# ELEC 4240/9240 Power Electronics

Tutorial 1 T1-1 M. F. Rahman/March 2003
School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications
University of New South Wales

ELEC4240/9240 - Power Electronics

Tutorial 1 - Basic Concepts in Power Electronics

1. Find the dc and the rms values of the fundamental and the first few harmonics of the
waveforms (a)-(i), in Figure T1-1. The waveforms in figures T1-1(f), (h) and (i) consist of
parts of sine waves.

π π
I
d
i (t )
– I
d

(a) Input current waveform of a single-phase bridge rectifier with negligible source inductance

d
dc n
4I
Ans : I 0, I
n 2 π
= = for n = 1, 3, 5, …..

(b) Input current waveform of a 3-phase bridge rectifier with negligible source inductance.

d
dc n
4I n
Ans : I 0, I sin
3
n 2
π
π
| |
= =
|
\ .
for n = 1, 3, 5, ….

(c) Input current waveform of a single-phase bridge rectifier with source inductance

d
dc n
2
8I n
Ans : I 0, I sin
2
n 2
µ
πµ
| |
= =
|
\ .
for n = 1, 3,5, …

2 π/ 3 2 π/ 3
I
d
π/ 3
− I
d

µ/2 µ/2 µ/2 µ/2 µ/2 µ/2
I
d
π - µ
− I
d
i(t)

ELEC 4240/9240 Power Electronics

Tutorial 1 T1-2 M. F. Rahman/March 2003

(d) Input current waveform of a 3-phase bridge converter with source inductance.

d
dc n
2
8I n n
Ans : I 0, I sin cos
2 6
n 2
µ π
πµ
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

(e) Magnetic flux in the inductor of a rectifier or a DC-DC converter.

max
dc n
2 2
8I
Ans : I 0, I
n 2 π
= = for n = 1, 3, 5, …

(f) Output voltage waveform of a full-wave rectifier

( )
max max
dc n
2
2V 4V
Ans : V , V
n 1 2
π
π
= =

for n = 2, 4, 6, …

(g) Output voltage waveform of a DC-DC converter.
( )
d
dc d n
2 V
Ans : V DV , V sin nD
n
π
π
×
= = for n = 1, 2, 3, ….

I
d

µ
µ
µ
µ
2π/3
π/3
π/3
π
− I
d

π/2 π/2
π/2 π/2
I
max
– I
max

π
π
V
max
π

D T
V
d c
T
0
t

ELEC 4240/9240 Power Electronics

Tutorial 1 T1-3 M. F. Rahman/March 2003

(h) Output voltage waveform of a 3-phase (3-pulse)C-T AC-DC rectifier.

max
dc
3 3V
Ans : V

= ;
( ) ( )
max
n
sin 3n 1 / 3 sin 3n 1 / 3 3V
V
3n 1 3n 1
2
π π
π
+ − (
= +
(
+ −
¸ ¸
for n = 1,2,3,…

(i) Output voltage waveform of a 3-phase bridge (3-pulse) AC-DC rectifier.

Ans:
max
dc
3V
V
π
= ;
( ) ( )
max
n
sin 6n 1 / 6 sin 6n 1 / 6 6V
V
6n 1 6n 1
π π
π
+ − (
= +
(
+ −
¸ ¸
for n = 1, 2, 3, …

Figure 1. Waveforms typically occurring in power electronic circuits.

2. Calculate the THD for the waveforms (a)-(e) in figure T1-1. Assume that µ = 20° for the
waveforms in 1(c) & (d).
Ans: THD = (a) 48%, (b) 31%, (c) 39%, (d) 48%, (e) 12%

3. For the waveforms (f)-(i) in Figure 1, calculate the total ripple component as a ratio of
the dc value (the Ripple Factor).
Ans: RF = (f) 48%, (g)
1 D
D

, (h) 18%, (i) 4%.

4. A non sinusoidal periodic voltage of frequency f = 50 Hz is expressed in a Fourier series as

v( t ) 10 20 cos( 2 ft 25 ) 30 cos( 4 ft 20 ) π π = + − + +
D D
Volts

The voltage is applied to a load resistor of 5Ω in series with and inductor of 15 mH.
Calculate the power absorbed by the load.
Ans: P = 60.94 W.

2π/3 2π/3
V
max

π/3 π/3
V
max
ELEC 4240/9240 Power Electronics

Tutorial 1 T1-4 M. F. Rahman/March 2003
5. A sinusoidal voltage source of v( t ) 340 cos t ω = volts is applied to a converter which draws
and input current given by

i( t ) 8 15 cos( 314t 30 ) 6 cos( 3 314t 45 ) 2cos( 5 314t 60 ) = + − + × + + × +
D D D
A

Calculate

(i) the power absorbed by the load, assuming that the converter absorbs no power
(ii) the distortion factor of the input current
(iii) the THD of the input current
(iv) the input power factor of the converter.

Ans: (i) P = 2209 W, (ii) IDF = 0.76, (iii) THD = 86%, (iv) IPF = 0.68 (lagging).

6. A sinusoidal voltage of 340× sinωt V is applied to a single-phase converter, the input
current of which is represented by the waveforms (a)-(e) of figure T1-1. Assume that the
zero crossing of each waveform is 30° behind that of the input voltage waveform. Assume
that the peak value of these waveforms is 10 A. Calculate

(i) the average power drawn by the converter,
(ii) its input displacement factor
(iii) the input distortion factor and
(iv) the power factors for each of these waveforms.

Ans: (i) P = 1463 W, (ii) IDispF = 0.866, (iii) IDistF = 0.956, (iv) THD = 30.95%
for the waveform of figure 1(b).

7. A transformer is wound with on a toroidal core. The primary winding is supplied with a
square-wave voltage of ±50 Volts amplitude and frequency of 100 kHz. Assuming an
uniform flux density B in the core, calculate the minimum number of turns required in the
primary winding to keep the peak flux density in the core below 0.35 T. Assume that the
core area of cross-section is 1.2 cm
2
.

Plot the voltage and the flux density waveforms as a function of time.

Ans: N
p
= 6.

8. The switching times for a device, as specified in its data sheet, are as follows:

t
ri
= 100 ns; t
fv
= 50 ns; t
rv
= 100 ns; and t
fi
= 200 ns.

These switching times are explained in Figure 2-6 in your text book (Mohan's).

Assume that the device switches a clamped inductive circuit as indicated in Figure 2-6(a)
(Mohan's). Calculate and plot the switching power loss as a function of switching frequency
in the range of 25 - 100 kHz, assuming V
d
= 300 V, I
o
= 4 A in the circuit of figure 2-6(a) in

Ans: P
s
= 6.75 W @ 25 kHz, P
s
= 27 kW @ 100 kHz.

ELEC 4240/9240 Power Electronics

Tutorial 1 T1-5 M. F. Rahman/March 2003
9. Consider the resistive switching circuit of figure T1-2. V
d
= 300 V, f
s
= 100 kHz and R = 75
Ω. Assume that the turn-on time t
on
is given by the sum of t
ri
and t
fv
and the turn-off time t
off

by the sum of t
rv
and t
fi
, as in problem 8.

R
+
v
T
¯

i
T
V
d

Figure T1-2

Assuming linear voltage and current switching characteristics, plot the switch voltage and
current waveforms and the switching power loss as a function of time. Compare the average
power loss with the power loss in problem 8.

Ans: P
s
= 9 W or 1/3 of the power loss in problem 8.