Printed on 18 November, 2003
CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Copyright © 19932004 COADE, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
1
Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
Overview ......................................................................................................................................................2
Program Support / User Assistance ..............................................................................................................3
COADE Technical Support ..........................................................................................................................4
Chapter 2: Configuration and Environment 1
Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File........................................................................................2
Computation Control ....................................................................................................................................3
Use Pressure Stiffening .....................................................................................................................3
Missing Mass ZPA............................................................................................................................3
Bend Axial Shape ..............................................................................................................................3
Rod Tolerance (degrees)....................................................................................................................4
Rod Increment (degrees) ...................................................................................................................4
Alpha Tolerance ................................................................................................................................4
Ambient Temperature........................................................................................................................4
Friction Stiffness ...............................................................................................................................4
Friction Normal Force Variation .......................................................................................................5
Friction Angle Variation....................................................................................................................5
Friction Slide Multiplier ....................................................................................................................5
Coefficient of Friction (Mu) ..............................................................................................................5
WRC107 Version.............................................................................................................................5
WRC107 Interpolation Method........................................................................................................5
Incore Numerical Check....................................................................................................................5
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance ...............................................................................................6
Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)...................................................................................................6
Bourdon Pressure...............................................................................................................................7
Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness .........................................................................................................7
Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases......................................................................7
Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness ....................................................................................................8
Default Translational Restraint Stiffness...........................................................................................8
Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness ...............................................................................................8
SIFs and Stresses ..........................................................................................................................................9
Default Code......................................................................................................................................9
Occasional Load Factor ...................................................................................................................10
Yield Stress Criterion ......................................................................................................................11
B31.3 Sustained Case SIF Factor ....................................................................................................12
B31.3 Welding and Contour Insert Tees Meet B16.9......................................................................13
Allow User's SIF at Bend ................................................................................................................13
Use WRC329...................................................................................................................................13
Use Schneider ..................................................................................................................................13
All Cases Corroded..........................................................................................................................13
Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable................................................................................................14
WRC 329.........................................................................................................................................14
Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lamés ).................................................................................14
Use PD/4t ........................................................................................................................................14
2 Contents
Add F/A in Stresses .........................................................................................................................14
Add Torsion in SL Stress.................................................................................................................15
Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure ....................................................................................................15
Reduced Intersection .......................................................................................................................16
Class 1 Branch Flexibility ...............................................................................................................17
B31.1 Reduced Z Fix.......................................................................................................................17
Schneider .........................................................................................................................................17
No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs ...........................................................................................17
Apply B31.8 Note 2.........................................................................................................................17
Pressure Variation in Expansion Cases ...........................................................................................17
Geometry Directives ...................................................................................................................................18
Connect Geometry Through Cnodes ...............................................................................................18
Auto Node Number Increment ........................................................................................................18
ZAxis Vertical ................................................................................................................................19
Minimum Allowed Bend Angle ......................................................................................................19
Maximum Allowed Bend Angle......................................................................................................19
Bend Length Attachment Percent ....................................................................................................19
Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend..................................................................................................19
Loop Closure Tolerance ..................................................................................................................19
Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance ...........................................................................................20
Plot Colors ..................................................................................................................................................21
OPENGL Switch .............................................................................................................................21
Pipes ................................................................................................................................................21
Nodes...............................................................................................................................................21
Rigids/Bends....................................................................................................................................21
Hangers/Nozzles..............................................................................................................................22
Structure ..........................................................................................................................................22
Background......................................................................................................................................22
Axes.................................................................................................................................................22
Labels ..............................................................................................................................................22
Highlights ........................................................................................................................................22
Displaced Shape ..............................................................................................................................22
Stress Level 1 ..................................................................................................................................22
Stress Level 2 ..................................................................................................................................22
Stress Level 3 ..................................................................................................................................22
Stress Level 4 ..................................................................................................................................22
Stress Level 5 ..................................................................................................................................22
Stress < Level 1 ...............................................................................................................................23
Stress > Level 1 ...............................................................................................................................23
Stress > Level 2 ...............................................................................................................................23
Stress > Level 3 ...............................................................................................................................23
Stress > Level 4 ...............................................................................................................................23
Stress > Level 5 ...............................................................................................................................23
FRP Pipe Properties....................................................................................................................................24
Use FRP SIF....................................................................................................................................24
Use FRP Flexibilities.......................................................................................................................24
FRP Property Data File....................................................................................................................25
BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening............................................................................................................25
FRP Laminate Type.........................................................................................................................25
Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress.......................................................................................26
FRP Pipe Density ............................................................................................................................26
FRP Alpha (e06) ............................................................................................................................26
FRP Modulus of Elasticity ..............................................................................................................26
Ratio Shear Mod:Emod ...................................................................................................................26
Axial Strain:Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a) ..........................................................................................26
Contents 3
Database Definitions...................................................................................................................................27
Structural Database..........................................................................................................................27
Piping Size Specification (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS)................................................................................27
Valves and Flanges..........................................................................................................................27
Expansion Joints..............................................................................................................................28
Units File Name...............................................................................................................................28
Load Case Template ........................................................................................................................28
System Directory Name...................................................................................................................28
Default Spring Hanger Table...........................................................................................................28
Enable Data Export to ODBCCompliant Databases ......................................................................28
Append Reruns to Existing Data .....................................................................................................29
ODBC Compliant Database Name ..................................................................................................29
Miscellaneous .............................................................................................................................................30
Output Table of Contents ................................................................................................................30
Output Reports by Load Case..........................................................................................................30
Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes ..........................................................................................30
Time History Animation..................................................................................................................31
Dynamic Example Input Text..........................................................................................................31
Memory Allocated...........................................................................................................................31
User ID............................................................................................................................................31
Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail.........................................................................................31
Disable Undo/Redo Ability .............................................................................................................32
Enable Autosave..............................................................................................................................32
Autosave Time Interval ...................................................................................................................32
Prompted Autosave .........................................................................................................................32
Set/Change Password..................................................................................................................................33
Access Protected Data .....................................................................................................................33
New Password .................................................................................................................................33
Change Password.............................................................................................................................33
Remove Password ...........................................................................................................................33
Units File Operations ..................................................................................................................................34
Make Units File ...............................................................................................................................34
Review Existing Units File..............................................................................................................34
Create a New Units File...................................................................................................................35
Existing File to Start From..............................................................................................................36
New Units File Name ......................................................................................................................36
View/Edit File .................................................................................................................................36
Convert Input to New Units........................................................................................................................37
Name of the Input File to Convert ...................................................................................................37
Name of the Units File to Use .........................................................................................................37
Name of the Converted File.............................................................................................................37
Material Database .......................................................................................................................................38
Material  Add .................................................................................................................................38
Material  Delete..............................................................................................................................38
Material  Edit..................................................................................................................................39
Chapter 3: Piping Screen Reference 1
Piping Spreadsheet Data ...............................................................................................................................2
Help Screens and Units......................................................................................................................2
Auxiliary Fields  Component Information ................................................................................................14
Bends ...............................................................................................................................................14
Rigid Elements ................................................................................................................................18
Expansion Joints..............................................................................................................................19
4 Contents
Reducers ..........................................................................................................................................20
SIFs & Tees .....................................................................................................................................22
Auxiliary Fields  Boundary Conditions.....................................................................................................31
Restraints .........................................................................................................................................31
Hangers............................................................................................................................................36
Nozzles .......................................................................................................................................................48
Nozzle Flexibility  WRC 297.........................................................................................................48
Displacements..................................................................................................................................57
Auxiliary Fields  Imposed Loads...............................................................................................................58
Forces and Moments........................................................................................................................58
Uniform Loads.................................................................................................................................58
Wind Loads .....................................................................................................................................59
Wave Loads .....................................................................................................................................60
Auxiliary Fields  Piping Code Data...........................................................................................................62
Allowable Stresses...........................................................................................................................62
Available Commands..................................................................................................................................79
Break Command..............................................................................................................................79
Valve/Flange Database ....................................................................................................................81
Find Distance...................................................................................................................................84
Find Element ...................................................................................................................................84
Global Coordinates..........................................................................................................................85
Insert Element..................................................................................................................................85
Node Increment ...............................................................................................................................85
Show Informational Messages.........................................................................................................85
Tee SIF Scratchpad..........................................................................................................................85
Bend SIF Scratchpad .......................................................................................................................91
Expansion Joint Modeler .................................................................................................................95
Expansion Joint Modeler Notes.......................................................................................................98
Expansion Joint Design Notes .........................................................................................................99
Torsional Spring Rates ....................................................................................................................99
Bellows Application Notes............................................................................................................100
Available Expansion Joint EndTypes...........................................................................................100
Pressure Rating..............................................................................................................................101
Expansion Joint Styles...................................................................................................................101
Materials........................................................................................................................................102
Title Page.......................................................................................................................................103
Hanger Data...................................................................................................................................103
Special Execution Parameters........................................................................................................109
Combining Independent Piping Systems.......................................................................................119
List/ Edit Facility...........................................................................................................................121
Block Operations ...........................................................................................................................123
Printing an Input Listing................................................................................................................126
Input Plotting.................................................................................................................................127
Model Rotation, Panning, and Zooming........................................................................................127
Views.............................................................................................................................................129
Volume Plotting.............................................................................................................................129
Displaying Element Information ...................................................................................................129
Contents 5
Piping Input Graphics ...............................................................................................................................131
Static Output Graphics..............................................................................................................................134
Chapter 4: Structural Steel Modeler 1
Overview ......................................................................................................................................................2
The Structural Steel Property Editor.............................................................................................................3
New File ............................................................................................................................................3
Units File ...........................................................................................................................................4
Vertical Axis......................................................................................................................................5
Material Properties ............................................................................................................................6
Cross Section (Section ID) ................................................................................................................7
Model Definition Method................................................................................................................10
General Properties.......................................................................................................................................12
Add ..................................................................................................................................................12
Insert ................................................................................................................................................12
Replace ............................................................................................................................................12
Delete...............................................................................................................................................12
UNITS Specification  UNIT......................................................................................................................13
Axis Orientation Vertical............................................................................................................................14
Material Identification  MATID................................................................................................................15
MATID............................................................................................................................................15
YM...................................................................................................................................................15
POIS ................................................................................................................................................16
G......................................................................................................................................................16
YS....................................................................................................................................................16
DENS...............................................................................................................................................16
ALPHA............................................................................................................................................16
Section Identification  SECID...................................................................................................................17
Section ID........................................................................................................................................17
SECID .............................................................................................................................................17
Name ...............................................................................................................................................18
Setting Defaults  DEFAULT.....................................................................................................................19
Setting Nodes in Space  NODE, NFILL, NGEN.......................................................................................20
NODE..............................................................................................................................................20
NFILL..............................................................................................................................................21
NGEN..............................................................................................................................................22
Building Elements  ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM...................................................................................24
ELEM..............................................................................................................................................24
EFILL..............................................................................................................................................25
EGEN..............................................................................................................................................27
EDIM...............................................................................................................................................29
Resetting Element Strong Axis  ANGLE, ORIENT..................................................................................32
ANGLE ...........................................................................................................................................32
ORIENT ..........................................................................................................................................33
End Connection Information.......................................................................................................................35
Free End Connections  FREE.........................................................................................................35
Standard Structural Element Connections  BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS ...............................38
BRACES .........................................................................................................................................40
COLUMNS .....................................................................................................................................42
Defining Global Restraints  FIX ....................................................................................................44
Loads ..........................................................................................................................................................46
Point Loads  LOAD........................................................................................................................46
Uniform Loads  UNIF....................................................................................................................48
6 Contents
Gravity Loads  GLOADS...............................................................................................................50
Wind Loads  WIND.......................................................................................................................51
Utilities .......................................................................................................................................................53
LIST.................................................................................................................................................53
Structural Databases ...................................................................................................................................54
AISC 1977 Database .......................................................................................................................55
AISC 1989 Database .......................................................................................................................61
German 1991 Database....................................................................................................................68
Australian 1990 Database................................................................................................................71
South African 1992 Database ..........................................................................................................73
Korean 1990 Database.....................................................................................................................74
UK 1993 Database...........................................................................................................................75
Chapter 5: Controlling the Dynamic Solution 1
Dynamic Analysis Input ...............................................................................................................................2
Dynamic Analysis Overview........................................................................................................................3
Random .............................................................................................................................................3
Harmonic ...........................................................................................................................................3
Impulse ..............................................................................................................................................6
Harmonic Analysis .......................................................................................................................................8
Excitation Frequencies ......................................................................................................................8
Harmonic Forces and Displacements ..............................................................................................11
Harmonic Displacements.................................................................................................................13
Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles .........................................................................................16
Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input ..........................................................21
Force Response Spectrum Definitions.............................................................................................22
Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ..........................................................................................24
Spectrum /Time History Profile.......................................................................................................24
Factor...............................................................................................................................................24
Direction..........................................................................................................................................25
Combining Static and Dynamic Results ..........................................................................................32
Spectrum Time History...............................................................................................................................38
Force................................................................................................................................................38
Direction..........................................................................................................................................38
Node ................................................................................................................................................38
Force Set #.......................................................................................................................................38
Lumped Masses ..........................................................................................................................................44
Mass.................................................................................................................................................44
Direction..........................................................................................................................................44
Start Node........................................................................................................................................44
Stop Node........................................................................................................................................45
Increment .........................................................................................................................................45
Snubbers ..........................................................................................................................................46
Dynamic Control Parameters......................................................................................................................48
Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/TimeHistory) ...........................................................49
Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status..............................................................................62
Stiffness Factor for Friction (0.0  Not Used)..................................................................................63
Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0Not used) ..........................................................................64
Frequency Cutoff (HZ) ....................................................................................................................67
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) .........................................................68
Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.)................................................................69
Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ratio of Critical) ..................................................................69
ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC G's)/# Time History Output Cases ...................................................71
Contents 7
Reuse Last Eigensolution...............................................................................................................73
Spatial or Modal Combination First ................................................................................................73
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) .....................................................................................74
Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS)..................................................74
Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N) .......................................................77
Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N) ......................................................................................78
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS).....................................................78
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ..........................................................................78
Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS) ..............................................................................79
Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N)...............................................................79
Advanced Parameters .................................................................................................................................81
Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues ...............................................................81
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance ..................................................................................................................82
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance .............................................................................................82
Subspace Size (0Not Used) ............................................................................................................82
No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0  Not Used) ...................................................................83
No. of Iterations Per Shift (0  Pgm computed) ...............................................................................83
Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization................................................................84
Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N) ........................................................................84
Use OutOfCore Eigensolver (Y/N)...............................................................................................84
Frequency Array Spaces..................................................................................................................84
Pulsation Loads...........................................................................................................................................85
Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis.............................................................................................................88
Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig...................................................................88
Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids ...................................................................................................94
Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer............................................................................96
Chapter 6: Technical Discussions 1
Rigid Element Application ...........................................................................................................................2
Rigid Material Weight .......................................................................................................................2
Rigid Fluid Weight ............................................................................................................................2
Rigid Insulation Weight.....................................................................................................................2
Cold Spring...................................................................................................................................................4
Expansion Joints ...........................................................................................................................................7
Hanger Sizing Algorithm............................................................................................................................10
Spring Design Requirements ...........................................................................................................10
Restrained Weight Case...................................................................................................................10
Operating Case ................................................................................................................................11
Installed Load Case .........................................................................................................................11
Setting Up the Spring Load Cases ...................................................................................................12
Constant Effort Support...................................................................................................................12
Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm.....................................................13
Other Notes on Hanger Sizing.........................................................................................................13
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities ........................................................................................................................14
Modeling Friction Effects...........................................................................................................................17
Nonlinear Code Compliance.......................................................................................................................19
Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints ..............................................................................................20
Notes on Occasional Load Cases.....................................................................................................23
Static Seismic Loads...................................................................................................................................24
Wind Loads.................................................................................................................................................27
Elevation..........................................................................................................................................29
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading .............................................................................................30
Ocean Wave Particulars...................................................................................................................31
8 Contents
Applicable Wave Theory Determination.........................................................................................32
PseudoStatic Hydrodynamic Loading............................................................................................32
AIRY Wave Theory Implementation ..............................................................................................33
STOKES Wave Theory Implementation.........................................................................................34
Stream Function Wave Theory Implementation..............................................................................34
Ocean Currents ................................................................................................................................34
Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading...............................................................35
Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II .........................................................39
Current Data ....................................................................................................................................39
Wave Data .......................................................................................................................................41
Seawater Data..................................................................................................................................42
Piping Element Data........................................................................................................................42
References .......................................................................................................................................42
Evaluating Vessel Stresses..........................................................................................................................44
ASME Section VIII Division 2  Elastic Analysis of Nozzle ..........................................................44
Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles .........................................................................46
Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis..............................47
Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis..........................................................48
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction........................................................................................................49
References .......................................................................................................................................52
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II...........................................................................................................54
Fatigue Basics..................................................................................................................................54
Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems ................................................................................................55
Static Analysis Fatigue Example.....................................................................................................56
Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis.......................................................................................65
Creating the .FAT Files ...................................................................................................................67
Calculation of Fatigue Stresses........................................................................................................68
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping............................................................................................................70
Underlying Theory ..........................................................................................................................70
FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II ....................................................................................................85
Code Compliance Considerations...............................................................................................................93
General Notes for All Codes ...........................................................................................................93
CodeSpecific Notes ........................................................................................................................98
Local Coordinates .....................................................................................................................................127
Other Global Coordinate Systems .................................................................................................128
The Right Hand Rule.....................................................................................................................128
Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems......................................................................................130
Defining a Model...........................................................................................................................133
Using Local Coordinates ...............................................................................................................135
CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definitions ....................................................................................136
Applications  Utilizing Global and Local Coordinates.................................................................140
Transforming from Global to Local ..............................................................................................146
Frequently Asked Questions..........................................................................................................147
Chapter 7: Miscellaneous Processors 1
Accounting....................................................................................................................................................2
Accounting File Structure..................................................................................................................8
Contents 9
Batch Stream Processing ..............................................................................................................................9
CAESAR II Fatal Error Processing ............................................................................................................11
Chapter 8: Interfaces 1
Overview of CAESAR II Interfaces .............................................................................................................2
CAD Interfaces .............................................................................................................................................4
CADWorx/PIPE Link........................................................................................................................4
DXF AutoCAD Interface...................................................................................................................4
CADPIPE Interface ...........................................................................................................................5
ComputerVision Interface ...............................................................................................................24
Intergraph Interface .........................................................................................................................26
PROISO Interface ..........................................................................................................................64
PCF Interface...................................................................................................................................72
Generic Neutral Files ..................................................................................................................................74
CAESAR II Neutral File Interface ..................................................................................................74
Data Matrix Interface.......................................................................................................................94
Computational Interfaces............................................................................................................................95
LIQT Interface.................................................................................................................................95
PIPENET Interface........................................................................................................................100
Data Export to ODBC Compliant Databases ............................................................................................102
DSN Setup.....................................................................................................................................102
Controlling the Data Export ..........................................................................................................105
Data Export Wizard.......................................................................................................................106
Chapter 9: File Sets 1
CAESAR II File Guide .................................................................................................................................2
CAESAR II Operational (Job) Data Files...................................................................................................14
Chapter 10: Update History 1
CAESAR II Initial Capabilities (12/84)........................................................................................................2
CAESAR II Version 1.1S Features (2/86) ....................................................................................................3
CAESAR II Version 2.0A Features (10/86) .................................................................................................4
CAESAR II Version 2.1C Features (6/87)....................................................................................................5
CAESAR II Version 2.2B Features (9/88)....................................................................................................6
CAESAR II Version 3.0 Features (4/90) ......................................................................................................7
CAESAR II Version 3.1 Features (11/90) ....................................................................................................8
Graphics Updates...............................................................................................................................8
Rotating Equipment Report Updates .................................................................................................8
WRC 107 Updates.............................................................................................................................8
Miscellaneous Modifications.............................................................................................................8
CAESAR II Version 3.15 Features (9/91) ....................................................................................................9
Flange Leakage and Stress Calculations............................................................................................9
WRC 297 Local Stress Calculations..................................................................................................9
Stress Intensification Factor Scratchpad............................................................................................9
Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................................................9
CAESAR II Version 3.16 Features (12/91) ................................................................................................10
CAESAR II Version 3.17 Features (3/92) ..................................................................................................11
CAESAR II Version 3.18 Features (9/92) ..................................................................................................12
Codes and Databases .......................................................................................................................12
10 Contents
Interfaces Added..............................................................................................................................12
Miscellaneous Changes ...................................................................................................................12
CAESAR II Version 3.19 Features (3/93) ..................................................................................................14
CAESAR II Version 3.20 Features (10/93) ................................................................................................15
CAESAR II Version 3.21 Changes and Enhancements (7/94) ...................................................................16
CAESAR II Version 3.22 Changes & Enhancements (4/95)......................................................................18
CAESAR II Version 3.23 Changes (3/96) ..................................................................................................20
CAESAR II Version 3.24 Changes & Enhancements (3/97)......................................................................21
CAESAR II Version 4.00 Changes and Enhancements (1/98) ...................................................................24
CAESAR II Version 4.10 Changes and Enhancements (1/99) ...................................................................25
CAESAR II Version 4.20 Changes and Enhancements (2/00) ...................................................................26
CAESAR II Version 4.30 Changes and Enhancements (3/01) ...................................................................27
CAESAR II Version 4.40 Features.............................................................................................................28
CAESAR II Version 4.40 Technical Changes and Enhancements ( 5/02)..................................................29
1
In This Chapter
Overview.....................................................................................2
Program Support / User Assistance.............................................3
COADE Technical Support.........................................................4
C H A P T E R 1
Introduction
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Overview
This CAESAR II Technical Reference Guide is the reference manual for CAESAR II. It presents the theory
behind CAESAR II operations, and explains why certain tasks are performed. Users are urged to review the
background material contained in this manual, especially when applying CAESAR II to unfamiliar types of
analysis.
Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) discusses the configuration of CAESAR II and
the resulting environment. This includes language support and program customization. In addition to the
COADE supplied routines, several thirdparty diagnostic packages are also mentioned.
Chapter 3 (see "Piping Screen Reference" on page 1), Piping Input Reference, contains images of program
generated screens, and explains each input cell, menu option, and toolbar button. Also discussed in detail
is the Plot Screen, which displays the input model graphically.
Chapter 4 (see "Structural Steel Modeler" on page 1) examines the Structural Steel Modeler and describes
all commands, toolbar buttons, menu items, and input fields.
Chapter 5 (see "Controlling the Dynamic Solution" on page 1) discusses the Dynamic Input and Control
Parameters: each input cell, toolbar button, and menu item is examined. The purpose and effects of the
various Dynamic Control Parameters are detailed.
Chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page 1) contains theoretical overviews of various technical
methods used in CAESAR II. Both common and advanced modeling techniques are covered.
Chapter 7 (see "Miscellaneous Processors" on page 1) provides information regarding a few
miscellaneous auxiliary processors.
Chapter 8 (see "Interfaces" on page 1) details interfaces between CAESAR II and other programs.
Chapter 9 (see "File Sets" on page 1) presents a list of files associated with CAESAR II.
Chapter 10 (see "Update History" on page 1) lists the CAESAR II update history.
Chapter 1 Introduction 3
Program Support / User Assistance
COADE’s staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also, at times, an
elaborate process—one that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our documentation is intended to
address the questions raised regarding piping analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all
the answers can be quickly found in these volumes.
COADE understands the engineer’s need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To
that end, COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address any CAESAR II and piping issues
raised by users. CAESAR II support is available by telephone, email, fax, and the internet; literally
hundreds of support calls are answered every week. COADE provides this service at no additional charge
to the user. It is expected, however, that questions focus on the current version of the program.
Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE. COADE schedules
regular training classes in Houston and provides inhouse and open attendance training around the world.
These courses focus on the expertise available at COADE — modeling, analysis, and design.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
COADE Technical Support
Phone: 2818904566 Email: techsupport@coade.com
Fax: 2818903301 WEB: www.coade.com
(http://www.coade.com/c2articles/c2_faq_
web.html)
1
In This Chapter
Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File ......................2
Computation Control...................................................................3
SIFs and Stresses.........................................................................9
Geometry Directives....................................................................18
Plot Colors...................................................................................21
FRP Pipe Properties ....................................................................24
Database Definitions ...................................................................27
Miscellaneous..............................................................................30
Set/Change Password ..................................................................33
Units File Operations ..................................................................34
Convert Input to New Units ........................................................37
Material Database........................................................................38
C H A P T E R 2
Configuration and Environment
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Generation of the CAESAR II Configuration File
Each time CAESAR II starts, the configuration file caesar.cfg is read from the current data directory. If this
file is not found in the current data directory, the installation directory is searched for the configuration
file. If the configuration file is not found, a fatal error will be generated and CAESAR II will terminate.
The configuration or setup file contains directives that dictate how CAESAR II will operate on a particular
computer and how it will perform a particular analysis. The caesar.cfg file is generated by selecting
TOOLS/CONFIGURE/SETUP (or the Configure button from the toolbar) from the CAESAR II Main Menu.
Note: You must click the Exit w/Save button on the bottom of the Configure/Setup window to create a
new configuration file or to save changes to the existing configuration file. The configuration program
produces the Computation Control (on page 3) window. Use the tabs to navigate to the appropriate
configuration spreadsheets.
Important: The caesar.cfg file may vary from machine to machine and many of the setup directives
modify the analysis. Do not expect the same input file to produce identical results between machines
unless the setup files are identical. It is advised that a copy of the setup file be archived with input and
output data so that identical reruns can be made. The units file, if modified by the user, would also need to
be identical if the same results are to be produced.
The following section explains the CAESAR II setup file options. They are grouped as they appear when
chosen from the tabs on the Configure window.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 3
Computation Control
Computational Control Configuration Settings
Use Pressure Stiffening
This flag enables CAESAR II to include pressurestiffening effects in those codes that do not explicitly
require its use. In these cases pressurestiffening effects will apply to all bends, elbows, and both miter
types. In all cases, the pressure used is the maximum of all pressures defined for the element.
Missing Mass ZPA
The default for this option is Extracted, which means that CAESAR II will use the spectrum value at the last
“extracted” mode. Changing this value to SPECTRUM instructs CAESAR II to use the last spectrum value
as the ZPA for the missing mass computations.
Bend Axial Shape
For bends 45 degrees or smaller, a major contributor to deformation can be the axial displacement of the
shortarched pipe. With the axial shape function disabled this displacement mode is ignored and the bend
will be stiffer.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Rod Tolerance (degrees)
The angular plusorminus permitted convergence error. Unless the change from iteration “n” to iteration
“n+1” is less this value, the rod will NOT be converged. The default of CAESAR II is 1.0 degree. For
systems subject to large horizontal displacements, values of 5.0 degrees for convergence tolerances have
been used successfully.
Rod Increment (degrees)
The maximum amount of angular change that any one support can experience between iterations. For
difficulttoconverge problems, values of 0.1 have proven effective here. When small values are used,
however, the user should be prepared for a large number of iterations. The total number of iterations can
be estimated from:
Est. No. Iterations = 1.5(x)/(r)/(Rod Increment)
Where:
x  maximum horizontal displacement at any one rod.
r  rod length at that support
Alpha Tolerance
The breakpoint at which CAESAR II decides that the entry in the Temp fields on the input spreadsheet is a
thermal expansion coefficient or a temperature. The default is 0.05. This means that any entry in the Temp
fields whose absolute magnitude is less than 0.05 is taken to be a thermal expansion coefficient in terms of
inches per inch (dimensionless). Use of this field provides some interesting modeling tools. If an Alpha
Tolerance of 1.1 is set, then an entry in the Temp 2 field of 1 causes the element defined by this
expansion coefficient to shrink to zero length. This alternate method of specifying cold spring is quite
useful in jobs having hanger design with cold spring (see chapter 6 (see "Technical Discussions" on page
1) for more details regarding Cold Spring).
Ambient Temperature
If 0.0 is entered here, the default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is (degrees ^07) .
If this does not accurately represent the installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter a different
value in this field.
Friction Stiffness
Friction restraint stiffness. The default is 1E6 lb/in. This value is used when a friction restraint is "non
sliding." In the "nonsliding" state, stiffnesses are inserted in the two directions perpendicular to the
restraint’s line of action and opposing any sliding motion. This is the first parameter that should be
adjusted to help a slowly converging problem where friction is suspected. Lower stiffness values permit
more "nonsliding" movement, but given the indeterminate nature of the friction problem in general, this
error is not considered crucial.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 5
Friction Normal Force Variation
This tolerance, default of 0.15, or 15 percent, is the amount of variation in the normal force that is
permitted before an adjustment will be made in the sliding friction force. This value normally should not
be adjusted.
Friction Angle Variation
Friction sliding angle variation. The default is 15 degrees. This parameter had more significance in
versions prior to 2.1. This parameter is currently only used in the first iteration when a restraint goes from
the nonsliding to sliding state. All subsequent iterations compensate for the angle variation automatically.
Friction Slide Multiplier
This is an internal friction sliding force multiplier and should never be adjusted by the user unless so
directed by a member of the COADE/CAESAR II support staff.
Coefficient of Friction (Mu)
The value specified here is applied by default as the coefficient of friction to all translational restraints.
Specifying a value of zero, the default, means that no friction is applied.
WRC107 Version
This directive sets the Version of the WRC107 bulletin used in the computations. Valid options are:
August 1965
March 1979
March 1979 with the 1B11 and 2B1 off axis curves (default)
WRC107 Interpolation Method
The curves in WRC Bulletin 107 cover essentially all applications of nozzles in vessels or piping;
however, should any of the interpolation parameters i.e., U, Beta, etc. fall outside the limits of the
available curves then some extension of the WRC method must be used.
The default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table. Alternatively, the user may control this
extensions methodology interactively. This causes the program to prompt the user for curve values when
necessary.
Incore Numerical Check
Enables the incore solution module to test the stability of the solution for the current model and loadings.
This option, if enabled, adds the solution of an extra load case to the job stream.
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance
The default value is 1.0 e
+10
. CAESAR II checks the ratio of offdiagonal coefficients to the ondiagonal
coefficient in the row. If this ratio is greater than the decomposition singularity tolerance, then a numerical
error may occur. This problem does not have to be associated with a system singularity. This condition
can exist when very small, and/or long pipes are connected to very short, and/or large pipes. The outof
core solution will, however, stop with a singularity message. This solution abort will prevent any
possibility of an errant solution. These solutions have several general characteristics:
When machine precision errors of this type occur they are very local in nature, affecting only a single
element or very small part of the model, and are readily noticeable upon inspection.
The 1E
10
limit can be increased to 1E
11
or 1E
12
and still provide a reasonable check on solution
accuracy. Any solution computed after this limit has been increased should always be checked closely
for “reasonableness.” At 1E
11
or 1E
12
the number of significant figures in the local solution has been
reduced to two or three.
The 1E
10
limit can be increased to 1E
20
or 1E
30
to get the job to run, but the user should remember that
the possibility for a locally errant solution exists when stiffness ratios are allowed to get this high.
Solutions should be carefully checked.
Minimum Wall Mill Tolerance (%)
Use this directive is to specify the default percentage of wall thickness allowed for mill and other
mechanical tolerances.
Note: For most piping codes, this value is only used during the "minimum wall thickness" computation.
Mill tolerance is usually not considered in the flexibility analysis.
By default this value is 12.5, corresponding to a 12.5% tolerance. To eliminate mill tolerance
consideration, set this directive to 0.0.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 7
Bourdon Pressure
Select the BOURDON PRESSURE EFFECT from the drop list. The BOURDON EFFECT causes straight
pipe to elongate, and bends to "OPEN UP" translationally along a line connecting the curvature end
points. If the BOURDON EFFECT is not activated there will be no global displacements due to pressure.
BOURDON PRESSURE OPTION #1 (TRANSLATION ONLY) includes only translational effects.
BOURDON PRESSURE OPTION #2 (TRANSLATION & ROTATION) includes translational and
rotational effects on bends. OPTION #2 may apply for bends that are formed or rolled from straight pipe,
where the bend cross section will be slightly oval due to the bending process.
Note: OPTION #1 is the same as OPTION #2 for straight pipe. For elbows, OPTION #1 should apply for
forged and welded fittings where the bend cross section can be considered essentially circular.
Note: The BOURDON EFFECT (translation only) is always considered when FRP pipe is used,
regardless of the actual setting of the BOURDON FLAG.
Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness
Enabling this option causes CAESAR II to ignore the stiffness of spring hangers in the analysis. This option
is consistent with hand computation methods of spring hanger design, which ignored the effects of the
springs.
Important: COADE recommends that this value never be changed.
Include Spring Stiffness in Hanger OPE Travel Cases
Enabling this option defaults CAESAR II to place the designed spring stiffness into the Hanger Operating
Travel Case and iterate until the system balances. This iteration scheme therefore considers the effect of
the spring hanger stiffness on the thermal growth of the system (vertical travel of the spring). If this option
is used, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (in the physical system) be adjusted to
match the reported hanger Cold Load.
Disabling this option defaults the program to design spring hangers the traditional way.
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness
Where hangers are adjacent to other supports or are themselves very close (for example where there are
two hangers on either side of a trunnion support), the CAESAR II hanger design algorithm may generate
poorly distributed hot hanger loads in the vicinity of the close hangers. Using a more flexible support for
computing the hanger restrained weight loads often allows the design algorithm to more effectively
distribute the system’s weight. A typical entry is 50,000; the default value is (1.0E12 lb/in).
Default Translational Restraint Stiffness
This directive defines the value used for nonspecified translational restraint stiffnesses. By default this
value is assumed to be (1.0E12 lb./in).
Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness
This directive defines the value used for nonspecified rotational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value
is assumed to be (1.0E12 inlb/deg).
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 9
SIFs and Stresses
SIFs and Stresses Configuration Settings
Default Code
The piping code the user designs to most often should go here. This code will be used as the default if no
code is specified in the problem input. The default piping code is B31.3, the chemical plant and petroleum
refinery code. Valid entries are B31.1, B31.3, B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.5, B31.8, B31.8 Chapter
VIII, B31.11, ASMENC(Class 2), ASMEND(Class 3), NAVY505, Z662, BS806, SWEDISH1,
SWEDISH2, B31.11967, STOOMWEZEN, RCCMC, RCCMD, CODETI, Norwegian, FDBR, BS
7159, UKOOA, IGE/TD/12, and DNV.
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Occasional Load Factor
The default value of 0.0 tells CAESAR II to use the value that the active piping code recommends. B31.1
states that the calculated stress may exceed the maximum allowable stress from Appendix A, (Sh), by 15%
if the event duration occurs less than 10% of any 24 hour operating period, and by 20% if the event
duration occurs less than 1% of any 24 hour operating period. The default for B31.1 applications is 15%.
If 20% is more suitable for the system being analyzed then this directive can be used to enter the 20%.
B31.3 states, “The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure, weight, and other sustained loadings
(S1) and of the stresses produced by occasional loads such as wind or earthquake may be as much as 1.33
times the allowable stress given in Appendix A. Where the allowable stress value exceeds 2/3 of yield
strength at temperature, the allowable stress value must be reduced as specified in Note 3 in 302.3.2.”
The default for B31.3 applications is 33%. If this is too high for the material and temperature specified
then a smaller occasional load factor can be input.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 11
Yield Stress Criterion
The 132 column stress report produced by CAESAR II contains a value representative of the maximum
stress state through the cross section, computed per the indicated yield criteria theory.
CAESAR II can compute this maximum stress (note, this is not a Code stress) according to either Von
Mises Theory or the Maximum Shear Theory. The selected stress is computed at four points along the axis
normal to the plane of bending (outside top, inside top, inside bottom, outside bottom), and the maximum
value is printed in the stress report. The equations used for each of these yield criteria are listed below. If
the Von Mises Theory is used, CAESAR II computes the octahedral shear stress, which differs from the
Von Mises stress by a constant factor.
(For B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, and DnV this setting controls which equation is used to
compute the "equivalent stress". For these three codes, the equations shown in the code are used to
determine the yield criterion, not the standard mechanical stress equations shown below. These standard
mechanical stress equations are used for the other codes addressed by CAESAR II. )
3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (Default)
SI = Maximum of:
S1OT  S3OT
S1OB  S3OB
Max(S1IT,RPS)  Min(S3IT,RPS)
Max(S1IB,RPS)  Min(S3IB,RPS)
Von Mises Stress (Octahedral)
OCT = Maximum of:
(S3OB
2
+S1OB
2
+(S3OBS1OB)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
((S3IBRPS)
2
+(S3IBS1IB)
2
+(RPSS1IB)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
(S3OT
2
+S1OT
2
+(S1OTS3OT)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
((S3ITRPS)
2
+(S3ITS1IT)
2
+(RPSS1IT)
2
)
1/2
/ 3.0
Where:
S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
= (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0 (((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
) 1/2
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0 (((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0 (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)
1/2
S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0 (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
)
1/2
RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside
HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lame’s Equation)
HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame’s Equation)
SLOT=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Top
SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top
SLOB=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Bottom
SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom
TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside
TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside
B31.3 Sustained Case SIF Factor
B31.3 Code Interpretation 134 dated February 23, 1981 File: 14701 states that for sustained and
occasional loads an SIF of 0.75i, but not less than 1.0 may be used. This setup directive allows the user to
enter his/her own coefficient. The default is 1.0. To comply with this interpretation the user would enter
0.75. B31.3 Code Interpretation 603 dated December 14, 1987 permitted users to ignore the stress
intensification for sustained and occasional loads.To comply with this interpretation, the user would enter
0.0.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 13
B31.3 Welding and Contour Insert Tees Meet B16.9
This flag controls the "assumption" that the geometry of B31.3 welding and contour insert tees
(sweepolets) meet the dimensional requirements of the code, and can be classified as B16.9 tees. The
default setting for this directive is "NO", which causes the program to use a flexibility characteristic of
3.1*T/r, as per the A01 addendum.
Selecting this checkbox, allows the program to assume that the fitting geometry meets the requirements of
Note 11, introduced in the A01 addendum, and a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r will be used.
Note: In order to match runs made with CAESAR II prior to Version 4.40, this checkbox must be
selected. Prior to Version 4.40, CAESAR II always used a flexibility characteristic of 4.4*T/r.
Allow User's SIF at Bend
This feature was added for those users that wished to change the stress intensification factor for bends.
Previously this was not permitted, and the code defined SIF was always used. If the user enables this
directive, he may override the code’s calculated SIF for bends. The user entered SIF acts over the entire
bend curvature and must be specified at the “TO” end of the bend element. The default is off.
Use WRC329
This directive activates the WRC329 guidelines for all intersections, (not just for reduced intersections).
The recommendations made by Rodabaugh in section 5.0 of WRC329 will be followed exactly in making
the stress calculations for intersections. Every attempt has been made to improve the stress calculations for
all codes, not just the four discussed in Rodabaugh’s paper. Users not employing either B31.1, B31.3 or
the ASME NC or ND codes, and who wish to use WRC329 are encouraged to contact COADE for
additional information. Throughout this document WRC330 and WRC329 are used synonymously (330
was the draft version of 329). When finally published, the official WRC designation was 329.
Use Schneider
This directive activates the Schneider reduced intersection assumptions. It was because of observations by
Schneider that much of the work on WRC 329 was started. Schneider pointed out that the code SIFs could
be in error when the d/D ratio at the intersection was less than 1.0 and greater than 0.5. In this d/D range
the SIFs could be in error by a factor as high as 2.0. Using the Schneider option in CAESAR II results in a
multiplication of the out of plane branch stress intensification by a number between 1 and 2 when the d/D
ratio for the intersection is between 0.5 and 1.0. For B31.1 and other codes that do not differentiate
between in and outofplane SIFs the multiplication will be used for the single stress intensification given.
All Cases Corroded
A recent version of the B31.3 piping code mentioned reducing the section modulus for sustained or
occasional stress calculations by the reduction in wall thickness due to corrosion. Several users have
interpreted this to mean that the reduced section modulus should be used for all stress calculations,
including expansion. This directive allows those users to apply this conservative interpretation of the code.
Enabling All Cases Corroded causes CAESAR II to use the corroded section modulus for the calculation of
all stress types. This method is recommended as conservative, and probably more realistic as corrosion
can significantly affect fatigue life, i.e., expansion. Disabling this directive causes CAESAR II to strictly
follow the piping code recommendations, i.e. depending on the active piping code, some load cases will
consider corrosion and some will not.
14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable
Activate this check box in order to cause CAESAR II to default new jobs to use the “Liberal Expansion
Stress Allowable” – to add the difference between the hot allowable stress and the sustained stress to the
allowable expansion stress range (if permitted by the particular code in use).
Deactivating this option causes new jobs to default to not using this allowable.
WRC 329
Allows the user to use the recommendations of WRC 329 for reduced intersections. A reduced intersection
is any intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.975. The WRC 329 recommendations result in more
conservative stress calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others. In all
cases the WRC 329 values should be more accurate, and more truly inline with the respective codes
intent.
Base Hoop Stress On ( ID/OD/Mean/Lamés )
This directive is used to indicate how the value of hoop stress should be calculated. The default is to use
the ID of the pipe. Most piping codes consider the effects of pressure in the longitudinal component of the
CODE stress. Usually, the value of the hoop stress has no bearing on the CODE stress, so changing this
directive does not affect the acceptability of the piping system.
If desired, the user may change the way CAESAR II computes the hoop stress value. This directive has the
following options:
ID—Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where “d” is the internal diameter of the pipe.
OD—Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where “d” is the outer diameter of the pipe.
Mean—Hoop stress is computed according to Pd/2t where “d” is the average or mean diameter of the
pipe.
Lamés—Hoop stress is computed according to Lamés equation, o = P ( Ri
2
+ Ri
2
* Ro
2
/ R
2
) / ( Ro
2

Ri
2
) and varies through the wall as a function of R.
Use PD/4t
Enabling this directive causes CAESAR II to use the simplified form of the longitudinal stress term when
computing sustained stresses. Some codes permit this simplified form when the pipe wall thickness is thin.
This option is used most often when users are comparing CAESAR II results to those from an older pipe
stress program. The more comprehensive calculation, i.e. the Default, is recommended.
Add F/A in Stresses
Determines whether or not the axial stress term is included in the code stress computation. Setting this
directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use whatever the currently active piping code recommends. Only
the B31.3type piping codes (i.e. codes where the sustained stress equation is not explicitly given) have
the F/A stresses included in the sustained and occasional stress equations. The B31.1type codes do not
include the F/A stresses because the equations given explicitly in the code do not include it. The F/A
stresses discussed here are not due to longitudinal pressure. These are the F/A stresses due to structural
loads in the piping system itself.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 15
Add Torsion in SL Stress
Some piping codes include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by explicitly including it in the
stress equation (i.e. B31.1), and some don’t include torsion in the sustained and occasional stresses by
implicitly calling for “longitudinal stresses” only (i.e. B31.3). Setting the Add Torsion in SL Stress
directive to Yes forces CAESAR II to include the torsion term in those codes that don’t include it already by
default. Setting this directive to Default causes CAESAR II to use whatever the currently active piping code
implies. In a sustained stress analysis of a very hot piping system subject to creep, it is recommended that
the user include torsion in the sustained stress calculation via this parameter in the setup file.
Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure
This flag instructs the program to include pressure stiffening effects on straight pipes. The options for this
flag are:
0  no stiffening of straight pipes due to pressure
1  elemental stiffening using Pressure #1
2  elemental stiffening using Pressure #2
Note, this option modifies the element's stiffness matrix.
16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Reduced Intersection
Available options are B31.1(Pre 1980), B31.1(Post 1980), WRC329, ASME SEC III, and Schneider:
B31.1 (Pre 1980)
Allows the B31.1 code user to have the pre1980 code rules used for reduced intersection. These rules did
not define a separate branch SIF for the reduced branch end. The branch stress intensification factor will
be the same as the header stress intensification factor regardless of the branchtoheader diameter ratio.
B31.1 (Post 1980)
Allows the B31.1 code user to employ the post1980 code rules for reduced intersections. The reduced
intersection SIF equations in B31.1 from 1980 through 1989 generated unnecessarily high SIFs because of
a mistake made in the implementation. (This is as per WRC329.) For this reason many users opted for the
“Pre 1980” B31.1 SIF calculation discussed above. CAESAR II corrects this mistake by the automatic
activation of the flag: B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On. Users can vary the status of this flag in the CAESAR II
setup file to generate any interpretation of B31.1 desired. The default for a new job is for B31.1(Post
1980) and for the B31.1 Reduced Z Fix = On.
The No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs flag also affects the SIF calculations at reduced intersections
and is also available in this release.
