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258 Chapter 5: Shallow Foundations: Allowable Bearing Capacity and Settlement 1 0.908 3.5 exp[(1.22) (03) ~o4(22 + 10) From Eq. (5.46), 80, with q = 239.6 kN/m?, it follows that (239.6) (243) 0.69) (0.785) (0908), _ ee) 03°) = 0.027 m= 27mm = Settlement of Sandy Soil: Use of Strain Influence Factor ‘The settlement of granular soils can also be evaluated by the use of a semiempirical strain influence factor proposed by Schmertmann et al. (1978). According to this method (Figure 5.21), the settlement is aed (5.49) S.= COG ~ 0) DE strain influence factor ‘a correction factor for the depth of foundation embedment = 1 ~ 0.5 (a/@~ 4)] ‘2 correction factor to account for creep in soil 1 + 0.2 log (time in years/0.1) stress atthe level of the foundation 4q = yD, = effective stress atthe base of the foundation E, = modulus of elasti ty of soll “The recommended variation of the stun influence factor /, for square (L/ = 1) or circular foundations and for foundations with L/8 = 10 is shown in Figure 5.21. The J diagrams for |< L/B < 10 can be interpolated. Note thatthe maximum value of that i, J occurs at = zero at: = s. The maximum value of J can be calculated as a =05 + 01/24 Ve and then reduces to (5.50) where hy = effective stress at a depth of :, before construction of the foundation 7 Figure 5.27 Variation of strain influence factor with depth and /B vs>i0 ‘The following relations are suggested by Salgado (2008) for interpolation of Jat 0, <\/B, and z,/B for rectangular foundations. © Variation of 2/B for Lye) 5 + Variation of 2B all om B ‘Schmertmann et al. (1978) suggested that E, 2.54, (for squate foundation) and 3.54, (for LB = 10) where g. ‘one penetration resistance. 651) 6.52) 6.53) 6.54) 6.55) 260 Chapter 5: Shallow Foundations: Allowable Bearing Capacity and Settlement It appears reasonable to write (Terzaghi et al., 1996) Exoanny = (1-4 04 We) Esse) (556) The procedure for calculating clastic setlement using Eq, (549) i given here (Figure \$29), Step 1. Plot the foundation andthe variation of with dept seale (Figure 5.228, Step2, Using the covrelation fom standard penetration resistance (N,) oF cone penettation resistance (q) plot the actual variation of E, with depth (Figure 5.226) Step 3. Approximate he actual variation of , into a numberof layer of soil hav ing constant Esch 8 Ey, Egy sos Ea, Ean gue 5.226). Step 4, Divide the sll lyer from z = 0102 = imo umber flyers by dawing horizontal ines. The numberof ayers will depend on the beak in conti in the 1, and E, diagrams. L Siep 5. Prepare a table (such as Table 5.11) to obtain S=- Az. Step 6. Calculate C, and C a Step 7. Calculate s from Eq, (5.49). b#—2 4 ieee TES (sep 2 Depth, ‘@) Depth © Figure 5.22 Procedure for calculation ofS, using the strain influence factor