# ELEC4240/9240

Power Electronics

The University of New South Wales
School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications

Solution for Tutorial 1
1. (a)
I

d

time
−π /2

π /2

3π /2

t=0

i( t ) =

4I d
cos nω t
n =1,3,5... nπ

where
an =

2

π

[∫

π /2

0

I d cos( nω t )dω t + ∫

π

π /2

( − I d ) cos( nω t )dω t =

4I d

sin

2

n = 1,2,3,4.....

a0 = 0
bn = 0
i1 =

4I d

π

cos ω t

I0 = 0

I1 =

4I d
= 0.900I d , I 3 =

4I d
= 0.300I d , I 5 =
2 (3π )

4I d
= 0.180I d
2 (5π )

The spectrum of the current is like this:

In
n→
1

Solution to Tutorial 1

3

5

7

9

ST-1

M. F. Rahman/28 March, 2003

1(b)
a0 = 0

bn = 0

I

−π / 3

d

time

π /3

−π / 2

an =

2

π

=

[∫

t=0

π /3

0

I d cos( nω t )dω t + ∫

4I d
sin( nπ / 3 ) ;

i( t ) =

π
2π / 3

( − I d ) cos( nω t )dω t

n = 1,3,5......∞

4I d
sin( nπ / 3 )cos nω t
n =1,3,5... nπ

I0 = 0
4I d
I1 =
sin( π / 3 ) = 0.7797 I d ; I 3 =

4I d
I5 =
sin( 5π / 3 ) = −0.1559I d
2( 5π )

4I d
sin( 3π / 3 ) = 0
2( 3π )

1(c )

I

d

µ /2

time

µ /2

π /2

t=0
a0 = 0

an = 0
4
bn =
π

µ/2

0

Id
4
ω t sin( nω t )dω t +
µ/2
π

π /2

∫µ

/2

I d sin( nω t )dω t

ELEC4240/9240

=

Power Electronics

8Id
sin( nµ / 2) ;
n2πµ

n = 1,3,5....∞

8I d
sin( µ / 2 ) = 0.8958I d , µ = 20°;
2πµ
8I d
8I d
I3 =
sin( 3 µ / 2 ) = 0.28658I d ;
I5 =
sin( 5 µ / 2 ) = 0.1581I d
9 2πµ
25 2πµ
I1 =

1(d)

Id

time

π /3− µ
2

µ

t=0
a0 = 0

an = 0
bn =

4

π

π / 3+ µ

[ ∫π / 32− µ
2

Id

µ

( ωt −

π / 3−µ
2

π

)sin( nω t )dω t + ∫π2/ 3+ µ I d sin( nω t )dω t ]
2

8I

bn = 2 d [sin(
) cos(
)] ;
n = 1,3,5......∞
n πµ
2
6
8I d
8I d

π
I1 =
sin( µ / 2 ) cos( ) = 0.7757 I d ; I 3 =
sin( 3 µ / 2 ) cos(
)=0
6
6
2πµ
9 2πµ
8I d

I5 =
sin( 5 µ / 2 ) cos(
) = −0.1369I d
6
25 2πµ

1(e)
I max

π /2

time

a0 = 0

an = 0
Solution to Tutorial 1

ST-3

M. F. Rahman/28 March, 2003

4

π∫

bn =
=

π

0

I max
ω t sin( nω t )dω t
π/2

8I max
n 2π 2

n = 1,3,5......∞

;

8I max
8I max
8I max
= 0.573I max ; I 3 =
= 0.0637 I max ; I 5 =
= 0.0229I max
2
2

9 2π
25 2π 2

I1 =

1.(f)
Vmax

π

t=0
Vdc = a0 / 2 =
=

an =

1

π /2

π∫π

− /2

1

π∫

0

=−

1

π∫

π

0

time

Vmax s in( ω t )dω t,

Vmax cos( ω t )dω t =

2Vmax

π

Vmax sin( ω t ) cos( nω t ) dω t =

2

π∫

π

0

4Vmax
for n = 2,4,6......∞ ;
( n 2 − 1)π

Vmax sin( ω t )cos( nω t ) dω t
an = 0 for n = 1,3,5......∞

bn = 0
4Vmax
4V
= 0.300Vmax ; V4 = 2 max
= 0.0600Vmax ;
( 2 − 1)π 2
( 4 − 1)π 2
4V
V6 = 2 max
= 0.0257Vmax ......
( 6 − 1)π 2
V2 =

2

1(g).

V dc

t=0

DT

Vd = a0 / 2 = DVdc ,
an =

2Vdc
sinDnπ

; n = 1,2,3......

T

time

ELEC4240/9240

Power Electronics

1(h).
V dc

2π /3

t=0

time

T
π

1
3 V
Vd =
max cos ω td( ω t )
2π / 3 ∫− π
3

3 3Vmax

Notice the period of the waveform, we can describe it as:
ωt
f ( t ) = Vmax cos( )
3
bn = 0

=

2

π

[ ∫ Vmax cos(

ωt

)cos( nω t )dω t ]
3
V
sin( n + 1 / 3 )π sin( n − 1 / 3 )π
]
= max [
+
π
n +1/ 3
n −1/ 3

an =

π

0

n = 1,2,3,4,...