WRC 329
Allows the user to use the recommendations of WRC329 for reduced intersections. A reduced intersection
is any intersection where the d/D ratio is less than 0.975. The WRC329 recommendations result in more
conservative stress calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others. In all
cases the WRC329 values should be more accurate, and more truly inline with the respective codes intent.
ASME Sect. III
Allows the user to use the 1985 ASME Section III NC and ND rules for reduced intersections.
Schneider
Activates the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multiplication. Has the same
effect as the Use Schneider option.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 17
Class 1 Branch Flexibility
Activates the Class 1 flexibility calculations. The appearance of this parameter in the setup file will
completely change the modeling of intersections in the analysis. For intersections not satisfying the
reduced branch rules that d/D s 0.5 and that D/T s100, the branch will start at the surface of the header
pipe. A perfectly rigid junction between the centerline of the header and surface will be formed
automatically by CAESAR II using the element offset calculations. SIFs act at the surface point for the
branch. When the reduced branch rules are satisfied, the local flexibility of the header is also inserted at
this surface point. Intersections not satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be “stiffer” and carry
more load, while intersections satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be more flexible and will carry
less load. All changes to the model are completely transparent to the user. In systems where the
intersection flexibility is a major component of the overall system stiffness, the user is urged to run the
analysis both with and without the Class 1 Branch Flexibility active to determine the effect this modeling
on the analysis. For more technical discussion, refer to Class 1 Branch Flexibilities (on page 14).
B31.1 Reduced Z Fix
This directive is used in conjunction with B31.1, and makes the correction to the reduced branch stress
calculation that existed in the 1980 through 1989 versions of B31.1. This error was corrected in the 1989
version of B31.1, and the B31.1 Reduced Z Fix is on by default in CAESAR II.
Schneider
Activates the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multiplication. Has the same
effect as the Use Schneider option.
No RFT/WLT in Reduced Fitting SIFs
There has been considerable concern involving the SIFs for reduced fittings. Part of the discussion centers
around just what should be considered a reduced fitting. The CAESAR II default is to assume that welding
tees and reinforced fabricated tees are covered by the reduced fitting expressions, even though the reduced
fitting expressions do not explicitly cover these intersection types. Users wishing to leave welding tees and
reinforced tees out of this definition should enable this directive.
Apply B31.8 Note 2
The B31.8 piping code defines both "inplane" and "out of plane" SIF values. The notes to Appendix E,
B31.8 states that a more conservative approach can be taken, by using the "outofplane" SIF value for the
"inplane" value (Note 2). This directive controls whether or not this more conservative approach is used.
Prior to Version 4.30, CAESAR II always applied Note 2, the more conservative approach, and there was no
way to alter this behavior.
The user can control (through the use of this directive) whether or not Note 2 is implemented. The default
behavior is to use the two different SIF values and not employ Note 2.
Pressure Variation in Expansion Cases
This directive controls whether or not any pressure variation (between the referenced load cases) will
appear in the resulting expansion load case.
18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Geometry Directives
Geometry Directives Configuration Settings
Connect Geometry Through Cnodes
Restraints, flexible nozzles, and spring hangers may be defined with connecting nodes. By default
CAESAR II ignores the position of the restraint node and the connecting node. They may be at the same
point or they may be hundreds of feet apart. This directive allows the user to insist that each restraint,
nozzle, or hanger exists at the same point in space as its connecting node. In many cases, enabling this
option will cause “plotwise” disconnected parts of the system to be reconnected and to appear “as 
expected” in both input and output plots.
Auto Node Number Increment
This directive sets the value for the Automatic Node Numbering routine. Any nonzero, positive value in
this data cell is used to automatically assume the “TO NODE” value on the piping input spreadsheets. The
new (TO) node number is determined as:
“To Node” = “From Node” + Auto Node Number Increment.
If this value is set to 0.0, automatic node numbering is disabled.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 19
ZAxis Vertical
By default CAESAR II assumes the Y axis is vertical with the X and Z axes in the horizontal plane. If
desired, the Z axis can be made vertical by checking this box. In this case, the X and Y axes will be in the
horizontal plane.
Minimum Allowed Bend Angle
Very small angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When the user has a
reasonable radius and a small angle there are usually no problems. However, if the small angle bend is
grossly small compared to the surrounding elements then the bend should probably not be used and a
different modeling approach employed. Enabling this directive allows the user to reset the minimum angle
CAESAR II will accept for a bend angle. The default is 5.0 degrees.
Maximum Allowed Bend Angle
Very large angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When the user has a
reasonable radius and a large angle there are usually no problems. However, if the large angle bend plots
compared reasonably well to the surrounding elements then the bend can probably be used without
difficulty. Wellproportioned bends up to 135 degrees have been tested without a problem. Enabling this
directive allows the user to reset the maximum angle CAESAR II will accept for a bend. The default is 95
degrees.
Bend Length Attachment Percent
Whenever the element leaving the tangent intersection of a bend is within (n)% of the bend radius on
either side of the weldline, CAESAR II inserts an element from the bend weldline to the “TO” node of the
element leaving the bend. The inserted element has a length equal to exactly (n)% of the bend radius. The
user may adjust this percentage to reduce the error due to the inserted element, however, the length
tolerance for elements leaving the bend will also be reduced. To obtain more accurate results the user must
include less “slop” in the system dimensions around bends. The default attachment is 1.0 percent.
Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend
Nodes on a bend curvature that are too close together can cause numerical problems during solution.
Where the radius of the bend is large, such as in a cross country pipeline, it is not uncommon to find nodes
on a bend curvature closer than 5 degrees. In these situations the user may enable this directive to change
the CAESAR II error checking tolerance for the “closeness” of points on the bend curvature. The default is
5.0 degrees.
Loop Closure Tolerance
The loop closure tolerance used by CAESAR II for error checking can be set interactively by the user for
each job analyzed, or the user can enter the desired loop closure tolerance via this directive and override
without distraction the program default value of 1.0 in. See the following section for a discussion of the
CAESAR II units file.
20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance
This directive enables the user to specify the maximum slope of a straight pipe element for which thermal
bowing effects will be considered. Thermal bowing is usually associated with fluid carrying horizontal
pipes in which the fluid does not fill the cross section. In these cases, there is a temperature differential
across the cross section. This directive allows the user to define the interpretation of “horizontal.” By
default, the program uses a value of 0.0001 as the horizontal threshold value. If a pipe element’s pitch is
less than this tolerance, the element is considered to be horizontal, and thermal bowing loads can be
applied to it. An element’s pitch is computed from:
PITCH =  DY  / ( DX
2
+ DY
2
+ DZ
2
)
1/2
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 21
Plot Colors
Plot Colors Configuration Settings
OPENGL Switch
By default the 3D Hoops graphics engine uses the OPENGL drivers. On some machines with older
graphics cards, or older graphics drivers, OPENGL does not perform well. Unchecking this checkbox
instructs the CAESAR II graphics engine to use the alternate Microsoft drivers, instead of the OPENGL
drivers.
Pipes
Enter the color for the centerline and volume plots of pipe elements. Excludes valves, other rigids and
expansion joints.
Nodes
Enter the color for the node numbers.
Rigids/Bends
Enter the color for the rigid elements and for bend highlighting in the input plot.
22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Hangers/Nozzles
Enter the color for the hanger and nozzle symbols that are displayed on the input plot.
Structure
Enter the color that the structural elements should be plotted in. The color selected should contrast with
the color entered for the Pipes.
Background
Enter the color for the plot background. The user should be careful setting this parameter because all other
colors need to coordinate with the background color selected.
Axes
Enter the color of the plot axes that appear in the bottom left corner of the screen.
Labels
Enter the color for the geometry labels exclusive of the node numbers. Examples are, Diameter,
Thickness, Length, Plot Labeling.
Highlights
Enter the color for the input level plot highlight. The color selected should contrast with the color entered
for the Pipes.
Displaced Shape
Enter the color for the displaced shape overlay. The color selected should contrast with the color entered
for the Pipes.
Stress Level 1
Enter the stress value that defines the lower limit cutoff.
Stress Level 2
Enter the stress value that defines the second lowest stress colorplot limit.
Stress Level 3
Enter the stress value that defines the third lowest stress colorplot limit.
Stress Level 4
Enter the stress value that defines the fourth lowest stress colorplot limit.
Stress Level 5
Enter the stress value that defines the upper limit cutoff.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 23
Stress < Level 1
Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress lower than Stress Level 1.
Stress > Level 1
Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stress Level 1 and less than Stress
Level 2.
Stress > Level 2
Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stress Level 2 and less than Stress
Level 3.
Stress > Level 3
Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater than Stress Level 3 and less than Stress
Level 4.
Stress > Level 4
Enter the color for that portion of the pipe that has a stress greater that Stress Level 4 and less than Stress
Level 5.
Stress > Level 5
Enter the color for the portion of the pipe element that has a stress greater than Stress Level 5. The color of
an element from one end to the other varies as the stress varies.
24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
FRP Pipe Properties
FRP Properties Configuration Settings
Use FRP SIF
By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting SIF to 2.3. Some users
have requested that the standard “code” SIF be used, others have requested the ability to specify this value
manually.
By disabling this directive, the standard “code” SIF equations will be applied to all FRP fittings. This also
allows manual specification of these values by the user.
If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code SIFs will always be used, regardless of the setting of
this directive.
Use FRP Flexibilities
By default, when FRP pipe is selected (Material #20), CAESAR II sets the fitting flexibility factor to 1.0.
Some users have requested that the standard “code” flexibility factor be used.
By disabling this directive, the standard “code” flexibility factor equations will be applied to all FRP
fittings.
If the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, code flexibility factors will always be used, regardless of
the setting of this directive.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 25
FRP Property Data File
Standard FRP material properties may be read in from files. The user may select the available files. Once
selected, the program will give the user the option of reading in from that file.
Users may create FRP material files as text files with the .frp extension; these files should be stored in the
CAESAR\SYSTEM subdirectory. The format of the files must adhere to the following format:
Sample FRP Data File
Note: The data lines must follow exactly the order shown above. The four data lines defining the
UKOOA envelope are intended for future use and may be omitted.
BS 7159 Pressure Stiffening
The BS 7159 code explicitly requires that the effect of pressure stiffening on the bend SIFs be calculated
using the Design Strain (this is based upon the assumption that the FRP piping is fully pressurized to its
design limit). This is CAESAR II’s default method.
When the piping is pressurized to a value much lower than its design pressure, it may be more accurate to
calculate pressure stiffening based on the Actual Pressure stress, rather than its design strain. Note that
this alternative method is a deviation from the explicit instructions of the BS 7159 code.
FRP Laminate Type
The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used
should be entered. Valid laminatetypes are
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore this
default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.
26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Exclude f2 from UKOOA Bending Stress
Some sources, such as Shell's DEP 31.40.10.19Gen. (December 1998) and ISO/DIS 14692 suggest that,
when using the UKOOA code, the axial bending stress should not be multiplied by the Part Factor f2 (the
System Factor of Safety) prior to combination with the longitudinal pressure stress. Users wishing to
modify the UKOOA requirements in this way should enable this check box. Users wishing to use
UKOOA exactly as written should disable this check box.
FRP Pipe Density
Weight of the pipe material on a per unit volume basis. This field is used to set the default weight density
of FRP materials in the piping input module.
FRP Alpha (e06)
In this field, the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used (multiplied by
1,000,000) should be entered. For example, if the value is: 8.5E6 in/in/deg, then the user would enter 8.5
in this field. The exponent (E6) is implied.
If a single expansion coefficient is too limiting for the user’s application, the actual thermal expansion
may always be calculated at temperature in inches per inch (or mm per mm) and entered directly into the
Temperature field on the Pipe spreadsheet.
FRP Modulus of Elasticity
Axial elastic modulus of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic pipe. This is the default value used to set the data in
the input processor. The user may override this value in the input when necessary.
Ratio Shear Mod:Emod
In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the
fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be entered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity
(axial) is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered
here.
Axial Strain:Hoop Stress (Ea/Eh*Vh/a)
The product of the ratio of the axial to the hoop elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio which relates the
strain in the axial direction to a stress in the hoop direction.
Ea  Elastic modulus in the axial direction.
Eh  Elastic modulus in the hoop direction.
Vh/a  Poissons ratio relating the strain in the axial direction due to a stress in the hoop direction.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 27
Database Definitions
Database Definitions Configuration Settings
Structural Database
This directive specifies which database file is to be used to acquire the structural steel shape labels and
cross section properties from. The structural databases provided include AISC 1977, AISC 1989, German
1991, South African 1991, Korean 1990, Australian 1990, and United Kingdom.
Piping Size Specification (ANSI/JIS/DIN/BS)
By default, CAESAR II uses the ANSI pipe size and schedule tables in the input processor. Users may
optionally select the standard tables of another piping specification using this directive. The available
tables are
American National Standard (ANSI)
Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS)
German Standard (DIN)
Valves and Flanges
This directive enables the user to specify which Valve/Flange database should be referenced by CAESAR
II during subsequent input sessions. The databases provided include the following: a generic database, the
Crane database, a database (generic) without attached flanges, and the CADWorx/Pipe database.
28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Expansion Joints
This directive enables the user to specify which Expansion Joint database should be referenced by
CAESAR II during subsequent input sessions. The databases provided include Pathway, Senior Flexonics,
IWK, and Piping Technology.
Units File Name
This directive allows the user to scroll through the available units files and select one to activate. Since the
CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to
reference different units files.
Units files are searched for first in the local data directory, and then in the “active SYSTEM” directory.
The active units file is used for new job creation and all output generation.
Load Case Template
This directive allows the user to scroll through the available load case templates and select the one to be
active. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to the local data directory, different data directories can be
configured to reference different template files.
Template files are searched for first in the local data directory, and then in the "active SYSTEM"
directory. The active template file is used to "recommend" load cases.
System Directory Name
This directive enables a user to select which “SYSTEM” directory is used by CAESAR II. All of the various
system directories contain formatting files, units files, text files, and other “user configurable” data files.
Some of these formatting files are language specific or Code specific. Therefore, users may want to switch
between system directories depending on the current job. The directive allows the user to scroll through
the available system directories and select one to be ACTIVE. Since the CAESAR.CFG file is written to
the local data directory, different data directories can be configured to reference different system
directories.
All system directory names must be of the form: SYSTEM.??? where the .??? is a three character suffix
identifying the directory. Users can create system directories as needed, following this required naming
convention. The CAESAR II distribution diskettes contain language files for English, French, German, and
Spanish. These formatting files can be installed in separate system directories, with an appropriate suffix,
to allow switching between languages.
Note that there must be a primary system directory, named system, for the program to place accounting,
version, and diagnostic files that it creates during execution. The secondary system directories are only
referenced for llanguage and formatting files.
Default Spring Hanger Table
This directive is used to set the value of the default spring hanger table, referenced during the spring
hanger design stage of the solution. CAESAR II includes tables from more than 20 different vendors.
Enable Data Export to ODBCCompliant Databases
This directive turns on the capability to create ODBCcompliant databases for static output.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 29
Append Reruns to Existing Data
The default of NO (unchecked) causes a rerun to overwrite data from previous runs in the ODBC
database. Turning this directive on (checked) causes a rerun to add new data to the database, thus storing
multiple runs of the same job in the database.
ODBC Compliant Database Name
This field contains the name of the ODBC project database. All jobs run in this data directory will write
their output to the database specified here.
30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous Configuration Settings
Output Table of Contents
This directive allows the user to control the generation of a Table of Contents, normally produced after a
static or a dynamic output session.
By default this directive is turned on, which causes the output processors to generate a Table of Contents
upon exit. Turning this directive off disables the generation of the Table of Contents.
Output Reports by Load Case
By default, CAESAR II generates output reports sorted by load case. As an option, this directive may be
turned off, which will cause the output reports to be sorted by type. For reports by type, all displacement
reports will be generated, then all restraint reports, then all force reports, etc.
Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes
By default CAESAR II sorts the nodes in ascending order during the force/stress computations. This
produces a displacement output report in which the nodes are ordered in increasing magnitude. This
directive can be turned off to disable this nodal sort. The resulting displacement reports will be produced
in the order the nodes were entered during model building.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 31
Time History Animation
This directive allows the user to disable the creation of the file used to animate the “time history”
displacement of the piping system. By default this directive is turned on, which instructs CAESAR II to
generate a file of displacements, <jobname>.XYT, for every time step. This file is used in subsequent
interactive animation sessions by the user. Note, however, that the size of this file is dependent on the size
of the model and the number of time steps analyzed. It may therefore be advantageous from a “disk usage”
point of view not to create this file. To instruct CAESAR II not to create this file, turn this setting off.
Dynamic Example Input Text
This directive allows the user to control how much example text is placed in “new” dynamic input files.
By default, CAESAR II places example text and spectrum definitions in the input stream of “new” dynamic
input files. Once a user is familiar with the input, this example text may be undesirable. This directive
allows the user to vary how much of this example text is incorporated in the input.
MAX  This setting is the default and instructs CAESAR II to place all of the examples and spectrum
definitions in the input stream of “new” dynamic input files.
NONE This directive eliminates all of the example text and all of the built in spectrum definitions. This
setting is intended for experienced users.
SPEC This setting eliminates all of the example text, but leaves the predefined spectrum definition. This
means that the built in spectrum definitions (El Centro etc.) will still be defined, and available for use.
Memory Allocated
This setting modifies the Windows registry to increase the amount of RAM available to CAESAR II.
Setting this directive to a number greater than the available RAM will cause Windows to use Virtual
Memory (Hard Disk Space to be used as RAM) to be used. This may slow the program, however, and is
normally recommended only for very large piping models.
User ID
When more than one workstation attempts to the CAESAR II data in the same directory at the same time it
causes a corruption of the control file in the data directory, which may cause abnormal program execution.
Therefore, in situations where there may be more than one concurrent user running CAESAR II in a given
data directory each user (or more exactly, each workstation) should enter a threecharacter User ID in this
field. This creates a separate control file for each User ID to allow simultaneous access of the CAESAR II
data within the same directory.
Note: This User ID is not a password and is specific to the computer requiring access and not to the
user.
Disable "File Open" Graphic Thumbnail
This directive disables the graphic thumbnail plot in the File Open dialog boxes. The graphics thumbnail
plots a small image of the model as a single line drawing. On some slower, memory limited processors, or
when scanning very large models, this thumbnail graphic may take a few seconds to plot the model. To
prevent this delay check this box to turn off the graphics.
32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Disable Undo/Redo Ability
It may be desirable on some installations to disable the UNDO/REDO feature of the input module. With
UNDO/REDO enabled, CAESAR II can process a job approximately onehalf the size of that which can be
processed when UNDO/REDO is disabled (for similar memory settings). Likewise, with UNDO/REDO
enabled, the input module speed may be reduced.
Enable Autosave
When this option is checked, CAESAR II will automatically save the piping input at specified intervals.
Autosave Time Interval
This value (in minutes) is the time interval used to perform the autosave function. Autosave will be
initiated every "X" minutes, where the value of "X" is specified in this edit box.
Prompted Autosave
When this option is checked, CAESAR II will prompt the user, at the specified time interval, to save the
input. If this option is not checked, the input will be saved automatically at the specified time intervals
(assuming autosave is enabled).
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 33
Set/Change Password
The Password button provides the user with the option of providing a password protection scheme for the
configuration file. By setting a password on the primary configuration file (done by setting the default data
directory to the CAESAR II program directory), a corporate standard can be enforced throughout the
network. Subsequent use of the configuration module in other data directories will allow modification
only of display or other environment directives (i.e., those that do not affect calculated results).
When this button is clicked, a secondary window is displayed with four possible selections:
New Password
Access Protected Data
Change Password
Remove Password
Access Protected Data
This option is accessible once a password exists. Assuming the correct password is given for access, the
user is then allowed to modify “protected” directives. The use of this option is not necessary if there is no
previously specified password. If no password has been set, all directives can be modified by the user.
New Password
Once a password has been entered, the user has the ability to change configuration settings from the
program directory, or alter or remove the password. When entering a new password the user is prompted
for the new password a second time to ensure the password was typed as expected by the user the first
time.
Change Password
The current password may be changed at any time by a user who has authorization (he/she must enter the
correct existing password for access to this directive).
Once a password has been set, all computation controls, stress directives, and any other directives which
could affect the CAESAR II computations are disabled and cannot be changed by the user. All protected
directive labels, edit boxes, and default buttons are grayed out when disabled.
Remove Password
The current password may be removed at any time by a user with authorization to do so (he/she must enter
the correct existing password for access to this directive). Once a password has been removed, all
directives in CONFIGURE/SETUP are modifiable by the user from any directory where he/she has read/write
access rights.
34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Units File Operations
The active units file as specified in the configuration file is used in conjunction with all new input files
and all existing output files in the given data directory. The units file specified in the configuration file
will not modify the units in an existing CAESAR II input file Convert Input to New Units.
Make Units File
The user may create a custom units file or review an existing units file by choosing TOOLS /MAKE UNITS FILE
from the CAESAR II Main Menu. An explanation of each input field and button under this option follows.
Review Existing Units File
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 35
Make Units File Dialog
Clicking the Review Existing Units File button highlights a list box to the right that contains all existing
units files located in both the data directory and the program directory. Choose the units file to review
from the list, then click the View/Edit File button to proceed. A window will display (see below)
containing all CAESAR II dimensional items, their internal units, the conversion factor between the internal
units and the userspecified units, and the user’s units.
Review Existing Units Dialog
Create a New Units File
36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Units Maintenance
Clicking the Create a New Units File button creates a new units file and activates the next two items
described below. When all items are completed choose the View/Edit File button to proceed. A window
will appear in which the entries for the user's units and the conversion factor can be edited. If the user
defined units for a given item exists in the list then there is no need to choose a conversion factor as it will
be updated automatically. If a new set of units is desired (miles in the length category for instance) then
the user may type in (or select from the drop down list) the new unit name (mi.) and the new conversion
factor (.00001578 in this example).
Create New Units Dialog
Existing File to Start From
In CAESAR II a new units file is created by using an existing units file as a template. Choose an existing
units file from the list. It is simplest to choose a file that has many units in common with the file to be
created.
New Units File Name
A unique file name must be entered here without the extension.
View/Edit File
Click this button to proceed once all activated lists on the Create New Units dialog have been completed.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 37
Convert Input to New Units
The user may convert an existing input file to a new set of units by choosing TOOLS / CONVERT INPUT TO NEW
UNITS from the CAESAR II Main Menu. A window will be created that contains the following three input
fields:
Units File Conversion Dialog
Name of the Input File to Convert
Type the full path name followed by the input file name (including the ._a extension) to be converted. The
Browse button to the right of this text box may be used to choose the appropriate input file.
Name of the Units File to Use
Select the name of the appropriate units file from the list provided.
Name of the Converted File
Type the full path name followed by the input file name that corresponds to the new input file.
Caution: Clicking the Browse button here and picking an existing ._a file the converted file will overwrite
the existing ._a file chosen from the list.
38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Material Database
CAESAR II provides a material database (accessed with TOOL/MATERIAL DATABASE from the MAIN MENU listing
physical properties and codedependent allowable stresses of more than 300 materials. These materials can
be edited and additional materials can be added to the database by the user.
Note: It is incumbent upon the user to check material allowables and other physical property data for the
particular code being used. While COADE attempts to keep the material database uptodate the codes are
subject to change frequently and the accuracy of the database is not guaranteed. Below is an explanation
of the input fields for the Material Database.
Material  Add
To add a new material spreadsheet to the database. This command saves any data currently shown on the
spreadsheet and clears the spreadsheet for a new entry. At least a material number and code must be given
for the data to be saved.
Material  Delete
This operation deletes the entire material spreadsheet from the database. The user may choose the
spreadsheet to delete from the list which contains only userdefined database spreadsheets. The user
cannot delete the material database spreadsheets supplied with the CAESAR II program.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 39
Material  Edit
To edit an existing material spreadsheet in the database. A window will appear from which the user must
either type the name of the material or pick the material from the list. The piping code ID on the right side
corresponds to the piping code ID on the piping input spreadsheet when allowables are chosen.
Material Database Editor Displaying Data for A106B
Number
Enter a number by which the material is to be referenced. The number must be between 101 and 699
inclusive and should not already be a reference for another material.
Name
Enter the material name as listed in the applicable code.
40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Applicable Piping Code
Enter the CAESAR II piping code number for the material. A list of the piping code numbers for the various
codes are listed below.
ALL B31.5 NAVY 505 Stoomwezen FDBR
B31.1 B31.8 CAN Z662 RCCM C BS 7159
B31.1 1967 B31.11 BS 806 RCCM D UKOOA
B31.3 ASME NC Swedish 1 CODETI IGE/TD/12
B31.4 ASME ND Swedish 2 Norwegian TBK6 DNV
Eff, Cf, z
This factor is necessary for various piping codes as defined below:
STOOMWEZEN  The cyclic reduction factor, referred to in the code as Cf.
NORWEGIAN  This is the circumferential weld strength factor, “z”. If not entered, it defaults to 1.0.
BS 7159  This field is the ratio of the design stress sd, in the circumferential (hoop) direction to the
design stress in the longitudinal direction. Since design stress is defined in Sec. 4.3 of the code as:
od Æ = ed * ElamÆ, sd x = ed * Elamx
and design strain should be the same for both directions, this entry will also be the ratio of the moduli of
elasticity
ElamÆ (hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal).
If left blank, a value of 1.0 will be used.
Density
Enter the density of the material.
Minimum Temperature Curve (AD)
As defined by B31.3 (Section 323.2.2), some carbon steels are limited to a “minimum metal” temperature
as shown in Figure 323.2.2. This cell is used to specify which curve should be used to check this material.
If this code section is applicable, specify either A, B, C, or D. If this code section is not applicable, leave
this cell blank. Note that this information is not currently used by CAESAR II.
FAC
A factor necessary for various piping codes as defined below:
Stoomwezen—This value should be either 0.44 or 0.5 and is used in computing the equilibrium stresses as
discussed in Section 5.2 of the code. The value of 0.5 can be used for steel if the design and fabrication are
such that stress peaks are avoided.
Norwegian (units: 10
6
) Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature “Rm”. If not entered, this
factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
Chapter 2 Configuration and Environment 41
Poisson's Ratio
For Metals only.
Enter the value to be used for Poisson’s Ratio for this material.
Temperature
In this field enter the temperatures corresponding to the database values you will add to the right. In the
database supplied with CAESAR II all temperatures are in 100°F increments. Note that some of the codes
list physical property values in 50°F increments, therefore small discrepancies may occur between
CAESAR II and a given code because of the interpolation of data.
Exp. Coeff.
Enter the expansion coefficient at the corresponding temperature. This coefficient must be multiplied by
10
6
F prior to being input here.
(ex. An expansion coefficient of 1.2 x 10
5
in/in/F would be input as 12).
Allowable Stress
Input the code allowable stress corresponding to the temperature to the left.
Elastic Modulus
This is the Modulus of Elasticity corresponding to the temperature to the left.
Yield Stress
This is the Yield Stress corresponding to the temperature to the left.
Ult Tensile Stress
BS 806—Mean Stress to Failure for design life at temperature
Swedish Method 1—Creep Rupture Stress at temperature.
Stoomwezen—Rrg average creep stress to produce 1% permanent set after 100,000 hours at temperature
(vm).
IGE/TD/12  Ultimate Tensile Strength
Norwegian  (UNITS: lb./sq.in.) Material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature "Rm". If not
entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
1
This chapter illustrates how to enter job parameters through the program's menus, fields, and commands.
In This Chapter
Piping Spreadsheet Data..............................................................2
Auxiliary Fields  Component Information .................................14
Auxiliary Fields  Boundary Conditions......................................31
Nozzles........................................................................................48
Auxiliary Fields  Imposed Loads ...............................................58
Auxiliary Fields  Piping Code Data ...........................................62
Available Commands ..................................................................79
C H A P T E R 3
Piping Screen Reference
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Piping Spreadsheet Data
Help Screens and Units
The question mark key <?> or the <F1> function key if pressed while in any of the input data cells, will
produce interactive help text for that particular input item. Additionally, while resting the cursor on a field,
a tool tip indicating the current units will appear.
From
The FROM NODE number defines the starting end of the element. Node numbers must be numeric,
ranging from 1 to 32000. Normally, the FROM NODE number is “duplicated forward” by CAESAR II from
the preceding element. The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the
same node number more than once in the model.
To
The TO NODE number defines the end of the current element. Node numbers must be numeric, ranging
from 1 to 32,000. The node numbers may be changed by the user, who should take care not to use the
same node number more than once in the model.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 3
Name
The Name check box is used to assign nonnumeric names to node points. Doubleclicking this check box
activates an auxiliary spreadsheet where names, of up to 10 characters, can be assigned to the From and/or
To nodes. These names will show up in place of the node numbers in graphic plots and reports (possibly
truncated in 80 column reports).
DX
Delta X (DX) defines the element's projected length along the global X direction.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length]—[length]—[fraction] formats (such as feet  inch  fraction or
meter  decimal  centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication,
and division may be used as well as exponential format.
Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.
DY
Delta Y (DY) defines the element's projected length along the global Y direction.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length]—[length]—[fraction] formats (such as feet  inch  fraction or
meter  decimal  centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication,
and division may be used as well as exponential format.
Enter the DISTANCE between the "TO" and the "FROM" node along the direction specified.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
DZ
Delta Z (DZ) defines the element's projected length along the global Z direction.
CAESAR II accepts [compound length]—[length]—[fraction] formats (such as feet  inch  fraction or
meter  decimal  centimeters) as valid input values in most cells. Simple forms of addition, multiplication,
and division may be used as well as exponential format.
Enter the DISTANCE between the TO and the FROM node along the direction specified.
Examples for DX, DY, DZ Fields
Element Cosines
Element Length
Enter the distance between the TO and the FROM node.
Element Direction Cosines
Direction vector or direction cosines which define the centerline of the element.
For an element aligned with the "X" axis,
Cos X ..... 1.0
Cos Y ..... <Blank>
Cos Z ..... <Blank>
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 5
For an element aligned with the "Y" axis,
Cos X ..... <Blank>
Cos Y ..... 1.0
Cos Z ..... <Blank>
For an element aligned with the "Z" axis,
Cos X ..... <Blank>
Cos Y ..... <Blank>
Cos Z ..... 1.0
Element Offsets
Element Offsets are used to correct an element's modeled dimensions back to its actual dimensions.
1 Activate by doubleclicking the Offsets check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by
doubleclicking a second time.
2 Specify the distances from the TO node's position in 3D space to the actual TO end of the element.
3 Specify the distances from the FROM node’s position in 3D space to the actual FROM end of the
element.
Note: Any offset direction distances left blank default to zero.
Thermal expansion is “0” for the offset portion of an offset element. No element flexibility is generated
for the offset portion of the element. A common usage for the offset element is shown in the following
figure:
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Pipe Section Data
Diameter
The Diameter field is used to specify the pipe diameter. Normally, the nominal diameter is entered, and
CAESAR II converts it to the actual outer diameter necessary for the analysis. There are two ways to
prevent this conversion: use a modified UNITS file with the Nominal Pipe Schedules turned off, or enter
diameters whose values are off slightly from a nominal size (in English units the tolerance on diameter is
0.04 in.). Use <F1> to obtain additional information and the current units for this input field. Available
nominal diameters are determined by the active pipe size specification, set via the configuration program.
The following are the available nominal diameters.
ANSI Nominal Pipe ODs, in inches (file ap.bin)
½ ¾ 1 1 ½ 2 2 ½ 3 3 ½ 4 5 6 8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32
34 36 42
JIS Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file jp.bin)
15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150
200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650
DIN Nominal Pipe ODs, in millimeters (file dp.bin)
15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200
250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400
1600 1800 2000 2200
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 7
Wt/Sch
The Wall Thickness/Schedule field is used to specify the thickness of the pipe. Normal input consists of a
schedule indicator (such as S, XS, or 40), which will be converted to the proper wall thickness by
CAESAR II. If actual thickness is entered, CAESAR II will accept it as entered. Available schedule indicators
are determined by the active piping specification, set via the configuration program. The available
schedules are listed below.
ANSI B36.10 Steel Nominal Wall Thickness Designation:
S  Standard
XS  Extra Strong
XXS  Double Extra Strong
ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Numbers:
10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
ANSI B36.19 Stainless Steel Schedules:
5S 10S 40S 80S
JIS PIPE SCHEDULES
1990 Steel Schedules:
10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
1990 Stainless Steel Schedules:
5S 10S 40S
DIN PIPE SCHEDULES
none
Note: Only the s (standard) schedule applies to wall thickness calculations for DIN.
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
+Mill Tol %
The Positive Mill Tolerance is is only enabled when IGE/TD/12 is active, and is used when the Base
Stress/Flexibility On directive of the Special Execution Options is set to Plus Mill Tolerance. In that
case, piping stiffness and section modulus is based on the nominal wall thickness, increased by this
percentage. The user may change this value on an element by element basis.
Mill Tol %
The Negative Mill Tolerance is read in from the configuration file for use in minimum wall thickness
calculations. Also, for IGE/TD/12, this value is used when the Base Stress/Flexibility On directive of the
Special Execution Options is set to Plus Mill Tolerance. In that case, piping stiffness and section modulus
is based on the nominal wall thickness, decreased by this percentage. The user may change this value on
an element by element basis.
SeamWelded
This directive is only activated when the IGE/TD/12 code is active. This is used to indicate when straight
pipes are seam welded and affects the Stress Intensification Factor calculations for that pipe section due to
Seam Welded fabrication.
Corrosion
Enter the corrosion allowance to be used order to calculate a reduced section modulus. A “setup file”
directive is available to consider all stress cases as corroded.
Insul Thk
Enter the thickness of the insulation to be applied to the piping. Insulation applied to the outside of the
pipe will be included in the dead weight of the system, and in the projected pipe area used for wind load
computations. If a negative value is entered for the insulation thickness, the program will model refractory
lined pipe. The thickness will be assumed to be the thickness of the refractory, inside the pipe.
Temperatures
There are nine temperature fields, to allow up to nine different operating cases. Temperature values are
checked (by the error checker) to insure they are within the code allowed ranges. Users can exceed the
code ranges by entering the expansion coefficient in the temperature field in units of length/length. The
expansion coefficient can be a useful method of modeling cold spring effects. Also when material 21(user
defined material) enter temperature *expansion coefficient as in the example below.
Values entered in the temperature field whose absolute values are less than the Alpha Tolerance are taken
to be thermal expansion coefficients, where the Alpha Tolerance is a configuration file parameter and is
taken to be 0.05 by default. For example; if the user wanted to enter the thermal expansion coefficient
equivalent to 11.37in./100ft., the calculation would be:
11.37in./100ft. * 1 ft./ 12in. = .009475 in./in.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 9
This would be entered into the appropriate Temperature field.
Note: A cut short is no more than reducing a pipe element's length to zero (for example; if we wanted
8.5 cm of cold spring we could put in an 8.5 cm long element and then thermally shrink its length to zero).
This allows the cold spring to be manipulated as an individual thermal case rather than as a concentrated
force.
Access to operating conditions 4 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input
screen, accessible via the Ellipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature and
Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be kept open or closed for the convenience of the user.
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Pressures
There are ten pressure fields, to allow up to nine operating, and one hydrotest, pressure cases. When
multiple pressures are entered, the user should be particularly careful with the set up of the analysis load
cases, and should inspect CAESAR II's recommendations carefully before proceeding.
Access to operating pressures 3 through 9 is granted through the Extended Operating Conditions input
screen, accessible via the Ellipses Dots button directly to the right of the standard Temperature and
Pressure input fields. This dialog box may be retained open or closed at the convenience of the user.
Entering a value in the HydroPress field signals CAESAR II to recommend a Hydrotest load case.
Enter the design gage pressure (i.e. the difference between the internal and external pressures).
Note: CAESAR II addresses negative pressures as follows:
 the absolute value of the longitudinal pressure stress (PD/4t) term will be added to the appropriate code
equations
 pressure thrust forces applied to expansion joint ends will be compressive.
 buckling is not addressed in CAESAR II.
Note: The BOURDON (pressure elongation) EFFECT is "OFF" by default. (It is assumed to be non
conservative.) Users wishing to activate the BOURDON EFFECT may do so via the Special Execution
Options.
The BOURDON EFFECT is ALWAYS considered in the analysis of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic pipe,
Material id=20.
Piping Materials
Material Name
Materials are entered either by name or number. All available material names and their CAESAR II material
numbers are displayed in the drop list. Since this list is quite long, entering a partial material name (such
as A106) allows the user to select from matching materials. Numbers 117 correspond to the generic
materials, without code allowable stresses. Material 18 represents the cold spring element for “cut short”
and material 19 represents the cold spring element for “cut long.” Material 20 is used to define Fiberglass
Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe. FRP Pipe requires slightly different material modeling and the spreadsheet
changes to accommodate the difference. Analysis of fiberglass pipe is described in greater detail in
Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.
When a material has been selected from the database, the physical properties as well as the allowable
stresses are obtained and placed on the spreadsheet. At any later time, if the temperature or piping code is
changed, these allowable stress values are automatically updated.
Material Properties
Modulus of Elasticity, Poisson's Ratio, and Pipe Density fields are automatically filled in when a
material number is entered. If the user wishes to override any material property extracted from the
database, simply change the value to be modified after the material number has been entered.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 11
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)
The CAESAR II FRP pipe element models an orthotropic material whose properties can be defined by:
E
a
 Axial Modulus of Elasticity
E
h
 Hoop Modulus of Elasticity
v
h/a
 Poisson's ratio of the strain in the axial direction resulting from a stress in the hoop direction.
G  Shear Modulus (Not related to the Elastic Modulus and Poisson’s ratio in the conventional
manner.)
FRP pipe is invoked from the CAESAR II element spreadsheet with a material type 20. The material name
will be immediately printed and FRP properties from the configuration file will be input on the
spreadsheet.
Some of the material parameters are renamed when the FRP material is selected: “Elastic Modulus”
changes to “Elastic Modulus/axial” and “Poisson's Ratio” changes to “E
a
/E
h
*n
h/a
”. The latter entry requires
the value of the expression: (E
a
*n
h/a)
/ E
h
(which happens to be equal to n
a/h
, Poisson's ratio of the strain in
the hoop direction resulting from a stress in the axial direction). The shear modulus G can be defined by
entering the ratio of G/E
a
(shear modulus to axial modulus) on the special execution parameters screen.
Only one ratio can be entered per job.
Because the hoop modulus is usually considerably higher than the axial modulus for FRP pipe, the
decrease in flexural stiffness at bends and intersections due to changes in the circular crosssection is
typically negligible, and so a default flexibility factor of 1 is used for these components. Similarly, since
the fatigue tests performed by Markl on steel pipe will likely have no bearing on FRP design, an SIF of 2.3
is applied for all fittings. CAESAR II uses these recommendations for all FRP fittings unless specifically
overridden by the user. This can be overridden on a pointbypoint basis, or by forcing all calculations to
adhere to the requirements of the governing code (through a CAESAR II configuration parameter). Note
that if the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes are in effect, all SIFs and flexibility factors will be calculated as per
that code regardless of the configuration parameter settings.
Densities
Pipe Density
The appropriate pipe density is filled in automatically when a proper material number is input. This value
may be overridden by the user at any time. It will then be the user’s value that gets columnduplicated
through the remainder of the input.
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Insulation Density
Enter the weight density of the insulation on a per unit volume basis. (If the insulation thickness specified
above is negative, this field is the weight of the refractory lining, on a per unit volume basis.)
If left blank then CALCIUM SILICATE is assumed for insulation having a density of: 6.655E3. Insure that
this "assumed" value is appropriate for the current application. Refractory densities are much higher than
insulation densities and could lead to under sized restraints. Sample density values for both insulation and
refractory materials are listed below.
MATERIAL DENSITY
(lb/cu.in.)
AMOSITE ASBESTOS .009259
CALCIUM SILICATE .006655
CAREYTEMP .005787
FIBERGLASS (OWEN/CORNING) .004051
FOAMGLASS/CELLULAR GLASS .004630
HIGH TEMP .01389
KAYLO 10 (TM) .007234
MINERAL WOOL .004919
PERLITE / CELOTEMP 1500 .007523
POLY URETHANE .001273
STYRO FOAM .001042
SUPER X .01447
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 13
Densities for some typical refractory materials are given below:
MATERIAL DENSITY
(lb./cu.in.)
A.P. GREEN GREENCAST 94 .09433
A.P. GREEN KRUZITE CASTABLE .08681
A.P. GREEN MC30 .08391
A.P. GREEN MC22 .07234
A.P. GREEN KASTSET .06655
A.P. GREEN KASTOLITE 25 .05208
A.P. GREEN VSL35AST 94 .02257
B & W KAOCRETE B .05787
B & W KAOCRETE 32C .08333
B & W KAOTAB 95 .09549
B & W KAOLITE 2200 .03241
B & W KAOLITE 2200HS .04745
B & W KAOLITE 2500LI. .03472
Fluid Density
When the internal fluid the piping system transports would significantly effect the weight loads, the fluid
density should be specified. When the specific gravity of the fluid is known, it can be entered here instead
of the density, e.g. .85SG. Specific gravities are converted to the appropriate densities immediately on
input. Note that to enter specific gravity, follow the numeric value with the letters SG (no spaces); this
value will then be converted to density.
Note: In the default ENGLISH units system, densities are entered in pounds per cubic inch.
14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Auxiliary Fields  Component Information
Bends
Activate by doubleclicking the Bend check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking a second time.
Radius
CAESAR II makes the long radius bend calculation whenever a bend is input. If the user wishes to use some
other bend radius the new bend radius can be entered in this field.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 15
Type
For most codes, this refers to the number of attached flanges, and can be selected from the drop list. If
there are no flanges on the bend then leave the Type field blank. A bend should be considered “flanged” if
there is any heavy/rigid body within 2 diameters of the bend that will significantly restrict the bends
ability to ovalize.
When using the BS 7159 or UKOOA Codes with Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) pipe, this entry
refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3. These laminate types are
All chopped strand mat (CSM) constructing with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
The Laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS
7159 and UKOOA Codes only.
Angle
The angle to a point on the bend curvature. The user may place additional nodes at any point on the bend
curvature provided the added nodes are not within 5 degrees of each other. (The 5 degree nodespacing
limit may be changed via the configuration file if necessary.) Note that the element TO node is always
physically located at the far end of the bend. By default CAESAR II places a node at the midpoint of the
bend (Designated by the letter M in this field), as well as at the 0degree position (start) of the bend if
possible.
Node
Node number to be associated with the extra point on the bend. CAESAR II places unique node numbers in
these fields whenever a bend is initiated. New, unique node numbers must be assigned to the points
whenever the user adds points on the bend curvature. If numbering by 5’s and the TO node number for the
bend element is 35, a logical choice for the node number for an added node at 30 degrees on the bend
would be 34. The added nodes on the bend can be treated like any other nodes in the piping system. Nodes
on the bend curvature may be restrained, displaced, or placed at the intersection of more than two pipes.
Nodes on a bend curvature are most commonly used as an intersection for a dummy leg, or for the location
of a restraint. All nodes defined in this manner will be plotted at the tangent intersection point for the
bend.
16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Miter Points
Number of cuts in the bend if mitered.
The bend SIF scratch pad may be invoked from the pipe spreadsheet by choosing Kaux  Review SIFs at
Bend Nodes. When the user enters a valid mitered bend node number, CAESAR II tells the user if the
mitered bend input is closely or widely spaced. If the bend is determined to be widely spaced and the
number of miter cuts is greater than 1, then it is recommended that the bend be broken down into “n”
single cut widely spaced miters, where “n” is the total number of cuts in the bend. The number of cuts and
the radius of the bend are all that is required to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities for the bend as defined
in the B31 codes. The bend radius and the bend miter spacing are related by the following equations:
Closely Spaced Miters
R = S / (2 tan u)
q = Bend Angle / (2 n) where n = number of miter cuts
Widely Spaced Miters
R = r2 (1.0 + cot q) / 2.0
r2 = (ri + ro) / 2.0
u = Bend Angle / 2.0
Fitting Thickness
Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness
is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than
the inside diameter of the matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are made
based on the properties of the matching pipe as defined by the codes.
The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors  once as Tn, and once
when determining the mean crosssectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility
characteristic (h):
h = (Tn)(R) / (r
2
)
Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting
R = Bend radius
r = Mean crosssectional radius of matching pipe
= (OD  WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe
WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 17
Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the
matching pipe for the calculation of the mean crosssectional radius of the pipe (the WT value). More
specifically, the individual codes use the two wall thicknesses as follows:
For Tn: For Mean Radius
Calculation:
B31.1 Fitting Fitting
B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe
Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe
NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting
B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting
SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe
BS 806 N/A N/A
STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A
RCCM C/D Matching pipe Matching Pipe
CODETI Fitting Fitting
NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting
FDBR Fitting Fitting
BS 7159 Fitting Fitting
UKOOA Fitting Fitting
IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting
The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix calculations;
however, note that the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.
