 16 in equation 15 we obtain ∴σ y = Ce − 2 µx h ⎛ 2 µa 2 µx ⎞ a 2 µx 2µ (a− x) − ⎜ ⎟ − ⎛ 2µ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ h h ⎠ ⎝ h h ⎟⎜ ⎟ = Y `e =⎜ = Y `e h ⎜ Y `e ⎟⎜ e ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ 2µ (a− x) h Therefore the compression pressure. that is. but an approximate expression for the average pressure pav is FIGURE 4 Distribution of die pressure in terms of p/Y`. and thus σ y = Y` at the edges of the specimen. (All stresses are compressive.) Hence the value of C becomes x = a ⇒ σ x = 0 from equation 3. F = ( pav )(2a )(width ) (20) . Y' in Eqs. Note that the pressure with friction is higher than it is without friction. p. so we may ignore negative signs for stresses. The area under the pressure curve in Fig. Y'. Sliding friction means that the frictional stress is directly proportional to the normal stress. ⎛ µa ⎞ pav ≅ Y `⎜1 + ⎟ h ⎠ ⎝ (19) The forging force F is the product of the average pressure and the contact area. which are traditional in such analyses. 4 is the upsetting force per unit width of the specimen. which is equal to σ y can be expressed as: p = σ y = Y `e (17) (18) a−x) ⎡ 2 µ (h ⎤ and σ x = σ y − Y `= Y `⎢e − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Equation (17) is plotted qualitatively in Fig. in plain-strain compression with sliding friction.The boundary conditions are such that at x = a. 4 in dimensionless form. This area can be obtained by integration. Note that the pressure at the left and right boundaries is equal to the yield stress in plane strain.

dθ .h = 0 2 Following the same procedure as before. σ r x. c) Forging under sticking condition. take a small element of radial length dx.dθ . we obtain the expression for the pressure p at any radius x as p = σ z = Ye 2µ (r −x) h 2µ (r −x) h 2µ (r −x) ⎡ ⎤ = Y ⎢1 + e h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (21) (22) and σ r = Y + σ z = Y + Ye ⎛ 2 µr ⎞ pav ≅ Y ⎜1 + ⎟ 3h ⎠ ⎝ The average pressure Pav can be given approximately as (23) (24) The forging force F is F = ( pav ) πr 2 ( ) For strain-hardening materials. As P increases toward the center.h + 2σ θ hdx dθ − 2µσ z xdθ . µP also increases.dx − (σ r + dσ r )( x + dx).b) Forging of a solid cylindrical work piece Using the slab method of analysis. Y is replaced by the flow stress Yf. However. We first isolate a segment of angle dθ in the cylinder of radius r and height h. the value of µP cannot be greater . and place on this element all the normal and frictional stresses acting on it. We then balance the forces on this element in the radial direction. Thus. we can also determine the pressure distribution in forging of a solid cylindrical specimen (Fig. The product of µ and P is the frictional stress (surface shear stress) at the interface at any location x from the center of the specimen. 5). FIGURE 5 Stresses on an element in forging of a solid cylindrical work piece between flat dies.

r at the end of the stroke.2. at room temperature. noted that Yf is the flow stress corresponding to ε1 as shown in the figure bellow. The force at the end of the stroke? F = ( pav ) πr 2 . To determine Yf. relative to the platen surfaces. it reflects the fact that. (In plane strain the value of k is Y'/2. the normal stress distribution in plane strain can be shown to be ⎛ a− x⎞ p = Y `⎜1 + ⎟ h ⎠ ⎝ (25) The pressure varies linearly with x. is a strain hardening material.than the shear yield stress k of the material. in diameter and 4 in. ( ) ⎛ 2 µr f ⎛ 2 µr ⎞ pav ≅ Y ⎜1 + 1+ ⎟ = Y⎜ ⎜ 3 h 3h f ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Annealed 4135 steel. Use the averagepressure formula. Assuming that the coefficient of friction is 0. the normal stress distribution for a cylindrical specimen under sticking condition can be shown to be ⎛ r− x⎞ p = Y ⎜1 + ⎟ h ⎠ ⎝ (26) Example: Upsetting Force A cylindrical specimen made of annealed 4135 steel is 6 in. therefore Y should be replaced by Yf. sticking takes place. the material does not move. calculate the force required at the end of the stroke. For the sticking condition. When µP = k. high. we have to know ε1 and the equation of the shown true stress-true strain curve. Sticking does not necessarily mean adhesion at the interface. Open-die forging upsets it with flat dies to a height of 2 in. .

tools. Flat die.000 )⎜ ⎜1 + ⎟ = 177. ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ We need to find rf .2 )rf ⎟ = (138.⎛ ho ⎛ hf ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = Simply ε1 = ln⎜ ln ⎜h ⎟ ⎜h ⎝ o⎠ ⎝ f ⎞ ⎟ (compression) ⎟ ⎠ ε1 = ln⎜ ⎟ = 0. Y f = Kε1n = K (0. Materials: Cylindrical specimens made of lead (98% lead).17 ) = 138. 5) Perform the upsetting operation by putting the circular lead specimen on the lower half of the flat die and then press the specimen to the required height by upper half of the flat die. 7. 6) Repeat the upsetting sequence for different specimens for friction and frictionless cases at the inner surfaces between the die and the specimen.000 )(0. 4) Measure the height of the specimen before and after upsetting. 6.24 ) ⎞ ⎟ ∴ pav ≅ (138. 2) Set the press for operation. Requirements: 1) Describe the upsetting process. 3) Measure the diameter of the specimen before and after upsetting at various heights. at ε1 σ = Yf.2 )(4.000 ⎛ 2 µr f pav ≅ Y f ⎜1 + ⎜ 3h f ⎝ Vo = V f ⇒ ⎞ ⎛ 2(0.693 The general formula of the curve in the figure shown is σ = Kε n . 3) Find the ratio of billet final height to final mean diameter to give uniform upsetting deformation. Y f = Kε1n = (147. and n=0. Procedures: 1) Set the flat die on the pressing machine.000 )π (4. K=1015 Mpa=147psi.4 = π ⋅ rf2 ⋅ 2 ⎛ 2(0.693) (0.17.000 psi ( ) 3 2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 F = ( pav ) πr 2 = (177. 5. . and vernier caliper and measuring tools are required. 2) Sketch all the used dies. Equipments: Pressing machine.24in. from volume constancy π 62 4 . ( ) 4.000 )⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟ 3(2 ) ⎝ ⎠ ∴ rf = 4. 4) Draw the contour patterns of the outer surface for all upset specimen. thus.24 ) = 10 7 Ib. and specimens.693) n ⎛ 4⎞ ⎝ 2⎠ From tables for annealed steel 4235.

processes. 2003. Prentice hall international ISBN 0-13-040871-9. Manufacturing engineering technology. ISBN 0-13-017440-8. 2000. Inc. Groover. 2003. ISBN 0-471-40051-3. ISBN 0-201-49865-0 3. fourth edition Prentice hall international. . Prentice hall international. References 1. Schmid. George Tlusty. Questions. 4. Mikell P. Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Manufacturing processes for Engineering materials. 2) Define and explain the term double barreling? 3) Discuss forging methods and forging defects? 8. Manufacturing Processes and equipment. 2002. and systems. Fundamentals of modern manufacturing materials. John wiley and sons. 1) Why and how Barreling occurs in upsetting hot work pieces between cool dies.8. 2. fourth edition. Kalpakjian Schmid.

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