V1 = 0.2923Vmax ; V2 = 0.0668Vmax ......

1(I).
V dc

π /3

Vd =
=

time

T

t=0
1 π /6
Vmax cos( ω t )dω t
π / 3 ∫ −π / 6
3Vmax

π

Notice the period of the waveform, we can describe it as:
f ( t ) = Vmax cos(

ωt
6

)

bn == 0
an =

2

π

π

ωt

0

6

[ ∫ Vmax cos(

Solution to Tutorial 1

)cos( nω t )dω t ] =

Vmax

π

ST-5

[

sin( n + 1 / 6 )π sin( n − 1 / 6 )π
] n = 1,2,3...
+
n +1/ 6
n −1/ 6
M. F. Rahman/28 March, 2003

V1 = 0.0386Vmax ; V2 = 0.00945Vmax ......

2 calculate the THD for waveforms from (a) to (e),

1

π /2

π∫π

(a) I rms =

I d2 dθ = I d

− /2

4I d

According to the answer of 1(a), I 1 =

I d2 − (
∴THD =

4I d

)2
=

4I d

1 − 0.9 2
= 0.48 = 48%
0.9

1

I1 =

π /3

π∫π

(b) I rms =

− /3

4I d

2
I d = 0.816 I d
3

I d2 dθ =

sin( π / 3 ) = 0.7797 I d

( 0.816 I d )2 − (
∴THD =

4I d

4I d

sin( π / 3 ))2

0.816 2 − 0.7797 2
= 0.31 = 31%
0.7797

=

sin( π / 3 )

(c)
I rms =

=

2

π
2

π

[∫

µ/2

0

[(

2I d

µ

Because of µ = 20°

(

2I d

µ

)2

π /2
µ/2

I d dθ ] =

2

2

π

[∫

µ/2

0

(

2I d

µ

)2 θ 2 dθ + I d (
2

π −µ

( µ / 2 )3
2 π
5
2 π −µ
] = Id
[ − ( µ )]
+ Id (
3
2
π 2 12

∴ I rms = 0.9625I d

According to 1(c ), I 1 =

∴THD =

)2 θ 2 d θ + ∫

8I d
2πµ

sin( µ / 2 ) = 0.8957 I d

( 0.9625I d )2 − ( 0.8957 I d )2
0.9625 2 − 0.8957 2
=
= 0.39 = 39%
0.8957 I d
0.8957

2

]

ELEC4240/9240

Power Electronics

(d)
2

I rms =
=

2

π

π

[∫

µ/2

0

Id

µ

π +µ

( I d )2 (

3

)2 θ 2 d θ + ∫

π / 3+ µ

2

I d dθ ] =
2

µ

π

[(

Id

µ

)2

µ3
3

2

+ Id (

π
3

)]

) = 0.861I d

I1 =

According to 1(d),

∴ THD =

(

8I d
2πµ

3
= 0.776 I d
2

sin( µ / 2 )

( 0.861I d )2 − ( 0.776 I d )2
0.776 I d

0.8612 − 0.776 2
= 0.48 = 48%
0.776

=

(e)
I rms =

2

π

[∫

π /2

0

(

2I d

π

According to 1(e) result: I 1 =

3

2

)2 θ 2 dθ ] =
8I max
2π 2

π

[(

2I d

π

)2

( π / 2 )3
1
] = ( I d )2 ( ) = 0.577 I d
3
3

= 0.573I d

( 0.577 I d )2 − ( 0.573I d )2
0.577 2 − 0.5732
∴THD =
=
= 0.12 = 12%
0.573I d
0.573
Calculate the total ripple component (f-i) as a ratio of the dc value i.e. the Ripple Factor

(f)
Vrms =

1

π

π

1

0

π

[ ∫ (Vmax sin θ )2 dθ =

According to 1(f),

Vdc = a0 / 2 =

1

π∫

π

0

2

Vmax (

π
2

)=

Vmax
2

= 0.707Vmax

Vmax S in( ω t )dω t =

2

π

Vmax = 0.6366Vmax

( 0.707Vmax )2 − ( 0.637Vmax )2
0.707 2 − 0.637 2
=
= 0.48 = 48%
0.637Vmax
0.637

∴ RF =

(g)
Vrms =

1 DT
1 2
[
(Vdc )2 dt =
Vdc D = Vdc D
T ∫0
T

According to 1(g),
∴ RF =

Vd = a0 / 2 = DVdc ,

DVdc − D 2Vdc
=
DVdc

D − D2
=
D

1
−1
D

(h)
Solution to Tutorial 1

ST-7

M. F. Rahman/28 March, 2003

π /3
3
3
3
2 π
[∫
(Vmax cos θ )2 dθ =
Vmax ( +
) = 0.841Vmax
/
3

π

3 2

Vrms =

According to 1(h),

Vdc =

3

π /3

∫π

− /3

Vmax cos( ω t )dω t =

3 3
Vmax = 0.827Vmax

2

2

( 0.841Vmax )2 − ( 0.827Vmax )2
0.841Vmax − 0.827Vmax
∴ RF =
=
= 0.18 = 18%
0.827Vmax
0.827Vmax