18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
KFactor
Normally the bend flexibility factor is calculated as per the requirements of the active code. The user can
override this calculation by entering a value in this field.
SeamWelded
Used by the IGE/TD/12 piping code to calculate the stress intensification factors due to seam welded
elbow fabrication as opposed to extruded elbow fabrication. This directive is only available when the
IGE/TD/12 piping code is active.
Rigid Elements
Activate by doubleclicking the Rigid check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate by double
clicking a second time.
Enter the rigid element weight. This value should always be zero or positive and should not include the
weight of any insulation or fluid.
CAESAR II automatically includes 1.0 times the fluid weight of equivalent straight pipe.
CAESAR II automatically includes 1.75 times the insulation weight of equivalent straight pipe.
Rigid elements with zero weight are considered to be modelling constructs and do not have fluid or
insulation weight added.
The rigid element stiffness is proportional to the matching pipe, i.e. a 13 in. long 12 in. diameter rigid
element is stiffer than a 13 in. long 2 in. diameter rigid element. This fact should be observed when
modelling rigid elements that are part of a small pipe/large vessel, or small pipe/heavy equipment model.
The stiffness properties are computed using 10 times the entered thickness of the rigid element. For
additional details see Chapter 6 of this manual.
The length must be entered in the Delta Length field (DX, DY, DZ).
See the discussion of the valve and flange database (see "Valve/Flange Database" on page 81) for the
automatic input of these types of components.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 19
Expansion Joints
Activate by doubleclicking the Expansion Joint check box on the pipe element spreadsheet. Deactivate
by doubleclicking a second time.
Zero Length Expansion Joints
Used to model hinged and gimballed joints. Leave the DX, DY, and DZ fields blank or zero. Define
completely flexible stiffnesses as 1.0, and completely rigid stiffness as 1.0E12. All stiffnesses must be
entered.
Finite Length Expansion Joints
The DX, DY, and DZ fields should describe the change in dimensions required to get from one end of the
flexible bellows connection to the other. The transverse and bending stiffnesses are directly related for
finite length joints. The user should input only one of these stiffnesses. CAESAR II will calculate the other
stiffness automatically based on flexible length, effective ID, and the other stiffness. It is recommended
that the user enter the transverse stiffness and leave the bending stiffness blank.
20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Bellows Stiffness Properties
If the element length is zero then all stiffnesses should be defined by the user. If the element length is not
zero then either the bending or the transverse stiffness should be left blank. CAESAR II will automatically
calculate the stiffness not entered. (For rubber expansion joints, all stiffnesses may be entered.)
If the torsional stiffness value is not specified, CAESAR II will use a default value of .
Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are to be used
in a finite length expansion joint model should be multiplied by (4) before being used in any piping
program. Bending "STIFFNESSES" from EJMA (and from most expansion joint manufacturers) that are
to be used in a ZERO length expansion joint model should be used without modification.
Use (1.0) for bellows stiffnesses that are completely flexible.
Use (1.0E12) for rigid bellows stiffnesses.
Zero Length expansion joints can be used in many modelling applications to define struts, hinged ends,
etc. The orientation of zero length expansion joints is taken from the element that precedes the expansion
joint providing the "TO" node of the proceeding element is equal to the "FROM" node on the expansion
joint element. If the preceeding element does not go "INTO" the expansion joint, then the orientation will
be taken from the element that follows the expansion joint providing it properly "LEAVES" the joint.
Effective ID
The effective inside diameter for pressure thrust (from the manufacturer’s catalog). For all load cases
including pressure CAESAR II will calculate the pressure “thrust force” tending to blow the bellows apart
(provided the pressure is positive). If left blank, or zero, then no axial thrust force due to pressure will be
calculated. Many manufacturers give the effective area of the expansion joint: Aeff. The Effective ID is
calculated from the effective area by:
Effective ID = (4Aeff / t)
1/2
Reducers
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 21
Activate or deactivate this option by doubleclicking the Reducer check box on the piping element
spreadsheet.
Optionally, enter the TO END Diameter 2, Thickness 2, and Alpha values of the reducer. The FROM
END diameter and wall thickness of the reducer element will be taken from the current piping element
spreadsheet.
CAESAR II will construct a concentric reducer element made of ten pipe cylinders, each of a successively
larger (or smaller) diameter and wall thickness over the element length. CAESAR II will calculate SIFs
according to the current piping code (see Code Compliance Considerations in the CAESAR II Technical
Reference Manual for more information) and apply these internally to the Code Stress Calculations. These
SIFs are dependent on the slope of the reducer transition (among other codespecific considerations),
labeled Alpha in the figure above. If Alpha is left blank the program will calculate this value based on the
change in pipe diameter over 60% of the entered element length. If entered, Diameter 2 and Thickness 2
will be carried forward when the next pipe element is created as Diameter and Wt/Sch. If not specified,
Diameter 2 and Thickness 2 will be assumed equal to those values entered as Diameter and Wt/Sch on the
following element spreadsheet.
22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The Piping Error Checker will report the value of alpha used by CAESAR II (see above picture) if no
value for alpha is entered on the input spreadsheet.
Diameter 2
Optionally enter the diameter of the TO END of the reducer element. (The FROM END diameter is
obtained from the Diameter field of the piping spreadsheet.) The value entered will carry forward as the
diameter of the following element. Nominal values are converted to actual values if that feature is active.
If left blank, the program will calculate "Alpha" using the diameter from the following element as
Diameter 2.
Thickness 2
Enter the wall thickness of the "TO END of the reducer element. (The FROM END thickness is obtained
from the Wall Thickness/Schedule field of the piping spreadsheet.) The entered value will carry forward
as the wall thickness of the following element. Nominal values are converted to actual values if that
feature is active.
Alpha
Alpha is the slope of the reducer transition in degrees. If left blank, the value will be set from an
estimated slope equal to the arc tangent X [ 1/2(the change in diameters) (60% of the entered reducer
length)].
R1
Enter the transition radius for the large end of the reducer, as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8 of IGE/TD/12
Code (enabled only when IGE/TD/12 is active).
R2
Enter the transition radius for the large end of the reducer, as shown in Appendix 4, Table 8 of IGE/TD/12
(enabled only when IGE/TD/12 is active)..
SIFs & Tees
Activate by doubleclicking the SIFs and Tees check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate
by doubleclicking a second time.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 23
There are two basic component types:
Three element “intersection” components, and
Two element “joint” components.
A fully defined intersection model requires that three pipes frame into the intersection node, and that two
of them are colinear. Partial intersection assumptions are made for junctions where the user has coded
one or two pipes into the intersection node, but these models are not recommended. Two element “joint”
components can be formed equally well with one or two elements framing into the node.
As usual, the intersection or joint type and properties need only be entered on one of the elements going to
the junction. CAESAR II duplicates the intersection characteristics for all other pipes framing into the
intersection. Users are urged to fully review the WARNING messages coming from CAESAR II during
error checking. These messages detail to the user any assumptions made during the assembly and
calculation of the intersection SIFs.
The available intersections and joint types are shown in the table that follows, along with the other
parameters that can affect the stress intensification factors for the respective component.
24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Input Items Optionally Effecting SIF Calculations
1 Reinforced Fabricated Tee Pad Thk Ftg Ro CROTCH
2 Unreinforced Fabricated Tee
Ftg Ro CROTCH
3 Welding Tee
Ftg Ro CROTCH
4 Sweepolet
CROTCH
5 Weldolet
CROTCH
6 Extruded Welding Tee
Ftg Ro CROTCH
7 Girth Butt Weld
Weld d or ID
8 Socket Weld (No Undercut)
FILLET
9 Socket Weld (As Welded)
FILLET
10 Tapered Transition
Weld d
11 Threaded Joint
12 Double Welded SlipOn
13 Lap Joint Flange (B16.9)
14 Bonney Forge Sweepolet
15 Bonney Forge Latrolet
WELD ID
16 Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet
17 Full Encirclement Tee
Ftg Ro
WELD ID
The input data cells are defined as follows:
Pad Thk. Thickness of the reinforcing pad for reinforced fabricated or full encirclement tees, intersection
type #1 and #17 respectively. The pad thickness is only valid for these intersection types. Note that in
most piping codes the beneficial effect of the pad’s thickness is limited to 1.5 times the nominal thickness
of the header. This factor does not apply in BS 806 or Z184, and is 2.5 in the Swedish piping code. If the
thickness of a type 1or type 17 intersection is left blank or zero the SIFs for an unreinforced fabricated tee
are used.
Ftg Ro. Fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced branch connections in the ASME
and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC 330/329 intersection SIF
calculations. Setup file directives exist to invoke the WRC 330/329 calculations, and to limit the
application of the reduced branch connection rules to unreinforced fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets,
and extruded welding tees. If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch pipe.
Crotch R. The crotch radius of the formed lip on an extruded welding tee, intersection type 6. This is also
the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC330 calculations. Specifying this value when it is known can
result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the WRC 330 intersection. Basically, if the user
makes an attempt to reduce the stress riser at a fabricated intersection, by guaranteeing that there will be a
smooth transition radius from the header to the branch pipe, then he may reduce the resulting stress
intensification by a factor of 2.0.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 25
Weld(d). Defines the “average” circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pipe.
Used for Butt Welds and Tapered transitions. Note that this is the average, and not the maximum
mismatch. Users must themselves make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied for
their particular code.
Fillet. The fillet leg length, and is used only in conjunction with a socket weld component. For an unequal
leg fillet weld, this value is the length of the shorter leg. Note that if a fillet leg is given, both socket weld
types result in the same SIF. See appendix D of the B31 piping codes for further clarification.
Weld ID. The following are valid entries: 0 and 1. 0 indicates an as welded fitting, 1 indicates a finished or
ground flush fitting. This entry is used for Bonney Forge sweepolets and insert weldolets, as well as butt
welds in the Swedish piping code.
B1. This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This
entry is only applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping.
For the BS 7159 Code, the B1 field is used to enter the pressure stress multiplier (m), if other than as per
the code requirements. For straight pipe, m = 1.0; for bends and tees, m is defined in Figures 7.1 and 7.12
of the BS 7159 Code.
B2. This entry defines the primary stress index to be used for the given node on the current element. This
entry is only applicable for ASME Class 2 and 3 piping.
If omitted, B1 and B2 are defaulted as shown as follows:
Straight Pipe: B1=0.5 B2=1.0
Curved Pipe: B1=0.1+0.4h; but not <0 or >0.5
B2=1.30/h
2/3
; but not <1.0; h=tR/rm
2
Intersections: B1=0.5
ButtWelded Tees:
B2b=0.4(R/T)
2/3
but not <1.0
B2r=0.5(R/T)
2/3
but not <1.0
Branch Connections: (r<0.5R)
B2b=0.50 C2b but not <1.0
B2r=0.75 C2r but not <1.0
C2b=3(R/T)
2/3
(r/R)
1/2
(t/T)(r/FTG ro) but not <1.5
C2r=1.15(r/t)
1/4
but not <1.5
The SIF(IN) and SIF(OUT) fields may be used to override the CAESAR II calculated values for any
intersection. Override values only apply for the single element they are defined on. SIFs may be calculated
for partial intersections and dummy legs.
26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Note: When IGE/TD/12 is active, the SIF/TEE spreadsheet changes its appearance to accommodate
specialized specialized SIF parameters. Refer to supplementary IGE/TD/12 documentation for further
information.
SIF / Tee Node Number
Enter the node number where a Stress Intensification exists. This may be any node in the system, but is
most often at a pipe intersection or joint.
If the node is at an Intersection, stress intensification factors will be automatically calculated for all pipes
going to the intersection providing the intersection "TYPE" is specified. The intersection type needs to
only be entered once. CAESAR II will find all other pipes framing into the intersection and apply the
appropriate SIFs accordingly.
If the node is at a twopipe Joint, i.e. a butt weld, stress intensification factors will be calculated for the
two pipes going to the joint node providing the joint "TYPE" is specified. The joint type needs to only be
entered once. CAESAR II will find the other pipe completing the joint.
If the node is not at an intersection or a joint then the Type field should be left BLANK and the "USER
DEFINED" SIFs entered in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields. User entries in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields only
apply to the element on which they are defined.
User defined stress intensification factors, must be greater then or equal to one.
The user can get CAESAR II to calculate and display code defined SIFs while in the SIF scratchpad. This
scratchpad is accessed via the KAux option on the pipe spreadsheet. Parameters used in the scratchpad
may be modified so that the effects of different geometries and thicknesses can be observed. Most
changes made in the scratchpad may be automatically transferred back into the input, if desired.
If the node is on any part of a bend's curvature then the following applies:
1 User defined SIFs won't override code calculated SIFs for bends, although a SETUP file directive
exists to override this default, i.e. ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES. If this parameter appears in
the setup file then users may specify SIFs for bend "to" nodes. The SIFs so specified will apply for
the entire bend curvature.
2 User defined SIFs will apply to straight pipe going to points on a bend curvature regardless of any
parameter in the setup file. This option is commonly used to intensify injector tieins at bends, or
dummy legs, or other bend attachmenttype of supports.
UserDefined SIFS Anywhere in the Piping System
Unless the piping element is a bend, SIFs for nonintersection points are normally taken to be 1.0. If for
some reason the SIF should be greater than (1.0) the user may enter the nonunity SIF in the Intersection
Auxiliary field without specifying the intersection type. Note that a user defined SIF only acts at the node
on the current element.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 27
Stress Intensification Factors (Details)
Stress intensification factors are calculated automatically for bends and defined intersections as specified
by the applicable piping code.
The user may enter specific stress intensification factor for any point in the piping system by activating the
SIFs and Tees check box on the pipe spreadsheet. The node number where the stress is to be intensified is
entered in the first available Node field, and the inplane and outplane stress intensification factors are
entered in the SIF(i) and the SIF(o) fields, respectively. The only exception is that users cannot specify
SIFs for bend elements (unless the User Bend SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Code
defined SIFs always apply.
CAESAR II will not allow userdefined stress intensification factors to be less than 1.0.
The node to be intensified must be the To or the From node on the current element.
Stresses are only intensified at the element end going to the specified node. For example, if two pipes
frame into node 10, one going from 5 to 10, and the other from 10 to 15; and a stress intensification factor
of 2.0 for node 10 is defined on the element from 5 to 10, then the 10 end of the element from 5 to 10 will
have a stress intensification of 2.0, and the 10 end of the element from 10 to 15 will have a stress
intensification of 1.0.
User defined stress intensification factors can be used to override code calculated values for nodes at
intersections. For example, let node 40 be an intersection defined by an unreinforced fabricated tee. The
header pipes framing into the intersection go from 35 to 40 and from 40 to 45. The branch pipe framing
into the intersection goes from 175 to 40. The codecalculated values for the stress intensification factors
in the header pipes are:
SIF(i) = 4.50
SIF(o) = 3.75
and in the branch pipe are
SIF(i) = 6.70
SIF(o) = 5.58
28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Also assume that finite element analysis of the intersection showed the header stress intensification factors
to be 2.3 and 1.87, respectively, and the branch stress intensification factors to be equal to the code
recommended values, i.e. 6.70 and 5.58. To properly override the codecalculated stress intensification
factors for the header pipes, two pipe elements will have to be modified:
35 to 40 Node 40
Type:
SIF(i): 2.3
SIF(o): 1.87
40 to 15 Node 40
Type:
SIF(i): 2.3
SIF(o): 1.87
The stress intensification for the branch pipes can be calculated according to the code, so, part of the
branch pipe spreadsheet might appear:
175 to 40 NODE 40
Type: 2  Unreinforced
SIF(i):
SIF(o):
If either of the SIF fields for the header elements going to 40 were left blank, the codecalculated value
would be used in its place. This is only true where codecalculated values exist along with userspecified
values.
If the element from 110 to 115 needs the stress intensification factors for each of its ends is 2.0, then a part
of that element's spreadsheet might appear:
110 to 115 Node 110
Type:
SIF(i): 2.0
SIF(o):
Node: 115
Type:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 29
SIF(i): 2.0
SIF(o):
Leaving the outofplane stress intensification factor blank implies that it is equal to the inplane stress
intensification factor. There are no codecalculated values to override these userinput values.
The user is not permitted to override codecalculated stress intensification factors for bend elements
(unless the Allow User's Bend SIF directive is activated in the configuration file). Additionally, bend
stress intensification factors will supersede any codecalculated intersection stress intensification factors
for the same node. This characteristic allows the user to apply codecalculated intersection stress
intensification factors to dummy legs without disturbing the normal bend stress intensification factors. The
node on the dummy leg, that is also on the bend curvature, is defined as an intersection on the Intersection
SIF Scratchpad. The intersection stress intensification factors will be calculated and can be applied to the
dummy leg end that connects to the bend. Bend stress intensification factors are unchanged.
Stress intensification factors can be calculated for intersections having one, two, or three pipes framing
into it. Where two pipes form a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the larger pipe is the header
and the smaller the branch.
Where one pipe forms a partial intersection, CAESAR II assumes that the intersection is full sized.
CAESAR II will not calculate stress intensification factors for intersections having more than three pipes
framing into it.
The stress intensification factors calculated by CAESAR II can be viewed interactively from the pipe
spreadsheet by selecting either the KAUX  REVIEW SIFS AT INTERSECTION NODES menu item or the KAUX 
REVIEW SIFS AT BEND NODES menu item. One of the following SIF scratchpads will appear after typing in the
node number to review when prompted. Note that the Node must be a valid Bend node when Reviewing
SIFs at Bends.
30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
At this point the user may interactively change any of the spreadsheet data and recalculate the SIFs. This
allows the user to see the effect that changing geometries and properties have on code stress intensification
factors.
Note: CAESAR II gives the user the opportunity to transfer back to the actual model any data which
might be changed in the scratch pad.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 31
Auxiliary Fields  Boundary Conditions
Restraints
Activate the restraint auxiliary by doubleclicking on the check box. Deactivate by doubleclicking a
second time.
If more than four restraints are to be specified on one element, the additional restraints may be placed on
any other input spreadsheet.
Note Do not use restraints in these three situations:
1) Imposed Displacements
Specify displacements for the point using the Displacement Auxiliary field.
2) Flexible Nozzles
Use the Nozzles check box to open the Nozzles Auxiliary Data field to input the vessel or tank
characteristics required by WRC 297, PD 5500, or API 650 to calculate local nozzle flexibilities. Once
these flexibilities have been calculated, CAESAR II automatically inserts the necessary restraints and
flexibilities into the piping model.
3) Hangers program designed or predefined spring hangers
Use the Hangers check box to open the Hanger Auxiliary Data field.
32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Node
Node number where the restraint is to act.
Note: The node number does not have to be on the current element.
CNode
Optional connecting node. Restraints with connecting nodes can be used to tie one node in the piping
system to any other node in the system. If left blank then the restraint node is tied, via the restraint
stiffness, to a fixed point in space. If the connecting node is specified then the restraint node is tied, via the
restraint stiffness, to the connecting node.
In all cases, CNodes associate nodal degrees of freedom. Additionally, CNodes can be used to
geometrically connect different parts of a model graphically. This option is controlled via the setup file
directive Connect Geometry through CNodes (on page 18). See Chapter 2 of the this manual for
additional information on this topic.
Type
The following restraints can be activated by selecting them from the drop list in the Restraint Auxiliary
field. The use of these restraints is detailed in Chapter 3 of the CAESAR II Applications Guide.
Restraint Type Abbreviation
1 Anchor ANC
2 Translational Double Acting X, Y, or Z
3 Rotational Double Acting RX, RY, or RZ
4 Guide, Double Acting GUIDE
5 Double Acting Limit Stop LIM
6 Translational Double Acting Snubber XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB
7 Translational Directional +X, X, +Y, Y, +Z, Z
8 Rotational Directional +RX, RX, +RY, etc.
9 Directional Limit Stop +LIM,LIM
10 Large Rotation Rod XROD, YROD, ZROD
11 Translational Double Acting Bilinear X2, Y2, Z2
12 Rotational Double Acting Bilinear RX2, RY2, RZ2
13 Translational Directional Bilinear X2, +X2, Y2, etc.
14 Rotational Directional Bilinear +RX2,RX2, +RY2, etc.
15 Bottom Out Spring XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR
16 Directional Snubber +XSNB,XSNB,+YSNB, etc.
Anchor
Restraint is defined for “ALL” degrees of freedom at the node.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 33
X , Y, or Z
Translational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of
allowed free displacement along the specified degree of freedom. (i.e. a +Y restraint is restraint against
movement in the minus Y direction and is free to move in the plus Y direction).
RX, RY, or RZ
Rotational restraints may be preceded by a (+) or (). If a sign is entered, it defines the direction of allowed
free displacement along the specified degree of freedom.
Guide
Transverse restraint that may be skewed.
LIM
Limit stops are axial restraints that may be preceded by a (+) or (). If a sign is entered, it defines the
direction of allowed free displacement along the element longitudinal axis.
XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB
Snubbers are restraints that engage only during quick movements such as those induced by a shock. They
only act on the piping system in the Occasional load case. Snubbers may be preceded by a (+) or a ().
X2, Y2, Z2
Bilinear supports are restraints that have two different stiffnesses associated with them. The stiffness is
dependent upon the loading on the support. Bilinear supports may be preceded by a (+) or a ().
K2
Post yield stiffness of a bilinear restraint. When the load on the restraint exceeds Fy then the stiffness on
the restraint changes from K1 to K2. The value of K2 may be negative, modelling shallow trench or
groovetype pipeline supports. K2 VALUES OF ZERO WILL BE TREATED AS RIGID. For very small
stiffnesses enter a value of 1.0.
XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR
Spring supports that may be preceded by a (+) or a ().
"Bottom out" spring. Additional required input is the spring rate, allowed travel, and initial load. If the
allowed travel in the direction of support is exceeded, the spring "bottomsout".
X (cosx, cosy, cosz) or X (vecx, vecy, vecz)
Translational skewed restraints. May be preceded by a (+) or (). If a direction vector is entered, i.e. vecx,
vecy, vecz, CAESAR II will convert the direction vector into the corresponding cosines.
RX (cosx, cosy, cosz) or RX (vecx, vecy, vecz)
Rotational skewed restraints.
34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
XROD, YROD, ZROD
Translational, large rotation, rod or hangertype restraints. May be preceeded by a (+) or () sign to
indicate the orientation of the pivot point about which the rod swings. A (+) is assumed, and in the case of
a YROD this implies that the pivot point is above the pipe. Additional REQUIRED input is the rod or
hanger length.
XROD (COSX, COSY, COSZ) or XROD (VECX, VECY, VECZ)
Translational skewed, large rotation rod or hanger type restraint.
Stif
Stiffness associated with any support, guide, limit stop, rod or spring that can be defined as a restraint. If
left blank then the defined restraint will be considered rigid. The default rigid restraint stiffness is
1.0E12.
K1 is the initial stiffness of a bilinear restraint (i.e. X2). Any positive stiffness may be entered if the
restraint is not rigid.
Stiffnesses greatly in excess of 1.0E15 should be avoided. If a stiffness value is specified for an anchor,
the entered stiffness will apply for all (6) degrees of freedom at the anchored node.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 35
Gap
This is a multiple use field defined as follows:
TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM RX RY RZ
GAP (UNITS: ^01)  Distance along the restraint line of action the restrained node may travel
before resistance to movement begins. The gap value must be positive. For rotational restraints the gap is
given in degrees. If the translational restraint is not preceded by a sign, then the restraint is double acting
and the gap will be taken to exist for both positive and the negative displacements along the line of action
(i.e. if a 0.25 in. gap is specified at a +Y restraint, then the restrained node may move freely 0.25 in. in the
minus Y direction before restraint occurs. The gap specification does not affect the amount of free
displacement that can occur along the positive Y direction in this example).
When defining windows of allowed movement it is not uncommon to place two restraints having the same
line of action, but with different signs at the same node. This configuration is perfectly legal. The user is
cautioned to remember to form the window with signs on restraints rather than with signs on gaps. In
CAESAR II a gap is a measure of length and is always positive.
Examples:
TYPE GUI GAP 1/4 ... One quarter ^01 gap on either side of the "guided" restraint.
TYPE +Y GAP 3.0 ... Three ^01 gap BELOW the support that must be closed before the
+Y support begins acting.
TYPE RX GAP 5.0 ... Five degree gap about the X axis about which the pipe may rotate
freely before rotational restraint occurs.
TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD
Len (UNITS: ^01)  Swinging length of the rod or hanger. Distance along the restraint line of action
from the restrained node to the pivot point. The restraint swings about the pivot point. If a CNODE is
defined then the restraint swings about the CNODE. "Len" is a required entry.
TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2
K2 (UNITS: ^14 <or> ^15)  Post yield stiffness of a bilinear restraint. When the load on the
restraint exceeds Fy then the stiffness on the restraint changes from K1 to K2. The value of K2 may be
negative, modelling shallow trench or groovetype pipeline supports. K2 VALUES OF ZERO WILL BE
TREATED AS RIGID. For very small stiffnesses enter a value of 1.0.
TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR
"x" (UNITS: ^01) Travel along the spring axis before "bottomout" occurs. In the case of a typical
YSPR, this is the movement in the negative "Y" direction before the spring bottoms out.
TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB
36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
dmp  Future use intended for snubber damping value.
Mu
This is a multiple use field defined as follows:
TYPE = X Y Z GUI LIM
MU (UNITS: Unitless)  Static friction coefficient. Friction provides resistance to movement along
the direction normal to the restraint line of action. The magnitude of the friction force is equal to MU *
Fn, where Fn is the normal force on the restraint. A friction coefficient may be automatically assigned to
every new translational restraint by assigning a value to the Coefficient of Friction field (see "Coefficient
of Friction (Mu)" on page 5) in the Configure/Setup module.
TYPE = XROD YROD ZROD
Fi (UNITS: ^02 )  Initial spring load. This field should be left blank for a rigid YROD. If the
YROD is modelling a spring hanger, then the hanger stiffness should be entered into the STIF field, and
the initial cold load on the hanger should be entered here.
TYPE = X2 Y2 Z2 RX2 RY2 RZ2
Fy (UNITS: ^02 <or> ^04 )  Yield Load. If the load on the support is less than "Fy" then the initial
stiffness K1 is used. If the load on the support is greater than "Fy" then the second stiffness "K2" is used.
TYPE = XSPR YSPR ZSPR
F (UNITS: ^02 )  Initial spring cold load. This input is required, and is almost always positive.
TYPE = XSNB YSNB ZSNB
na  Not Applicable. This field is not used when the restraint TYPE is snubber.
Hangers
Activate the hangers auxiliary by doubleclicking on the check box. Deactivate by doubleclicking a
second time.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 37
Node
The node to which the hanger is connected.
CNode
The CNode, or connecting node number, is used only when the other end of the hanger is to be connected
to another point in the system, such as another pipe node.
38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Hanger Table
The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:
1. Grinnell 2. Bergen Power
3. Power Piping 4. NPS Industries
5. Lisega 6. Fronek
7. Piping Technology 8. Capitol
9. Piping Services 10. Basic Engineers
11. Inoflex 12. E. Myatt
13. SINOPEC 14. BHEL
15. Flexider 16. Carpenter & Paterson
17. Comet 18. Hydra
19. Sarathi 20. Myricks
21. China Power 22. Pipe Supports USA
23. Quality Pipe Supports
Additional design options are invoked by further modifying the hanger table number:
Add + 100 to get Extended Range
Add + 200 to get Cold Load Design
Add + 400 to get the Hot load centered if possible.
For example, to use Grinnell Springs and cold load design the user would enter:
1 + 200 = 201.
To use Grinnell “Extended Range” springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in
the middle of the hanger table, if possible, the user would enter:
1 + 100 + 200 + 400 = 701.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 39
A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger
spreadsheet, or can be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page
103).
If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all
subsequent hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger table
specified in the configuration file.
The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable
support hangers in place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outside the
manufacturers recommended range. Users should make sure that the maximum load range is available
from the manufacturer as a standard item.
Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs,
whereby the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This
method of spring design offers several advantages over the more usual hot load design:
Hanger stops are easier to remove.
There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops
are removed.
Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.
Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.
In some system configurations, operating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical
configuration resulting in this “loadreduction” is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the
bottom, turns horizontally into a nozzle connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent
to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot and cold loads
counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the anchor.
The disadvantages to cold load design are
In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value
proportional to the spring rate times the travel.
Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.
The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user.
Middle of the Table Hanger Design. Many designers prefer that the hot load be centered as close as possible
to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much “variability” either way before the spring
bottoms out when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer
modelling of piping systems, when the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or
calculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee that spring hot loads will be at the middle of
the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II
design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger
springs range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring
when it is effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within
10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one will
be used, even though its hot load is within 10% of the high end of the table load range, to get a springs hot
load close to the middle of the table.
40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table.
Some manufacturers build double spring supports to accommodate this range, and others adjust the top or
bottom travel limits to accommodate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges,
the user should make sure that the manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of the extended range
often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort support. Lisega springs do not support the "extended
range" idea. A request for extended Lisega springs results in the standard Lisega spring table and ranges.
Hanger/Can Available Space
This tells CAESAR II how much room, above or below the pipe, there is to install the hanger or can. If the
value entered by the user is negative, then CAESAR II will assume that a can is to be installed. If the value
entered is positive then CAESAR II will assume that a hanger is to be in installed. Hangers or cans will be
selected for a particular location only if they can be installed in the space allotted. The precise definition
of available space varies with the manufacturer. Drawings and tables for each manufacturer are shown at
the end of this section.
This is the available vertical clearance for the hanger or can:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 41
If the Available Space is not an important design criteria, then the field should be left blank or zero.
If the Available Space is positive, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to be above the pipe and a
hanger will be designed. If the Available Space is negative, then the vertical clearance will be assumed to
be below the pipe and a can will be designed.
When the Available Space is the governing factor in a hanger design, several smaller springs are typically
chosen in place of one large spring.
Allowable Load Variation (%)
This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If not
specified, the only limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is approximately 100%
when the hot load is smaller than the cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load.
Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating displacement in the Y direction is positive.
The default value for the load variation is 25%. The user is advised to enter this value in the Hanger Run
Control Spreadsheet before any hangers are defined. BergenPaterson is the only manufacturer that
specifically gives 25% as a design limit.
The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage variation from the hot load:
(Cold Load)  (Hot Load)
Variation =
Hot Load
or as may be more familiar:
(Travel)(Spring Rate)
Variation =
Hot Load
The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent would be entered 25.0. The
Allowable Load Variation can have different values for different hanger locations if necessary by entering
the chosen value on the individual hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design
Control Spreadsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.
42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria
This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support
Displacement Criteria is a cost saving feature that replaces springs that are not needed with rigid rods.
The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to
be supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the hanger design load is
known, an operating case is run with the hot hanger load installed to determine the travel at the hanger
location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria then a
rigid Y support is selected for the location instead of a spring.
If the Rigid Support Displacement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied.
The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or
on each individual hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the
default for all hangers not having it defined explicitly.
A typical value to be used is 0.1 in.
Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid
rods are double acting restraints which can in some cases develop large “hold down” forces that don’t
really exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this
condition develops the user should rerun the hanger design inserting single directional restraints where
rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.
Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are
usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.
Maximum Allowed Travel Limit
To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo, specify the limit in this
field. The specification of a maximum travel limit will cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support
if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer
table would have been satisfactory in every other respect.
Constant effort hangers can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed
Travel Limit. A value of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a for a particular location.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 43
No. Hangers at Location
If left blank, CAESAR II will attempt to find a single hanger that suits all design requirements at the
location. If a single hanger cannot be found, then CAESAR II will try to find a double hanger that satisfies
all design requirements. If a double hanger cannot be found, then CAESAR II will recommend a constant
effort support hanger for the location.
If the user wants to use a different upper limit on the number of springs that CAESAR II will consider for a
location, then the negative of that number should be entered in this field. For example, if the user wants to
use as few springs as possible, yet is willing to use as many as 5 springs if necessary, 5 should be entered
in the No. of Hangers field.
To directly specify the number of springs to be designed at a location, enter that number in the No. of
Hangers field.
Note: Enter only positive numbers in the No of Hangers field.
Allow Short Range Springs
CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the
selection algorithms. In some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used
unless their shorter length is required for clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared
by the user.
If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a midrange spring over a shortrange spring,
assuming they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their shortrange
counterparts.
If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the
Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet.
Operating Load
To override the operating load that CAESAR II is calculating, enter the desired value in the Operating
Load field. This value is normally entered when the user thinks that loads on a piece of equipment will be
reduced if a hanger in the vicinity of the equipment is artificially caused to carry a proportionately larger
part of the total load. This operating load is the hot load the hanger is designed to support after it
undergoes any travel due to the thermal expansion of the piping. CAESAR II’s calculated hanger operating
loads may be read from the hanger table printed in the output processor. The column title is “HOT
LOAD.” The user’s entered value will similarly show up in this table if defined. The total desired
operating load at the location should be entered. If there are two hangers specified at the location and each
should carry 500 lb., then the operating load specified should be 1,000 lb.
44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Multiple Load Case Design
The spring selection algorithm can be based on one or more operating conditions. A twopump
installation, where only one pump operates at a time, is a good application for multiple load case hanger
design.
There are currently thirteen different multiple load case design algorithms available:
Design spring per operating case #1.
Design spring per operating case #2.
Design spring per operating case #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9.
Design spring for maximum operating load.
Design spring for maximum travel.
Design spring for average load and average travel.
Design spring for maximum load and maximum travel.
The Multiple Load Case Design option can be specified at the global level in the Hanger Design
Control Data Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page 103). The globally specified option will apply for
all hanger design locations unless overridden in a specific hanger design spreadsheet.
Enter the number of operating thermal cases to be considered when sizing springs for this system in the
Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet. This value defaults to 1.0. Also enter the Multiple Load Case
Design option to be the default value (unless the design option is to be specified individually for each
hanger to be designed in the system).
Example Problem of a Multiple Load  Case Spring  Hanger Design
This example illustrates the different hanger designs that can result from the use of different multiple load
case design options.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 45
46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Free Anchor/Restraint at Node
Anchors, or restraints, simulating equipment connections that are in the immediate vicinity of the hanger
are usually freed during the hanger design restrained weight run, so that loads normally going to the
equipment nozzle are carried by the hanger. The user should enter the node number for the equipment
where the restraint to be freed acts. The corresponding “free code” may also be specified to tell CAESAR II
which of the restraint/anchor directions to be freed. For nozzles that are further removed from the hanger
usually only the Y direction should be freed.
Hangers are commonly used around equipment nozzles to support the weight of the pipe as it thermally
expands away from the nozzle. The hanger can usually be designed to take almost the full weight of the
pipe between the anchor and the hanger if the anchor is freed when making the restrained weight
calculation. The anchor is “freed” by entering its node number in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node
field. The pipe going to the anchor will be treated just like a free end (for the hanger weight calculation
only!!!). The Free Code field works with the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field to limit the actual
degrees of freedom at an anchor that are released.
The Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field works in conjunction with the Free Code field. If the Free
Code is not specified for an anchor, the anchor is assumed to be completely free for the restrained weight
run.
The “Restrained Weight” hanger design pass is the first analysis step in the hanger design, and is run
automatically by CAESAR II. The following steps comprise the “Restrained Weight” run:
1 Putting rigid Y restraints at each hanger location.
2 Removing anchors and restraints that are to be “freed.”
3 Running the weight analysis to find the hot hanger loads.
Note: Nonlinear restraints may not be freed during hanger design.
Free Code
Whenever an anchor or restraint should be released for the restrained weight run, that anchor’s node
number should be put in the Free Anchor/Restraint at Node field, and the Free Code describing the
directions to be released should be put in the Free Code field on the same hanger spreadsheet. Free Codes
are
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y direction only.
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and X directions only.
Free the anchor or restraint in the Y and Z directions only.
Free all translational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X,Y and Z)
Free all translational and rotational degrees of freedom for the anchor or restraint. (X, Y, Z, RX, RY,
and RZ)
The last option usually results in the highest adjacent hanger loads, but should only be used when the
horizontal distance between the hanger and the anchor is within about 4 pipe diameters.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 47
Predefined Hanger Data
When using the Predefined Hanger Data fields on the hanger spreadsheet, and there is more than one
hanger at the location, use the Number of Hangers field to specify the number of hangers. Then enter the
spring rate and preload applicable to a single hanger. There is no reason to try to compute the equivalent
spring rates or theoretical loads.
Predefined hanger data can be entered in one of two ways:
All information for the hanger can be input.
Only the spring rate for the hanger can be input.
If all information is input, the restraint configuration for the node is completely defined and it will not be
included in the hanger design algorithm. For a position to be completely predefined, one of the following
conditions must apply:
spring rate and theoretical cold load
constant effort support load
Spring Rate and Cold Load
The spring rate and the theoretical cold load effectively define a hanger location. If the user enters both,
then the hanger location will be completely predefined by the user and no analysis level design for the
hanger will take place.
Resetting Loads on Existing Spring Hangers
If only the spring rate is given, CAESAR II will assume that the user wants to rerate the spring at the given
location. The old spring rate should be read from the existing hanger and input directly to CAESAR II. The
Theoretical Cold Load field should be left blank for the rerate. If more than a single spring exists at the
location, then the total number of springs should be entered in the No. of Hangers field (CAESAR II
assumes that the load is distributed evenly among multiple springs at the same point).
CAESAR II will go through its normal hanger design procedure to calculate the load and travel for all
proposed hanger locations including the location with springs to be reset. The stiffness of the reset
springs will not be used for this redesign. Once CAESAR II sizes the springs, a comparison will be made
with the userentered spring rates. If the program's selected spring rate is within 5% of the user's existing
spring rate, CAESAR II will list the spring's figure number and size in the output report. If the selected
spring rate is more than 5% off the users value, no manufacturer's data will be listed. In either case,
CAESAR II will use the userentered spring rate in all following analyses. It is up to the user to confirm that
the new hot and cold loads are within the existing spring's working range.
The major use of the rerate capability is to find new installed loads for old springs. Springs might be re
rated after the shutdown of a unit that has been operating continuously for a long period, or after
mechanical or process changes have been made to a piping system.
48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Nozzles
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the
WRC 297 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second
time.
Nozzle Flexibility  WRC 297
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the
WRC 297 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking a second
time.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 49
When a nozzle node number is input, CAESAR II scans the current input data for the node and loads its
diameter and wall thickness and enters it in the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field.
Current nozzle flexibility calculations are in accordance with the Welding Research Council Bulletin No.
297, issued August 1984 for cylinder to cylinder intersections.
A valid nozzle node has the following properties:
Only a single element connects to the nozzle node.
The nozzle node is not restrained and does not have displacements specified for any of its degrees of
freedom.
Computed nozzle flexibilities are automatically included in the piping system analysis via program
generated restraints. This generation is completely transparent to the user. Six restraints are established for
each flexible nozzle input.
If a vessel node number is defined, then the vessel node acts like a connecting node for each of the six
restraints. Vessel nodes are subject to the same restrictions shown above for nozzle nodes.
Note: The user should not put a restrainer on an element between the nozzle node and any specified
vessel node. CAESAR II creates the required connectivity from the nozzle flexibility data and any user
generated stiffnesses between these two points will add erroneously to the nozzle stiffnesses.
During the error checking of the nozzle flexibilities, all useful WRC curve data is displayed on the
terminal. These values may be used to enter the illustrated nozzles in the WRC 297 bulletin. It is
sometimes helpful to know just how close a particular nozzle is to one of the several asymptotic limits, or
to a curve boundary.
50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Note: The user will only be able to see the WRC 297 computed data during the error checking process
with warning messages activated.
Each input item on the nozzle spreadsheet is discussed in detail as follows:
Nozzle Node Number
Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping
element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element
should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however,
the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the
vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on
the true centerline of the nozzle.
Vessel Node Number
Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank
node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in
space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node.
Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the vessel from the nozzle connection
to the skirt or foundation.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 51
Nozzle Diameter
Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the
nozzle.)
Nozzle Wall Thickness
Wall thickness of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the wall thickness of the pipe element used to
model the nozzle.)
Vessel Diameter
Outside diameter of the vessel.
Vessel Wall Thickness
Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the
thickness of any reinforcing pad.
Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness
Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before
nozzle stiffness calculations are performed.
Distance to Stiffener or Head
Distance along the vessel centerline, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the
closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the crosssection of the vessel against local
deformation normal to the shell surface.
Distance to OppositeSide Stiffener or Head
Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the
vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.
Vessel centerline direction vector X, Y, Z
Direction vector or direction cosines which define the centerline of the vessel. For a vertical vessel this
entry would read:
Vessel centerline direction vector X:<blank>
Vessel centerline direction vector Y: 1.0
Vessel centerline direction vector Z:<blank>
52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be collinear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error.
Vessel Temperature (Optional)
Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temperature must be paired with a
valid vessel material number. The estimated temperature is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.
Vessel Material No. (Optional)
If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel
material number can be any valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe
materials used in the spreadsheet. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank
or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used.
API 650 NOZZLES
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the
API 650 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box
a second time.
CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to appendix P of API 650, "Design of Carbon
Steel Atmospheric Oil Storage Tanks."
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 53
Nozzle Node Number
Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping
element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element
should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however,
the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the
vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on
the true centerline of the nozzle.
Tank Node Number
Node on the tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel/tank shell.
The tank node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the API stiffnesses to a point
fixed rigidly in space. If the tank node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the API stiffnesses
to the tank node.
Tank nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the tank from the nozzle connection to
the foundation.
Nozzle Diameter
Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the
nozzle.)
Nozzle Wall Thickness
Wall Thickness of the nozzle. May be different than the attached pipe wall thickness
API650 Tank Diameter
Outside Diameter of the Vessel or API 650 storage tank. Note that API 650 Addendum 1 does not
recommend these computations for diameters less than 120 feet.
API650 Tank Wall Thickness
Wall Thickness of the Vessel at the point where the Nozzle connects to the vessel. DO NOT include the
thickness of any reinforcing pad.
API 650 Reinforcing 1 or 2
For API tanks, if the reinforcing is on the shell, then enter 1. If it is on the nozzle, enter a 2.
API 650 Nozzle Height
For API 650 applications, enter the height from the centerline of the nozzle to the base of the tank.
54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
API 650 Fluid Height
Enter the liquid level of the fluid in the storage tank. This fluid level must be greater than the nozzle
height.
API 650 Specific Gravity
Enter the specific gravity of the stored liquid. This value is unitless.
API650 Tank Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Enter the coefficient of thermal expansion of the plate material of the tank is constructed. Values are listed
in engineering handbooks or the appropriate section of the API 650, App P. If this value is left blank, zero
will be assumed.
API 650 Delta T
Enter the change in temperature from ambient to its maximum that the tank normally experiences. For
example: If the maximum summertime temperature is 107°F. The delta T would be 107  70 = 37°F. If this
value is left blank, zero will be assumed.
API650 Tank Modulus of Elasticity
For API 650 nozzles, the hot modulus of elasticity of the tank must be entered directly. If this value is left
blank, 29.5E6 will be assumed.
PD 5500 Nozzles
Activate by doubleclicking the Nozzles check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet and selecting the PD
5500 radio button from the Nozzle Auxiliary Data field. Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box a
second time.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 55
CAESAR II can also calculate nozzle flexibilities according to Appendix G of the PD 5500 Specification for
Unfired Fusion Welded Pressure Vessels. The input requirements for these nozzles are:
Nozzle Node Number
Node that is located at the nozzle's intersection with the vessel shell. There should only be a single piping
element connected to this node, and there should be no restraints acting on the node. The nozzle element
should be perpendicular to the vessel shell. Hillside nozzles and latrolets can still be modeled; however,
the first (possibly very short) nozzle element that comes from the vessel should be perpendicular to the
vessel to keep the local stiffness properly oriented. The second, longer nozzle element can then go off on
the true centerline of the nozzle.
Vessel Node Number
Node on the vessel/tank surface at the point where the nozzle intersects the vessel shell. The vessel/tank
node is optional, and if not given the nozzle node is connected via the stiffnesses to a point fixed rigidly in
space. If the vessel node is given, the nozzle node will be connected via the stiffnesses to the vessel node.
Vessel nodes are specified when the user wishes to model through the vessel from the nozzle connection
to the skirt or foundation.
Vessel Type  Cylinder (0) or Sphere (1)
If the vessel is cylindrical, enter a 0. For cylinders, the distances to stiffeners/heads and the vessel
direction cosines are required. If the vessel is spherical, enter a 1. For spheres, the fields for the distances
to stiffeners/heads and vessel direction cosines are both ignored.
Nozzle Diameter
Outside diameter of the nozzle. (Does not have to be equal to the diameter of the pipe used to model the
nozzle.)
56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Vessel Diameter
Outside diameter of the vessel.
Vessel Wall Thickness
Wall thickness of the vessel at the point where the nozzle connects to the vessel. Do not include the
thickness of any reinforcing pad.
Vessel Reinforcing Pad Thickness
Thickness of any reinforcing pad at the nozzle. This thickness is added to the vessel wall thickness before
nozzle stiffness calculations are performed.
Distance to Stiffener or Head
Distance along the vessel centerline, from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the
closest stiffener or head in the vessel that significantly stiffens the crosssection of the vessel against local
deformation normal to the shell surface.
Distance to OppositeSide Stiffener or Head
Distance from the center of the nozzle opening in the vessel shell to the closest stiffener or head in the
vessel on the other side of the nozzle. This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.
Vessel Centerline Direction Cosines
These are direction vectors or direction cosines that define the centerline of the vessel. For a horizontal
vessel aligned with the “X” axis, this entry would read:
Vessel centerline direction vector X ..... 1.0
Vessel centerline direction vector Y ..... <Blank>
Vessel centerline direction vector Z ..... <Blank>
Note: The centerlines of the nozzle and vessel cannot be colinear or CAESAR II will flag this as an error.
This entry is ignored for spherical vessels.
Vessel Temperature (Optional)
Estimated temperature of the vessel/nozzle junction. If input, the vessel temperature must be paired with a
valid vessel material number. The estimated temperature is used to calculate the hot modulus of elasticity.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 57
Vessel Material No. (Optional)
If input, the vessel material number must be paired with a valid vessel temperature. The allowed vessel
material number can be any valid material number from the material database and corresponds to the pipe
materials used in the spreadsheet. If the vessel temperature and the vessel material number are left blank
or zero, an elastic modulus of 29.0E6 psi will be used.
Displacements
Activate by doubleclicking the Displacements check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate
by doubleclicking the Displacements check box a second time.
Enter the node number where the displacement is to be specified. There must not be a restraint at this
node.
Enter the displacements at the node. Any displacement direction not specified for any displacement vector
will be free.
To specify an anchor at node 1000 with a 1/2in. displacement in the minus Y direction for displacement
set #1, enter data as shown in the figure above.
The displacements at a node can be specified for up to 9 different vectors, intended to correspond to the 9
temperature cases.
Note: If an imposed displacement is specified for a specific degreeoffreedom, that degreeoffreedom
will be considered restrained for all load cases whether or not they contain that displacement set.
58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Auxiliary Fields  Imposed Loads
Forces and Moments
Activate by doubleclicking the Forces/Moments check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate
by doubleclicking the check box a second time.
Enter the node number where the forces and/or moments are to act.
Enter the magnitudes of the forces and/or moments. Up to 9 different force vectors can be defined at each
node point.
Uniform Loads
Activate by doubleclicking the Uniform Loads check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet.
Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box a second time.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 59
The uniform load specification is distributive, and will act on all following elements until zeroed or
changed. A snow load of 8.0 pounds per foot (assuming units of pounds per inch) could be entered:
Vector 1 Vector 2 Vector 3
UX
UY 8/12
UZ
or may be entered:
UX
UY .6667
UZ
UX, UY, and UZ can be changed to GX, GY, and GZ so that uniform loads can be entered as a fraction of
the total pipe weight through the Kaux Special Execution Parameters (see "Uniform Load in G's" on
page 112) command. The GX, GY, and GZ specifications are used most frequently for defining static
earthquake loadings.
Note: Up to 3 uniform load vectors can be defined.
Wind Loads
Activate by doubleclicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by
doubleclicking the check box a second time.
60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
This is a shape factor as defined in ASCE #7. A value of 0.5 to 0.65 is typically used for cylindrical
sections. Activating the wind directive will enable the Wind Load Input Spreadsheets, which are accessed
from the Load Case Editor during the Static Analysis. This auxiliary is used to define the presence of
wind loads (via the wind shape factor as defined in ASCE #7) or wave loads (with associated coefficients).
The load type may be set or turned off via the radio button.
Important: This value is distributive, and will act on all following elements until changed or turned
off.
Wind Shape Factor
Coefficient defined in A58.11982 in Table 12 for chimneys, tanks, and similar structure. A value of 0.5 to
0.65 is typically used for cylindrical sections. Activating the wind directive will turn on the Wind Load
Input Spreadsheets, which are accessed form the Load Case Editor during Static Analysis.
Activate by double clicking the Wind Wave checkbox on the Pipe Element SPreadsheet. Deactivate by
double clicking the checkbox a second time.
Wave Loads
Activate by doubleclicking the Wind/Wave check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet. Deactivate by
doubleclicking the check box a second time.
Important: These values are distributive, and will act on all following elements until changed or
turned off.
Drag Coefficient, Cd
Coefficient as recommended by API RP2A. Typical values range from 0.6 to 1.20. Entering a 0.0 instructs
CAESAR II to calculate the drag coefficient based on particle velocities.
Added Mass Coefficient, Ca
This coefficient accounts for the added mass of fluid entrained into the pipe. Typical values range from
0.5 to 1.0. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added mass coefficient based on particle
velocities.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 61
Lift Coefficient, Cl
This coefficient accounts for wave lift, which is the force perpendicular to both the element axis and the
particle velocity vector. Entering a 0.0 instructs CAESAR II to calculate the added lift coefficient based on
particle velocities.
Marine Growth
The thickness of any marine growth adhering to the external pipe wall. This will increase the pipe
diameter experiencing wave loading by twice this value.
Marine Growth Density
An entry in this field designates the density to be used if including the weight of the marine growth in the
pipe weight. If left blank, the weight of the marine growth will be ignored.
62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Auxiliary Fields  Piping Code Data
Allowable Stresses
Activate by doubleclicking the Allowable Stresses check box on the Pipe Element Spreadsheet.
Deactivate by doubleclicking the check box a second time.
The Allowable Stress Auxiliary field incorporates piping codes with their associated inputs. The help
screens should be used liberally to be sure that the proper interpretation of each new input data cell is
made. A CAESAR II Piping Spreadsheet illustrating the Allowable Stress field is shown above.
Note: Allowable stress data is distributive, and applies to all following elements unless changed or
zeroed.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 63
Codes
The piping codes are listed in the following table. Their current publication dates can be found in the
CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide.
B31.1 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 1)
B31.3 Swedish Power Piping Code (Method 2)
B31.4 B31.1  1967
B31.4, Chapter IX Stoomwezen
B31.5 RCCM C
B31.8 RCCM D
B31.8, Chapter VIII CODETI
B31.11 Norwegian TBK6
ASME Sect III NC (Class 2) FDBR
ASME Sect III ND (Class 3) BS 7159
Navy 505 UKOOA
CAN/CSA Z662 IGE/TD/12
BS 806 DNV
Each of the input data cells are discussed in general in the following section. For more information about
code compliance consideration see Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.
64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
SC
Typically the cold allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code.
The value of SC will usually be divided by the longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See
the notes that follow for the specific piping code.
B31.1. Allowable stress tables in Appendix A include the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies where
applicable. These efficiencies should not be used for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency
(Eff) is given on this spreadsheet CAESAR II will divide the entered SC by the joint efficiency before using
it in the allowable stress equations.
B31.3. Values from tables in Appendix A don’t include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or
one. Note that the 1980 version of B31.3 included the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies as part of the
tables in Appendix A. If this version of the code is being used then Eff should be entered in the
appropriate field on this spreadsheet.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.4 is the yield stress taken from
Table 1 in the appendix. (See the Sy data field on this spreadsheet.)
B31.5. Values from tables in Appendix A don’t include the joint efficiency. Eff should be zero, blank, or
one.
B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. SC is not used!!! The only stress value in B31.8 is the yield stress taken from
Appendix D. (See the Sy data field.)
B31.11. SC is not used!!! The only stress value used in B31.11 is the yield stress.
ASME NC and ND. SC is taken directly from Appendix I. “Eff” is not used, and is ignored if entered.
Navy 505. There is no mention of joint efficiency in the 505 specification; however, it is implied in
Footnote 1 of Table TIIA. If a joint efficiency is given CAESAR II will divide SC by the joint efficiency
before using it in the allowable stress equations. Eff should probably be zero, blank, or one.
CAN Z662. SC is not used. The only stress value in Z184 is the yield stress specified in the standards or
specification under which the pipe was purchased. (See the Sy data field.)
BS 806. 0.2% of the proof stress at room temperature from Appendix E. “Eff” is not used in BS 806 and is
ignored if entered.
Swedish Method 1. SC is not used. Method 1 only uses either the yield, or creep rupture stress at
temperature, (SHn and Fn respectively on this spreadsheet.) “Eff” is used, but is the Circumferential weld
joint efficiency and has a completely different meaning.
Swedish Method 2. SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from Appendix 2. “Eff” is not used, and
is ignored if entered.
B31.1 (1967). SC is the allowable stress at room temperature from the tables in Appendix A. These tables
include the Longitudinal Weld joint efficiencies where applicable. These efficiencies should not be used
for flexibility stress calculations. If the joint efficiency “Eff” is given CAESAR II will divide the entered SC
by the joint efficiency before using it in the allowable stress equations.
Stoomwezen (1989). SC is the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re in the code.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 65
RCCM C, D. SC is taken from Appendix, “Eff” is not used, and is ignored if entered.
CODETI. This is "famb" from the code. “Eff” is not used, and is ignored if entered.
Norwegian. This is "f1" from the code. “Eff” is not used for longitudinal joint efficiency.
BS 7159. SC is not used. Design stress is entered in the SH fields.
UKOOA. SC is not used. Design stress (in the hoop direction) is entered in the SH fields.
IGE/TD/12. SC is not used.
DNV. SC is not used.
66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
SH
Typically the hot allowable stress for the specific material taken directly from the governing piping code.
A value must be entered for each defined temperature case. The value of SH will usually be divided by the
longitudinal weld efficiency (Eff) before being used. See the recommendations that follow for the specific
piping code.
B31.1. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
B31.3. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . SH is not used.
B31.5. Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII . SH is used for the minimum wall thickness computations only.
B31.11.. SH is not used.
ASME NC and ND. Allowable stress from Appendix I.
Navy 505. Allowable stress from Table XIIA. See SC above.
CAN Z662. SH is not used.
BS 806. SH is 0.2% of the proof stress at design temperature Appendix E. (Eff is not used.)
Swedish Method 1. SH is the yield stress at temperature from Appendix 1.
Swedish Method 2. SH is the allowable stress at temperature from Appendix 2.
B31.1 (1967). Allowable stress from Appendix A, see SC above.
Stoomwezen. SH is the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (um) in the code.
RCCM C, D. SH is taken from the Appendix.
CODETI. This is “f” from the code.
Norwegian. This is “"f2” from the code.
FDBR. The hot allowable defined in Section 3.2.
BS 7159. This is the design stress od, in the longitudinal direction, as defined in Section 4.3 of the code,
i.e.: od =od * Elamx. Design stress in the circumferential (hoop) direction should be specified by entering
the ratio of the circumferential design stress to the axial design stress in the Eff field below. (Note that
since design strain should be the same for both directions, the entry in the Eff field will also be ratio of
Elamf(hoop) to Elamx (longitudinal).
UKOOA. This is the allowable design stress in the hoop direction, defined in the code as f1 * LTHS. The
three “HOT ALLOWABLE STRESS” fields correspond to the three possible temperature cases.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 67
IGE/TD/12. Yield Stress is used here instead of a Hot Allowable Stress.
68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Fn
STRESS RANGE REDUCTION FACTOR
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the material database, if available
and applicable.
STRESS RANGE REDUCTION FACTOR for most piping codes. Exceptions are noted below. In most
cases the stress range reduction factor is taken from the following tables:
B31.1 B31.3
OPERATING
CYCLES
REDUCTION
FACTOR
OPERATING
CYCLES
REDUCTION
FACTOR
7000 and less 1.0 7000 and less 1.0
7000  14000 0.9 7000  14000 0.9
14000  22000 0.8 14000  22000 0.8
22000  45000 0.7 22000  45000 0.7
45000  100000 0.6 45000  100000 0.6
100000  0.5 100000  200000 0.5
200000  700000 0.4
700000  2000000 0.3
Where several thermal states exist and where the number of thermal cycles is high the user should consult
the applicable B31 piping code for methods of combining cycle life data. If omitted a value of ONE will
be used.
EXCEPTIONS:
B31.4  Not Used !!!!
B31.8  Not Used !!!!
B31.8 CHAPTER VIII  Not Used !!!!
CODETI  This term is called "U" in the code.
NORWEGIAN  This term is called "fr" in the code, and may be as high as 2.34.
DNV  This is the material ultimate tensile strength at temperature.
CAN Z662  F1 = L, the location factor, obtained from Table 4.1
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 69
Application CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3 CLASS 4
Gas (nonsour)
General & cased crossings 1.000 0.900 0.700 0.550
Roads 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.500
Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Stations 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Other 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.500
Gas (sour service)
General & cased crossings 0.900 0.750 0.625 0.500
Roads 0.750 0.625 0.625 0.500
Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Stations 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.500
Other 0.750 0.750 0.625 0.500
HVP
General & cased crossings 1.000 0.800 0.800 0.800
Roads 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800
Railways 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625
Stations 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800
Other 0.800 0.800 0.800 0.800
LVP
Uncased railway crossings 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.625
All others 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Class 1  Location areas containing 10 or fewer dwelling units intended for human occupancy
Class 2  Location areas containing 11 to 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy OR
buildings with more than 20 persons
outside areas with more than 20 persons
industrial installations
Class 3  Location areas with more than 46 dwelling units intended for human occupancy OR institutions
where rapid evacuation may be difficult
Class 4  Location areas where buildings intended for human occupancy have 4 or more stories.
70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
F2 = T, the temperature derating factor, obtained from Table 4.3
Temperature Derating Factor T
up to 120 (C) 1.00
150 0.97
180 0.93
200 0.91
230 0.87
F3  Not Used !!!!
BS 806  Mean Stress to Failure in design life at design temperature. F1, F2, ... F9 correspond to the upto
nine possible thermal states.
FDBR  Identical to B31.1, except: Note that if "expansion coefficients" are entered directly instead of
temperatures, the program can not determine Ehot. In this case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in the
FAC cell and these fields should be used to specify the product of ( f * Ehot / Ecold ) for each temperature
case.
SWEDISH METHOD 1  Creep Rupture Stress at temperature. F1, F2 ... F9 correspond to the upto nine
possible thermal states.
STOOMWEZEN  Creep related material properties as follows:
F1 = Rrg  average creep stress to produce 1% permanent set after 100,000 hours at temperature
(vm).
F2 = Rmg  average creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at temperature (vm).
F3 = Rmmin  minimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture after 100,000 hours at temperature
(vm).
BS 7159. The term used in this code is the fatigue factor, Kn, and is used inversely compared to other
codes (so its value is greater than 1.0). Kn is calculated as:
Kn = 1 + 0.25(As/on) (log10(n)  3)
Where:
As = stress range during fatigue cycle
on = Maximum stress during fatigue cycle
n = number of stress cycles during design life
UKOOA. This is the ratio r from the material UKOOA idealized allowable stress envelope. This ratio is
defined as sa(0:1)/sa(2:1) as shown on the figure below. One value should be given for each of the
operating temperature cases.
IGE/TD/12. This is the UTS value.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 71
Eff
The longitudinal weld joint efficiency. The use of this parameter by CAESAR II varies with the piping
code. Depending upon code requirements, the allowable stress may be either divided by Eff for use in the
flexibility calculations or multiplied by Eff for use in the minimum wall calculations. The following
describes the effect of the longitudinal joint efficiency for each of the piping codes.
B31.1, B31.11967, B31.5. Allowable stress tables include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies where
applicable. If Eff is entered, values for SC and SH will be divided by Eff before being used in the
flexibility calculations. Eff will be ignored in the minimum wall calculation.
B31.3, B31.4, B31.8, B31.11, NAVY 505, Z662 (J), BS 806 (e), CODETI (z), FDBR (vl). Allowable
stress (or yield stress) tables do not include Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiencies, Eff will be ignored for
the flexibility calculations. SH will be multiplied by Eff when calculating the minimum wall thickness.
B31.4 Chapter IX, B31.8 Chapter VIII, ASME NC, ASME ND, RCCMC, RCCMD. Eff is ignored for
both flexibility and minimum wall thickness calculations, and therefore the field is disabled for these code.
Swedish Method 1, Swedish Method 2, Norwegian TBK 56. Eff is the circumferential joint factor z and is
used in the calculation of the code stresses, rather than in the calculation of the allowables (either for
flexibility or minimum wall thickness).
Stoomwezen. For this code, this Eff is the cyclic reduction factor, referred to as Cf in the code. Weld
joint efficiency is not considered for this code in CAESAR II.
BS 7159. This code replaces this field with Eh/Ea, the ratio of the hoop modulus to the axial modulus of
elasticity. If omitted, a default value of 1.0 is used, as though the material is isotropic.
UKOOA, IGE/TD/12. These codes replace this field with f2 and Dfac, respectively, the system design
factor (typically 0.67).
DNV. This code replaces this field with usage factor Ns (pressure yielding) from Tables C1 or C2. The
value must be between 0.77 and 0.96.
Sy  Yield Stress at Temperature
This is Syt, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at maximum
temperature.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if
available and applicable.
UTS  Ultimate Tensile Strength of Material
This the ultimate tensile strength of the material at design conditions.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if
available and applicable.
72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Design Factor (Unitless)
This is the system design factor, as described in Table 2 of the IGE/TD/12 code. It should normally fall
between 0.3 and 0.67.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the material database, if available
and applicable.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 73
Sy
This is a codespecific field, generally requiring input only for the transmission and nonUS piping codes.
Codespecific input requirements are described as follows:
B31.1. Not used.
B31.3. Not used.
B31.4, B31.4 Chapter IX . Taken from Table 1 in the Appendix.
B31.5. Used to satisfy the requirements of Paragraph 523.2.2.f.4. This paragraph addresses ferrous
materials in piping systems between 20F and 150F. The value entered here should be the quantity (40%
of the allowable) as detailed in the Code. When Sy is defined, the OPE case will be considered a "stress
case". The allowable reported in the output report will be the value entered here. The computed operating
stress will include all longitudinal components, and ignore torsion.
B31.8, B31.8 Chapter VIII. Taken from Appendix 5.
B31.11. Specified Minimum Yield Stress.
ASME Sect III Class 2 and 3. Basic Material Yield Strength at design temperature for use in Eqn. 9 for
consideration of Level A and B service limits. Level C and Level D service limits must be satisfied in
separate runs by adjusting the value for the occasional factor in the CAESAR II configuration file. If the
occasional factor is set to 1.2, the allowable stress is the minimum of 1.2 x 1.5 SH or 1.5 SY. If the factor is
1.5, the allowable is the minimum of 1.5 x 1.5 SH or 1.8 SY, while if the factor is 2.0, the allowable is the
minimum of 2.0 x 1.5 SH or 2.0 SY. (Note, in order to satisfy the code SH should be replaced by SM for the
latter two.)
Navy 505. Not used.
CAN Z662. Specified Minimum Yield Strength taken from the standards or specifications under which the
pipe was purchased or as per clause 4.3.3.
BS 806. Sustained Stress Limit. The lower of 0.8 X 0.2% Proof stress value or the creep rupture design
stress value defined in Appendix A under cold or any other operating condition. See 17.2(c)
Swedish Method 1. Not Used. The yield stress at temperature is entered in the respective SHn fields for the
up to nine possible thermal states.
Swedish Method 2. Ultimate Tensile Strength at room temperature.
B31.1 (1967). Not used.
Stoomwezen (1989). SY is the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code.
RCCM C, D. Not used.
CODETI. Not used.
74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Norwegian. This should be the allowable stress at 7000 load cycles, RS, from Code Table 10.2. If not
entered, this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
FDBR. Not used.
BS 7159. Not used.
UKOOA. Not used.
IGE/TD/12. Specified minimum yield stress (SMYS).
Specified Minimum Yield Stress
This is SMYS, or Sy, the specified minimum yield or stated proof stress of the pipe material at room
temperature.
Note: Unless explicitly entered by the user, this value will be taken from the Material Database, if
available and applicable.
Fac
A unitless multiplication factor used by some transmission and nonU.S. piping codes. The specific input
required for each piping code is discussed as follows:
B31.1. Not used.
B31.3. Not used.
B31.4. Amount the pipeline may be considered under complete axial restraint, i.e. long and buried. This
option is used primarily when the user is adding bending stresses to the stresses already developed in the
pipeline due to its buried restraint. This condition occurs when, for example a branch is tieing into a long
buried header and the soil supports are not modeled. The equation for stress in CAESAR II is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ Eo(T2T1) + (1v) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1Fac)
Where:
E = elastic modulus
o = thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
v = Poisson' s ratio
Shoop = hoop stress in the pipe.
SE = expansion stress due to bending
SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 75
Fac should be a number between zero and one. One, when the pipe is fully restrained, i.e. buried for a long
distance. Zero when the pipe is subject to no buried axial restraint. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note
that when Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have
been modeled. This will cause the hoop stress component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added
to the operating stresses, conforming to the spirit of the restrained line stress calculation above.
B31.4 Chapter IX. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A402.3.5(a) of B31.4.
Appropriate values are 0.72 for Pipelines or 0.60 for Platform piping and Risers.
B31.5. Not used.
B31.8. Construction Design Factor, from Table 841.114B.
Construction type: (Descriptions are approx.) FACTOR
A (CLASS 1) Wasteland, Deserts, Mountains, 0.72
Grazing Land, Farmland, Sparsely Populated Areas.
B (CLASS 2) Fringe Areas Around Cities, 0.60
Industrial Areas, Ranch or Country Estates.
C (CLASS 3) Suburban Housing Developments, 0.50
Shopping Centers, Residential Areas.
D (CLASS 4) MultiStory Buildings are 0.40
prevalent, Traffic is heavy and where there
may be numerous other utilities underground.
(0.4 is the default if not entered.)
B31.8 Chapter VIII. This value is F1, Hoop Stress Design Factor, as per Table A842.22 of B31.8.
Appropriate values are 0.72 for Pipelines or 0.50 for Platform piping and Risers.
B31.11. Amount the pipeline may be considered to be under complete axial restraint (see discussion under
B31.4 above).
ASME Sect III, Class 2 and 3. Not used.
B31.1 (1967). Not used.
Navy 505. Not used
CAN Z662. Indicates whether the pipe is restrained (i.e. long or buried) or unrestrained.
The equation for pipe under complete axial restraint is:
Stress = (Fac) x abs[ Eo(T2T1) + (1v) Shoop ] + (SE + SL)(1Fac)
76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Where:
E = elastic modulus
o = thermal expansion coefficient per degree
T2 = operating temperature
T1 = ambient temperature
v = Poisson's ratio
Shoop = hoop stress in the pipe.
SE = expansion stress due to bending
SL = sustained stress due to pressure.
Fac should be 1.0, 0.0, or 0.001. One, for pipe under complete axial restraint.One, when the pipe is fully
restrained, i.e. buried for a long distance. The default value for Fac is 0.0. Note that when Fac is 0.001,
this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have been modeled. This causes
the hoop stress component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to the operating stresses if the
axial stress is compressive.
BS806. Not used.
Swedish Power Code, Method 1. Sigma(tn) multiplier. Usually 1.5. For prestressed (cold sprung) piping
this value should be 1.35. The default used is 1.5.
Swedish Power Code, Method 2. Not used.
Stoomwezen. This is a constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2 for
details.
RCCM C, D. Not used.
CODETI. Not used.
Norwegian. This should be the material ultimate tensile strength at room temperature, RM. If not entered,
this factor is not considered to control the expansion stress allowable.
FDBR. This cell can be used to override the ratio of Ehot/Ecold, which is automatically determined by
CAESAR II.
The modulus ratio is used to compute the expansion case allowable stress, based on the material and
temperature. Normally, this field can be left blank. However, if desired, a value (greater than zero and less
than one) can be entered in this field to override the program determined ratio.
To correctly utilize the FBDR code, the user should enter the Hot Modulus in the Elastic Modulus cell of
the spreadsheet. CAESAR II will look up the Cold Modulus and compute this necessary ratio. Note that the
use of the Hot Modulus in the flexibility analysis is a deviation of FBDR from every other piping code in
CAESAR II.
Note that if expansion coefficients are entered directly instead of temperatures, the program cannot
determine Ecold. In this case, a value of 1.0 should be entered in this cell and the cyclic reduction factor
fields should be used to specify the product of
( f * Ehot /Ecold) for each temperature case.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 77
BS 7159. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined in Section 7.2.1 of the code. This should be
0.85 for liquids, 0.8 for gases, and 1.0 for ambient temperature changes. If left blank, this value will
default to 1.0.
UKOOA. Mean temperature change multiplier k, as defined for the BS 7159 code above. If left blank, this
value will default to 1.0.
IGE/TD/12. Material shakedown factor Ksd.
DNV. Usage factor Nu (pressure bursting) from Tables C1or C2. Values must be between 0.64 and 0.84.
Ksd. (Factor) (Unitless)
This is the material shakedown factor described in Table 4 of the IGE/TD/12 code. Typical values are:
Carbon Steel: 1.8
Austenitic steel: 2.
Pvar
This input is only used for the RCCM, ASME Sect. III NC and ND, and DNV piping codes, the Swedish
Power Piping, and the Norwegian codes:
ASME and RCCM C, D. This is the variance in the pressure between operating and “peak” to be used as the
component in equation 9 above that found from B1 * P * Do / 2tn. Do not enter the peak pressure for Pvar,
enter the difference between the operating pressure and the peak pressure.
Swedish Power Code, Methods 1 & 2. This is BETA for the “Seff” calculation. If not given, “beta” defaults
to 10%. Ten percent would be entered as 10.0. Values entered must be between 0.1 and 25.0. Values
entered outside of this range will be automatically adjusted to the outer limit of the allowed range. The
definition for “beta,” as given in the Swedish piping code in section 5.6.2.1, is the “maximum allowable
minus the tolerance as a percentage of the nominal wall thickness.”
Stoomwezen. PVAR is the Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0.
Norwegian. PVAR is the difference between design pressure P (in equation 10.7) and peak pressure Pmaks
(in equation 10.8).
The table that follows defines when each of these parameters is valid input for the piping code (V) or not
required (N).
DNV. Usage factor N for equivalent stress check from Table C4. Values must be between 0.77 and 1.00.
78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Material Fatigue Curves
Material Fatigue Curve data may be entered here, permitting the evaluation of fatigue load cases and
cumulative usage scenarios. Cycle vs. Stress data may be entered for up to eight data points. (Note the
IGE/TD/12 provides the opportunity to enter up to five fatigue curves, representing fatigue classes D,E, F,
G, and W.) Fatigue evaluations are explicitly specified by IGE/TD/12; CAESAR II offers them as
extensions to other codes.
The user is also given the option of reading in fatigue curve data from a file, several of which are provided
with CAESAR II.
Cycle/Stress pairs should be entered in ascending order (ascending by cycles). Stress values should be
entered as the allowable Stress Range rather than allowable Stress Amplitude. Fatigue Curves will be
considered to be entered using a logarithmic interpolation.
Note: Fatigue Curves may also be read in from files, using the Read From File button.
Note: Static FATigue cases will be evaluated against the full range of the fatigue curve, while dynamic
FATigue cases are assumed to represent amplitudes, and are therefore evaluated against half of the range
of the fatigue curve.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 79
Available Commands
Break Command
This command is initiated with the Model  Break command. This option is available from the pipe
spreadsheet and allows the user to “break” an element into two or more individual elements. The “break”
option was designed for situations where:
A straight run of pipe between two nodes needs to be broken to insert a restraint, or some other
change in properties.
A long straight run of pipe needs to be broken into multiple, uniform lengths of pipe with similar
support conditions on each length, i.e. a long straight run of rack piping, or a buried run with multiple
soil supports at each point in the run.
An example “break” screen is shown in the following figure:
The example above illustrates a “single element insert” between the nodes 100 and 110. The node to be
inserted is 105 and is 6 ft. from the node 100. If there was some other node in the model with a restraint
(or imposed displacements) like the one to be put on the newly generated node 105, then the node
identifying that restraint location could be filled in at the line “Get support from Node,” and the restraint
would be automatically placed at 105.
For multiple inserts in a rack piping system the prompts might appear as follows:
80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
At the prompt for “support condition” if the user entered the node where a +Y restraint had already been
defined, a +Y restraint would be placed at all of the generated nodes, namely 110, 112, ... , 120. The
multiple insert BREAK is used primarily for three reasons:
Rack piping supports where the total length and node spacing is known and entered directly when
requested at the “break” prompts.
Underground pipe runs where the overall length of the run is known, and the lengths of the individual
elements in the run are known.
To add mass points in order to refine a model for dynamic analysis.
Note: There are two occasions when “Break” will not work:
• The element is an expansion joint.
• The delta dimensions in the DX, DY, and DZ fields are blank or zero.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 81
Valve/Flange Database
The Valve and Flange database is accessed through the Model  Valve command.
There are four databases currently provided:
CRANE steel valves and total flange length
GENERIC valves and 2/3 flange length
Corner and Lada valves  no flanges
CADWorx/PIPE (this is the CAESAR II default)
The CRANE database contains all flanged and welded fittings in the CRANE steel valve catalog. The
GENERIC database contains information from a variety of sources. In some cases (i.e. weights for
control valves) information from different sources was found to vary considerably. In these cases the
largest reasonable weight was selected for use in the database. In other cases only the length of the fitting
was available.
The default database, the CADWorx/Pipe database, is a subset of the full component database provided
with CADWorx/Pipe, COADE's piping design and drafting program. This database offers nine different
component types (gate, globe, check, control, ball, plug, and butterfly valves; flange pair and single
flange) as well as four different end types (flanged, noflanged, threaded, or socket). Selection of flanged
end components or flanges themselves automatically provides for gaskets.
Note: Selecting flanged ends (FLG) for a valve simply adds the length and weight of two flanges and
gaskets to the valve length and weight. No FLG selects a valve without including the two mating flanges.
Accessing the valve and flange database.
1 Enter the node numbers for the rigid element in the From and To fields on the pipe spreadsheet.
2 Click the Valve/Flange toolbar or select MODEL  VALVE from the menu.
3 Use the mouse to highlight blocks to select the particular fitting desired.
4 Click OK to accept the selection. If the particular selection is valid for the current line size, the user
will see that CAESAR II enters the length of the element in the DX, DY, and/or DZ fields, designates
the element as RIGID, and inserts the weight in the appropriate slot in the Auxiliary field.
82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The assumed orientation of the rigid is taken from the preceding element. The user should note that
CAESAR II is doing a table lookup based on line size, and is inserting the selected table values into the
spreadsheet. Should the line size change at some later time, the user must come back and ask CAESAR II to
perform another table lookup for the new sizes.
Use of the CADWorx/Pipe database offers several benefits over use of the other databases:
The CADWorx/Pipe database provides more accurate component lengths and weights than those
typically available in the GENERIC database.
Using the same component data for CAESAR II and CADWorx/Pipe modeling promotes the efficiency
of the bidirectional interface between the two programs, for those who are using both programs. Total
sharing of data files and specifications between CAESAR II and CADWorx/Pipe occurs when the
CADWorx program installation directive is saved in the registry. In that case, the third line of the
CADWORX.VHD file should be edited to name the actual CADWorx specifications (located in the
CADWORX\SPEC subdirectory). For more information on editing this file, see below.
Users may more easily modify the CADWorx/Pipe valve and flange database, since the specification
files and component data files are ASCII text files. This process, which involves possibly editing the
CADWORX.VHD, specification, and data files, is described below.
The CADWORX.VHD file is structured as such:
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 83
The first line must read CADWORX.DAT, so it may not be changed.
The second line, which may be edited by the user, must begin with a zero; the second number on the
line designates the number of specifications to make available to the user. It can be a maximum of 7.
The third line, which may be edited by the user, lists the available specifications. Each specification
name must consist of 8 characters, padded by blanks on the right. The specification names designate
files with extension .SPC, located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR II or the CADWorx/Pipe
specification directory (if the CADWORX directive is set in the registry).
The fourth line, which may be edited by the user, designates whether each specification uses English
or Metric nominal pipe sizes. Seven blanks followed by a 1 indicate English nominals, while seven
blanks followed by a 2 indicate metric nominals.
The last five lines should not be changed by the user.
The specification files are located in the SPEC subdirectory of the CAESAR installation directory. They
are designated by the extension .SPC. The specification files correlate pipe size and component with the
appropriate data file. Individual lines in the file list the library (subdirectory to the LIB_I or LIB_M
directory, depending on whether English or Metric units are in effect), file name (with an extension equal
to the library name), range of nominal pipe sizes for which the specified data file applies. Any of these
items may be edited by the user; the last item on the line is the component type number, and should not be
changed. Other items in the file pertain to CADWorx/Pipe and are not significant to the CAESAR II user.
The data files hold the dimensional and weight values. Data files for different types of components hold
different types of data; the data columns are labeled. The only data with significance to the CAESAR II user
involves the weight and lengths – these may be changed by the user. The following is a typical component
data file for weld neck flanges:
84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
More extensive information on editing of these files can be found in the CADWorx/Pipe User Manual.
Find Distance
Click Origin and Current Node to calculate the distance between coordinate (0.0,0.0,0.0) and the TO
node of the current element.
Click Nodes, and then enter two node numbers to calculate the distance between those two nodes.
Find Element
Enter a single node number to find the next element containing that node number (either as a FROM or
TO node).
Enter two node numbers to find the next element containing BOTH of those node numbers (in either
order).
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 85
Global Coordinates
Enter absolute (global) coordinates for the start node of each discontiguous system segment. This may be
required for three reasons:
1  the user may wish to show nodal coordinates in absolute, rather than relative coordinates.
2  defining global coordinates for discontiguous segments allow the piping segments to plot in the
correct locations, rather than superimposed at the origin.
3  if WIND loading is present, it is important that the pipe be given the correct elevation.
Insert Element
Selecting BEFORE inserts a new element prior to the current element, with the FROM node equal to the
FROM node of the current element.
Selecting AFTER inserts a new element following the current element, with the FROM node equal to the
TO node of the current element.
Node Increment
When generating the FROM and TO nodes for new elements, CAESAR II uses the nodal increment set in
CONFIGURE/SETUP. This may be overridden by entering a different value here.
Show Informational Messages
Activate the check box to display informational messages upon the conversion of Nominal to Actual
diameters, Schedule to Wall Thickness, and Specific Gravity to Density.
Deactivate the check box to suppress these messages.
Tee SIF Scratchpad
Enter the number of the node where you want to evaluate the Stress Intensification Factors.
86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Allowed Intersection / Joint Types
ID Type sif calculations:

1  Reinforced Fabricated Tee PAD T, FTG ro, CROTCH ....
2  Unreinforced Fabricated Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....
3  Welding Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....
4  Sweepolet (Weldedin Contour) .... .... CROTCH ....
5  Weldolet (Branch Weldedon) .... .... CROTCH ....
6  Extruded Welding Tee .... FTG ro, CROTCH ....
7  Girth Butt Weld .... .... .... WELD d
8  Socket Weld (No Undercut) .... .... .... FILLET
9  Socket Weld (As Welded) .... .... .... FILLET
10  Tapered Transition .... .... .... WELD d
11  Threaded Joint .... .... .... ....
12  Double Welded Slipon Flange .... .... .... ....
13  Lap Joint Flange (B16.9 Stub) .... .... .... ....
14  Bonney Forge Sweepolet .... .... .... WELD ID
15  Bonney Forge Latrolet .... .... .... ....
16  Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet .... FTG ro .... WELD ID
17  Full Encirclement Tee PAD T, FTG ro .... ....
The "TYPE" only needs to be entered once for each intersection or joint in the problem. Users CANNOT
specify two different SIFs at a single node and get an increased SIF. For example a socketweld TYPE and
an intersection TYPE cannot be specified at the same point.
Intersection SIFs can be calculated for one, two or three pipe junctions. Conservative assumptions are
made with regard to missing information and orientations. Warning messages are printed during error
checking for each intersection where assumptions must be made to apply code rules. For 2 element joints
the largest diameter and the smallest thickness are used when discrepancies exist between the two
adjoining pipes, (unless the two element fitting is a socket weld, and then the largest thickness is used).
These selections are made to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress calculations.
Intersection SIFs can be calculated for dummy leg intersections on bend curvatures. This is a crude
method for estimating bend/dummy leg SIFs, but is often considered an improvement over an
unintensified dummy leg.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 87
Code calculated bend stress intensification factors will always take precedence over any other SIF that
may be defined at the bend node. (A setup file directive: ALLOW_USERS_BEND_SIF=YES permits the
user to override code sif's at bends if necessary.)
Pad Thickness
Thickness of the REINFORCING PAD for reinforced fabricated tees, Intersection type 1.
Note: In most piping codes this beneficial effect of the pad's thickness is limited to pads of a thickness less
than 1.5 times the nominal thickness of the fitting. This factor does not apply in BS806 or Z662, and is
2.5 in the Swedish piping code.
Crotch Thickness for B31.3 Welding Tees and Sweepolets (intersection types 3 and 4). The crotch
thickness and radius are necessary for CAESAR II to determine if the fitting meets B16.9 requirements.
Fitting Outside Radius
The largest fitting outside radius for branch connections. Used for reduced branch connections in the
ASME and B31.1 piping codes, Bonney Forge Insert Weldolets, and for WRC329 intersection SIF
calculations. SETUP file directions allow these calculations to be incorporated into most piping codes as
an option.
SETUP file directives also exist to limit the application of the reduced branch connection rules to
UNREINFORCED FABRICATED TEES, SWEEPOLETS, WELDOLETS and EXTRUDED WELDING
TEES. (i.e. omitting REDUCED WELDING TEES and REDUCED REINFORCED FABRICATED
TEES.) If omitted, FTG ro defaults to the outside radius of the branch connection if omitted.
Crotch Radius
CROTCH RADIUS for extruded welding tees, intersection type 6.
This is also the intersection weld crotch radius for WRC329.
Specifying this value when it is known can result in a 50% reduction in the stress intensification at the
intersection. This reduction only applies when WRC329 intersection options are selected from the setup
file, and for unreinforced fabricated tees, sweepolets, weldolets and extruded welding tees, i.e. intersection
types 2, 4, 5, and 6.
This value must be larger than Tb/2 and Th/2 to be effective in reducing the stress intensification. (There
is another value in the code that must be checked by the user and that is (Tb'+y)/2 (y) is the largest
thickness at the intersection. The crotch radius must be larger than this value also.)
If this value is left blank, a value of zero will be used. This indicates no crotch, i.e. a corner.
88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Weld ID
Values:
0 or BLANK  As Welded
1  Finished/Ground Flush
Used for:
BONNEY FORGE SWEEPOLETS
BONNEY FORGE INSERT WELDOLETS
BUTT WELDS IN THE SWEDISH PIPING CODE
If entered as 1 then the weld is considered to be ground flush on the inside and out and the sif is taken as
1.0.
See the help screens for Weld Mismatch (Weld d) for more detail on how input parameters are used to
compute sif's for girth butt welds.
Weld d (Mismatch)
Average circumferential weld mismatch measured at the inside diameter of the pipe. Used for Butt Welds
and Tapered Transitions.
Note: THIS IS THE AVERAGE, AND NOT THE MAXIMUM MISMATCH. USERS MUST VERIFY
THAT ANY MAXIMUM MISMATCH REQUIREMENTS ARE SATISFIED FOR THEIR
PARTICULAR CODE.
This value is used in the sif equations as follows:
For B31.1:
IF( TR.GE. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.13 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE IF( TR .LT. 0.237 .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.33 ) THEN
S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR
IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9
IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0
ELSE IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN
S = 0.9 + 2.7*DMIS/TR
IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9
IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0
ELSE
OUT OF THE RANGES FOR B31.1 USE THE MAX. SIF
S = 1.9
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 89
END IF
Where TR is the pipe thickness (inches), and DMIS is the entered weld mismatch. See Table D1 in
the B31.1 appendix for a further discussion and assumptions.
For B31.3, B31.4, B31.8 (including Ch VIII), BS 806, Canadian, Navy and B31.11967:
The sif for girth butt welds is always taken as 1.0 regardless of the input for thickness and mismatch.
For ASME III NC or ND codes:
IF( TR .GE. 0.237 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 0.9 * ( 1.0 + 3.0*DMIS/TR )
IF( S .GT. 1.9 ) S = 1.9
IF( S .LT. 1.0 ) S = 1.0
END IF
For the Swedish and Norwegian codes:
IF( TR .GT. 4.5mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE IF( TR.LE.0.1771654 .OR. DMIS/TR.GT.0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.8
ELSE
IF NONE OF THE OTHER PARAMETERS GOVERN THEN USE
A MAX. SIF OF 1.8. Not sure what the code's intention
is when none of the above parameters apply. This is
certainly the most conservative.
S = 1.8
END IF
For the RCCM C/D codes:
IF( TR .GT. 4.75mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 1.8
END IF
For the CODETI code:
IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
S = 1.8
END IF
For the FDBR code:
IF( TR .GT. 5.0mm .AND. DMIS/TR .LE. 0.1 ) THEN
S = 1.0
ELSE
S = 1.8
END IF
For Tapered Transitions this value is the mismatch of the inside diameters at the small end weld, and is
used as the "delta" in the equation:
sif = 1.3 + 0.0036(d/t) + 3.6("delta")/t
Socket Fillet Weld Leg Length
This parameter is used when calculating SIFs of socket welds (type 8 or 9) when the B31.3, ASMEIII
Subsection NC or ND codes (3, 12, or 13) are in effect. Note: If a fillet leg size is entered, both socket
weld types result in the same sif.
The sif is calculated as (2.1)(T) / Leg, where T is the pipe wall thickness and Leg is the fillet leg length. A
minimum sif of 1.3 required.
For an unequal leg fillet weld, use the length of the shorter leg.
Header Pipe Outside Diameter
Enter the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe.
If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the actual outside diameter of the small end of the tapered
connection.
Do not enter the fitting diameter.
Header Pipe Wall Thickness
Enter the actual wall thickness of the header matching pipe.
If the fitting is a taper (TYPE = 10), enter the wall thickness of the small end of the tapered connection.
Do not enter the fitting thickness.
Branch Pipe Outside Diameter
Enter the actual outside diameter of the matching pipe.
Do not enter the diameter of the fitting.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 91
Branch Pipe Wall Thickness
Enter the actual wall thickness of the matching pipe.
Do not enter the wall thickness of the fitting.
Bend SIF Scratchpad
Bend Radius
The Default is LONG RADIUS.
The user may override the program calculated bend radius at any time.
The long radius bend value is obtained from a lookup table based on the user's specified diameter. Users
of pipes with diameters not listed as standard CAESAR II nominal diameters should compute and enter the
bend radius by hand. CAESAR II's "ONSCREENMULTIPLICATION" simplifies this chore, i.e. the bend
radius for a threeeighths inch pipe could be entered: .375*1.5.
Bend Type/Laminate Type
Enter the number of bend end cross sections that resist ovalization, i.e. 0, 1 or 2. A bend's end cross
section resists ovalization whenever a much heavier fitting (i.e. a valve or a flange), is attached to the bend
end.
This entry serves only to modify the stiffness and stress intensification factors for the bend.
Flanges stiffen the bend and make it less susceptible to stress.
The British Piping Code BS 806 defines a bend's end cross section as resisting ovalization whenever a
rigid fitting is within two diameters of the bend's end.
For the BS 7159 and UKOOA codes, this entry refers to the material laminate type, and may be 1, 2, or 3.
These laminate types are:
1  All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer
2  Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer
3  Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
Laminate type affects the calculation of flexibility factors and stress intensification factors for the BS 7159
and UKOOA codes only.
92 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Fitting Thickness
Enter the thickness of the bend if different than the thickness of the matching pipe. If the entered thickness
is greater than the matching pipe wall thickness, then the inside diameter of the bend will be smaller than
the inside diameter of the matching pipe. Section modulus calculations for stress computations are made
based on the properties of the matching pipe as defined by the codes.