(i)
Vrms =

3

π

[∫

π /6
−π / 6

According to 1(h),

∴ RF =

(Vmax cos θ )2 dθ =
Vdc =

3

π /6

π∫π

− /6

3

π

2

Vmax (

π
6

+

Vmax cos( ω t )dω t =

( 0.9557Vmax )2 − ( 0.9549Vmax )2
0.9549Vmax

=

3

π

3
) = 0.9558Vmax
4
Vmax = 0.9549Vmax

0.9557 2 − 0.9549 2
= 0.04 = 4%
0.9549

4.
10
= 2A
5
V 1 / 2 ( 20 ∠ − 25° ) / 2 ( 20∠ − 25° ) / 2 ( 20∠ − 25° ) / 2
=
=
=
I1 =
R + jω L 5 + j314* 0.015
5 + j4.71
6.875∠43.3°
= 2.057 ∠ − 68.3° A( rms )
I0 =

I2 =

V2 / 2
( 30 ∠20° ) / 2 ( 30 ∠20° ) / 2 ( 30∠20° ) / 2
=
=
=
= 1.987 ∠ − 42° A( rms )
R + jω L 5 + j628* 0.015
5 + j9.42
10.66 ∠62°
DCPower = 10 × 2 = 20W

Power from Source 1:
V1 I 1 cosφ1 = 21.19W

where

φ1 = 43.3°

Power from Source 2:
V1 I 1 cosφ2 = 19.746W

ELEC4240/9240

Power Electronics

where φ2 = 62°
PTotal = 20 + 21.19 + 19.746 = 60.94W

5.
340 15
×
cos30° + 0 + 0
2
2
= 2209W
P =0+

VSrms = 340 / 2 = 240V

I Srms = 8 2 + ( 15 / 2 )2 + ( 6 / 2 )2 + ( 2 / 2 )2 = 14.0 A

I 1 = 15 / 2 = 10.61A
IDF = I 1 / I s = 10.61 / 14.0 = 0.76
2
2
I Srms
− I 1rms
14.0 2 − 10.612
=
I Srms
14.0

THD =

= 0.86
PF = IDF × Cosφ = 0.76 × Cos30° = 0.658

6.
Id

30°

v = 340sinω t;
an =

V = 340 / 2 = 240.45 Volt

4I d
sin ( nπ / 3)

i( t ) =
∴ I1

time

30°

=

4I d
sin( nπ / 3 )cos nω t
n =1,3,5... nπ

4I d

sin( π / 3 ) = 0.45I d = 0.78I d = 7.8 A

IDF = Input Displacement Factor = cosϕ
= cos30° = 0.866
Solution to Tutorial 1

ST-9

M. F. Rahman/28 March, 2003

Input Power = P = VIcosϕ = 240.45 × 7.8 × 0.866 = 1463 Watts
Note! Other harmonics do not draw any net power.
5π / 6

I srms =

∫π

/6

I 2 d dθ

π

= Id

∴ Input Distortion Factor =

Input Power Factor =

THD =

120
= 0.816 I d = 8.165 A
180

I1
7.8
=
= 0.956
I s 8.16

I1
× IDF = 0.956 × 0.866 = 0.828
Is

I 2 S − I 21
8.265 2 − 7.8 2
=
= 30.95%
I1
7 .8

7.

V(t)

B( t )
time
10µ sec

V pn = N pri Ac

BPeak =

0.35 =

dB
dt

1
N pn Ac

T /4

0

V pn dt ,

1
10
× 50 × 10 −6
N pn × 1.2 Ac
4

∴ N pn = 5.62
We must choose N pn = 6 turns to keep the B below 0.35 T.

ELEC4240/9240

Power Electronics

8.

1
Ps = Vd I O f S ( tCON + tCOFF )
2
tCON = tri + t fv = 150n sec
tCOFF = trv + t fi = 300n sec
∴ Ps =

1
× 300 × 4 f S ( 150 + 300 ) × 10 −9 × 10 3
2

where f S is in kHz.

∴ Ps = 0.27 × f SW = 6.75W @ 25kHz
and Ps = 27W @100kHz
The switching power loss increases linearly with frequency.
9.

27
Ps(W)
6.75
25

fs in kHz

100

tON = tri + t fv = 150n sec
tOFF = trv + t fi = 300n sec
For 0 < t < tON
I
iT = d t
tON

VT = Vd (1 −

t
)
tON

∴ P(t )ON = Vd I d ×
W

O N

=

Solution to Tutorial 1

tO
0

N

t
t
)
× (1 −
tON
tON

P ( t )O N d t =

V

d

6

Id

tO N

ST-11

M. F. Rahman/28 March, 2003

Similarly,

Vt=Vd
Id
IT

tON

WOFF =

time

Vd I d
tOFF
6

∴Ws = WON + WOFF =

Vd I d
(tON + tOFF ) = 9W at f s = 100kHz .
6

(This is 1/3 of the power loss in problem 8).