The pipe thickness is used twice when calculating SIFs and flexibility factors  once as Tn, and once
when determining the mean crosssectional radius of the pipe in the equation for the flexibility
characteristic (h):
h = (Tn)(R) / (r
2
)
Tn = Thickness of bend or fitting
R = Bend radius
r = Mean crosssectional radius of matching pipe
= (OD  WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter of matching pipe
WT = Wall Thickness of matching pipe
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 93
Most codes use the actual thickness of the fitting (this entry) for Tn, and the wall thickness of the
matching pipe for the calculation of the mean crosssectional radius of the pipe (the WT value). More
specifically, the individual codes use the two wall thicknesses as follows:
For Tn: For Mean Radius
Calculation:
B31.1 Fitting Fitting
B31.3 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.4 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.5 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Fitting Matching Pipe
B31.8 Ch VIII Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III NC Fitting Matching Pipe
SECT III ND Fitting Matching Pipe
Z662 Matching Pipe Matching Pipe
NAVY 505 Fitting Fitting
B31.1 (1967) Fitting Fitting
SWEDISH Fitting Matching Pipe
BS 806 N/A N/A
STOOMWEZEN N/A N/A
RCCM C/D Matching pipe Matching Pipe
CODETI Fitting Fitting
NORWEGIAN Fitting Fitting
FDBR Fitting Fitting
BS 7159 Fitting Fitting
UKOOA Fitting Fitting
IGE/TD/12 Fitting Fitting
The bend fitting thickness (FTG) is always used as the pipe thickness in the stiffness matrix calculations;
however, note that the thickness of the matching pipe (WT) is always used in the bend stress calculations.
94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Miter Points
Number of CUTS (or changes of direction) in the mitered bend.
The "NUMBER OF CUTS" and the "BEND RADIUS" are the only inputs required (along with the
programdetermined bend angle) to calculate the SIFs and flexibilities defined in the various piping
codes for mitered elbows.
The RADIUS of the bend and the spacing of the cuts are directly related to one another, given one, the
other can be calculated. Closely spaced miters typically have a radius equivalent to the standard long
radius bend for the given pipe size.
Closely spaced mitered bends, regardless of the number of miter cuts can be modelled as a single bend
element.
Widely spaced mitered bends should be modelled as "n" single cut miters, where "n" is the number of
cuts in the bend. This means that "n" bend elements should be defined, each one a single cut miter. The
bend radius associated with these individual, single cut miters is smaller than the standard long radius
bend and must be calculated separately. Examples in the CAESAR II User Guide illustrate this application.
Matching Pipe Outside Diameter
Enter the outside diameter of the matching pipe in the units shown.
This is used in the average cross sectional radius calculation:
r2 = (OD  WT) / 2
OD = Outside Diameter as entered
WT = Wall Thickness of attached pipe
The B31.3 (1993) code defines r2 as the "mean radius of matching pipe".
Wall Thickness of Matching Pipe
Enter the actual matching pipe nominal wall thickness. Do not subtract out any corrosion. All SIF
calculations are made ignoring corrosion.
This wall thickness is used in the mean radius (r2) calculation as defined in the piping codes.
Elastic Modulus
Enter the Cold Modulus of Elasticity of the pipe material.
This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations.
Maximum Pressure
This is used for the pressure stiffening calculations.
For the BS 7159 or UKOOA codes, this entry should be the product of the material Design Strain, €, and
the material modulus of elasticity.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 95
Expansion Joint Modeler
CAESAR II will automatically generate an expansion joint model from catalog data selected by the user.
The catalog used may be selected in the CAESAR II Configure/Setup routine. The user decides where in
the model the expansion joint should go, i.e. between which two nodes, and the modeler assembles the
completed joint. Selectable joint styles include Untied, Tied, Hinged, Gimballed, UntiedUniversal, and
Tied Universal expansion joints.
An example selection session is illustrated as follows. Of particular note are the following items:
Any of four material types may be selected. These material types are used to adjust the bellows
stiffnesses to the actual highest temperature in the model. This will typically result in higher
stiffnesses than those shown in the vendor’s catalog because the stiffnesses in the catalog may be
based on a higher design temperature.
Any combination of end types may be selected.
Bellows, liner, cover, rod, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are looked up from the stored database
and automatically included in the expansion joint model.
For universal joints, the minimum allowed length is stored, but when the available space exceeds the
minimum allowed, the user is prompted for the length that he wishes the expansion joint assembly to
occupy.
The last screen that follows shows the “proposed” model to the user before it is inserted into the
CAESAR II input. This allows the user to investigate the characteristics of several joints before settling
on one.
Actual maximum pressure ratings are also a part of the database, and in many cases exceed the
nominal pressure rating shown in the catalog. Users will be permitted to use pressures up to these
actual allowed maximums.
Allowed joint movements are also stored as part of the database and are printed with each proposed
model. These values should be recorded for use in checking the model after a successful design pass
has been completed.
Pressure thrust is included in the modeling considerations for each of the expansion joint styles,
removing this concern from the user.
In the case of “tied” expansion joints, rigid elements are used to model the tiebars. Restraints with
connecting nodes are used to contain the pressure thrust, and to keep the ends of the expansion joint
parallel.
The Expansion Joint Modeling session is started by clicking the Expansion Joint button on the toolbar or
selecting the MODEL  EXPANSION JOINT menu item from the pipe spreadsheet:
96 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 97
Expansion Joint Modeler  From / To Nodes
If the length of the current element exceeds the length of the expansion joint assembly, indicate whether
the expansion joint assembly should be installed at the FROM end or the TO end of the current element.
Expansion Joint Modeler  Hinge/Pin Axis
Enter the direction cosines which defines the axis of the hinge pin of the expansion joint assembly (i.e.,
the axis about which the joint can rotate).
For example, if the hinge can rotate about the Xaxis, enter:
1.0 0.0 0.0
Expansion Joint Modeler  Tie Bar Plane
If an expansion joint has only two tie rods, permitting rotation about the plane defined by the tie rods,
enter the direction cosines which, when crossed with the axis of the expansion joint assembly, defines the
plane. In other words, enter the direction cosines corresponding to a line drawn from the midpoint of one
tie rod to the mid point of the other.
Expansion Joint Modeler  Overall Length
The length of a universal joint is variable, depending upon the length of the intermediate spool piece.
Enter the desired length of the universal joint, or alternatively activate the check box in order to default to
the shortest recommended length.
98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Expansion Joint Modeler  Expansion Joint Database
The current expansion joint vendor provides multiple databases.Select the one which you wish to use in
the modeler.
The default expansion joint vendor may be changed in CONFIGURE/SETUP (see "Expansion Joints" on page
28).
Expansion Joint Modeler  Modeler Results
The proposed model of the expansion joint assembly is shown in the window at top. Click Build to insert
this into the piping system model.
The lower window shows the bellows stiffness parameters and allowable movements (from the vendor
catalog). The allowable movements should be noted for later evaluation of the expansion joint.
Expansion Joint Modeler Notes
Expansion joints cannot be inserted on an element that is either already a rigid or an expansion joint.
Bends, however, can be at either end of the element where the expansion is being inserted.
There does not have to be a length given on the element where the expansion joint is to be inserted.
The six types of expansion joint models supported currently by CAESAR II are as listed below:
Untied single bellows
Tied single bellows
Hinged single bellows
Gimballed single bellows
Untied universal bellows
Tied universal bellows
The four possible joint end types are
Weldedend
Slipon flange
Weld neck flange
Plate flange
If the length of the element to receive the expansion joint model is given, then the expansion joint
assembly should fit within this length. If it does not, a warning message will be displayed to the user. If a
universal joint has been requested, the length of the receiving element should be at least long enough to
accept the smallest possible universal length, as defined by the minimum spool piece size from the
manufacturers database. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint model is zero, the user will
be prompted for the desired expansion joint length. If the element to receive the universal expansion joint
model had an original length, then the maximum possible space available for the universal will be reported
and the user asked for the length desired. If the element to receive any expansion joint is longer than the
expansion joint to be inserted, the user will be prompted for the end of the element where the joint should
be inserted, i.e. the From or To end. Overall universal lengths should be limited to about 10 times the pipe
diameter before the center spool piece weight begins to become a problem.
If there is a bend at either the From or the To end of the element to receive the expansion joint, then the
length of the element must be defined.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 99
To find extra nodes needed for the expansion joint model, CAESAR II starts with the element From node
and increments by one until a sufficient number of nodes not used elsewhere in the model are encountered.
It is these nodes that are reported in the “proposedmodel” popup window.
Note that angular stiffnesses reported are given in the current set of units. Only the translational stiffness
label is found at the top of the bellows stiffness report. If users are unsure about the rotational stiffness
units, they may be seen either in the help screens or in the “UNITS” report from the LIST option.
The user is prompted to adjust the stiffness for the expansion joint if the highest operating temperature is
given and not equal to the expansion joint catalog design temperature. Note that this will in general
produce bellows stiffnesses greater than those published in the catalog.
Bellows, tiebar, and hinge/gimbal assembly weights are combined together and distributed over the
expansion joint rigid end pieces.
The expansion joint modeler makes every attempt possible to generate nodes in the model that are unique.
The user should inspect the nodes that are generated closely and make sure that he does not use them
unintentionally in any future model building.
There is a fair amount of computer logic set up to make intelligent decisions about the configuration that
the user wants insofar as bends, hinges, tied bellows, and pressure thrust are concerned. Users should
review generated CAESAR II models and be sure that everything is consistent with the user’s intentions.
Expansion Joint Design Notes
It was common practice in the expansion joint industry to design expansion joint bellows and hardware
(restraints) for the system pressure, and pressure thrust only. Generally, no consideration was given to the
system deadweight or thermal forces. This poor practice has been tolerated in the past (prior to the wide
spread use of piping analysis programs) because of the following:
The deadweight and thermal forces are normally small compared to the pressure and pressure thrust.
Designers laid out expansion joints so that the thermal forces were very low and hence not significant.
The allowable stresses used in hardware designs have a significant safety factor.
The forces and moments generally were not known. Today when an expansion joint is modeled, it is
recommended that ALL information relating to the joint be submitted to the expansion joint manufacturer.
This is especially true of the forces and moments resulting from the operating loads, i.e. deadweight,
thermal forces, and operating deflections. Better evaluations of the loading conditions on the bellows and
hardware simply help the manufacturer make sure that his design is suited for the intended installation and
service.
Torsional Spring Rates
If the torsional spring rate is unknown, a large value should be entered (i.e. 1E10) to produce conservative
results. These results will be conservative with respect to loads and nonconservative with respect to
displacements. It is very common to rate the “bellows allowed torsion” by the amount of rotation
experienced. Large torsional stiffnesses will result in small, seemingly satisfactory rotations. When results
from a piping analysis are communicated back to the expansion joint manufacturer, it is important to
report both the rotation AND the stiffness used to produce that rotation. A good estimate of bellows
stiffnesses is given in Chapter 6 of the Technical Reference Manual.
100 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Bellows Application Notes
The following considerations are important when selecting the number of convolutions for a particular
application:
Movement Capability
The more convolutions selected the greater the movement capacity of the bellows. It is a common practice
to perform a quick hand calculation to estimate the required movement and then select the number of
convolutions from the rated movements in the catalog. Once an analysis is performed, the exact evaluation
of the bellows performance can be made using the expansion joint rating module program provided with
CAESAR II.
Spring Forces
The more convolutions selected, the lower the resulting bellows spring forces will be. This is particularly
critical when the expansion joint is located near rotating equipment.
Available Space
The more convolutions selected, the greater the required overall length. If working in a confined area, the
number of convolutions may be restricted by the space.
Available Expansion Joint EndTypes
The following are expansion joint endtypes available in the CAESAR II modeler.
Welded
Standard pipe beveled for welding.
Slipon
Slipon flange.
WN
Weld neck flange.
Plate
Plate flange in accordance with the manufacturers catalog.
Slipon, weld neck, and plate flanges may not be available in all diameters and pressure ratings, i.e. over
24in. diameters. Consult the catalog for specific interface dimensions, codes and materials. When the user
selects a combination not available, he is warned that there is no database values for his particular
geometry and line size.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 101
Pressure Rating
The pressure rating should be equal to, or larger than the design pressure of the system. Note, however,
that in many instances larger pressures can be tolerated than the rated pressure shown, in fact in many
small diameter expansion joints the same bellows is used in 50, 150, and 300 psirated joints. The
CAESAR II modeler contains the true minimum pressure limits for all of the bellows in the database, and
checks the maximum pressure in the line (as entered by the user) against the allowed pressure (which as
stated, is often greater than the rated pressure). This particular feature allows the user to select a smaller
joint with more flexibility for certain applications.
Expansion Joint Styles
Listed as follows are the six available styles of expansion joints that are built automatically by CAESAR II.
With each type is a brief discussion of its use when associated with hot, pressurized equipment protection.
Untied
Single unrestrained expansion joint. This type of joint can absorb movement in all directions. It will also
subject the system to pressure thrust which must be designed for, external to the expansion joint !!! This
type of joint should almost never be used by the expansion joint novice needing to protect hot, pressurized
equipment. Guide restrictions limiting displacements into the joint, regular maintenance problems
(because of all of the support hardware away from the bellows), and pressure thrust make using and
analyzing this type of bellows difficult.
Tied
Tied single expansion joint that is capable of transverse (lateral) movement only. Pressure thrust is
restrained internally via the tiebars. This is a good, dependable expansion joint to use because pressure
thrust does not have to be designed for, tie rods provide stability to the overall joint (making working with
it in the field easier), and there is a single displacement mode (i.e. lateral) that can be directly compared to
the rated lateral movement in the catalog, without the need for the relatively complicated geometric
calculations in the Expansion Joint Rating program. The drawbacks to the single TIED expansion joint
are that they are fairly stiff in practice (often not providing the needed flexibility to sufficiently reduce the
loads on sensitive equipment), and that the tiebar assembly does provide some nonlinear restraining effect
on flexibility that is unaccounted for in the analysis that may be appreciable when the bellows
displacement becomes large (i.e. when it is most critical that it perform as predicted.)
Hinged
Single hinged expansion joint. This type of joint can only angulate about one axis. Pressure thrust is
retained internally by the hinge mechanism. Hinge joints are often used in pairs to absorb considerable
displacement in a single plane, while transmitting very little load to any attached equipment. The piping
system must, however, be designed to assure that displacement into the hinges is planar for all types of
thermal and occasional loadings to be experienced by the system. Where pressure loads to be absorbed by
the hinge mechanism are high, considerable friction forces can be generated that will somewhat limit
further flexing of the joint, thus transmitting larger loads than expected back into the piping system.
Gimbal
Single gimbal expansion joint. This type of joint can angulate about two axes. Gimballed joints restrain
both pressure thrust and torsion via the gimbal mechanism. These joints are often used in pairs to absorb
considerable displacement in several directions, while transmitting very little load to any attached
equipment.
102 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
UUNIV
Untied universal expansion joint. This type of unit is similar to a single unrestrained expansion joint. It
can absorb movement in all directions and normally has a much higher capacity for transverse (lateral)
deflection than a single bellows. An untied universal will subject the system to pressure thrust loads which
must be designed for, external to the expansion joint. Even when pressure is negligible these joints can
often be difficult to use in practice unless proper guiding of the thermal displacement protects the joint
against undesired movement. Additionally, calculations for computing effective bellows axial movements
for arbitrary movements in three dimensions is not trivial.
TUNIV
Tied universal expansion joint. Similar to a tied single joint, except that the tied universal has much higher
transverse (lateral) movement capability. Pressure thrust loads are restrained internally via the tiebars.
These types of joints are a good option where vertical pipe runs close to the equipment are available. The
tiebars restrict movement to a single mode (lateral) and eliminate the worry about pressure thrust design.
Longer lengths result in smaller lateral stiffnesses, but overall length is somewhat restricted by the weight
of the center spool. A good rule of thumb is to restrict the overall length of the assembly to ten times the
pipe diameter. Users should be careful not to put the assembly into compression, as the tie bar
mechanisms are not designed to take this load and damage to the bellows can result.
These six types of expansion joints are not all of the types available, but are the most common. If a joint is
needed that is not covered by the above, it is suggested that the user select the style closest to that
required, and then edit the resulting input once the EJ Modeler is complete and processing returns to the
piping spreadsheet.
Materials
Bellows can be formed from most ductile materials that can be welded by the automatic T.I.G. butt
welding process and yield a homogeneous ductile weld structure. Due to the fact that the specific “media”
content varies from system to system, and that most “media” data specified prior to system operation is
approximate, with considerable fluctuation possible, it is not feasible to make specific recommendations
concerning bellows materials. The following are the four most common bellows materials that are
supported by CAESAR II:
304SS—A240 tp 304 Stainless Steel
316SS—A240 tp 316 Stainless Steel
600Inc—Inco 600 High Nickel
625Inc—Inco 625 High Nickel
Liners
Internal liners smooth the flow through the expansion joint. The smooth flow reduces pressure drop and
also prevents flowinduced vibration of the bellows. Liners are generally recommended when the flow
velocity exceeds 1.3 ft./sec. as a minimum, and are definitely recommended when the flow velocity
exceeds about 25 ft./sec. Consult the manufacturers catalog for additional information. Heavy gage liners
should be used in high velocity or turbulent flow systems. Also heavy liners should be used when the
media is abrasive.
Covers
External covers are used to protect the very thin bellows, (0.010 to 0.090 in.) from mechanical damage.
Covers are also recommended when the line is to be insulated.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 103
Title Page
By pressing <Ctrl>T at any time during pipe spreadsheet input, the current job's title page will be
displayed (also may access through the MODEL  TITLE menu item). This is up to 60 lines of text that is stored
with the problem, and may be used for detailing run histories, discussing assumptions, etc. These lines
may be printed with the output report through the input echo.
Hanger Data
Systemwide hanger design criteria are activated from the input spreadsheet by choosing the Model
Hanger Design Control Data.
104 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Spring hanger design can be globally controlled by entering data into the hanger control spreadsheet
shown above. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet contains five items that also appear on each
individual hanger design spreadsheet. These parameters can be set once in the run control spreadsheet, and
will apply for all individual hangers to be defined unless specifically overridden at the individual hanger
input level. These items are
shortrange springs
rigid support displacement criteria
maximumallowed travel limit
hanger table
multiple loadcase design option
In addition, the Hanger Design Control spreadsheet tells the hanger design algorithm the number of
temperature cases to be used in the hanger design, and whether or not the actual cold loads should be
calculated. All of these options will be discussed in detail on the following pages.
Whenever hanger locations are given for the first time, default parameters are assigned for all of the fields
that show up in the Hanger Auxiliary Data field. These default parameters are taken from the Hanger
Design Control spreadsheet. The user should, therefore, enter any nondefault parameters that are to apply
globally to all hangers in the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet.
An individual description of each Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet Data cell follows:
No. of Hanger  Design Operating Load Cases
The number of load cases to be considered when designing spring hangers. This value may be between 1
and 9 and corresponds to the number of thermal load cases to be used in hanger design. If more than one
Operating case is to be considered in the hanger design then the user must also select the Multiple Load
Case Design option to be used.
Calculate Actual Cold Loads
Enable this check box to cause CAESAR II to make one additional pass after the hanger design is completed
and the hangers are installed, to determine the actual installed loads that should be used when the hangers
are first installed and the load flanges adjusted in the field. This calculation tends to be important when the
stiffness of the piping system is small, the stiffness of the hanger selected is high, and/or when the hanger
travel is large (i.e. this usually is more important in smaller diameter piping systems that for some reason
are spring supported away from equipment nozzles). Actual cold loads should definitely be calculated
when springs in smaller diameter lines are to be adjusted in the cold position.
Allow Short Range Springs
CAESAR II gives the user the option of excluding short range springs from consideration from the
selection algorithms. In some instances short range springs are considered specialty items and are not used
unless their shorter length is required for clearance reasons. In this case, this check box should be cleared
by the user.
If this option is not activated, CAESAR II will select a midrange spring over a shortrange spring,
assuming they are more standard, readily available, and in general cheaper than their shortrange
counterparts.
If the default should be that short range springs are used wherever possible, then check the box on the
Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 105
Allowable Load Variation (%)
This is the user specified limit on the allowed variation between the hot and cold hanger loads. If not
specified, the only limit on load variation is that inherent in the spring table. This is approximately 100%
when the hot load is smaller than the cold load, and 50% when the hot load is larger than the cold load.
Hot loads are smaller than cold loads whenever the operating displacement in the Y direction is positive.
The default value for the load variation is 25%. The user is advised to enter this value in the Hanger Run
Control Spreadsheet before any hangers are defined. BergenPaterson is the only manufacturer that
specifically gives 25% as a design limit.
The Allowable Load Variation is the percentage variation from the hot load:
(Cold Load)  (Hot Load)
Variation =
Hot Load
or as may be more familiar:
(Travel)(Spring Rate)
Variation =
Hot Load
The Allowable Variation is entered as a percentage, i.e. twenty five percent would be entered 25.0. The
Allowable Load Variation can have different values for different hanger locations if necessary by entering
the chosen value on the individual hanger spreadsheets or it can be entered on the Hanger Design
Control Spreadsheet to apply to all hangers in the model.
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria
This is a parameter used to determine if there is sufficient travel to design a spring. The Rigid Support
Displacement Criteria is a cost saving feature that replaces springs that are not needed with rigid rods.
The hanger design algorithm operates by first running a restrained weight case. From this case the load to
be supported by the hanger in the operating condition is determined. Once the hanger design load is
known, an operating case is run with the hot hanger load installed to determine the travel at the hanger
location. If this determined hanger travel is less than the Rigid Support Displacement Criteria then a
rigid Y support is selected for the location instead of a spring.
If the Rigid Support Displacement is left blank or zero, the criteria will not be applied.
The Rigid Support Displacement Criteria may be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet, or
on each individual hanger spreadsheet. The value specified on the Run Control Spreadsheet is used as the
default for all hangers not having it defined explicitly.
A typical value to be used is 0.1 in.
Important: In some cases a Single directional restraint should be inserted instead of a rigid rod. Rigid
rods are double acting restraints which can in some cases develop large “hold down” forces that don’t
really exist because the support has lifted off, or because the rigid rod has bowed slightly. When this
condition develops the user should rerun the hanger design inserting single directional restraints where
rigid rods were put in by CAESAR II.
Hangers should probably never be replaced by rigid rods in very stiff parts of the piping system that are
usually associated with rotating equipment or vessel nozzles that need to be protected.
106 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Maximum Allowed Travel Limit
To specify a limit on the amount of travel a variable support hanger may undergo, specify the limit in this
field. The specification of a maximum travel limit will cause CAESAR II to select a constant effort support
if the design operating travel exceeds this limit, even though a variable support from the manufacturer
table would have been satisfactory in every other respect.
Constant effort hangers can be designed by inputting a very small number for the Maximum Allowed
Travel Limit. A value of 0.001 is typical to force CAESAR II to select a for a particular location.
Hanger Table
The following spring tables are currently included in CAESAR II:
1. Grinnell 2. Bergen Power
3. Power Piping 4. NPS Industries
5. Lisega 6. Fronek
7. Piping Technology 8. Capitol
9. Piping Services 10. Basic Engineers
11. Inoflex 12. E. Myatt
13. SINOPEC 14. BHEL
15. Flexider 16. Carpenter & Paterson
17. Comet 18. Hydra
19. Sarathi 20. Myricks
21. China Power 22. Pipe Supports USA
23. Quality Pipe Supports
Additional design options are invoked by further modifying the hanger table number:
Add + 100 to get Extended Range
Add + 200 to get Cold Load Design
Add + 400 to get the Hot load centered if possible.
For example, to use Grinnell Springs and cold load design the user would enter:
1 + 200 = 201.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 107
To use Grinnell “Extended Range” springs, Cold Load Design, and to get the Design Hot load centered in
the middle of the hanger table, if possible, the user would enter:
1 + 100 + 200 + 400 = 701.
A single job can use any combination of tables. The hanger table can be specified on the individual hanger
spreadsheet, or can be specified on the Hanger Run Control Spreadsheet (see "Hanger Data" on page
103).
If a spring table is entered in the Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet then it is used as the default for all
subsequent hangers defined. The Hanger Design Control Spreadsheet defaults to the hanger table
specified in the configuration file.
The maximum load range was included in CAESAR II to permit the selection of less expensive variable
support hangers in place of constant effort supports when the spring loads are just outside the
manufacturers recommended range. Users should make sure that the maximum load range is available
from the manufacturer as a standard item.
Cold Load Spring Hanger Design. Cold Load Spring Hanger Design is a method of designing the springs,
whereby the hot (or operating) load is supported in the cold (or installed) position of the piping. This
method of spring design offers several advantages over the more usual hot load design:
Hanger stops are easier to remove.
There is no excessive movement from the neutral position when the system is cold or when the stops
are removed.
Spring loads can be adjusted before the system is brought up to temperature.
Some feel that the cold load approach yields a much more dependable design.
In some system configurations, operating loads on connected equipment are lower. A typical
configuration resulting in this “loadreduction” is one where a hot vertical riser, anchored at the
bottom, turns horizontally into a nozzle connection. The spring to be designed is at the elbow adjacent
to the nozzle. Operating loads are lower because the difference between the hot and cold loads
counters the moment produced by the vertical thermal expansion from the anchor.
The disadvantages to cold load design are
In some systems, in the hot condition the loads on rotating equipment may be increased by a value
proportional to the spring rate times the travel.
Most installations are done on a hot load design basis.
The decision to use hot or cold load hanger design rests with the user.
Middle of the Table Hanger Design. Many designers prefer that the hot load be centered as close as possible
to the middle of the spring table. This is to provide as much “variability” either way before the spring
bottoms out when the system is hot. This was a much more needed feature, before effective computer
modelling of piping systems, when the weights at hangers were approximated by chart methods or
calculated by hand. Activating this option does not guarantee that spring hot loads will be at the middle of
the spring table, but CAESAR II makes every effort to move the hot load to this position. The CAESAR II
design algorithm will go to a higher size spring if the design load is closer to the middle of the larger
springs range, but will never switch spring types. This option can only result in a one size larger spring
when it is effective. CAESAR II will attempt to move the hot load to the next higher spring when it is within
10% of the maximum travel range for the spring. If the new spring is not satisfactory then the old one will
be used, even though its hot load is within 10% of the high end of the table load range, to get a springs hot
load close to the middle of the table.
108 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Extended Load Range Springs. Extended load ranges are the most extreme ranges on the spring load table.
Some manufacturers build double spring supports to accommodate this range, and others adjust the top or
bottom travel limits to accommodate either end of the extended table. Before using the maximum ranges,
the user should make sure that the manufacturer can properly supply the spring. Use of the extended range
often eliminates the need to go to a constant effort support. Lisega springs do not support the "extended
range" idea. A request for extended Lisega springs results in the standard Lisega spring table and ranges.
Multiple Load Case Design Options
Whenever more than one thermal load case is to be used in the hanger sizing algorithm, CAESAR II must
know how the user wishes to weigh the results from the different cases. There are currently 13 different
methods that may be used for multiple load case hanger design selection. These 13 methods are listed as
follows and are described in greater detail under the hanger auxiliary data section.
1 Design per Load Case #1
2 Design per Load Case #2
3 Design per Load Case #3
4 Design per Load Case #4
5 Design per Load Case #5
6 Design per Load Case #6
7 Design per Load Case #7
8 Design per Load Case #8
9 Design per Load Case #9
10 Design for the maximum operating load
11 Design for the maximum travel
12 Design for the average load and the average travel
13 Design for the maximum load and the maximum travel
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 109
Special Execution Parameters
The Special Execution Parameters dialog is invoked by choosing the KAUX  SPECIAL EXECUTION
PARAMETERS option from the menu or by clicking it's toolbar from the piping spreadsheet. The Special
Execution Parameters, once chosen, remain set for that particular job.
Print Forces on Rigids and Expansion Joints
Forces and moments are not normally printed for rigid elements and expansion joints, because the forces
that act on these elements can usually be read directly from the forces that act on the adjacent pipe
elements. Check this box to cause forces and moments to be calculated and printed for all rigid elements
and expansion joints in the system. If there are a considerable number of rigid elements in the job, this
option will cause some slowdown in the output processor, and will cause the solution intermediate files to
increase slightly in size.
Print Alphas and Pipe Properties
If the user checks this box he will be given the option, at the error checking level, to print the interpolated
expansion coefficients along with the pipe, insulation, and fluid weights. This report can be very useful
during error checking to help identify possible problems in the temperature or weight input specifications.
Rigid elements and expansion joints are treated just like straight pipe. Rigid weights and insulation factors
are not reflected in this table.
110 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Activate Bourdon Effects
Choose the option from the drop list to activate the Bourdon pressure effect. The Bourdon pressure effect
causes straight pipes to elongate, or displace along their axes, and causes curved pipes, or bends to
elongate along the line that connects the bends “near” and “far” nodes. If the Bourdon effect is not
activated there will be no global displacements due to pressure. The Bourdon effect is always considered
when plastic pipe is used, regardless of the setting of the Activate Bourdon Effects flag.
By default CAESAR II does not include the Bourdon effect in the analysis of steel piping systems, i.e. there
will be no displacements of the system due to pressure.
As an option, the user may include pressure displacement effects if he wishes. These effects can be
appreciable in long runs of pipe, or in high pressure, large diameter bends adjacent to sensitive equipment.
Bourdon effects are almost always important in fiberglass reinforced plastic piping systems. For this
reason the Bourdon (Translational) is automatically turned on for all FRP pipe runs and bends.
Two Bourdon options are available:
Translational pressure deformations only.
Translational and rotational deformations.
The Translational option should be used when the elbows in the system are forged or welded fittings and
can reasonably be assumed to have a circular cross section.
The Translational and Rotational option should be used when the bends in the system are fabricated by
the hot or cold bending of straight pipe. In these cases the slight residual ovalization of the bend cross
section, after “bending,” will cause the bend to try to “straighten out” when pressurized. Fixed end
moments are associated with this “opening” that do not exist when the original shape of the bend cross
section is circular.
Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts
This is a dual purpose flag activated by selecting the appropriate option from the drop list. The user is
prompted for two pieces of information by this input:
The loop closure tolerance.
The global coordinates of the first point of the piping system and each following piece of the piping
system that is not connected to the first.
This data is needed the first time CAESAR II prepares a global geometry calculation. This calculation is
made on three different occasions:
Before preprocessor plots are generated
Before global coordinate reports are built
Before error checking is performed
Alternatively, prompting may be avoided by entering the global coordinates by using the Edit  Global (see
"Global Coordinates" on page 85) command from the main spreadsheet.
There are several major uses for this flag:
To set the loop closure tolerance
To properly define the elevation of the piping system for wind/wave load calculations
To give the proper eastwest/northsouth coordinates for dimension checks
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 111
To move parts of the system around in the plotted output for visual checking
Whenever the user creates a physical “loop” in the piping system there will be at least two different sets of
dimensions between the same points. If the two dimensions are not within a certain tolerance of each
other, a fatal error will occur. This tolerance may be set interactively or in the configuration file. Selecting
"Both" for the Branch Error and Coordinate Prompts directive causes CAESAR II to interactively prompt
for this tolerance.
Thermal Bowing Delta Temperature
This field is used to specify the temperature differential which exists between the top of the pipe and the
bottom of the pipe. This differential is used to compute an elemental load, added to each temperature case
for “horizontal” pipes.
This entry should be computed from the equation:
dT = Ttop  Tbottom
For example, consider a horizontal pipe where the temperature on the top is 20 degrees hotter than the
temperature on the bottom. The proper value to enter in this field will be 20, not 20.
Liberal Stress Allowable
A conservative formulation of the allowable expansion stress range for many codes in CAESAR II is
calculated from:
f ( 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh )
When the user requests that the “Liberal Allowable” be used, the difference between Sh and Sl, provided
Sh > Sl, will be added to the term inside the parenthesis, i.e.
SA(Liberal) = f[ 1.25 Sc + .25 Sh + ( Sh  Sl) ]
The liberal expression will only be employed when there is at least one sustained stress case in the load
set. If there is more than one sustained stress case in a single problem, then the largest of Sl, considering
all of the sustained cases, for any single element end will be chosen to subtract from Sh. Because the
sustained stress varies from one pipe to another, the allowable expansion stress will also vary.
By default, CAESAR II uses the liberal stress allowable setting in the configuration file, (see "Liberal
Expansion Stress Allowable" on page 14) in its computation of the expansion stress allowable. (New
models are created using this configuration setting.) Users not wishing to utilize this default setting for
calculating the expansion can simply change the state of this check box.
112 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Uniform Load in G's
Uniform loads can be defined in either terms of force per unit length or in terms of a magnifier times
gravitational loading (g). The loading magnifier can act in any direction and is specified by giving its
components along the three orthogonal X, Y, and Z axes.
Gravitational loading is used most often to model the static equivalent of a dynamic earthquake loading.
When activated, the uniform load fields on the pipe spreadsheet change from UX, UY, and UZ to GX,
GY, and GZ. An entry of: GX = 1.0, GY = 0.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a lg loading on the piping system in
the horizontal X direction. An entry of: GX = 0.0, GY = 1.0, GZ = 0.0 represents a 1.0g load in the minus
Y direction, and is exactly equal to the pipe weight load.
Gravitational load entries are distributive properties similar to the uniform loads they replace. Once
specified, the given g loading will act on all subsequent pipe elements until changed or zeroed.
The user may activate the gravitational load option at any time during the input of the problem. The
gravitational load option is activated by checking the box.
Note: Earthquake loads are occasional loadings and as such are not directly addressed by the CAESAR II
recommended load case logic. Users must form their own combination cases at the output processor level
that represent the algebraic sum of the stresses due to sustained and occasional loads. See Chapter 6 of the
Technical Reference Manual for more on Occasional Load Case definition.
Stress Stiffening Due to Pressure (all codes except IGE/TD/12)
This directive activates the Pressure Stiffening effects in straight pipes. CAESAR II applies the stress
stiffening matrix to the elemental stiffness matrices (of straight pipes only) using an axial force P equal to
the internal pressure as selected from the drop list times the internal area of the pipe. Note that other
internal forces (due to thermal or imposed mechanical loads) are not included in the P force as this is not a
nonlinear effect. Note that Stress Stiffening is not currently available for pressure cases 3 through 9.
Base Stress/Flexibility on (IGE/TD/12 code only)
This directive indicates whether to base the IGE/TD/12 stress analysis (element stiffness and section
modulus) on the nominal wall thickness, maximum wall thickness (nominal wall thickness (nominal plus
mill tolerance), or minimum wall thickness (nominal minus mill tolerance). Note that corrosion is
deducted from the section modulus for all stress types except Hydrotest, and that regardless of this
selection, Stress Concentration Factors are always based upon nominal dimensions.
Ambient Temperature
The default ambient temperature for all elements in the system is 70°F/21°C. If this does not accurately
represent the installed, or zero expansion strain state, then enter the actual value in this field. The ambient
temperature is used in conjunction with the specified hot temperature and the interpolated expansion
coefficient to calculate the thermal expansion per inch of pipe length experienced by the element when
going from the ambient temperature to the hot temperature.
A default ambient temperature can be defined in the configuration file (see "Ambient Temperature" on
page 4). This (configuration) value is used when a new model is created to set the value of ambient
temperature.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 113
FRP Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (x 1,000,000 )
The default thermal expansion coefficient for fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe is 12.0E6 in./in./deg.F. If
the user has a more suitable value for the particular composite then that value should be inserted in this
field. For example, if the improved value was: 8.5E6 in./in./deg.F., then the user would enter 8.5 in this
field. The exponent (E6) is implied. This expansion coefficient is used in conjunction with the
temperatures entered on the pipe spreadsheet for each plastic pipe element to calculate the thermal
expansion for the element. It should be noted that this method does not provide for any variation in the
thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature. This could prove limiting should there be parts
of the system at different nonambient temperatures. In this case the user may always calculate the thermal
expansion at temperature in inches per inch and input this value directly into the Temperature field on
the pipe spreadsheet.
For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.
FRP Ratio of Shear Modulus/Emod Axial
In this field, the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity (in the axial direction) of the
fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used should be entered. For example, if the material modulus of elasticity
(axial) is 3.2E6 psi, and the shear modulus is 8.0E5 psi, the ratio of these two, 0.25, should be entered
here.
For new models, the default value is obtained from the configuration file.
FRP Laminate Type
The default Laminate Type (as defined in the BS 7159 code) of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used
should be entered. Valid laminatetypes are
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer.
All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
This entry is used in order to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore this
default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary spreadsheets.
ZAxis Vertical
Traditionally CAESAR II has always used a coordinate system where the Yaxis coincides with the vertical
axis. In one alternative coordinate system, the Zaxis represents the vertical axis (with the X axis chosen
arbitrarily, and the Yaxis being defined according to the right hand rule. CAESAR II now gives the user the
ability to model using either coordinate system, as well as to switch between both systems on the fly in
most cases.
114 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Defaulting to ZAxis Vertical
The user’s preferred axis orientation may be set using the ToolsConfigure/Setup option, on the
Geometry Directives (see "ZAxis Vertical" on page 19) tab, as shown in the figure below. Clicking the
ZAxis Vertical check box causes CAESAR II to default any new piping, structural steel, WRC 107,
NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, or API 661 models to use the Zaxis vertical orientation. Old models
will appear in the orientation in which they were last saved. The default value in Configure/Setup is
unchecked or Yaxis vertical.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 115
Orienting a Piping Model to ZAxis Vertical
A new piping model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup
module, while an existing piping model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last saved.
The axis orientation may be toggled from YAxis to ZAxis vertical by clicking the check box on the
KauxSpecial Execution Parameters screen, as show in the figure below.
116 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e.,
Yvalues become Zvalues) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as
shown in the following figures:
This allows any piping input file to be immediately translated from one coordinate system into the other.
When including other piping files in a model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match that
of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the include files need not match
that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
The axis orientation on the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output
Processor, The Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation
of the model’s input file.
Orienting a Structural Model to ZAxis Vertical.
A new structural model will determine its axis orientation based on the setting in the Configure/Setup
module, while an existing structural model will use the same axis orientation under which it was last
saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from YAxis to ZAxis Vertical by changing the value of the
Vertical Command, activated by clicking the button on the toolbar, or through the
COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu command as shown in the figure on the next page.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 117
118 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling this setting does not
translate the structural input file, but rather physically rotates the model into the new coordinate system, as
shown in the figures below.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match
that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e.,
wind and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output
Processor is dictated by the orientation of the structural model’s input file.
Orienting an Equipment Model to ZAxis Vertical.
The WRC 107, NEMA SM 23, API 610, API 617, and API 661 equipment analytical modules may also
utilize the Zaxis vertical orientation. A new equipment model will also determine its axis orientation
based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing equipment model will use the same
axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from YAxis to ZAxis
Vertical by clicking the check box typically found on the second data input tab of each module.
Clicking this check box causes the model to immediately convert to match the new axis orientation (i.e.,
Yvalues become Zvalues) or vice versa, so there is no change in the model only in its representation, as
shown in the following figures:
When using the Get Loads From Output File button to read in piping loads from CAESAR II output files,
the axis orientation of the piping files need not match that of the equipment model. Translation occurs
immediately during the readin of the loads.
Bandwidth Optimizer Options
The bandwidth optimizer is used to order the set of equations that represent the piping system for both
static and dynamic analyses. The optimizer may be run with a variety of different switch settings. The
default settings were chosen for their combination of ordering efficiency and speed. These settings should
suffice for the majority of piping systems analyzed. For systems having greater than 100 nodes, or that are
highly interconnected, the following optimum parameters should be used.
Optimizer Method Both
Next Node Selection Decreasing
Final Ordering Reversed
Collins Ordering Band
Degree Determination Connections
User Control None
If the User Control is set to "Allow User Relooping," CAESAR II will let the user interactively try as many
different combinations of switch settings as desired. When the most efficient ordering is obtained, the user
may continue on with the analysis. This interactive prompting for optimization parameters is done in the
analysis level processing.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 119
Combining Independent Piping Systems
Input from other jobs may be “included” into the current piping model. Piping models added may have a
node offset applied and can optionally be rotated about the Y axis before being added. Choose
KAUX/INCLUDE PIPING INPUT FILES from the Pipe Input spreadsheet to "include" other input files. When
including other piping models, the user is asked for the following:
File Name. The user may browse for the file name. The file need not reside in the current data directory.
Read Now (Y/N/L)
Y, if the file is to be read immediately and stored as part of the current input (the file read may be edited as
part of the current job). N, if the file is to be read for plotting and fully processed only during error
checking (the file read may not be edited as part of the current job). The L option is discussed under
"Large Job Includes," below.
Rotation. If not zero, then gives the angle about the Y axis by which to rotate the model before including it
in the current job. The rotation applies regardless of the (Y/N) setting.
Note: Restraints, uniform loads, and concentrated forces are NOT rotated. Additionally, the rotation of
the model can be accomplished from the LIST Utility.
Node Increment. The increment to be added to all of the nodes in the model before including it in the
current job. The node increment applies regardless of the (Y/N) setting.
120 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Including Structural Models
Include Structural Input Files. This input screen is used to include an alreadybuilt structural model into the
current job. The structural model must have been built and successfully error checked in the structural
steel preprocessor accessed from the CAESAR II MAIN MENU. Once a structural model has been built,
it may be included into any piping input using the above screen. The names of up to 20 different structural
models to be included are entered into the data area available. Once this is done, the structural model may
be plotted and analyzed with the piping model. The structural models need not reside in the current
directory.
Piping systems are usually tied to structural steel models by the use of restraints with connecting nodes.
The user should make absolutely sure there are no node number conflicts between structure and pipe
models. Once a restraint with a connecting node is defined between the pipe and structure, CAESAR II
knows where to put the structure in the resulting preprocessor plot. If no connection between the pipe and
the structure is given, the structure will be plotted starting from the origin of the piping system (and the
resulting plot will most likely “look funny”).
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 121
List/ Edit Facility
The CAESAR II input listings allow the display of all applicable input data in a context display. This mode
is accessed through the Edit  List command. optionally in a user specified format. The user can edit, delete
or modify data in the lists.
The List option screen contains a row of tabs at the bottom that are used to select the various list options
to be displayed. When a tab has been selected the row headings at the top of the spreadsheet will reflect
the specific input data and controlling parameters displayed in the corresponding columns. All of the input
data can be accessed through the various list reports. An example list control screen is shown below.
122 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The reports are generated in column format in a window like that shown above that the user can
interactively review or modify. The cursor can be moved into any field and a new value entered to replace
the original value. The reports may be scrolled vertically or horizontally.
Help may be requested by pressing the <F1> key while in any of the data cells. Cell input may be deleted
by highlighting the selection and pressing the <Delete> key. The list spreadsheet supports standard
windows commands such as Cut and Paste on a fieldbyfield basis.
The User may edit input data on the list spreadsheet, which will then update the input spreadsheets as well.
Values that carry forward on the input spreadsheet are highlighted in red where there is a change in the
data value. For example, in the sample spreadsheet shown, the diameter changes from 219.075 mm to
508.0 mm on the element from node 90 to 100 so the new diameter is highlighted in red.
Other options from the Element List include the following:
The Find command (invoked with <Ctrl> F or EDIT  FIND menu item) is used to quickly jump to the
element where the given node is located. Find remembers the last node number entered, so subsequent
“finds” of the same node can be accomplished by typing <Ctrl> F.
Access to the element Auxiliary Data screens is available by highlighting an element row and choosing
the Aux button from the toolbar or alternatively by rightclicking on an element line and picking the BLOCK
OPERATIONSAUX item in the popup menu. By singleclicking on any checked items from the window shown
below the appropriate Auxiliary Data field will be displayed. The user may edit the data in the Auxiliary
Data field, which will in turn update the input spreadsheet. Additionally, the user may enter new data by
doubleclicking on any of the unchecked boxes to bring up that item's Auxiliary Data screen. An entire
Auxiliary Data field may be deleted by doubleclicking on the checked item (a prompt will warn the user
of the impending delete operation).
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 123
Block Operations
The list editor has the ability to perform global editing operations on selected parts of the piping system.
These operations include varieties of rotations, duplications, node renumbering, and status reporting.
Block operations are available on the element list only.
Move the cursor to the first element in the group to be operated on and click the row number for that item.
This element should become highlighted. Move the cursor to the last element in the group to be operated
on and click on the corresponding row number while holding the <shift> key down. The entire group of
elements will be highlighted. This “highlighting” defines the elements that any block operations will
change. A block may contain any number of elements from a single element to every element in the
model. A block must be defined before CAESAR II will allow the user to enter the BLOCK OPERATIONS menu
item.
After the block has been identified select Block and one of the following submenu items to perform the
indicated operation (or rightclick in the list processor and select one of the following from the popup
menu):
Rotate
The Rotate dialog box is shown in the following figure. The user may rotate the block through some angle
about the X, Y or Z axis. The Unskew option helps the user take a skewed geometry and return it to an
orthogonal orientation. The Setup option permits the user to determine what in the block should be rotated,
including restraints, displacements, force/moments, uniform loads, and flexible nozzles. The default is for
all of these items that appear in the block to be rotated with the block. Data/message screens illustrating an
example rotation are shown as follows.
Delete
This command deletes the selected block.
124 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Duplicate
The Duplicate dialog is shown in the figure below. The user can make identical copies of the block or can
make mirror image by "flipping" the chosen elements in one of the orthogonal planes. Mirror imaging is
done on the piping delta dimensions only (i.e. restraints are copied, but not mirror imaged, i.e.: a +Y
restraint will not become a Y restraint when mirrored in the XZ plane.)
The duplicate “setup” option works just like the rotation setup option. Restraints, displacements,
forces/moments, uniform loads and nozzles may individually be included or excluded from the
duplication.
Once the type of duplication is determined the user must decide the following:
Where in the input to put the duplicated group of elements. Either at the end of the current block, the
end of the input file, or after a specific element in the model.
What node increment to add to the nodes in the block so that they define unique pipe elements. Be
sure this increment is large enough to avoid any duplication of node numbers.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 125
Nodes
On certain occasions the node numbering in a particular area of the model may not be to the user's liking.
To renumber a part of the model in a more logical fashion use the BlockNode menu command. The two
available options are Increment and Renumber as shown in the following figure.
The user enters the starting node and the increment for the block's nodal renumbering. Every node in the
block on the piping system will be renumbered. The user must be sure that the starting node and increment
will result in unique node numbers for the elements being renumbered. This feature can be used to clean
up part, or all of the piping system. It is not unusual for an analyst to put the entire model in one block and
do a full renumber on all of the nodes. This often presents a much cleaner picture of the analysis to the
client. Users are urged to make copies of any large jobs before renumbering them. Users should be
particularly careful when renumbering systems containing large numbers of interconnected restraints with
Cnodes.
Note: It is common for CAESAR II not to renumber a Cnode in a block having perceived that the Cnode
is connected to a node outside the block. (In fact Cnode will not be renumbered if they do not connect to a
node in the block and on the piping system.)
Any possible confusion can be avoided in these instances by starting the renumbering at a node greater
than the largest node in the model. If all of the nodes are renumbered successfully (i.e. there aren't any
dangling Cnodes), then the node Increment command can be issued with a negative increment to shift the
newly renumbered nodes back into the original range.
126 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Printing an Input Listing
An input listing can be printed by using the File  Print command from the spreadsheet. The program
prompts the user to select the reports to print, prior to printing.
The user can change the report contents through modification of a .inp file.
Any time an input listing is written to a file or to the printer, the format of each of the reports is obtained
from a .inp file. The .inp files are ASCII text files which can be modified to create reports of differing
styles or content. The file Initial.inp can be modified to change the page length in the report, and the
starting and stopping column positions. Any text editor (such as Notepad) can be used to change any of
the .inp files. Users changing .inp files may receive fatal errors during report generation if impossible
formats, or invalid commands are requested.
Note: For users preferring a different (more columnar) form of the basic element data, three additional
formatting files have been provided.
ELEMENT0.INP  COADE standard element format
ELEMENT1.INP  1st alternate element format
ELEMENT2.INP  2nd alternate element format
ELEMENT3.INP  3rd alternate element format
To utilize any of these formatting files, change directories to the CAESAR II\System directory. Then, copy
the desired formatting file into Element.inp.
To print an Input Echo from the input spreadsheets, choose FILE  PRINT from the pulldown menu. To write
an Input Echo to the screen for review, choose FILE  PRINT PREVIEW from the pulldown menu.
Note: An input listing may also be printed from the output module, as part of the entire output report.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 127
Input Plotting
The following figure shows the CAESAR II graphics interface.
There are several methods of accomplishing nearly every command in the Input Plot Utility. Commands
may be enabled by clicking toolbar buttons, selecting dropdown menu items, or through the use of hot
keys.
Model Rotation, Panning, and Zooming
In general it is faster to use the hot keys for model rotation and the mouse button for model translation. It
is much faster to turn volume plot off prior to model rotation and translation with hot keys. CAESAR II
toggles the volume off when using the mouse to pan the model and restores the volume at the conclusion
of the pan.
The shift key may be used to toggle between Rotation and Panning functionality of the arrow keys. The
letters SHFT appear at the bottom right of the Plot Window when the Shift option is enabled. Note that
the Shift key need not be held down to enable the SHFT option.
128 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
SHFT Option Disabled
Rotations:
About the Yaxis, use the right and left arrow keys.
About the Zaxis, use the insert and delete keys.
About the InPlane axis (parallel to the display), use the up and down arrow keys.
About the Xaxis, press the <z> key to view from the Zaxis or the <y> key to view from the Yaxis,
then use the up and down arrow keys.
SHFT Option Disabled
Panning:
Pan up with the <Page Up> key
Pan down with the <Page Down> key
Pan left with the <Home> key
Pan right with the <End> key
SHFT Option Enabled
Panning:
To Pan Left and Right, use the left and right arrow keys.
To Pan Up and Down, use the up and down arrow keys.
Note: Other key combinations are possible, and the user is urged to experiment with different
keystrokes to find the optimum combination for themselves.
Toolbar buttons may also be used for Rotations and Translations and the volume plot should be disabled
first. This method is generally slower than hot keys or the mouse.
A particularly effective method for quickly panning the plot is to rightclick the mouse on the Plot
window and choose Pan from the popup menu. Then the model will move with the mouse about the
window. To disable this directive, either press the <Esc> key or rightclick the mouse and choose PAN
again.
Zooming
Zooming is accomplished with either the + or  keys or by simply leftclicking the mouse and dragging it
to draw a box around the portion of the model to be enlarged. Another effective method of zooming is
accomplished by rightclicking on the Plot window and choosing Zoom from the popup menu, then
dragging the mouse up and down to zoom in and out. When satisfied with the view, either press the <esc>
key or rightclick the mouse and choose ZOOM again from the popup menu to deactivate mouse controlled
zooming.
Reset Plot
Reset Plot may be chosen from either the Toolbar, from the menu by selecting VIEW/RESET or by pressing
the <F9> function key. This returns the plot to the original default position as when the Plot window is
first entered from the Input Spreadsheet.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 129
Views
The Input Plot may be viewed Isometrically (default), or along any of the three global axes. To view the
plot in the twodimensional plane normal to a given axis, either press the axis letter on the keyboard (X, Y,
or Z), choose the corresponding Toolbar button, or pick the appropriate menu item under the View menu.
To display the plot in all four views simultaneously, choose the 4 views button, press <ctrl> 4, or select
the 4 VIEWS menu item under the View menu. To return to the SE Isometric view, choose the SE ISO View
button, the <F10> function key, or select SOUTHEAST ISO VIEW from the View dropdown menu.
Volume Plotting
The three different volume plots available in CAESAR II are the Volume Plot, the Wire Frame Plot, and
Rendering. Rendering views the model as a 3D solid, while Volume Plot is the volume outline view.
Toggle Volume on and off with the <V> key, the Volume button on the Toolbar, or the VOLUME PLOT menu
item from the View menu. Toggle 3D Rendering or 3D Wire Frame on and off with either the
appropriate button on the Toolbar or the menu choice under the View menu.
Displaying Element Information
Model information may be displayed on the plot by choosing the appropriate Toolbar button, the
dropdown menu item under the Options menu, or the appropriate Hot Key (as shown on the dropdown
menu). The following is a short description of the available model information on the Plot window:
Expansion Joints and Rigids
Plotted by default and displayed in green on the Plot window.
Restraints
Also plotted in green, translational restraints are plotted as isocoles triangles with the apex touching the
pipe in the direction of free travel (ex: a +Y restraint looks like a triangle with it's base below the pipe).
Flexible restraints are drawn with small spring symbols. “Gapped” restraints are drawn slightly removed
from the centerline of the pipe. Rotational restraints are plotted twice as wide at the base of the arrowhead
as translational restraints. The user is encouraged to experiment to determine all the symbols that CAESAR
II uses to depict various restraint types.
Anchors
Anchors are shown as green triangles with standard anchor lines protruding from the base.
Hangers
Drawn as brown (default) cylinders with a line extending to the hanger node.
Nozzles
Brown Cylinder with larger "cap" at vessel connection point.
Bends, Tees
All shown as highlighted straight lines connecting the associated boundary nodes.
130 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Forces, Moments, Displacements
The node is highlighted and the vectors are displayed numerically.
Thicknesses, Diameter, Length, Material Number
Element pipe wall thicknesses, insulation thicknesses, material number, element diameter and length are
displayed numerically near the midpoint of the element.
Node Numbers
Node Numbers are displayed in yellow. Only From and To nodes are displayed.
Range
The Range command may be used to plot only those elements that contain nodes within the range
specified by the user. This is particularly helpful when attempting to locate a specific node in a rather
large model.
Highlight
The Highlight option is used to mark elements having similar properties.
Each subsequent highlight is cumulative. Very descriptive color displays can be generated and
interactively rotated to give the user a clear description of the conditions used for highlighting.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 131
Piping Input Graphics
The piping preprocessor also provides interactive graphics and listing functions to facilitate model editing
and verification. Model verification can be performed using either the Graphics or List utilities, although a
combination of both modes is recommended.
When drawing the model, the status bar displays “drawing node X of Y” and changes to “Ready” when
finished. The model remains functional while drawing.
Hoops Plot Tools (toolbar):
Reset Plot
Displays the plot in its default configuration: removes any highlighting, sets ISO view, renders
mode, and zooms to extent. This action may also be activated by clicking the F9 function key on
the keyboard.
Undo/Redo
Disregards or repeats the user’s last action.
Zoom to Window
The view can be zoomed in by dragging a box around the desired area.
Zoom to Extents
The model will zoom in or out to fit entirely on the screen.
Front/Back;
Top/Bottom;
Left/Right
Allows selecting among predefined generally used views. Pressing X, Y, or Z buttons on the
keyboard will set the model in “right”, “top”, or “front” views correspondingly. Additionally,
holding down the SHIFT button while pressing X, Y, or Z keys will show “left”, “bottom”, or
“back” views respectively.
ISO View
View in Southeast isometric mode. This action may also be activated by clicking the F10
function key on the keyboard.
Orbit
Activates an interactive rotation feature when the left mouse button is clicked.
Zoom
The model may be zoomed in/out by moving mouse up/down while clicking the left mouse
button. The model may also be zoomed from under any other command by rotating the mouse
wheel (when applicable).
Pan
The model may be panned left, right, up, or down. Upon clicking the button, the cursor with
change to a hand; and the view may be panned by moving the mouse while clicking the “left”
mouse button. The view may also be panned from under any other command by holding down
the middle mouse button/mouse wheel while moving the mouse.
Freehand Markup:
FreeHand, Circle, Rectangle,
Annotate
On clicking this button, the drop down menu appears with the following options: Free Hand,
Circle, Rectangle, and Annotate. The geometry or the text entered by this command, are not kept
with the model, and get erased/deleted on any change (like zoom, pan, or rotate).
Walk Through
Allows interactively move inside the model, and look left, right, up, and down. A list of
available commands/keys is displayed on the screen.
Gouraud Shading/ Hidden
Lines/ Wire Frame/ Two Line
Mode/ CenterLine View
Will switch the corresponding view mode of the model. Pressing the V button on the keyboard
will switch the views in following order: Gouraud Shading (rendered mode) > Two Line Mode 
> Center Line View.
132 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Select by
Single Click
Clicking on elements when this option is selected causes the input spreadsheet for the chosen
element to be displayed in the background. The element is highlighted and zoomed to selection.
Additionally, a dialog box with basic element geometry information is updated within the plot
window. The Element Information dialog may be moved around or away from the view.
Clicking on the empty space will deselect the element.
Insert Cutting
Plane
Inserts a cutting plane.
Annotate Model When the button is selected the user can add annotations with leader lines to the graphics. This is
done by leftclicking the mouse to start the leader line, then dragging the line to the annotation
point, typing in the annotation, and then pressing the Enter button.
NOTE: The annotation font face, size, and color may be changed by clicking the Change Display
Options button.
Model Info Not active.
Change Display Options Allows the setting of colors, fonts and other definable defaults for the geometry and text on the
plot. Changes to graphic settings are restored whenever plot is exited and restarted in the graphics
view. Alternatively, the user may set a "standard" setup to be always restored upon entering
graphics for this particular job. This is done through the use of this button, followed by the User
Options tab.
Translucent Objects Enables the see through of elements. The degree of translucence is set in Plot Configuration
under the Visibility tab. This option is especially useful when designing a jacketed pipe, when
one or more pipes are hidden inside a jacket.
Perspective/ Orthographic/
Stretched Projection
Switches between the named model view projections. The default (set to Orthographic
projection) can be set by the user for this particular job through the use of the Plot
Configuration dialog, followed by the User Options tab.
Note: Most of the operations are also available by rightclicking the mouse and selecting an action from
the popup menu. Pressing [ESC] or reselecting the option from the popup menu exits the action.
4 Views
Allows viewing all four view modes simultaneously (right, top, front, and ISO). Upon clicking the
button, the splitter bars appear, move the mouse to the desired position, and click the left mouse
button.
NOTE: All four views can be operated on independently (zoom, pan, or orbit); however, the model
level operations (like selection, coloring for restraints or diameters, node numbers, etc.) update all
four views simultaneously.
Expansion Joints/
Tees/ Nozzles
Displays and highlights with color the expansion joints, tees, or flexible nozzles correspondingly.
Anchors/ Hangers/
Restraints
Displays anchors (alternatively, Menu Plot/Options > Anchors or “F2” function key), hangers
(alternatively, Menu Plot/Options > Hangers or “F4” function key), and nonanchor, nonhanger
restraints (alternatively, Menu Plot/Options > Restraints or F7 function button) correspondingly.
Note: The size of mentioned boundary condition symbols corresponds to the pipe sizing (OD). In
addition, the size of restraints and the hangers may be manually adjusted to become larger or smaller
by clicking the black arrow to the right of the button and selecting the size option from the drop down
menu
Materials/ Diameters/
Wall Thickness/
Insulation
Displays a list of distinct construction materials (keyboard letter “M”), pipe outside diameters
(keyboard letter “D”), wall thicknesses (keyboard letter “W”), and/or insulation thicknesses
(keyboard letter “I”) used in the model, and colors the corresponding elements on the view with
separate colors.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 133
,
Displacements/ Forces/
Uniform Loads/ Winds
Waves
Predefined displacements, Forces and Moments, Uniform Loads, and Wind/Wave loads may be
graphically colored on the model. The corresponding legend window is filled with relevant
information. The legend window may be dragged away from the viewing area. When printed, the
legend in the form of grid is printed on the second page, following the graphics view.
View Compass Toggles the display of the coordinate system compass. In addition, the “compass” symbol may be
toggled on the screen by typing the letter “P” on the keyboard.
Node Numbers
Labels plot with node numbers.
Note: The font face, size and color of the node numbers may be changed by clicking Change
Display Options button. In addition, the node numbers may be toggled on the screen by typing the
letter N on the keyboard.
Lengths
Labels plot with element lengths.
Note: The font face, size and color of the node numbers may be changed by clicking Change
Display Options button. In addition, the node numbers may be toggled on the screen by typing the
letter L on the keyboard.
Range
Displays elements based on node ranges. The dialog allows select all/clear all node numbers, reverse
selection, or enter “from” and “to” nodes. Typing U from the keyboard will bring the range dialog
out.
View Input Spreadsheet The View Spreadsheet command allows the user to maintain both the plot and the spreadsheet on
the screen simultaneously. If the Select by Single Click button is clicked, the switching among
elements in the spreadsheet view will highlight and zoom to the current element on the graphics
view.
Show Temperatures/
Pressures
Displays each element temperature or pressure (respectively) as a separate color. If
temperature/pressure 29 are used, a menu appears allowing the user to choose which
temperature/pressure range to display. The legend is displayed in a separate window, that may be
dragged away from the view.
Find Node
When clicked, it will display the Find Node dialog . Entering node numbers will select/highlight the
element (if found) and move it into the window (zoom to selection)
Note: The current plot may be output to the clipboard, a bitmap file (.TIF), or a printer through use of the
EditCopy, FileSave As Bitmap, or FilePrint commands, respectively.
134 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Static Output Graphics
The user can also use the ViewPlot menu command or the Plot toolbar to review the analytic results in
graphics mode, which can produce displaced shapes, stress distributions, and restraint actions.
The output graphics contains the same 2 toolbars as were used in the input graphics: HOOPS Standard
Toolbar – with zoom, pan, orbit and other related buttons, and HOOPS Input Toolbar – with buttons for
restraints, materials, diameters, node numbers and other related buttons. See the description of the buttons
in the Piping Input Graphics section.
The Hoops Output Options Toolbar is described below:
Load Cases Analysed This is a drop down list box with a choice of the loads cases that were analyzed for the job. You
can switch among available load cases to see the corresponding output.
Deflected Shape The plot will show the model view along with a normalized/scaled deflected shape of the system
in the operating condition for the currently selected load case. The deflection scale can be
adjusted by clicking the small black arrow on the right of the button and selecting Adjust
Deflection Scale option from the menu. The color of the displaced geometry can be changed by
clicking the Change Display Options button on the Hoops Standard Toolbar, and then
proceeding to the Output Options tab.
Grow Not active
Maximum
Displacements X/ Y/ Z
Allows the user to put the actual magnitude for X, Y, or Z displacements on the currently
displayed geometry. It starts with highest value for given direction, then (on pressing “Enter”)
puts 2nd, 3rd highest, etc. Subsequent clicks of the same button will turn this option off and
refresh the plot. Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view. If the Zoom to Selection
button is clicked, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. If the Show Element
Viewer Grid button is clicked, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed: it contains all the
nodes in the model, report is set to Displacements for particular load case, and the corresponding
displacements column (DX, DY, or DZ) is highlighted.
,
Maximum Restraint Loads –
FX/ FY/ FZ/ MX/ MY/ MZ
Allows the user to put the magnitude for forces and moments in selected direction for the
restrained nodes. It starts with highest for given option/direction, then (on pressing “Enter”) puts
2nd, 3rd highest, etc. Subsequent clicks of the same button will turn this option off and refresh the
plot. Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view. If the Zoom to Selection button is
clicked on the toolbar, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element. If the Show Element
Viewer Grid button is clicked r, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed: it contains all the
nodes in the model, report is set to Restraints for particular load case, and the corresponding
Force/Moment column is highlighted.
Overstress
Displays with color overstressed points on the elements. Overstressed conditions are only
detected for load cases where a code compliance check was done (i.e., where there are allowable
stresses available). This operation is similar to Show Code Stress by Percent; but only points with
code stress to allowable ratio of greater than 100% are displayed.
Maximum Code Stress Displays the code stresses one at a time from the largest to the smallest values. Subsequent clicks
of the same button will turn this option off and refresh the plot. Each corresponding element is
highlighted on the view. If the Zoom to Selection button is clicked on the toolbar, the view will
be zoomed to the highlighted element. If the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked, the
Event Viewer dialog will be displayed: it contains all the nodes in the model, report is set to
Stresses for particular load case, and the Code Stress column is highlighted.
Chapter 3 Piping Screen Reference 135
Show Code Stress
Colors by Value
Show Code Stress
Colors by Percent
Plots the piping system in a range of colors, where the color corresponds to the value or percent of
allowable (respectively) of the code stress. The Legend window can be resized and/or moved
away from the view. Colors and corresponding stress levels are initially set in the
Configuration/Setup module. They can also be adjusted by clicking the black arrow to the right of
the button and selecting Adjust Settings option from the menu.
Show Element Viewer
Grid
If the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked, the Event Viewer dialog will be displayed
whenever any of the Displacements, Restraint Loads, or Stresses buttons is clicked. The Event
Viewer Grid contains a selection of load cases analyzed, a set of reports to choose from, all the
nodes in the model and other useful information in tabular form. Upon selecting any of the output
options buttons, the Event Viewer will be preset to the corresponding load case and report. The
summary of the reports for any particular element may also be obtained by clicking the Select by
Single Click button on the HOOPS Standard Toolbar and pointing to an element on the view.
Zoom to Selection
If the Zoom to Selection button is clicked, the view will be zoomed to the highlighted element
whenever any of the Displacements, Restraint Loads, or Stress buttons is used. If the button is
not “ON”, the elements will still be highlighted, but view will not be zoomed to the selection.
Notes: On operating Output Options buttons (max. displacements, restraint loads, and stresses):
(1) Each corresponding element is highlighted on the view.
(2) If the Zoom to Selection button is clicked, the view will zoom to the highlighted element.
(3) If the Show Element Viewer Grid button is clicked on the toolbar, the Event Viewer dialog will be
displayed. It will be preset to the corresponding load case and report; column with relevant information
and row with selected element will be highlighted on the grid.
1
In This Chapter
Overview.....................................................................................2
The Structural Steel Property Editor ...........................................3
General Properties.......................................................................12
UNITS Specification  UNIT......................................................13
Axis Orientation Vertical ............................................................14
Material Identification  MATID.................................................15
Section Identification  SECID....................................................17
Setting Defaults  DEFAULT......................................................19
Setting Nodes in Space  NODE, NFILL, NGEN.......................20
Building Elements  ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM....................24
Resetting Element Strong Axis  ANGLE, ORIENT ..................32
End Connection Information .......................................................35
Loads...........................................................................................46
Utilities........................................................................................53
Structural Databases....................................................................54
C H A P T E R 4
Structural Steel Modeler
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Overview
The following pages contain descriptions of each of the structural element keywords. These definitions
and examples arranged in usage order. The following list of all the keywords is arranged alphabetically
and gives the page number for each keyword where its input description can be found.
Keyword/Page Number
ANGLE (on page 32)
BEAMS (on page 38)
BRACES (on page 40)
COLUMNS (on page 42)
DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults 
DEFAULT" on page 19)
EDIM (on page 29)
EFILL (on page 25)
EGEN (on page 27)
ELEM (on page 24)
FIX (see "File Sets" on page 1)
FREE (see "File Sets" on page 1)
GLOAD (see "Gravity Loads  GLOADS" on
page 50)
LIST (on page 53)
LOAD (see "Point Loads  LOAD" on page
46)
MATID (see "Material Identification 
MATID" on page 15)
NFILL (on page 21)
NGEN (on page 22)
NODE (on page 20)
ORIENT (on page 33)
SECID (see "Section Identification  SECID"
on page 17)
UNIF (see "Uniform Load in G's" on page
112)
UNIT (see "UNITS Specification  UNIT" on
page 13)
WIND (see "Wind Loads  WIND" on page
51)
VERTICAL (see "Axis Orientation Vertical"
on page 14)
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 3
The Structural Steel Property Editor
CAESAR II provides the user with the capability to enter the general properties when beginning a new file
using the Structural Steel Wizard. The following section illustrates a typical new file input session using
this editing technique.
New File
From the CAESAR II Main Menu, select FILE/NEW to begin the process. Type the name of the structural steel
file you want to create. To begin this process, click the Structural Input radio button and click OK to
launch the Structural Steel Wizard.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Units File
Select the units file that the structural file will be based on from the pulldown list on this screen. To
continue, click Next.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 5
Vertical Axis
Select either the Y or Z axis as the vertical axis aligned with gravity from the pulldown list on this screen.
To continue, click Next.
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Material Properties
Enter the material properties for the structural steel members here before continuing. These include
Density, Young's Modulus, Yield Strength, Poisson's Ration, and Thermal Expansion Coefficients. The
latter corresponds to operating temperatures 1 through 9 if used. You may have multiple materials using a
unique Material ID for each. For additional materials you must complete the wizard first, then continue in
the Structural Steel Modeler as instructed later in this chapter. To continue, click Next.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 7
Cross Section (Section ID)
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Enter the appropriate cross sectional type (note these must be entered exactly as listed at the end of this
chapter). An easier method is to click the Select Section ID button and then expand the appropriate tree
(beams, channels, tees, or angles) as shown below. All of the cross section types supported by CAESAR II
are then available for selection.
After the proper section type is selected click OK.
If the section type is to be userdefined, check the User Defined box and enter the data in the area to the
right as shown on the next page.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 9
Enter the Cross Sectional Area, Strong and Weak axis moments of inertia, the torsional resistivity
constant, and the height and width of the rectangle for plotting purposes.
Note: In the plot of a User Defined Cross Section, the section will appear as a simple rectangle with
dimensions in BoxH and BoxW.
To continue, click Next.
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Model Definition Method
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 11
Select either Type 1 (element Definition using the EDIM commands) or Type 2 (Node and Element
Definition using the NODE and ELEM commands). Click Finish to complete the wizard and the main
Structural Steel Modeler window appears populated with data from the wizard.
Once this portion of the model is complete you can make further entries as detailed in the following
section.
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
General Properties
All directives are picked from either the menu or the toolbar. After the information is filled out in the input
fields on the left side of the window, press the +sign button to add the command to the model (or drag the
dialog to the appropriate position in the text). The appropriate text will appear on the right side of the
window (the white section). The following graphics show how to choose the commands, the input fields,
and the resultant input file text (always the last line of text on the right). There is no provision to type in
commands directly in the text section.
Add
Click on the + button to add the data in the edit dialog to the end of the model.
Insert
Highlight a given command line in the input list section and click the Insert button to insert the data in the
edit dialog in front of the highlighted command.
Replace
Click the Replace button to replace the currently highlighted command line with the data in the Edit
dialog.
Delete
Click the Delete button to remove the highlighted command line from the model.
Note: The data in the Edit dialog may also be dragged to its appropriate position in the model text area.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 13
UNITS Specification  UNIT
Units Specification
Used to specify the UNITS file to be used, instead of the UNITS file currently designed in the
configuration file. This command should appear first, before entering any material, section, or dimensional
data.
14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Axis Orientation Vertical
The axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e., wind and wave loads), the Static Output
Processor, the Dynamic Input Module, and the Dynamic Output Processor is dictated by the orientation of
the model’s input file.
Orienting a structural model to ZAxis Vertical. A new structural model will determine its axis orientation
based on the setting in the Configure/Setup module, while an existing structural model will use the same
axis orientation under which it was last saved. The axis orientation may be toggled from YAxis to ZAxis
Vertical by changing the value of the Vertical command, activated by clicking the button on the
toolbar, or through the COMMANDS/MISCELLANEOUS/VERTICAL menu option, as shown in the figure below.
Note: Unlike the piping and equipment files elsewhere in CAESAR II, toggling this setting does not
translate the structural input file, but rather physically rotates the model into the new coordinate system.
When including structural files in a piping model, the axis orientation of the included files need not match
that of the piping model. Translation occurs immediately upon inclusion.
When analyzing a structural model on its own, the axis orientation of the Static Load Case Builder (i.e.,
wind, and wave loads), the Static Output Processor, and the Dynamic Input Processor is dictated by the
orientation of the structural model’s input.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 15
Material Identification  MATID
Material Properties Definition
Used to enter material properties that correspond to a Material ID number.There must be at least one valid
material specification given per job. One Material ID can be used for a group of elements that have many
Section IDs. (In fact there is usually only a single Material ID specified for any one job.) Units from the
specified UNITS.FIL are used. Default material properties (i.e. for A36 structural steel) may be invoked
by issuing the following MATID command: MATID 1.
MATI
D
matid, YM, POIS, G, YS, DENS, ALPHA
MATID
User defined material ID number. Usually 1, and sequentially thereafter.
YM
Young’s Modulus of Elasticity.
16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
POIS
Poisson’s Ratio Usually 0.3.
G
Shear Modulus of Elasticity Usually about one third of YM
YS
Yield Strength (Currently not used)
DENS
Material Density
ALPHA
Material coefficient of thermal expansion.There can be up to three thermal cases (corresponding to
thermal cases T1, T2, and T3) defined for structural steel members. Thermal effects on structural members
are entered using thermal expansion coefficients in terms of in./in, mm./mm., i.e. unitless. The three
thermal coefficients are entered after the density.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 17
Section Identification  SECID
Section Definition
Section ID
Used to assign member cross section properties to Section ID numbers.
SECID secid, NAME = <label>
SECID
A user defined Section ID to be used for all future referencing of this set of cross section properties.
Usually Section ID’s start at 1 and go up, but the user may assign values in any order that is convenient.
UserDefined
For a userdefined shape click the User Defined check box. There are six additional parameters users
must enter to fully define the user’s cross section:
Area
Cross section area (length2).
Ixx
Strong axis moment of inertia (length4).
18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Iyy
Weak axis moment of inertia (length4).
Torsional R
Torsional resistivity constant (length4).
BOXH
Height of a rectangular box for plotting (height is along the weak axis).
BOXW
Width of a rectangular box for plotting (width is along the strong axis).
UserDefined Section Properties
Name
Either an AISC shape name or the word “USER.” All AISC names should be entered exactly as shown in
the AISC handbook with the exception that fractions should be represented as decimals., i.e. the angle:
LX6X31/2X1/2 should be entered: L6X3.5X0.5. Leading or trailing zeros may be omitted. Alternatively,
the user may select the appropriate section name from the window provided after clicking the Select
Section ID button. A full list of available Section types are found at the end of this chapter.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 19
Setting Defaults  DEFAULT
Default Section and Material IDs
Used to set the default values of the Section ID and the Material ID. Whenever an element generation
occurs and the Section and/or the Material ID is omitted, the default values set here are used. The initial
default value for both the Section and the Material ID is 1.
20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Setting Nodes in Space  NODE, NFILL, NGEN
NODE
Node Definition
Used to define the absolute coordinates of a point in global X, Y, Z space.
NODE num X, Y, Z
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 21
NFILL
Defining Multiple Nodes along a Line
Used to fill in evenly spaced nodes between two already defined end points. If the increment “BY” is
omitted, the default is 1.
22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
NGEN
Generating a Matrix of Nodes
Used to duplicate patterns of nodes. At least the first and last node in the base node pattern must already
exist before the NGEN command is issued. Other nodes in the base node pattern not already defined will be
evenly spaced between the first and last node. The DX, DY, and DZ are offsets for duplicate nodes from
the base pattern of nodes.
NGEN n1, TO, BY, LAST, NODEINC, DX, DY, DZ,
n1
First node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued).
TO
Last node in the base node pattern (must exist before the NGEN command is issued).
BY
Increment to get from the starting node to the ending node in the base pattern. n1, TO and BY define the
nodes in the base pattern. All subsequent nodal patterns generated start from the base pattern. If omitted
the default is 1.
LAST
Last node in the last nodal pattern to be generated. If omitted then a single pattern duplication will occur.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 23
NODEINC
Increment to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and then
from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.
DX, DY, DZ
Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and
then from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.
Example
In the preceding figure, the nodes from 1100 to 2000 with an increment of 100 are duplicated twice, each
new pattern offset 10 ft. in the zdirection. The new nodes created are from 2100 to 3000 and also from
3100 to 4000. Note that the NFILL command previous to this NGEN command was not necessary.
24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Building Elements  ELEM, EFILL, EGEN, EDIM
ELEM
Defining a Single Element
Used to define a single element that exists between two points in global Cartesian space. In addition a
section identifier and a material identifier for the element may also be given. If the section and/or material
ids are omitted the current default values are used. (For more information see help for the keyword
DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 19).)
ELEM n1, TO, SECID, MATID, KEYWORD,
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 25
EFILL
Generating Multiple Elements along a Line
Used to generate a consecutive string of elements. None of the elements generated need to exist prior to
the FILL operation.
EFILL n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SECID, MATID, INCSECID, INCMATID
n1
“FROM” node number on the first element generated.
TO
“TO” node number on the first element generated.
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.
If omitted, INC defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
LAST
“TO” node on the last element to be generated.
SECID
Section ID for the first element generated.
MATID
Material ID for the first element generated.
INCSECID
Increment to get from the Section ID for the first element to the Section ID for the second element.
(Default=0)
INCMATID
Increment to get from the Material ID for the first element to the Material ID for the second element.
(Default=0)
Example
In the preceding figure elements were generated between each pair of nodes between node 1200 and 2000.
The increment between From to From nodes and To to To nodes is the same in this case, being equal to
100. Eight elements were created in this example, together with the one element previously created using
the ELEM command for a total of nine elements. Note that the ELEM command would not have been
necessary here, since all nine elements could have been created using the EFILL command by simply
substituting node 1100 in place of node 1200 in the From Node field.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 27
EGEN
Duplicating Elements
Used to duplicate patterns of elements. EGEN is a very flexible and very powerful generation command
that should be used carefully. The form of EGEN shown below does not presume that any of the elements
in the base pattern exist before the generation. If elements in the base pattern do exist before the
generation they will be redefined during the generation process.
EGEN n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, GENINC,
GENINCTO
,
GENLAST
,
SECID, MATID, INSECID, INCMATID,
n1
“FROM” node on the first element in the base pattern.
TO
“TO” node on the first element in the base pattern.
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element in the base pattern to the “FROM” node on
the second element in base pattern. If omitted defaults to 1.
28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
LAST
“TO” node on the last element in the base pattern. The EGEN command is set up to generate multiple
copies from the base pattern of elements.
GENINC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element in the base pattern to the “FROM” node on
the first element in the first duplicate pattern.
GENINCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element in the base pattern to the “TO” node on the first
element in the first duplicate pattern. If omitted defaults to GENINC.
GENLAST
The “TO” node on the last element in the last pattern to be duplicated from the base pattern.
SECID
Section ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the default Section ID is used. For
more information see the “help” for DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 19) for an
explanation of how the default Section ID is set up. On startup the default Section ID is 1.
MATID
Material ID to be used for the elements in the base pattern. If omitted the default Material ID is used. For
more information see “help” for DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 19) for an
explanation of how the default material ID is set up. On startup the default material ID is 1.
INCSECID
Section ID increment to be used between patterns. i.e. the first pattern of elements generated from the base
pattern of elements will have a Section ID of SECID + INCSECID. If omitted defaults to zero.
INCMATID
Material ID increment to be used between patterns. If omitted defaults to zero.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 29
Example
In the preceding figure the base element pattern from 1100 to 2000 was reproduced two more times, from
2100 to 3000 and from 3100 to 4000. Each element has nodal increments of 100. The increment between
the base element list and the next element list is 1000 and the last node in the last pattern is 4000. Then the
cross members were created using the base pattern from 1100 to 2100 and reproducing it in nodal
increments of 100 until node 4000 was reached. The following figure shows the resultant model.
Volume Plot of Structural Steel Model Showing Node Numbers
EDIM
Define elements using the dimensions of the element rather than references to nodes. Any existing
elements encountered will be redefined.
The EDIM element definition is probably more familiar to piping engineers while ELEM, EGEN, and
EFIL are more familiar to structural engineers. INC, INCTO, and LAST may be omitted to define a single
element.
"FROM" node on the first element to be defined.
TO
"To" node on the last element to be defined.
30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.
If omitted, INC defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
DX, DY, DZ
Coordinates offset to get from the nodes in the base pattern to the nodes in the first generated pattern, and
then from this pattern to the next generated pattern, etc.
MATID
Material ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used. (See Help for keyword
DEFAULT.)
SECID_EIDM
Section ID for the first element. If not given, then the current default is used. (See Help for keyword
DEFAULT (see "Setting Defaults  DEFAULT" on page 19).)
INSECID
Section ID increment to get from the Section ID of the first element to the Section ID of the second
element.
INCMATID_EDIM
Material ID increment to get from the Material ID of the first element to the Material ID of the second
element.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 31
Examples
EDIM 5 to 10 DY = 123 SECID=2..Column 123 high from 5 to 10
EDIM 5,10 DY=123,2....................Same column
EDIM 2 TO 3 LAST=8 DX=133.....Defining beams 133 long and elements 23, 34, 45, 56, 67, and 7
8. INC defaults to 1.
Enter the 4 EDIM commands top define the small frame
shown to the right. Remember that every thing after a (:)
or (:) on the line is treated as a comment.
<> 100 (typ)
EDIM 1 TO 5 INC=1 LAST=8 DY=120 SECID=1 ;1st floor columns
EDIM 5 TO 9 INC=1 LAST=12 DY=120 SECID=2 ;2nd floor columns
EDIM 5 TO 6 INC=1 LAST=8 DX=100 SECID=3 ;1st floor beams
EDIM 9 TO 10 INC=1 LAST=12 DX=100 SECID=3 ;roof beams
32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Resetting Element Strong Axis  ANGLE, ORIENT
ANGLE
Defining the Default Strong Axis Orientation
Used to define the default element strong axis orientation.
ANGLE is most often used when defining columns whose strong axes are not parallel to the X axis.
(Usually for columns the strong axis is parallel to either the X or the Z axis.) In the case where the column
strong axis is parallel to the Z axis, first ANGLE is used to redefine the default orientation, i.e.
ANGLE=90. Next the column elements are defined. Then ANGLE is used again to reset the default
orientation back to its original value, i.e. ANGLE=0.0.
The ORIENT and ANGLE keywords similarly define the angle of rotation (in degrees) about the element
center line from the standard orientation to the element strong axis. ORIENT defines this angle for a single
element or for a group of elements, and ANGLE sets the default orientation back to its original value, i.e.
ANGLE=0.0.
The default orientation angle is zero degrees.
Positive angular rotation is found using the “righthand rule” by extending the thumb along the element in
the direction of the “TO” node. The fingers of the right hand circle in the direction of a positive orientation
angle.
The default element orientation is as follows:
If the member is vertical then the default strong axis is taken to be along the global X axis.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 33
For all nonvertical members the strong axis is taken to be perpendicular to the center line of the
member and in the horizontal plane. (This is exactly what is desired for a typical beam orientation in a
building).
The strong axis is defined for the WF shape as shown:
ANGLE n1
n1
Default strong axis orientation angle to be used for all subsequently defined elements.
ORIENT
Used to define the element strong axis orientation. Note that values for n1 and “TO” may be given as
node numbers or element indices. Element indices are enclosed in parentheses. An example of the index
input is given at the bottom.
ORIENT n1, TO INC, INCTO, LAST, ANGLE,
n1
“FROM” node on the first element.
TO
“TO” node on the first element.
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.
If omitted, INC defaults to 1.
34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
n1
“FROM” node on the first element the wind load is to act on.
LAST
“TO” node on the last element to have its orientation angle defined.
ANGLE
Rotation in degrees from the default position to the actual position of the member strong axis.
Examples
ORIENT 1 TO 2 ANGLE=90 The strong axis for the element from 1 to 2 is 90 degrees away from the
default position.
ORIENT 5 TO 10 INC=5 LAST=30 ANGLE=90 The elements: 510, 1015, 1520, 2025, and 2530 all
have their strong axis 90 degrees away from the default position. If each of these members is a vertical
column, then their new strong axis of bending is along the Z axis. (This means that the columns with their
new orientation are better suited to take X direction forces.)
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 35
End Connection Information
Free End Connections  FREE
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Free End Connections
Used to define element “FREE” end connections. For example FREE would be used to describe the
element ends in a structure that has “pinnedonly” beamtocolumn connections. “End connection type”
defines a members fixity to its nodes, not a nodes fixity in space. FREE works in conjunction with
“BEAMS,” ”BRACES,” and “COLUMNS.” These last three keywords are used to set the “FREE” end
connection defaults for certain types of members. For each element defined after the defaults are set an
entry is automatically made into the “FREE” array to keep track of the type of connection and the nodes
that define the element.
FREE n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, <free parms>
n1
“FROM” node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.
TO
“TO” node on the first element that this FREE spec is to apply to.
36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.
If omitted, INC defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
LAST
“TO” node on the last element this FREE spec is to apply to. LAST, INC, and INCTO can be omitted if
the FREE spec is only to apply to a single element.
<free end parms>  May be any single combination of:
/————At the element FROM end ————/
FAXIAL  Axial translational dof
FSHRSTR  Strong axis shear translational dof
FSHRWEAK  Weak axis shear translational dof
FTORS  Torsional dof
FBNDSTR  Strong axis bending dof
FBNDWEAK  Weak axis bending dof
/————At the element TO end —————/
TAXIAL  Axial translational dof
TSHRSTR  Strong axis shear translational dof
TSHRWEAK  Weak axis shear translational dof
TTORS  Torsional dof
TBNDSTR  Strong axis bending dof
TBNDWEAK  Weak axis bending dof
Enter those <free end parms> that define the degrees of freedom at the element end that should be
“FREE.”
In the case where a small WF shape attaches to a large I beam the connection might be designed so that
weak axis bending of the WF shape is not transmitted to the web of the I beam. If the element defining the
WF shape went from nodes 1040 to 1045 then the “FREE” spec for this element might appear:
FREE 1040 TO 1045 FBNDWEAK, TBNDWEAK
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 37
The westward side of a building has a row of beams on the ground floor that are attached rigidly to
columns at the other end. The beams are identified by the pattern of nodes: 610710, 620720, 630730,
...,690790. There are eight beams in all in this group. The 600 end is the end that is pinned. The FREE
spec for this group might appear:
FREE 610 TO 710 INC=10 LAST=790 FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK
38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Standard Structural Element Connections  BEAMS, BRACES, COLUMNS
BEAMS
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End Connections for BEAMS
Defines default end connection types for members identified by the orientation of their center line. The
definition of BEAM is any member whose center line lies completely along either the global X or global Z
axis. Once the BEAMS keyword is used to define element end connection freedoms any element
subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a beam will have those same end connection
freedoms. This will continue until the BEAMS keyword is reset or respecified. The default condition is
for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes.
BEAMS has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set “FREE” end
connection defaults, and the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all beams with that
particular “FREE” end connection have been defined.
BEAMS FREE <free end parms>...use to release end connections.
BEAMS FIX <free end parms>...use to reset releasedend connections
The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the “FREE” keyword. The <free end parms>
defining the 12 local degrees of freedom for each element are:
FAXIAL TAXIAL
FSHRSTR TSHRSTR
FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 39
FTORS TTORS
FBNDSTR TBNDSTR
FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK
Example
Just before defining a group of beams that had both ends pinned, the following BEAMS command would be
issued:
BEAMSFREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
Just after defining the pinned end beams, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the
following BEAMS command would be issued:
BEAMSFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
As shorthand notation, if the word “FIX” is all that appears on the line following “BEAMS,” then all end
connections for the beam will be fixed, i.e.
BEAMS FIX
40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
BRACES
Auxiliary Area for Defining Default End Connections for Braces
Used to define default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their
center line. The definition of BRACE insofar as this keyword is concerned, is any member whose center
line does not completely lie along any of the global axes. Once the BRACE keyword is used to define
element end connection freedoms any element subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a
brace will have those same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the BRACE keyword is
reset or respecified. The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of
freedom to its nodes. BRACES may be abbreviated: BR.
BRACES has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is used to set “FREE” end
connection defaults, and the FIX mode is used to reset the end connection types once all braces with that
particular “FREE” end connection have been defined.
BRACES FREE <free end parms> ...use to release end connections
BRACES FIX <free end parms> ...use to reset released end connections
The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the “FREE” keyword. The <free end parms>
defining the 12 local degrees of freedom for each element are:
FAXIAL TAXIAL
FSHRSTR TSHRSTR
FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 41
FTORS TTORS
FBNDSTR TBNDSTR
FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK
Example
Just before defining a group of braces that had both ends pinned to the adjoining columns, the following
BRACES command would be issued:
BRACES FREE FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
Just after defining the pinned end braces, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the
following BRACES command would be issued.
BRACESFIX FTORS, FBNDSTR, FBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
As shorthand notation, if the word “FIX” is all that appears on the line following “BRACES,” then all end
connections for the brace will be fixed, i.e.
BRACES FIX
42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
COLUMNS
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Default End
Connections for Columns
Used to define default end connection types for members that can be identified by the orientation of their
center line. The definition of COLUMN insofar as this keyword is concerned is any member whose
center line is completely vertical. Once the COLUMN keyword is used to define element end connection
freedoms any element subsequently defined that fits the above definition for a column will have those
same end connection freedoms. This will continue until the COLUMN keyword is reset or respecified.
The default condition is for each end of any member to be fixed in all six degrees of freedom to its nodes.
COLUMNS has two possible setting modes: FIX and FREE. The FREE mode is to set “FREE” end
connection defaults, and the FIX mode is to reset the end connection types once all columns with that
particular “FREE” end connection have been defined.
COLUMNS FREE <free end parms> ..use to release end connections
COLUMNS FIX <free end parms> ..use to reset released end connections
The <free end parms> are discussed in greater detail with the “FREE” keyword. The <free end parms>
that define the 12 local element degrees of freedom are:
FAXIAL TAXIAL
FSHRSTR TSHRSTR
FSHRWEAK TSHRWEAK
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 43
FTORS TTORS
FBNDSTR TBNDSTR
FBNDWEAK TBNDWEAK
Example
Just before defining a group of corner columns that were pinned at their “TO” ends, the following
COLUMN command would be issued:
COLUMNSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR
,
TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
Just after defining the pinned end columns, to return the end connection defaults to their regular values the
following COLUMNS command would be issued:
COLUMNSSFREE TTORS, TBNDSTR
,
TBNDWEAK, TBNDSTR, TBNDWEAK,
As shorthand notation, if the word “FIX” is all that appears on the line following “COLUMNS”, then all
end connections for the column will be fixed, i.e.
COLUMNS FIX
Note: As a general rule an element cannot undergo rigid body motion. Therefore, an element can not
have both TTORS and FTORS released at the same time. Additionally beams typically have moment
releases only at their ends, not at intermediate nodes used to apply loads or connect bracing.
44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Defining Global Restraints  FIX
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Restraints
Used to define restraint boundary conditions at structural member end points. Stiffnesses may be entered
in the field following the fixity indicator; if the stiffness value is omitted, the fixity will be rigid. “TO” and
“BY” may be omitted to define the fixity for a single node point. (i.e. FIX 10 ALL) Note that values for n1
and “TO” may be given as node numbers or indices. Node indices are enclosed in parenthesis.
FIX n1, TO, BY, X, Y, Z, RX, RY, RZ, ALL
FIX n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8, n9, n10,
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 45
Examples
FIX 1
ALL  Fix all degrees of freedom at node #1.
FIX 5 X1000 Y1000 Z1000 Fix X, Y and Z degrees of freedom at node #5, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs
FIX 100 TO 110 ALL Fix rigidly all degrees of freedom for the nodes from 100 to 110. The increment
between 100 and 110 defaults to 1. Eleven nodes have their fixities defined here.
FIX 105 TO 125 BY 5 X1000,1000,1000 Fix X, Y, and Z degrees of freedom for the nodes: 105, 110,
115, 120, and 125, and use 1,000 lb./in. springs.
FIX (1) to (10) ALL Fix all degrees of freedom for the first 10 nodes in the node list.
46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Loads
Point Loads  LOAD
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Concentrated Forces and Moments
Used to define concentrated forces and/or moments that act at structural member end points. “TO” and
“BY” may be omitted to define loads for a single point. LOAD may be abbreviated: LOA. Note that
values for n1 and “TO” may be given as node numbers or indices. Node indices are enclosed in
parentheses.
LOAD n1, TO, BY, FX, FY, FZ, MX, MY,
LOAD n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8,
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 47
Examples
LOAD 305 FY1000 Have minus 1,000 lb. Y direction load acting at the structural node #305.
LOAD 10 TO 18 BY=1 FX=707,FZ=707 Have skewed load in the horizontal plane acting at each of the
nodes 10,11,...,17,18. “BY” could have been omitted here, its default is 1.
LOAD (15) to (25) FY=383 A load of 383 pounds acts in the minus Y direction on the 15’th through the
25’th nodes in the node list.
48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Uniform Loads  UNIF
Auxiliary Data Area for Defining Uniform Loads
Used to define a constant uniform load (i.e., CAESAR II load case U1) that acts over the full length of the
member. (Uniform loads may have special meanings when used in CAESAR II piping runs.) “INC,”
“INCTO,” and “LAST” may be omitted to define a uniform loading that acts on a single element only.
Note that values for n1 and “TO” may be given as node numbers or element indices. Element indices are
enclosed in parentheses.
UNIF n1, TO, INC, INCTO LAST UX, UY, UZ,
UNIF n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8,
n1
“FROM” node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.
TO
“TO” node on the first element this uniform load is to act on.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 49
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.
If omitted, INC defaults to 1.
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
LAST
“TO” node on the last element this uniform load is to act on.
UX,UY,UZ
Magnitude of the uniform load in the global X, Y and Z directions. Unless used in a piping analysis
employing “g” loads, uniform loads are in units of force per unit length of member. When used in a
piping analysis with “g” loads the uniform loads are in units of gravitational acceleration., i.e. UY=1
would define a uniform load identical to the member weight load.
Examples
UNIF 1 TO 2 UY=2.3 On the element from 1 to 2 a uniform load with a magnitude of 2.3 lbs. per inch
acts in the minus Y direction.
UNIF 1,2, UY 2,3 Same
UNIF 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3
LAST=500 UX=0.03, 1,0.03 Uniform load acting on elements 100200, 102203,...,300500 with a small
horizontal component and a 1 load in the Y. (Looks like have “g” load input for piping problem.)
UNIF (1) to (30) UY=2.3 The first 30 elements in the element list have a uniform load of 2.3 pounds per
inch acting in the minus Y direction.
50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Gravity Loads  GLOADS
Defining Uniform Load in G’s
Used to inform this processor that all specified uniform loads are to be interpreted as “G” loads instead of
force/length.
Important: If structural and piping models are mixed the GLOAD flags must match (i.e., uniform
loads in the piping model must be designed as "G" loads in the special execution parameters).
This command takes no other parameters.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 51
Wind Loads  WIND
Defining Wind Loads
Defines the magnitude of the wind shape factor for the structural elements. (The default value is 2.0.)
WIND n1, TO, INC, INCTO, LAST, SHAPE,
WIND n1, n2, n3, n4, n5, n6, n7, n8,
n1
“FROM” node on the first element the wind load is to act on.
TO
“TO” node on the first element the wind load is to act on.
INC
Increment to get from the “FROM” node on the first element to the “FROM” node on the second element.
If omitted, INC defaults to 1.
52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
INCTO
Increment to get from the “TO” node on the first element to the “TO” node on the second element. If
INCTO is not given, it defaults to INC.
LAST
“TO” node on the last element the wind load is to act on.
SHAPE
Magnitude of the wind shape factor. For structural steel members this value is usually 2.0. Wind loading
on the structure can be turned on and off by resetting this parameter to zero, for elements not exposed to
the wind.
This value carries forward to all subsequently defined elements.
Examples
WIND 1 TO 2 SHAPE=2.0 On the element from 1 to 2 a shape factor with a magnitude of 2.0 is applied.
This value is applied to all following elements.
WIND 1,2,SHAPE 2.0 Same
WIND 100 TO 200 INC=2 INCTO=3
LAST=500 SHAPE=1.8 Wind shape factor of 1.8 on elements 100200,
102203,...,300500.
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 53
Utilities
LIST
To access the List option, click the List tab located at the bottom of the Structural Steel Modeler. List
enables users to display node and coordinate data; enter node ranges; and also select input list reports.
Note, selecting all displays a of each report in the order they appear on the modeler window.
Defining List Options to Display
54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Structural Databases
The CAESAR II Structural databases contain over 20 different properties for each cross section. For the
finite element solution, only six of these items are employed:
Area
Strong axis moment of inertia
Weak axis moment of inertia
Torsional resistivity constant
Member section height
Member section depth
There are seven different structural databases included in CAESAR II. The databases are those of the AISC
1977, the AISC 1989, the German 1991, the Australian 1990, the South African 1992, Korean 1990, and
UK 1993. The member designations for each database are listed as follows:
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 55
AISC 1977 Database
W36X300 W36X280 W36X260 W36X245 W36X230 W36X210
W36X194 W36X182 W36X170 W36X160 W36X150 W36X135
W33X241 W33X221 W33X201 W33X152 W33X141 W33X130
W33X118 W30X211 W30X191 W30X173 W30X132 W30X124
W30X116 W30X108 W30X99 W27X178 W27X161 W27X146
W27X114 W27X102 W27X94 W27X84 W24X162 W24X146
W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X94 W24X84 W24X76
W24X68 W24X62 W24X55 W21X147 W21X132 W21X122
W21X111 W21X101 W21X93 W21X83 W21X73 W21X68
W21X62 W21X57 W21X50 W21X44 W18X119 W18X106
W18X97 W18X86 W18X76 W18X71 W18X65 W18X60
W18X55 W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100
W16X89 W16X77 W16X67 W16X57 W16X50 W16X45
W16X40 W16X36 W16X31 W16X26 W14X730 W14X665
W14X605 W14X550 W14X500 W14X455 W14X426 W14X398
W14X370 W14X342 W14X311 W14X283 W14X257 W14X233
W14X211 W14X193 W14X176 W14X159 W14X145 W14X132
W14X120 W14X109 W14X99 W14X90 W14X82 W14X74
W14X68 W14X61 W14X53 W14X48 W14X43 W14X38
W14X34 W14X30 W14X26 W14X22 W12X336 W12X305
W12X279 W12X252 W12X230 W12X210 W12X190 W12X170
W12X152 W12X136 W12X120 W12X106 W12X96 W12X87
W12X79 W12X72 W12X65 W12X58 W12X53 W12X50
W12X45 W12X40 W12X35 W12X30 W12X26 W12X22
W12X19 W12X16 W12X14 W10X112 W10X100 W10X88
W10X77 W10X68 W10X60 W10X54 W10X49 W10X45
W10X39 W10X33 W10X30 W10X26 W10X22 W10X19
W10X17 W10X15 W10X12 W8X67 W8X58 W8X48
W8X40 W8X35 W8X31 W8X28 W8X24 W8X21
W8X18 W8X15 W8X13 W8X10 W6X25 W6X20
W6X16 W6X15 W6X12 W6X9 W5X19 W5X16
56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
W4X13
M14X18 M12X11.8 M10X9 M8X6.5 M6X20 M6X4.4
M5X18.9 M4X13
S24X121 S24X106 S24X100 S24X90 S24X80 S20X96
S20X86 S20X75 S20X66 S18X70 S18X54.7 S15X50
S15X42.9 S12X50 S12X40.8 S12X35 S12X31.8 S10X35
S10X25.4 S8X23 S8X18.4 S7X20 S7X15.3 S6X17.2
S6X12.5 S5X14.7 S5X10 S4X9.5 S4X7.7 S3X7.5
S3X5.7
C15X50 C15X40 C15X33.9 C12X30 C12X25 C12X20.7
C10X30 C10X25 C10X20 C10X15.3 C9X20 C9X15
C9X13.4 C8X18.7 C8X13.7 C8X11.5 C7X14.7 C7X12.2
C7X9.8 C6X13 C6X10.5 C6X8.2 C5X9 C5X6.7
C4X7.25 C4X5.4 C3X6 C3X5 C3X4.1
MC18X58 MC18X51.9 MC18X45.8 MC18X42.7 MC13X50
MC13X40 MC13X35 MC13X31.8 MC12X50 MC12X45
MC12X40 MC12X35 MC12X37 MC12X32.9 MC12X30.9
MC12X10.6 MC10X41.1 MC10X33.6 MC10X28.5 MC10X28.3
MC10X25.3 MC10X24.9 MC10X21.9 MC10X8.4 MC10X6.5
MC9X25.4 MC9X23.9 MC8X22.8 MC8X21.4 MC8X20
MC8X18.7 MC8X8.5 MC7X22.7 MC7X19.1 MC7X17.6
MC6X18 MC6X15.3 MC6X16.3 MC6X15.1 MC6X12
WT18X150 WT18X140 WT18X130 WT18X122.5
WT18X115 WT18X105 WT18X97 WT18X91
WT18X85 WT18X80 WT18X75 WT18X67.5
WT16.5X120.5 WT16.6X110.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X76
WT16.5X70.5 WT16.5X65 WT16.5X59 WT15X105.5
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 57
WT15X95.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X66 WT15X62
WT15X58 WT15X54 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X89
WT13.5X80.5 WT13.5X73 WT13.5X57 WT13.5X51
WT13.5X47 WT13.5X42 WT12X81 WT12X73
WT12X65.5 WT12X58.5 WT12X52 WT12X47
WT12X42 WT12X38 WT12X34 WT12X31
WT12X27.5 WT10.5X73.5 WT10.5X66 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X55.5
WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X41.5 WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X34
WT10.5X31 WT10.5X28.5 WT10.5X25 WT10.5X22 WT9X59.5
WT9X53 WT9X48.5 WT9X43 WT9X38 WT9X35.5
WT9X32.5 WT9X30 WT9X27.5 WT9X25 WT9X23
WT9X20 WT9X17.5 WT8X50 WT8X44.5 WT8X38.5
WT8X33.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X25 WT8X22.5 WT8X20
WT8X18 WT8X15.5 WT8X13 WT7X365 WT7X332.5
WT7X302.5 WT7X275 WT7X250 WT7X227.5 WT7X213
WT7X199 WT7X185 WT7X171 WT7X155.5 WT7X141.5
WT7X128.5 WT7X116.5 WT7X105.5 WT7X96.5 WT7X88
WT7X79.5 WT7X72.5 WT7X66 WT7X60 WT7X54.5
WT7X49.5 WT7X45 WT7X41 WT7X37 WT7X34
WT7X30.5 WT7X26.5 WT7X24 WT7X21.5 WT7X19
WT7X17 WT7X15 WT7X13 WT7X11 WT6X168
WT6X152.5 WT6X139.5 WT6X126 WT6X115 WT6X105
WT6X95 WT6X85 WT6X76 WT6X68 WT6X60
WT6X53 WT6X48 WT6X43.5 WT6X39.5 WT6X36
WT6X32.5 WT6X29 WT6X26.5 WT6X25 WT6X22.5
WT6X20 WT6X17.5 WT6X15 WT6X13 WT6X11
WT6X9.5 WT6X8 WT6X7 WT5X56 WT5X50
WT5X44 WT5X38.5 WT5X34 WT5X30 WT5X27
WT5X24.5 WT5X22.5 WT5X19.5 WT5X16.5 WT5X15
WT5X13 WT5X11 WT5X9.5 WT5X8.5 WT5X7.5
WT5X6 WT4X33.5 WT4X29 WT4X24 WT4X20
58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
WT4X17.5 WT4X15.5 WT4X14 WT4X12 WT4X10.5
WT4X9 WT4X7.5 WT4X6.5 WT4X5 WT4X12.5
WT4X10 WT4X7.5 WT3X8 WT3X6 WT3X4.5
WT2.5X9.5 WT2.5X8 WT2X6.5
MT7X9 MT6X5.9 MT5X4.5 MT4X3.25
MT3X10 MT3X2.2 MT2.5X9.45 MT2X6.5
ST12X60.5 ST12X53 ST12X50 ST12X45
ST12X40 ST10X48 ST10X43 ST10X37.5
ST10X33 ST9X35 ST9X27.35 ST7.5X25
ST7.5X21.45 ST6X25 ST6X20.4 ST6X17.5
ST6X15.9 ST5X17.5 ST5X12.7 ST4X11.5
ST4X9.2 ST3.5X10 ST3.5X7.65 ST3X8.625
ST3X6.25 ST2.5X7.375 ST2.5X5 ST2X4.75
ST2X3.85 ST1.5X3.75 ST1.5X2.85
Double angles  long legs backtoback
D8X8X1.1250 D8X8X1.0000 D8X8X0.8750
D8X8X0.7500 D8X8X0.6250 D8X8X0.5000
D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.7500
D6X6X0.6250 D6X6X0.5000 D6X6X0.3750
D5X5X0.8750 D5X5X0.7500 D5X5X0.5000
D5X5X0.3750 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.7500
D4X4X0.6250 D4X4X0.5000 D4X4X0.3750
D4X4X0.3125 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.3750
D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.5000
D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.3125 D3X3X0.2500
D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.3125
D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2X0.3750
D2X2X0.3125 D2X2X0.2500 D2X2X0.1875
D2X2X0.1250 D8X6X1.0000 D8X6X0.7500
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 59
D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X1.0000 D8X4X0.7500
D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000
D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.6250
D6X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.3750 D6X3.5X0.3750
D6X3.5X0.3125 D5X3.5X0.7500 D5X3.5X0.5000
D5X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3X0.5000
D5X3X0.3750 D5X3X0.3125 D5X3X0.2500
D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.3125
D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.3750
D4X3X0.3125 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.3750
D3.5X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.3750
D3.5X2.5X0.3125 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.3750
D3X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.1875 D3X2X0.3750
D3X2X0.3125 D3X2X0.2500 D3X2X0.1875
D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.2500
D2.5X2X0.1875 B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.7500
Double angles small legs backtoback
B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.7500
B8X6X0.2500 B8X4X1.0000 B8X4X0.7500
B8X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000
B7X4X0.3750 B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.6250
B6X4X0.5000 B6X4X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3750
B6X3.5X0.3125 B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5X0.5000
B5X3.5X0.3750 B5X3.5X0.3125 B5X3X0.5000
B5X3X0.3750 B5X3XO.3125 B5X3X0.2500
B4X3.5X0.5000 B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.3125
B4X3.5X0.2500 B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.3750
B4X3X0.3125 B4X3X0.2500 B3.5X3X0.3750
60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
B3.5X3X0.3125 B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5X0.3750
B3.5X2.5X0.3125 B3.5X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.3750
B3X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.3750
B3X2X0.3125 B3X2X0.2500 B3X2X0.1875
B2.5X2X0.3750 B2.5X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.2500
B2.5X2X0.1875
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 61
AISC 1989 Database
W44X285 W44X248 W44X224 W44X198 W40X328 W40X298
W40X268 W40X244 W40X221 W40X192 W40X655 W40X593
W40X531 W40X480 W40X436 W40X397 W40X362 W40X324
W40X297 W40X277 W40X249 W40X215 W40X199 W40X183
W40X167 W40X149 W36X848 W36X798 W36X720 W36X650
W36X588 W36X527 W36X485 W36X439 W36X393 W36X359
W36X328 W36X300 W36X280 W36X260 W36X245 W36X230
W36X256 W36X232 W36X210 W36X194 W36X182 W36X170
W36X160 W36X150 W36X135 W33X619 W33X567 W33X515
W33X468 W33X424 W33X387 W33X354 W33X318 W33X291
W33X263 W33X241 W33X221 W33X201 W33X169 W33X152
W33X141 W33X130 W33X118 W30X581 W30X526 W30X477
W30X433 W30X391 W30X357 W30X326 W30X292 W30X261
W30X235 W30X211 W30X191 W30X173 W30X148 W30X132
W30X124 W30X116 W30X108 W30X99 W30X90 W27X539
W27X494 W27X448 W27X407 W27X368 W27X336 W27X307
W27X281 W27X258 W27X235 W27X217 W27X194 W27X178
W27X161 W27X146 W27X114 W27X102 W27X94 W27X84
W24X492 W24X450 W24X408 W24X370 W24X335 W24X306
W24X279 W24X250 W24X229 W24X207 W24X192 W24X176
W24X162 W24X146 W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X103
W24X94 W24X84 W24X76 W24X68 W24X62 W24X55
W21X402 W21X364 W21X333 W21X300 W21X275 W21X248
W21X223 W21X201 W21X182 W21X166 W21X147 W21X132
W21X122 W21X111 W21X101 W21X93 W21X83 W21X73
W21X68 W21X62 W21X57 W21X50 W21X44 W18X311
W18X283 W18X258 W18X234 W18X211 W18X192 W18X175
W18X158 W18X143 W18X130 W18X119 W18X106 W18X97
W18X86 W18X76 W18X71 W18X65 W18X60 W18X55
W18X50 W18X46 W18X40 W18X35 W16X100 W16X89
62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
W16X77 W16X67 W16X57 W16X50 W16X45 W16X40
W16X36 W16X31 W16X26 W14X730 W14X665 W14X605
W14X550 W14X500 W14X455 W14X426 W14X398 W14X370
W14X342 W14X311 W14X283 W14X257 W14X233 W14X211
W14X193 W14X176 W14X159 W14X145 W14X132 W14X120
W14X109 W14X99 W14X90 W14X82 W14X74 W14X68
W14X61 W14X53 W14X48 W14X43 W14X38 W14X34
W14X30 W14X26 W14X22 W12X336 W12X305 W12X279
W12X252 W12X230 W12X210 W12X190 W12X170 W12X152
W12X136 W12X120 W12X106 W12X96 W12X87 W12X79
W12X72 W12X65 W12X58 W12X53 W12X50 W12X45
W12X40 W12X35 W12X30 W12X26 W12X22 W12X19
W12X16 W12X14 W10X112 W10X100 W10X88 W10X77
W10X68 W10X60 W10X54 W10X49 W10X45 W10X39
W10X33 W10X30 W10X26 W10X22 W10X19 W10X17
W10X15 W10X12 W8X67 W8X58 W8X48 W8X40
HP14X117 HP14X102 HP14X89 HP14X73 HP13X100 HP13X87
HP13X73 HP13X60 HP12X84 HP12X74 HP12X63 HP12X53
HP10X57 HP10X42 HP8X36
M14X18 M12X11.8 M10X9 M8X6.5 M6X20 M6X4.4 M5X18.9 M4X13
S24X121 S24X106 S24X100 S24X90 S24X80 S20X96
S20X86 S20X75 S20X66 S18X70 S18X54.7 S15X50
S15X42.9 S12X50 S12X40.8 S12X35 S12X31.8 S10X35
S10X25.4 S8X23 S8X18.4 S7X20 S7X15.3 S6X17.25
S6X12.5 S5X14.75 S5X10 S4X9.5 S4X7.7 S3X7.5
S3X5.7
C15X50 C15X40 C15X33.9 C12X30 C12X25 C12X20.7
C10X30 C10X25 C10X20 C10X15.3 C9X20 C9X15
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 63
C9X13.4 C8X18.75 C8X13.75 C8X11.5 C7X14.75 C7X12.25
C7X9.8 C6X13 C6X10.5 C6X8.2 C5X9 C5X6.7
C4X7.25 C4X5.4 C3X6 C3X5 C3X4.1
MC18X58 MC18X51.9 MC18X45.8 MC18X42.7 MC13X50 MC13X40
MC13X35 MC13X31.8 MC12X50 MC12X45 MC12X40 MC12X35
MC12X31 MC12X10.6 MC10X41.1 MC10X33.6 MC10X28.5 MC10X25
MC10X22 MC10X8.4 MC10X6.5 MC9X25.4 MC9X23.9 MC8X22.8
MC8X21.4 MC8X20 MC8X18.7 MC8X8.5 MC7X22.7 MC7X19.1
MC6X18 MC6X15.3 MC6X16.3 MC6X15.1 MC6X12
WT18X115 WT18X128 WT18X116
WT18X105 WT18X97 WT18X91
WT18X85 WT18X80 WT18X75
WT18X67.5 WT16.5X177 WT16.5X159
WT16.5X145.5 WT16.5X131.5 WT16.5X120.5
WT16.5X110.5 WT16.5X100.5 WT16.5X84.5
WT16.5X76 WT16.5X70.5 WT16.5X65
WT16.5X59 WT15X117.5 WT15X105.5
WT15X95.5 WT15X86.5 WT15X74
WT15X66 WT15X62 WT15X58
WT15X54 WT15X49.5 WT13.5X108.5
WT13.5X97 WT13.5X89 WT13.5X80.5
WT13.5X73 WT13.5X64.5 WT13.5X57
WT13.5X51 WT13.5X47 WT13.5X42
WT12X88 WT12X81 WT12X73
WT12X65.5 WT12X58.5 WT12X52
WT12X51.5 WT12X47 WT12X42
WT12X38 WT12X34 WT12X31
WT12X27.5 WT10.5X83 WT10.5X73.5
WT10.5X66 WT10.5X61 WT10.5X55.5
WT10.5X50.5 WT10.5X46.5 WT10.5X41.5
64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
WT10.5X36.5 WT10.5X34 WT10.5X31
WT10.5X28.5 WT10.5X25 WT10.5X22
WT9X71.5 WT9X65 WT9X59.5
WT9X53 WT9X48.5 WT9X43
WT9X38 WT9X35.5 WT9X32.5
WT9X30 WT9X27.5 WT9X25
WT9X23 WT9X20 WT9X17.5
WT8X50 WT8X44.5 WT8X38.5
WT8X33.5 WT8X28.5 WT8X25
WT8X22.5 WT8X20 WT8X18
WT8X15.5 WT8X13 WT7X365
WT7X332.5 WT7X302.5 WT7X275
WT7X250 WT7X227.5 WT7X213
WT7X199 WT7X185 WT7X171
WT7X155.
MT7X9 MT6X5.9 MT5X4.5 MT4X3.25 MT3X2.2 MT2.5X9.45
ST12X60.5 ST12X53 ST12X50 ST12X45 ST12X40 ST10X48
ST10X43 ST10X37.5 ST10X33 ST9X35 ST9X27.35 ST7.5X25
ST7.5X21.45 ST6X25 ST6X20.4 ST6X17.5 ST6X15.9 ST5X17.5
ST5X12.7 ST4X11.5 ST4X9.2 ST3.5X10 ST3.5X7.65 ST3X8.625
ST3X6.25 ST2.5X7.375 ST2.5X5 ST2X4.75 ST2X3.85 ST1.5X3.75
ST1.5X2.85
L9X4X0.6250 L9X4X0.5625 L9X4X0.5000
L8X8X1.1250 L8X8X1.0000 L8X8X0.8750
L8X8X0.7500 L8X8X0.6250 L8X8X0.5625
L8X8X0.5000 L8X6X1.0000 L8X6X0.8750
L8X6X0.7500 L8X6X0.6250 L8X6X0.5625
L8X6X0.5000 L8X6X0.4375 L8X4X1.0000
L8X4X0.7500 L8X4X0.5625 L8X4X0.5000
L7X4X0.7500 L7X4X0.6250 L7X4X0.5000
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 65
L7X4X0.3750 L6X6X1.0000 L6X6X0.8750
L6X6X0.7500 L6X6X0.6250 L6X6X0.5625
L6X6X0.5000 L6X6X0.4375 L6X6X0.3750
L6X6X0.3125 L6X4X0.8750 L6X4X0.7500
L6X4X0.6250 L6X4X0.5625 L6X4X0.5000
L6X4X0.4375 L6X4X0.3750 L6X4X0.3125
L6X3.5X0.5000 L6X3.5X0.3750 L6X3.5X0.3125
L5X5X0.8750 L5X5X0.7500 L5X5X0.6250
L5X5X0.5000 L5X5X0.4375 L5X5X0.3750
L5X5X0.3125 L5X3.5X0.7500 L5X3.5X0.6250
L5X3.5X0.5000 L5X3.5X0.4375 L5X3.5X0.3750
L5X3.5X0.3125 L5X3.5X0.2500 L5X3X0.6250
L5X3X0.5000 L5X3X0.4375 L5X3X0.3750
L5X3X0.3125 L5X3X0.2500 L4X4X0.7500
L4X4X0.6250 L4X4X0.5000 L4X4X0.4375
L4X4X0.3750 L4X4X0.3125 L4X4X0.2500
L4X3.5X0.5000 L4X3.5X0.4375 L4X3.5X0.3750
L4X3.5X0.3125 L4X3.5X0.2500 L4X3X0.5000
L4X3X0.4375 L4X3X0.3750 L4X3X0.3125
L4X3X0.2500 L3.5X3.5X0.5000 L3.5X3.5X0.4375
L3.5X3.5X0.3750 L3.5X3.5X0.3125 L3.5X3.5X0.2500
L3.5X3X0.5000 L3.5X3X0.4375 L3.5X3X0.3750
L3.5X3X0.3125 L3.5X3X0.2500 L3.5X2.5X0.5000
L3.5X2.5X0.4375 L3.5X2.5X0.3750 L3.5X2.5X0.3125
L3.5X2.5X0.2500 L3X3X0.5000 L3X3X0.4375
L3X3X0.3750 L3X3X0.3125 L3X3X0.2500
L3X3X0.1875 L3X2.5X0.5000 L3X2.5X0.4375
L3X2.5X0.3750 L3X2.5X0.3125 L3X2.5X0.2500
L3X2.5X0.1875 L3X2X0.5000 L3X2X0.4375
L3X2X0.3750 L3X2X0.3125 L3X2X0.2500
L3X2X0.1875 L2.5X2.5X0.5000 L2.5X2.5X0.3750
L2.5X2.5X0.3125 L2.5X2.5X0.2500 L2.5X2.5X0.1875
L2.5X2X0.3750 L2.5X2X0.3125 L2.5X2X0.2500
66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
L2.5X2X0.1875 L2X2X0.3750 L2X2X0.3125
L2X2X0.2500 L2X2X0.1875 L2X2X0.1250
D8X8X1.1250 D8X8X1.0000 D8X8X0.8750
D8X8X0.7500 D8X8X0.6250 D8X8X0.5000
D6X6X1.0000 D6X6X0.8750 D6X6X0.7500
D6X6X0.6250 D6X6X0.5000 D6X6X0.3750
D5X5X0.8750 D5X5X0.7500 D5X5X0.5000
D5X5X0.3750 D5X5X0.3125 D4X4X0.7500
D4X4X0.6250 D4X4X0.5000 D4X4X0.3750
D4X4X0.3125 D4X4X0.2500 D3.5X3.5X0.3750
D3.5X3.5X0.3125 D3.5X3.5X0.2500 D3X3X0.5000
D3X3X0.3750 D3X3X0.3125 D3X3X0.2500
D3X3X0.1875 D2.5X2.5X0.3750 D2.5X2.5X0.3125
D2.5X2.5X0.2500 D2.5X2.5X0.1875 D2X2X0.3750
D2X2X0.3125 D2X2X0.2500 D2X2X0.1875
D2X2X0.1250 D8X6X1.0000 D8X6X0.7500
D8X6X0.5000 D8X4X1.0000 D8X4X0.7500
D8X4X0.5000 D7X4X0.7500 D7X4X0.5000
D7X4X0.3750 D6X4X0.7500 D6X4X0.6250
D6X4X0.5000 D6X4X0.3750 D6X3.5X0.3750
D6X3.5X0.3125 D5X3.5X0.7500 D5X3.5X0.5000
D5X3.5X0.3750 D5X3.5X0.3125 D5X3X0.5000
D5X3X0.3750 D5X3X0.3125 D5X3X0.2500
D4X3.5X0.5000 D4X3.5X0.3750 D4X3.5X0.3125
D4X3.5X0.2500 D4X3X0.5000 D4X3X0.3750
D4X3X0.3125 D4X3X0.2500 D3.5X3X0.3750
D3.5X3X0.3125 D3.5X3X0.2500 D3.5X2.5X0.3750
D3.5X2.5X0.3125 D3.5X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.3750
D3X2.5X0.2500 D3X2.5X0.1875 D3X2X0.3750
D3X2X0.3125 D3X2X0.2500 D3X2X0.1875
D2.5X2X0.3750 D2.5X2X0.3125 D2.5X2X0.2500
D2.5X2X0.1875
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 67
B8X6X1.0000 B8X6X0.7500 B8X6X0.5000
B8X4X1.0000 B8X4X0.7500 B8X4X0.5000
B7X4X0.7500 B7X4X0.5000 B7X4X0.3750
B6X4X0.7500 B6X4X0.6250 B6X4X0.5000
B6X4X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3750 B6X3.5X0.3125
B5X3.5X0.7500 B5X3.5X0.5000 B5X3.5X0.3750
B5X3.5X0.3125 B5X3X0.5000 B5X3X0.3750
B5X3X0.3125 B5X3X0.2500 B4X3.5X0.5000
B4X3.5X0.3750 B4X3.5X0.3125 B4X3.5X0.2500
B4X3X0.5000 B4X3X0.3750 B4X3X0.3125
B4X3X0.2500 B3.5X3X0.3750 B3.5X3X0.3125
B3.5X3X0.2500 B3.5X2.5X0.3750 B3.5X2.5X0.3125
B3.5X2.5X0.2500 B3X2.5X0.3750 B3X2.5X0.2500
B3X2.5X0.1875 B3X2X0.3750 B3X2X0.3125
B3X2X0.2500 B3X2X0.1875 B2.5X2X0.3750
B2.5X2X0.3125 B2.5X2X0.2500 B2.5X2X0.1875
68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
German 1991 Database
I80 I100 I120 I140 I160 I180
I200 I220 I240 I260 I280 I300
I320 I340 I360 I380 I400 I425
I450 I475 I500 I550 I600
IPE80 IPE100 IPE120 IPE140 IPE160 IPE180
IPE200 IPE220 IPE240 IPE270 IPE300 IPE330
IPE360 IPE400 IPE450 IPE500 IPE550 IPE600
IPEO180 IPEO200 IPEO220 IPEO240 IPEO270 IPEO300
IPEO330 IPEO360 IPEO400 IPEO450 IPEO500 IPEO550
IPEO600
IPEV400 IPEV450 IPEV500 IPEV550 IPEV600
IPBI100 IPBI120 IPBI140 IPBI160 IPBI180 IPBI200
IPBI220 IPBI240 IPBI260 IPBI280 IPBI300 IPBI320
IPBI340 IPBI360 IPBI400 IPBI450 IPBI500 IPBI550
IPBI600 IPBI650 IPBI700 IPBI800 IPBI900 IPBI1000
IPB100 IPB120 IPB140 IPB160 IPB180 IPB200
IPB220 IPB240 IPB260 IPB280 IPB300 IPB320
IPB340 IPB360 IPB400 IPB450 IPB500 IPB550
IPB600 IPB650 IPB700 IPB800 IPB900 IPB1000
U30X15 U30 U40X20 U40 U50X25 U50
U60 U65 U80 U100 U120 U140
U160 U180 U200 U220 U240 U260
U280 U300 U320 U350 U380 U400
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 69
T20 T25 T30 T35 T40 T45
T50 T60 T70 T80 T90 T100
T120 T140
1/2I140 1/2I160 1/2I180 1/2I200 1/2I220 1/2I240
1/2I260 1/2I280 1/2I300 1/2I320 1/2I340 1/2I360
1/2I380 1/2I400 1/2I425 1/2I450 1/2I475 1/2I500
1/2IPE140 1/2IPE160 1/2IPE180 1/2IPE200 1/2IPE220 1/2IPE240
1/2IPE270 1/2IPE300 1/2IPE330 1/2IPE360 1/2IPE400 1/2IPE450
1/2IPE500 1/2IPE550 1/2IPE600
1/2IPEO180 1/2IPEO200 1/2IPEO220 1/2IPEO240 1/2IPEO270 1/2IPEO300
1/2IPEO330 1/2IPEO360 1/2IPEO400 1/2IPEO450 1/2IPEO500 1/2IPEO550
1/2IPEO600
1/2IPEV400 1/2IPEV450 1/2IPEV500 1/2IPEV550 1/2IPEV600
1/2IPB140 1/2IPB160 1/2IPB180 1/2IPB200 1/2IPB220 1/2IPB240
1/2IPB260 1/2IPB280 1/2IPB300 1/2IPB320 1/2IPB340 1/2IPB360
1/2IPB400 1/2IPB450 1/2IPB500 1/2IPB550 1/2IPB600 1/2IPB650
1/2IPB700 1/2IPB800 1/2IPB900 1/2IPB1000
1/2IPBI140 1/2IPBI160 1/2IPBI180 1/2IPBI200 1/2IPBI220 1/2IPBI240
1/2IPBI260 1/2IPBI280 1/2IPBI300 1/2IPBI320 1/2IPBI340 1/2IPBI360
1/2IPBI400 1/2IPBI450 1/2IPBI500 1/2IPBI550 1/2IPBI600 1/2IPBI650
1/2IPBI700 1/2IPBI800 1/2IPBI900 1/2IPBI1000
1/2IPBV140 1/2IPBV160 1/2IPBV180 1/2IPBV200 1/2IPBV220 1/2IPBV240
1/2IPBV260 1/2IPBV280 1/2IPBV300 1/2IPBV305 1/2IPBV320 1/2IPBV340
1/2IPBV360 1/2IPBV400 1/2IPBV450 1/2IPBV500 1/2IPBV550 1/2IPBV600
1/2IPBV650 1/2IPBV700 1/2IPBV800 1/2IPBV900 1/2IPBV1000
70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
L20X3 L25X3 L25X4 L30X3 L30X4 L30X5
L35X4 L35X5 L40X4 L40X5 L45X4 L45X5
L50X5 L50X6 L50X7
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 71
Australian 1990 Database
UB760X244 UB760X220 UB760X197 UB760X173 UB760X148 UB690X140
UB690X125 UB610X125 UB610X113 UB610X101 UB530X92 UB530X82
UB460X82 UB460X74 UB460X67 UB410X60 UB410X54 UB360X57
UB360X51 UB360X45 UB310X46 UB310X40 UB250X37 UB250X31
UB200X30 UB200X25 UB180X22 UB180X18 UB150X18 UB150X14
UC310X283 UC310X240 UC310X198 UC310X158 UC310X137 UC310X118
UC310X97 UC250X89 UC250X73 UC200X60 UC200X52 UC200X46
UC150X37 UC150X30 UC150X23 UC100X15
UBP310X79 UBP250X85 UBP250X63
TFB125X65 TFB100X45
TFC125X65 TFC100X50 TFC75X40
PFC380X100 PFC300X90 PFC250X90 PFC230X75 PFC200X75 PFC180X75
PFC150X75
EL200X200X26 EL200X200X20 EL200X200X18
EL200X200X16 EL200X200X13 EL150X150X19
EL150X150X16 EL150X150X12 EL150X150X10
EL125X125X16 EL125X125X12 EL125X125X10
EL125X125X8 EL100X100X12 EL100X100X10
EL100X100X8 EL100X100X6 EL90X90X10
EL90X90X8 EL90X90X6 EL75X75X10
EL75X75X8 EL75X75X6 EL75X75X5
EL65X65X10 EL65X65X8 EL65X65X6
EL65X65X5 EL55X55X6 EL55X55X5
EL50X50X8 EL50X50X6 EL50X50X5
72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
EL50X50X3 EL45X45X6 EL45X45X5
EL45X45X3 EL40X40X6 EL40X40X5
EL40X40X3 EL30X30X6 EL30X30X5
EL30X30X3 EL25X25X6 EL25X25X5
EL25X25X3
UL150X100X12 UL150X100X10 UL150X90X16
UL150X90X12 UL150X90X10 UL150X90X8
UL125X75X12 UL125X75X10 UL125X75X8
UL125X75X6 UL100X75X10 UL100X75X8
UL100X75X6 UL75X50X8 UL75X50X6
UL75X50X5 UL65X50X8 UL65X50X6
UL65X50X5
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 73
South African 1992 Database
IPE100 IPE120 IPE140 IPE160 IPE180
IPE200 IPEAA100 IPEAA120 IPEAA140 IPEAA160
IPEAA180 IPEAA200 IP152X89X16 IP178X102X19 IP203X133X25
IP203X133X30 IP254X146X31 IP254X146X37 IP254X146X43 IP305X102X25
IP305X102X29 IP305X102X33 IP305X165X41 IP305X165X46 IP305X165X54
IP356X171X45 IP356X171X51 IP356X171X57 IP356X171X67 IP406X140X39
IP406X140X46 IP406X178X54 IP406X178X60 IP406X178X67 IP406X178X75
IP457X191X67 IP457X191X75 IP457X191X82 IP457X191X90 IP457X191X98
IP533X210X82 IP533X210X93 IP533X210X101 IP533X210X109 IP533X210X122
IP610X229X101 IP610X229X113 IP610X229X125 IP610X229X140 IP762X267X147
IP838X292X176 IP914X305X201 IP914X419X343
HP152X152X23 HP152X152X30 HP152X152X37 HP203X203X46 HP203X203X52
HP203X203X60 HP203X203X71 HP203X203X86 HP254X254X73 HP254X254X89
HP254X254X107 HP254X254X132 HP254X254X167 HP305X305X97 HP305X305X118
HP305X305X137 HP305X305X158 HP305X305X198 HP305X305X240 HP305X305X283
IT127X76X13 IT152X89X17 IT178X102X22 IT203X102X25 IT203X152X52
IT254X152X59 IT305X152X66
CP100X50 CP120X55 CP140X60 CP160X65 CP180X70
CP200X75 CP220X80 CP240X85 CP260X90 CP280X95
CP300X100
CT100X50X11 CT120X55X13 CT140X60X16 CT160X65X19 CT180X70X22
CT200X75X25 CT220X80X29 CT240X85X33 CT260X90X38 CT280X95X42
CT300X100X46 CT76X38X7 CT127X64X15 CT152X76X18 CT178X54X15
CT381X102X55
AE25X25X3 AE25X25X5 AE30X30X3 AE30X30X5 AE35X35X3
AE35X35X5 AE40X40X3 AE40X40X5 AE40X40X6 AE45X45X3
AE45X45X5 AE45X45X6 AE50X50X3 AE50X50X4 AE50X50X5
AE50X50X6 AE50X50X8 AE60X60X4 AE60X60X5 AE60X60X6
AE60X60X8 AE60X60X10 AE70X70X6 AE70X70X8 AE70X70X10
AE80X80X6 AE80X80X8 AE80X80X10 AE80X80X12 AE90X90X6
AE90X90X8 AE90X90X10 AE90X90X12 AE100X100X8 AE100X100X10
AE100X100X12 AE100X100X15 AE120X120X8 AE120X120X10 AE120X120X12
AE120X120X15 AE150X150X10 AE150X150X12 AE150X150X15 AE150X150X18
AE200X200X16 AE200X200X18 AE200X200X20 AE200X200X24
AU65X50X6 AU65X50X8 AU75X50X6 AU75X50X8 AU80X60X6
AU80X60X8 AU90X65X6 AU90X65X8 AU90X65X10 AU100X65X8
AU100X65X10 AU100X75X6 AU100X75X8 AU100X75X10 AU100X75X12
AU125X75X8 AU125X75X10 AU125X75X12 AU150X75X10 AU150X75X12
AU150X75X15 AU150X90X10 AU150X90X12 AU150X90X15
TCI203X133X25 TCI203X133X30 TCI254X146X31 TCI254X146X37 TCI254X146X43
74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Korean 1990 Database
W594X302 W588X300 W582X300 W612X202 W606X201
W600X200 W596X199 W488X300 W482X300 W506X201
W500X200 W496X199 W440X300 W434X299 W450X200
W446X199 W390X300 W386X299 W404X201 W400X200
W396X199 W350X350 W344X354 W344X348 W340X250
W336X249 W354X176 W350X175 W346X174 W310X310
W310X305 W304X301 W300X305 W300X300 W298X299
W294X302 W298X201 W294X200 W300X150 W298X149
W250X255 W250X250 W248X249 W244X252 W244X175
W250X125 W248X124 W208X202 W200X204 W200X200
W194X150 W200X100 W150X150 W148X100 W150X75
W125X125 W100X100
L250X250X35 L250X250X25 L200X200X25 L200X200X20 L200X200X15
L175X175X15 L175X175X12 L150X150X19 L150X150X15 L150X150X12
L150X150X10 L130X130X15 L130X130X12 L130X130X10 L130X130X9
L120X120X8 L100X100X13 L100X100X10 L100X100X8 L100X100X7
L90X90X13 L90X90X10 L90X90X9 L90X90X8 L90X90X7
L90X90X6 L80X80X7 L80X80X6 L75X75X12 L75X75X9
L75X75X6 L70X70X6 L65X65X8 L65X65X6 L65X65X5
L60X60X6 L60X60X5 L60X60X4 L50X50X6 L50X50X5
L50X50X4 L45X45X5 L45X45X4 L40X40X5
C300X90 C300X91 C300X92 C300X93 C300X94
C125X65 C100X50 C75X40
M300X150 M250X125 M200X100 M150X75 M125X75
Chapter 4 Structural Steel Modeler 75
UK 1993 Database
1
In This Chapter
Dynamic Analysis Input ..............................................................2
Dynamic Analysis Overview.......................................................3
Harmonic Analysis ......................................................................8
Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles..........................16
Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases ...........................24
Spectrum Time History ...............................................................38
Lumped Masses...........................................................................44
Dynamic Control Parameters.......................................................48
Advanced Parameters..................................................................81
Pulsation Loads ...........................................................................85
Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis .............................................88
C H A P T E R 5
Controlling the Dynamic Solution
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Dynamic Analysis Input
Once the basic model has been constructed a dynamic analysis can be performed. After selecting ANALYSIS/
DYNAMICS from the CAESAR II Main Menu, the Dynamics Input window appears.
The analysis type is selected from the drop list on the upper left portion of the window and the tabbed
items will be modified depending on the type of analysis to be performed. If the model contains spring
hangers to be designed, or single directional supports, gaps, rods, or friction, then a static analysis must be
performed before the dynamic analysis to determine how the nonlinear supports are acting. The following
sections describe the specific input for each of the options available from the Dynamics Input Menu.
See Chapter 8 of the User Guide for a thorough discussion of basic dynamic load cases and data, and for a
description of “how to” interact with the dynamics input processor.
The current units applicable to the dynamics input are pulled from the piping input file (or from the
Configuration file in the event of a structuralonly job).
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 3
Dynamic Analysis Overview
A piping system may respond far differently to a dynamic load than it would to a static load of the same
magnitude. Static loads are those which are applied slowly enough that the system has time to react and
internally distribute the loads, thus remaining in equilibrium. In equilibrium, all forces and moments are
resolved (i.e., the sum of the forces and moments are zero), and the pipe does not move.
With a dynamic load—a load which changes quickly with time—the piping system may not have time to
internally distribute the loads, so forces and moments are not always resolved—resulting in unbalanced
loads, and therefore pipe movement. Since the sum of forces and moments are not necessarily equal to
zero, the internally induced loads can be different—either higher or lower—than the applied loads.
For this reason, different analysis methods must be used to determine response of a system when subjected
to dynamic loads. CAESAR II provides several methods for analyzing different types of dynamic loadings,
which help optimize the tradeoff of accuracy vs. computing requirements—these include harmonic
solution, response spectrum method, and time history analysis.
The force vs. time profiles of the dynamic loads most often encountered during the design of piping are
usually one of three types—random, harmonic, or impulse. Each of these load profiles have a preferred
solution method as well. These profiles, and the load types identified with them, are described below.
Random
With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude unpredictably with time, although
there may be predominant characteristics within the load profile. Loads with random force/time profiles
are best solved using the Spectrum method. Major types of loads with random time profiles are
Wind—Wind velocity causes forces due to the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe,
creating an “equivalent pressure” on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they may have
predominant directions and average velocities over a given time, are subject to gusting, i.e., sudden
changes in direction and velocity. As the observed time period lengthens, the observed number of
changes increases in an unpredictable manner as well, eventually encompassing nearly all directions
and a wide range of velocities.
Earthquake—Seismic (earthquake) loadings are caused by the introduction of random motion
(accelerations, velocities, and displacements) of the ground and corresponding inertia loads (the mass
of the system times the acceleration) into a structure through the structuretoground anchorage. The
random ground motion is actually the sum of an infinite number of individual harmonic (cyclic)
ground motions. Two earthquakes may be similar in terms of predominant direction (along a fault, for
example), predominant harmonic frequencies (if certain of the underlying cyclic motions tend to
dominate), and maximum ground motion, but their exact behavior at any given time may be quite
different and unpredictable.
Harmonic
With this type of profile, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following a harmonic profile,
ranging from its minimum to its maximum over a fixed time period. For example, the load may be
described by a function of the form:
F(t) = A + B cos(et + Q)
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Where:
F(t) = force magnitude as a function of time
A = mean force
B = variation of maximum and minimum force from mean
e = angular frequency (radian/sec)
Q = phase angle (radians)
t = time (sec)
Loads with harmonic force/time profiles are best solved using the Harmonic method. Major types of loads
with harmonic time profiles are
Equipment vibration—If rotating equipment attached to a pipe is slightly out of tolerance (drive shaft
out of round, for example), it may impose a small cyclic displacement onto the pipe at the point of
attachment, where the displacement cycle would most likely correspond to the equipment’s operating
cycle. The displacement at the pipe connection may be so small as to not even be noticeable, but
dynamically it could cause significant problems. The loading vs. time can be easily predicted once the
equipment’s operating cycle and variation from tolerance is known.
Acoustic vibration—If fluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for example if flow
conditions change from laminar to turbulent as the fluid goes through an orifice), slight lateral
vibrations may be set up within the pipe. Often these vibrations fit harmonic patterns, with
predominant frequencies somewhat predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example,
Strouhal’s equation predicts that the developed frequency (Hz) of vibration caused by flow through an
orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V/D and 0.3 V/D, where V is the fluid velocity (ft./sec) and D
is the diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow around a pipe sets up lateral displacements as well (a
phenomenon known as vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency in the area of 0.18 V/D, where V
is the wind velocity and D is the outer diameter of the pipe.
Pulsation—During the operation of a reciprocating pump or a compressor, the fluid is compressed by
pistons driven by a rotating shaft. This causes a cyclic change (vs. time) in the fluid pressure at any
specified location in the system. If the fluid pressures at opposing elbow pairs or closures is unequal,
this creates an unbalanced pressure load in the system. Since the pressure balance changes with the
cycle of the compressor, the unbalanced force changes as well. (Note that the frequency of the force
cycle will most likely be some multiple of that of the equipment operating cycle, since multiple
pistons will cause a corresponding number of force variations during each shaft rotation.) The
pressure variations will continue to move along through the fluid, so in a steady state flow condition,
unbalanced forces may be present simultaneously at all elbow pairs in the system. The load
magnitudes may vary, and the load cycles may or may not be in phase with each other, depending
upon the pulse velocity, the distance of each elbow pair from the compressor, and the length of the
piping legs between the elbow pairs.
For example, if the pressure at elbow a is denoted by Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow b is denoted by Pb(t),
then the unbalanced force acting along the pipe between the two elbows is:
F(t) = (Pa(t)  Pb(t)) A
Where:
A = internal area of the pipe
The expression for Pa(t) can be calculated as (assuming that the pressure peak hits the elbow “a” at time t =
0):
Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos et
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 5
Where:
Pavg = average pressure in the line
dP = alternating component of the pressure
e = driving angular frequency of pulse
If the length of the pipe between the elbows is L, then the pressure pulse will reach elbow b t
s
after it has
passed elbow a:
t
s
= L / c
Where:
c = speed of sound in the fluid
Therefore the expression for the pressure at elbow b is:
P
b
(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos ( et  Q)
Where:
Q = phase shift between the pressure peaks at a and b
= ets
Combining these equations, the equation for the unbalanced pressure force acting on an elbow pair can be
written as:
F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos et  cos e(t  L/c) ]
Under steadystate conditions, a similar situation would exist at all elbow pairs throughout the piping
system.
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Impulse
With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to some value, remains relatively
constant for a time, and then ramps down to zero again. For rapid ramping times, this type of profile
resembles a rectangle. Loads with impulse force/time profiles are best solved using the Time History or
Force Spectrum methods. Major types of loads with impulse time profiles are
Relief valve—When system pressure reaches a dangerous level, relief valves are set to open in order to
vent fluid and reduce the internal pressure. Venting through the valve causes a jet force to act on the
piping system; this force ramps up to its full value, from zero, over the opening time of the valve. The
relief valve remains open (and the jet force remains relatively constant) until sufficient fluid is vented
to relief the overpressure situation. The valve then closes, ramping down the jet force over the
closing time of the valve.
Fluid hammer—When the flow of fluid through a system is suddenly halted at one point, through
valve closure or a pump trip, the fluid in the remainder of the system cannot be stopped
instantaneously as well. As fluid continues to flow into the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or
pump), the fluid compresses, causing a high pressure situation at that point. Likewise, on the other
side of the restriction, the fluid moves away from the stoppage point, creating a low pressure
(vacuum) situation at that location. Fluid at the next elbow or closure along the pipeline is still at the
original operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced pressure force acting on the valve seat or the
elbow.
The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away from the point of flow
stoppage, thus causing the leading edge of the pressure pulse to move through the line. As the pulse moves
past the first elbow, the pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run, leading to a balanced (i.e.,
zero) pressure load on the first pipe leg. However the unbalanced pressure, by passing the elbow, has now
shifted to the second leg. The unbalanced pressure load will continue to rise and fall in sequential legs as
the pressure pulse travels back to the source (or forward to the sink).
The ramp up time of the profile roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to low flow, such
as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pump. Since the leading edge of the pressure pulse is not
expected to change as the pulse travels through the system, the ramp down time is the same. The duration
of the load from initiation through the beginning of the down ramp is equal to the time required for the
pressure pulse to travel the length of the pipe leg.
Slug flow—Most piping systems are designed to handle singlephase fluids (i.e., those which are
uniformly liquid or gas). Under certain circumstances, however, the fluid may have multiple phases.
For example, slurry systems transport solid materials in liquids, and gases may condense, creating
pockets of liquid in otherwise gaseous media. Systems carrying multiphase fluids are susceptible to
slug flow.
In general, when fluid changes direction in a piping system, this is done through the application of forces
at elbows. This force is equal to the change in momentum with respect to time, or
F
r
= dp / dt = p v
2
A [2(1  cos u)]
1/2
Where:
dp = change in momentum
dt = change in time
p = fluid density
v = fluid velocity
A = internal area of pipe
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 7
u = inclusion angle at elbow
Normally this force is constant, and is small enough that it can be easily absorbed through tension in the
pipe wall, to be passed on to adjacent elbows which may have equal and opposite loads, zeroing the net
load on the system. Therefore these type of momentum loads are usually ignored by the stress analyst.
However, if the fluid velocity or density changes with time, this momentum load will change with time as
well, leading to a dynamic (changing) load, which may not be cancelled by the load at other elbows.
For example, consider a slug of liquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is insignificant,
since the fluid density of a gas is effectively zero. Suddenly the liquid slug hits the elbow, increasing the
momentum load by orders of magnitude. This load lasts only as long as it takes for the slug to traverse the
elbow, and then suddenly drops to near zero again, with the exact profile of the slug load depending upon
the shape of the slug. The time duration of the load depends upon the length of the slug divided by the
velocity of the fluid.
Where:
Fx = pv
2
A(1  cos u)
Fr = pv
2
A [2(1  cos u)]
2
Fy = pv
2
A sin u
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Harmonic Analysis
Excitation Frequencies
Harmonic Analysis Excitation Frequencies
Starting Frequency
First frequency in the user’s defined excitation frequency range. The defined harmonic displacements and
forces will have the form: A*cosine(wt+p), where A is the amplitude of the force or displacement, p is the
phase angle, and eis the frequency of the loading. Real and imaginary solutions will be developed for
each frequency in the defined range (from which any phased solution can be calculated). For an entered
frequency range to be valid there must be at least a starting frequency. All frequencies are entered in
Hertz.
Ending Frequency
Last frequency in the user’s defined excitation frequency range. If omitted then it defaults to the Starting
frequency.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 9
Increment
Frequency increment. If omitted then defaults to 1.0 Hz.
The frequencies for harmonic excitation are taken from each frequency range defined by the user.
Individual frequencies for excitation are computed using a “DO LOOP” type of logic as follows:
X = STARTING FREQUENCY
5 CONTINUE
COMPUTE SOLUTION FOR FREQUENCY “X”
X = X + INCREMENT
IF( X .LT. ENDING FREQUENCY+0.001) GO TO 5
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Using this logic the user can determine exactly which frequencies in a specified frequency range will be
analyzed. The sign of the frequency increment may be modified by CAESAR II to properly step from the
user’s starting frequency to his ending frequency.
Either the starting frequency, the ending frequency, or the frequency increment may be given as a fraction
or a whole part with fraction.
Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the
Excitation frequency data.
EXAMPLES:
Find harmonic solutions for the following group of equipment speeds:
100 rpm (Warm up speed)
400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200 rpm. Speeds passed through very slowly while coming
up to operating speed.
3600 rpm. Operating speed.
Rotations per minute convert to cycles per second by dividing by 60. Frequency excitation would be input.
WARM UP SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 100/60
BRINGING TURBINE ONLINE (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 400/60 3200/60 400/60
OPERATING SPEED (DIVIDE RPM BY 60 TO GET HERTZ) 3600/60
A low frequency field vibration exists in the piping system at about 3 Hertz. Define a 3 Hertz excitation:
APPROXIMATE FIELD OBSERVED EXCITATION FREQUENCY (HZ) 3
The response of the piping system when the dynamic load was applied at 3 Hertz was almost zero. This
was true regardless of the magnitude of the dynamic load (i.e. the maximum conceivable varying pressure
load was applied, and there were still no appreciable dynamic displacements when the excitation
frequency was 3 Hertz). Apply the dynamic load over a range of frequencies around 3 Hertz and see if any
dynamic response can be observed.
GROUP OF FREQUENCIES AROUND THE FIELD “GUESSED AT”
3 HERTZ EXCITATION. THE EXCITATION FREQUENCIES
DEFINED BY THE INPUT BELOW ARE:
(2.5, 2.6, 2.7, ..., 3.3, 3.4, 3.5) HZ.
2.5 3.5 0.1
Load Cycles
Number of cycles expected for this loading. If entered, this signals to CAESAR II that the harmonic load
case should be treated as a fatigue stress case with the allowable stress based on the number of anticipated
cycles.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 11
Harmonic Forces and Displacements
Harmonic Forces
Either the Harmonic Forces or the Displacements must be entered in addition to the Excitation Frequency
Data. Click the Harmonic Forces button to bring up a window like that shown below. Click the + button
on the toolbar to add a harmonic force.
Force
Amplitude of the harmonic force. The form of the harmonic forcing function is: F(t) = A*cosine( eto),
where “F(t)” is the force as a function of time. “A” is the maximum amplitude of the dynamic force. “e”
is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and “p” is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the
force in the units shown. These units are taken from the current set which resides on the file UNITS.FIL.
Direction
Enter the line of action of the force as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The
format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i.e (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx, vy,
vz), i.e. (1,0,1).
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Phase
Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic loading can start with its maximum load at time equal to
zero, or the harmonic load can start with its maximum at any time between zero and t=2*pi/w seconds.
The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the dynamic load waveform. The phase
angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equation: p(degrees) = 180tw/pi, where t is given in
seconds and w is given in radians per second. Most frequently the phase angle is entered as either zero or
90. The phase specification is most useful when defining eccentric loads on rotating equipment. Some of
the examples that follow discuss common applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a
required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0 must be entered !
Start Node
The node where the force is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a Stop Node and Increment,
then this node must exist in the piping system. If entered with a Stop Node and Increment, then the range
of nodes identified by the loop must include at least one node in the piping system.
Stop Node
Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force loading command. This entry is optional.
Increment
Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force loading command. This entry is optional.
EXAMPLES
It is assumed that a pressure pulse traveling in the line between nodes 95 and 100 causes the line to shake
at about 2 hertz. The magnitude of the pressure loading (See the examples for calculating forces from
pressures) is estimated to be about 460 lb. The pressure wave travels from 95 to 100. The harmonic force
to model this load is shown as follows. Note that the magnitude is divided by 2 because the total variation
in the dynamic load is a function of the cosine, which varies from 1 to 1. To find the true response
magnitudes from a positive only harmonic load pulse, a static solution with 460/2 lb. acting in the plus X
direction would have to be superimposed on the static 460/2 lb. solution to provide the constant shifting of
the load axis (i.e. as defined in the following example, there will exist a negative load at node 95 due to
the negative sign on the cosine). The pressure pulse will always be positive and so a negative load will
never exist. The superposition of the 460/2 static solution makes sure that the dynamic load (and probably
the resulting displacements) are always positive.
460 LB PRESSURE LOAD AT 2 HERTZ 460/2 X 0.0 95
A pump is shaking in the XY plane. The pump axis is along the global Z axis. The magnitude of the
dynamic load is computed to be 750 lb. from the manufacturers provided masses and eccentricities. Apply
this rotating equipment loading on the inline pump at node 350. The X and Y loads are 90 degrees out of
phase with one another. When the X load is at its maximum the Y load is zero, and when the Y load is at
its maximum the X load is zero.
ESTIMATED ECCENTRIC LOAD ON INLINE PUMP DOHV33203001
750 X 0.0 350
750 Y 90.0 350
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 13
Harmonic Displacements
Displacement
Amplitude of the harmonic displacement. The form of the harmonic displacement function is:
D(t)=(A)*cosine(eto), where “D(t)” is the displacement as a function of time, A is the maximum
amplitude of the dynamic displacement. “e” is the frequency of the excitation (in radians per second), and
“o” is the phase angle (in radians). Enter the displacements in the units shown.
Direction
Enter the line of action of the displacement as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors.
The format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), i.e (0.707,0.0,0.707). The format for direction vectors is (vx,
vy, vz), i.e. (1,0,1).
14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Phase
Enter the phase angle in degrees. The harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacement at
time equal to zero, or the harmonic displacements can start with its maximum displacements at any time
between zero and t + 2 t/eseconds. The phase angle is the method used to specify this time shift in the
dynamic load waveform. The phase angle can be calculated from the time shift using the equation:
o (degrees) = 180te/t, where t is given in seconds and e is given in radians per second. Most frequently
the phase angle is entered as either zero or 90. The phase specification is most useful when defining
eccentric displacements on rotating equipment. Some of the examples that follow discuss common
applications of the phase angle input. The phase angle is a required input. If the phase angle is zero, then 0.0
must be entered!
Start Node
Node where the dynamic displacement is defined. If the node is a supported node, then the dynamic
displacement will be assumed to act at the support point. If the node is not supported, then the dynamic
displacement will be assumed to describe the exact motion of the pipe at that point. This differentiation
only becomes important when the node is supported by a flexible restraint. For example, node 55 is
supported in the Y direction by a restraint having a stiffness of 5000 lb./in. A harmonic displacement is
also specified at node 55, in the Y direction. In this case, the harmonic displacement does not describe the
displacement that is attached to 55!
Harmonic Displacements at Compressor Flange
0.008 Y 0.0 330
0.003 Z 0.0 330
If the Start Node is entered without a Stop Node and Increment, then this node must exist in the piping
system. If the Start Node is entered with a Stop Node and Increment, then this range of nodes must include
at least one node in the piping system.
Stop Node
Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force displacement loading. This entry is optional.
Increment
Used as a part of a “range of nodes” force displacement loading. This entry is optional.
EXAMPLES
A large ethylene compressor shakes the node exiting the compressor flange in the Y direction a field
measured 8 mils, and in the Z direction an amount equal to 3 mils. Define these dynamic
displacements. The displacements are assumed to be simultaneous, with no phase shift. This is
because the load causing the displacements is believed to be the compressor plunger moving in the X,
or axial direction. (The displacements are skewed because the piping configuration entering the
compressor is itself skewed.)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 15
Applying estimated eccentric forces to the pump described in the harmonic force example did not
produce the displacements witnessed in the field. Field personnel have measured the dynamic
displacements in the vertical (Y) and transverse (Z) directions at the pump piping connections. The
centerline of the pump, at the intersection of the horizontal suction and vertical discharge is node 15.
The magnitude of the Z displacement was measured to be 12 mil. The magnitude of the Y
displacement was measured to be 3 mils. It is assumed that the vibration is due to the rotation of the
pump shaft, and so the Z and Y loads will be taken to be 90 degrees out of phase.
HARMONIC DISPLACEMENTS MODELING PUMP VIBRATION ON THE INLINE PUMP
DOHV33203001. MODELLING THE PUMPS
DYNAMIC LOAD WITH FORCES DID NOT RESULT IN THE
DISPLACEMENTS WITNESSED BY FIELD PERSONNEL. NOW TRY
IMPOSING THE DISPLACEMENTS AND SEE WHAT THE RESULTING
FORCES ARE. ALSO CHECK TO SEE IF THE ATTACHED PIPING
MOVES AROUND AS EXPECTED.
Z MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD  ZERO PHASE SHIFT
0.012 Z 0.0 15
Y MAGNITUDE OF THE LOAD  90 DEG. PHASE SHIFT
0.003 Y 90.0 15
16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Response Spectra / Time History Load Profiles
Spectrum Definitions
Name
Can be any 24character identifier. This name is associated with a particular spectrum or load profile. The
complete definition of a shock includes its name, range type, ordinate type, range interpolation method,
ordinate interpolation method, and the shock data point table. Everything but the shock data point table
can be entered here. There are 14 predefined spectra for which no extra definitions are required and they
are:
El Centro
For the El Centro California NS component taken from Biggs, “Introduction to Structural Dynamics,”
and applies for systems with 510 percent critical damping.
REG. GUIDE 1.60
1.60H.5 and 1.60V.5
1.60H2 and 1.60V2
1.60H5 and 1.60V5
1.60H7 and 1.60V7
1.60H1.0 and 1.60V10
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 17
Each of these spectra define respectively the horizontal and vertical components for 0.5, 2, 5, 7, and 10
percent critically damped systems. Associated with each of these spectra is a value for the Maximum
ground acceleration at the site, the ZPA. (Zero Period Acceleration) This value defaults to 0.5 g and can
be changed on the control parameter spreadsheet.
Uniform Building Code
UBCSOIL1
UBCSOIL2
UBCSOIL3
These spectra represent the normalized (horizontal) response spectra for three soil types provided in
Figure 233 of the Uniform Building Code, (1991 Edition).
Note The spectrum name (or load profile) can be preceded by a (#) sign. The (#) sign instructs
CAESAR II to read the spectrum table from a file having the same name as the spectrum with no extension.
Entering the spectrum table in an ASCII file allows several jobs to access the same spectrum table data
without the user having to retype it for each job. If data is to be read directly from within the Dynamic
Output then click the Data Points button and enter the appropriate Range and Ordinate values.
Range Type
This entry defines the table “range”, or horizontal axis, and can be either “Period”, “Frequency”, or
"Time". If the range type is Period then the spectrum table data must be entered in seconds. If the range
type is Frequency then the spectrum table data must be entered in Hertz, (cycles per second). Time may be
used for Time History load profiles only, and must be entered in milliseconds (ms).
Ordinate Type
This entry defines the spectrum table “ordinate”, or vertical axis, and can be either Acceleration, Velocity,
Displacement or Force (multiplier). Any part of the word for the ordinate type can be spelled out, but only
the first letter is required. Note that acceleration units are length per second squared. Users may enter the
spectrum table in g’s by selecting acceleration as the ordinate type and then using a shock scale factor of
386., for length units of inches. For Time History load profiles, the only valid ordinate type is Force
(multiplier).
Range Interpolation
Interpolation between range values may be done logarithmically or linearly (valid input is LOG or LIN).
See the examples shown for additional discussion.
18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Ordinate Interpolation
Interpolation between ordinate values may be done logarithmically or linearly (valid input is LOG or
LIN). See the examples shown for additional discussion.
One job may have any number of different spectrum types and definitions.
Special FORCE spectrum data files are created by the DLF Spectrum generator. See the documentation
covering this item later in this chapter.
When a new job is started up the 14 predefined spectra are already included in the spectrum definition list.
Any combination of these predefined spectra may be used as is, deleted or used with any other user
defined spectra.
ASCII files that contain spectrum table data can contain comment lines starting with an asterisk just like
regular terminal entered data lines. The user is encouraged to include the basic spectrum data definitions
in the comments for each ASCII spectrum file. See the example that follows.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 19
EXAMPLE
The job requires that the El Centro shock be applied in the X and Z directions using a factor of 1.0, and in
the Y direction using a factor of 0.667.
There is no spectrum definition required for this shock. El Centro is a predefined spectrum. All of its shock
data resides in the CAESAR II shock database.
The job requires the use of the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 shock loads. At a maximum acceleration
value of 0.25 g’s, analysis is to be performed using 1.0 times the horizontal and vertical components of the
shock as specified in Reg. Guide 1.60.
There is no spectrum definition required for either of these two shock loads. The Reg. Guide 1.60 shock
spectra are predefined. The user must only specify the maximum acceleration (ZPA) of 0.25 g’s on the
control parameter spreadsheet, and must use the reg. guide spectra which corresponds to the anticipated
system damping. Lower damping values mean more conservative results.
The job requires a shock spectrum that is given by the client and developed for the site. A plot of the
spectrum appears as follows. The horizontal axis is period and the vertical axis is acceleration. From the
variation of the numbers along each axis it can be seen that a logarithmic interpolation for each axis
should be used. Because the shock name is NOT preceded by a (#) sign the user will have to enter the points
for this spectrum during this interactive input session.
BENCHNO4 PERIOD ACCELERATION LOG LOG
All jobs on a particular project require the use of the spectrum table shown as follows. Since we only want
to type the spectrum’s data points in one time, the points will be entered into a file named “BENCH1”.
The ASCII file BENCH1 can be created using any standard editor or the CAESAR II text editor. The
listing of the ASCII file for BENCH1 is shown following the plot of the spectrum.
The spectrum definition input for pointing to this file is:
#BENCH1 PERIOD ACCEL LOG LOG
Listing of ASCII file “BENCH1”:
SPECTRUM FOR NUCLEAR BENCHMARK NO.1. THIS SPECTRUM IS
TO BE USED FOR ALL LINES ON PROJECT 1130023A03.
FILENAME = “BENCH1”
RANGE TYPE = PERIOD (SECONDS)
ORDINATE TYPE = ACCELERATION (IN./SEC./SEC.)
INTERPOLATION FOR BOTH AXES = LOGARITHMIC.
FILE PREPARED BY M.NASH JANUARY 15, 1987
PERIOD(SEC)ACCELERATION(IN/SEC/SEC)
0.1698E02 0.1450E
+03
0.2800E01 0.3800E
+03
20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
0.5800E01 0.7750E
+03
0.7100E01 0.7750E
+03
0.9100E01 0.4400E+03
0.1140E
+00
0.1188E
+04
0.1410E
+00
0.1188E
+04
0.1720E
+00
0.7000E+03
0.2000E
+00
0.8710E
+03
0.2500E
+00
0.8710E
+03
0.3230E+00 0.4000E
+03
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 21
Response Spectrum / Time History Profile Data Point Input
Data points for userdefined spectra may be entered through the menu option Tools /Spectrum Data
Points.
Range
Spectrum table range value. There should be at least one rangeordinate pair for each spectrum.
Ordinate
Spectrum table ordinate value. There should be at least one range ordinate pair for each spectrum.
Values may be entered in exponential format (i.e. 0.3003E+03, or 0.3423E03, or 0.3003E3,...), or can
have explicit multiplication or division (i.e. 4032.3/386, or 1.0323*12). Sufficient data points should be
entered to fully describe the spectrum or load profile.
There can be any number of line entries in the spectrum data. Data may also be read from a file using the
Read From File button.
22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Force Response Spectrum Definitions
The CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator takes the time waveform of some excitation and converts it into
a frequency domain dynamic load factor (DLF) curve. The frequency domain dynamic load factor curve is
written to a hard disk file and can be read directly by CAESAR II as a “FORCE” response spectrum curve.
Input for the Pulse Table Generator is shown as follows.
DLF/Spectrum Table Generator
Force Spectrum Name
The force spectrum generator creates an ASCII file containing the force spectrum that corresponds to the
input time history waveform.
Maximum Table Frequency
Enter the maximum frequency that should exist in the CAESAR II generated spectrum table. This value
seldom needs to be greater than 100 HZ. If piping frequencies greater than 100 Hz are found in the system
and included in the spectrum analysis, then the spectrum value at 100 Hz would be used. The user can
decide which frequencies are important, and therefore how high the frequency must go, by looking at the
solution participation factors and the animated mode shapes. Typically only the lower frequencies
contribute to the system displacements, forces and stresses.
Number of Points in the Table
This is the number of points CAESAR II will generate for the spectrum table. Usually 15 to 20 points are
sufficient. These points are distributed in a cubic relationship starting from zero hertz.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 23
Create Table
When the Create Table button is clicked, a dialog box will appear with the input table as displayed
below. Enter the Time / Force data and click the OK button to create the DLF curve on the hard drive.
Input Table Dialog
Time
Enter the points that describe the time waveform to be modeled. Units for this table are milliseconds.
(1000 milliseconds equals one second.)
Force
Enter the forces that correspond to the points on the force/time curve. Units are as shown. Note that the
absolute magnitude of the force is not important, only the form of the time history loading is important.
The actual maximum value of the dynamic load is taken from the force pattern defined in:
SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SETS.
There can be any number of line entries in the Excitation frequency data.
24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Building Spectrum / Time History Load Cases
Time History Load Cases
Spectrum /Time History Profile
Enter the name of the shock that was defined during the Time History Definitions phase of the input. This
may be any type of spectra, user defined, predefined, or read from a file. (DO NOT PRECEDE THE
SPECTRUM NAME WITH A # HERE, EVEN IF THE SPECTRUM TABLE WAS READ FROM AN
ASCII DATA FILE!) Any number of shocks can be listed here. Individual contributions can be of any
shock type or definition.
Factor
Constant by which to multiply the shock table. Usually 1.0, or if the spectrum table data points were read
in units of g’s, to convert to in/sec/sec then this factor would be 386. There are several examples that
follow which illustrate various applications of this value.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 25
Direction
Defines the direction of application of the shock. To define an earthquake type of loading, CAESAR II must
know what the earthquake shock “looks like,” which comes from the shock spectrum table. CAESAR II
must also know in which direction this shock acts. Typically a shock load case will be comprised of three
shock components. One acts in the X direction, one in the Z, and one in the Y. The combination of each of
these three “shocks” defines the earthquakes dynamic loading of the piping system.
Skewed directions may be entered by giving a direction cosine or direction vector. Skewed shock
contributions are entered when the piping or structural system appears particularly sensitive to a shock
along a skewed line. This most often occurs when a majority of the piping system lies along a 45 degree
line in the horizontal plane. An example shock input for this type of system is shown among the examples
on the following pages.
Any number of shock components can act in the same direction. i.e. there can be two X direction
components. This usually occurs with independent support shock contributions where one X direction
component would apply to one support group and another X direction component would apply to a
different support group. (However, there can be two shock components in the same direction without
having independent support contributions defined. This would just involve defining two shock
contributions in the same direction without start, stop, or increment node entries.)
In the simplest form of force spectrum loading there is only a single shock component in the load case, i.e.
there is only a single line of input on the load case screen. When there are multiple lines of input on the
load case screen, as when the user is analyzing a traveling pressure wave that impacts different elbow
elbow pairs, there can be many components to the shock load case. The combination of responses from
each of these shock loading components can be established in one of two ways. If the Direction field is
the same for each load component, then the Directional Combination method will be used to combine the
responses from each load component. If the Direction field is different for each load component, then the
spatial combination method will be used to combine the responses from each load component. The
difference between Spatial and Directional combination methods is that Directional combinations are
always made before Modal combinations, while Spatial combinations can be made before or after Modal
combinations, (it is user controlled). The default is to perform the Modal combinations before Spatial
combinations. Either Spatial or Directional combinations can be made using the ABS or SRSS method.
Some of the following force spectrum examples illustrate these differences.
Note: Since Time History combinations are all algebraic (inphase), this entry is used as nothing more
than a label during this type of analysis.
Force Set #
If the Spectrum/Load Profile Name describes a Forcetype spectrum (rather than displacement, velocity,
or acceleration), then the fourth entry in the load case screen is the force set number. This force set
number corresponds to the loads entered in the Force Sets option. Examples shown on the following
pages illustrate this application. Note that if a force set # is entered, the last three fields must be left blank!
26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Start Node
Start node, stop node, and increment are only used to define the component of an independent support
shock (ISM). This is a shock component that applies only to a group of support points. For example,
different shock spectrum may have been generated for rack level piping and for ground level piping. In
this case the rack supports would be subject to one shock excitation (influenced by the rack’s response to
the earthquake), and the ground level supports would be subject to a different shock excitation (not
influenced by the rack). In this case, one node range would be used to define the rack support shock
contributions and another would be used to define the ground support shock contributions. The range of
nodes defined by the start node, stop node, and increment must include at least one support point.
Stop Node
Part of the “range of nodes.” If omitted, defaults to the start node. See the examples that follow for
clarification.
Increment
Part of the “range of nodes.” If omitted, defaults to 1. See the examples that follows for clarification.
Anchor Movement (Earthquake Only)
This entry is only used for independent support movements. It is used to specify the absolute displacement
of the restraints included in this shock case. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load
components representing the relative displacement of the individual restraint sets. If omitted, the default is
taken from the lowest frequency entry of the response spectrum:specified displacement,
velocity/frequency, or acceleration/frequency
2
(where frequency is angular frequency).
Directives
A number of directives can be set for each individual load case using the Directives button. These
parameters are optional extensions to global options set for all load cases on the control parameter
spreadsheet. Typically the user will not need to specify any of these options.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 27
Directional Combination Method. Similar directional components will be combined using either the ABS or
the SRSS summation method. If there are two shock components in the X direction, the components from
each shock’s effect on the system will be summed absolutely. Directional combinations are performed
before all other combinations. (There are three types of combinations: DIRECTIONAL, SPATIAL AND
MODAL). The default DIRECTIONAL combination method is ABS.
Modal Combination Method.
Modal (Group) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 “GROUPING” method.
CAESAR II uses the Revision 1, February 1976 issue of the Regulatory Guide 1.92. See the discussion of
the SPATIAL(ABS) directive for a description of the relationship that exits between modal and spatial
response combinations.
Modal (10%) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 “10%” method.
Modal (DSRSS) Modal components will be combined using the Reg. Guide 1.92 “Double Square Root of
the Sum of the Squares” method. Damping is assumed to be equal for all modes and is taken from the
control parameter spreadsheet.
Modal (ABS) Modal components (response quantities) will be combined absolutely. (i.e. the absolute
value of each response quantity will be summed.)
Modal (SRSS) Modal components will be combined using the square root of the sum of the squares
method of combination.
Spatial Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Spatial components will be combined using the ABS
summation method. There are typically three spatial components in a single earthquake type shock load
case. The three usual excitation directions are the X, Y, and Z global axes. (Although there can be any
number of spatial components along any global or skewed axes.)
Spatial or Modal Combination First. Modal before Spatial summations are “Independent.” An Independent
shock is one where the X, Y, Z components are random and temporally independent of one another. (i.e.
time histories for each directional component of the shock are not equal.) Spatial before Modal
summations are “Simultaneous.” A simultaneous shock is one where the X, Y, and Z components are
random, but temporarily the same (i.e. time histories for each directional component of the shock are
equal).
Pseudostatic Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Pseudostatic components for each ISM are added into
the response quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. Pseudostatic
combinations are performed after all spatial and modal combinations. The user can deactivate the
inclusion of pseudostatic component from the control parameter spreadsheet.
Missing Mass Combination Method (ABS or SRSS). Missing mass components for each shock load are
added into the response quantities either absolutely or using the SRSS method of combination. The user
can deactivate the inclusion of missing mass components from the control parameter spreadsheet. Missing
mass components are added in following modal summation.
Stress Type (EXP). Stress type for the load case is set using the stress type drop list. If FATigue is selected,
the expected number of load cycles must be entered. The user can change the default stress type dynamic
loads to any of the allowed stress types in CAESAR II. Available stress types are EXP, SUS, OCC, OPE,
and FAT. The OCC or occasional stress type is the default.
28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The entry of node groups causes a pseudostatic component of the shock to be created. This
pseudostatic contribution can be added or omitted from the final shock loading effects. Additional
parameters can be entered on the control parameter spreadsheet.
The order of input of the shock contributions is not important, and has no bearing on the results.
There is no limit to the number of shock load cases the user can define. The dynamic output processor
lets the user decide which of the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases he wants to process.
Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the
spectrum data.
EXAMPLES
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of one times the El Centro
earthquake in the X direction, one times the El Centro earthquake in the Z, and 0.667 times the El Centro
earthquake in the Y direction.
ELCENTRO 1 X
ELCENTRO 1 Z
ELCENTRO 0.667 Y
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with the horizontal and vertical components of the
Reg. Guide 1.60 shock spectra for a 2 percent critically damped system. The maximum ground
acceleration should be 0.22 g’s.
The maximum ground acceleration is set on the control parameter spreadsheet and has no effect on the
shock load case definitions.
1.60H2 1 X
1.60H2 1 Z
1.60V2 1 Y
Define a shock load case that is comprised of the users shocks BENCH1 and BENCH2. BENCH1 should
act in the X and Z directions, and shock BENCH2 should act in the Y direction. The scale factor for all
shocks is 1.0.
BENCH1 1 X
BENCH2 1 Y
BENCH1 1 Z
One of the shock load cases for this particular job should excite the piping system along a line that is 45
degrees off of the global axes in the horizontal plane. It is suspected that this direction of excitation will
yield the worst possible results. Apply the user defined shock BENCH1 in the horizontal direction and
BENCH2 in the vertical direction.
BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)
BENCH1 1 (1,0,1)
BENCH2 1 Y
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 29
Define a shock load case that excites the piping system with a vibration of two times the El Centro
earthquake in the X, Y, and Z directions. There should be two shock load cases in this job. The first should
use an independent summation and the second a simultaneous.
The load cases would be defined as shown. (There are several ways to accomplish the same objective here
using parameters on the control parameter spreadsheet, etc. Only the method using the explicit definition
of the load case combination method will be presented.) Remember that independent summation means
MODAL then SPATIAL, and simultaneous means SPATIAL then MODAL.
LOAD CASE 1 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS  CAESAR II’s title
MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL COMBINATIONS FIRST
ELCENTRO 2 X
ELCENTRO 2 Y
ELCENTRO 2 Z
LOAD CASE 2 SHOCK CONTRIBUTIONS  CAESAR II’s title
SPATIAL(SRSS), MODAL(GROUP), SPATIAL COMBINATIONS FIRST
ELCENTRO 2 X
ELCENTRO 2 Y
ELCENTRO 2 Z
Define a shock case that has the user defined spectrum “1DIR” acting in the Z direction only. Set the
stress type for the case to be operating and use modal summations before spatial summations. Note that
there is no mention of modal or spatial summations in the load data shown as follows (only the stress
type). This is because “modal summation first” is the CAESAR II default and would have to be changed on
the control parameter spreadsheet for it not to still apply.
1DIR 1 Z
STRESSTYPE(OPE)
The support nodes 5, 25, 35, 45, and 56 are pipe shoes sitting on concrete foundations. The support nodes
140, 145, 157, 160, and 180 are second level rack supports, i.e. pipe shoes sitting on structural steel beams
in the second level of the rack. The ground level shock spectrum name is “GROUND04”, and the second
level rack spectrum name is “RACKLEVEL204”. Set up the shock load case to define these independent
support excitations. Note that an option exists on the control parameter spreadsheet to neglect the
pseudostatic component of the Independent Support Excitation. Assume that this option is activated. The
default is to include the pseudostatic component in an absolute (ABS) summation method.
GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION
GROUND04 1.0 X 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Y 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Z 5,56,1
30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 X 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Y 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Z 140,180,1
Set up a shock load case, and define all combinations options explicitly. Use the same shock components
as defined in the above example, except assume that the pseudostatic component is to be added using the
SRSS combination method. Also change the modal summation method is SRSS. (This is the
recommended method.) Note that when the modal summation method is SRSS it doesn't matter whether
modal or spatial combinations are performed first. The order is only a factor when closely spaced modes
are considered as in the grouping, ten percent, and DSRSS methods.
MODAL(SRSS),PSEUDOSTATIC(SRSS),SPATIAL(SRSS)
GROUND LEVEL EXCITATION
GROUND04 1.0 X 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Y 5,56,1
GROUND04 1.0 Z 5,56,1
RACK LEVEL 2 EXCITATION
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 X 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Y 140,180,1
RACKLEVEL204 1.0 Y 140,180,1
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 31
The last elbow in the relief valve piping is at node 295. The spectrum name: “BLAST” contains the DLF
response spectrum for this relief valve’s firing. SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY FORCE SET #1 contains
the load information and its point of application. Show the load case input that would provide the most
conservative combination of modal results. (Because there is only a single loading there is no
consideration given to spatial or directional combinations.)
Shock Name, Factor, Direction, Force Set #
ABSOLUTE MODAL SUMMATION, ONLY A SINGLE LOADING
COMPONENT AND SO NO CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO SPATIAL OR
DIRECTIONAL COMBINATIONS.
BLAST, 1, X, 1
MODAL (ABS)
Use the same example above and combine the modes using the grouping method. This will produce the
most realistic solution.
BLAST, 1, X, 1
MODAL (GROUP)
There are two elbowelbow pairs that are of significance in this job. Waterhammer loads act on the elbow
at 40 in the X direction and on the elbow at 135 in the Ydirection. In the SPECTRUM/TIME HISTORY
FORCE SET input, force set #1 is defined as the load at 40 and force set #2 is defined as the load at 135.
Add the response quantities from each load component first, using an ABS summation, and then the
resulting modal response quantities second, using the grouping summation method. Two identical methods
for achieving the same results are shown.
Shock Name, Factor, Direction, Force set #
 BECAUSE THE “DIRECTION” INPUT IS THE SAME, I.E. “X”, FOR BOTH,
 LOAD CONTRIBUTIONS, THE DIRECTIONAL COMBINATION METHOD
 WILL GOVERN HOW THE HAMMER 40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES
 ARE COMBINED.
HAMMER40, 1, X, 1
HAMMER135, 1, X, 2
DIRECTIONAL (ABS), MODAL(GROUP)
<or>
 BECAUSE THE “DIRECTION” INPUT IS DIFFERENT, I.E. “X” AND “Y,”
 THE SPATIAL COMBINATION METHOD WILL GOVERN HOW THE
 HAMMER40 AND HAMMER135 RESPONSES ARE COMBINED. NOTE THAT
32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
 ON THE DIRECTIVE LINE THE “SPATIAL” DIRECTIVE COMES BEFORE
 THE “MODAL” DIRECTIVE.
HAMMER40, 1, X, 1
HAMMER135, 1, Y, 2
SPATIAL(ABS), MODAL(GROUP)
Combining Static and Dynamic Results
Static/Dynamic Combinations
Load Case
Defines the static or dynamic load case that is to be a part of this combination case. The load case label
must always start with an S or a D for Static and Dynamic, and must be immediately followed by a load
case number. Valid entries are: S1, STATIC1, S3, STATIC3, D1, DYNAMICS1, S#1, D#1, ...etc... The
user can use any length up to 24 characters to define the load case label so long as the name starts in an S
or a D, and ends in a valid load case number. For static load case definitions, the static case must exist and
have already been run (also, the S can’t refer to a spring hanger design case). For dynamic load case
definitions, the dynamic load case number refers to the shock load case. Several examples are given as
follows.
Factor
This entry is required and multiplies the response quantities from the respective static or dynamic run.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 33
<Directive Data>
The Stress Type drop list or the Directive button may be used to set optional extensions to global options
set for all load cases on the control parameter spreadsheet. Typically the user will not need to specify any
of these options. Some of the examples included on the following pages illustrate cases where these
directives provide extra desired flexibility.
STRESSTYPE (EXP)
STRESSTYPE (SUS)
STRESSTYPE (OPE)
STRESSTYPE (OCC)
STRESSTYPE (FAT)
The user can change the default stress type for the combination case to any of the four shown here. The
default stress type is OCC  occasional.
COMBINATION (SRSS)
COMBINATION (ABS)
Defines how the load cases listed are to be combined. The ABS method takes the absolute value of all
displacement, force, and stress data for each load case and adds them together. The SRSS method sums
the square of all displacement, force, and stress data for each load case and then takes the square root of
the result.
Any number of separate static and dynamic cases can exist in the combination load case list provided
each reference to a static or dynamic case is on a separate line.
The order of input of the load case definitions is not important, and has no bearing on the results.
Any number of user comment lines may be included.
Static cases alone can be combined without dynamic cases.
Dynamic cases alone can be combined without static cases.
EXAMPLES:
The static cases run in the job were:
1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)
2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
3 = L1  L2 (EXP)
The dynamic cases run in the job were:
1 = Operating Basis Earthquake
2 = 1/2 the Operating Basis Earthquake
The user must combine the Operating Basis Earthquake Stresses with the Sustained static stresses. The
specification for this combination case is:
STATIC2 1.0
DYNAMIC1 1.0
34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
<or>
S2 1
D1 1
The static cases run in the job were:
1 = W + P1 + F1 (For hanger design)
2 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 (For hanger design)
3 = W + P1 + D1 + T1 + F1 (OPE)
4 = W + P1 + F1 (SUS)
5 = L3  L4 (EXP)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 35
There was one dynamic load case. The user is required to turn an occasional case that is the sum of the
sustained and the dynamic stresses using the SRSS combination method and the ABS combination
method. Additionally, the user must combine the expansion static case and the dynamic case using the
SRSS combination method. This is a total of three combination load cases. Note that since the job had
hanger design the first two static load cases cannot be used in a combination case. The input for each case
is shown as follows:
COMBINATION CASE 1:
* SRSS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)
STATIC4 1
DYNAMIC1 1
COMBINATION CASE 2:
* ABS COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(ABS)
STATIC4 1
DYNAMIC1 1
COMBINATION CASE 3:
* SRSS COMBINATION OF EXPANSION AND DYNAMIC CASES
STRESSTYPE(OCC), COMBINATION(SRSS)
STATIC5 1
DYNAMIC1 1
The static cases run in the job were:
1 = W+T1+P+D1+F1 (OPE)
2 = W+P+F1
3 = U1 (OCC) ... Static seismic simulation
4 = L1L2
5 = ST2+ST3
36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The user is instructed to perform an SRSS combination of the static seismic case and both the sustained
and operating static cases. The combination case lists for these two cases would appear:
COMBINATION CASE 1:
COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC)
STATIC2 1
STATIC3 1
COMBINATION CASES 2:
COMBINATION(SRSS), STRESSTYPE(OCC)
STATIC1 1
STATIC3 1
The following static load cases were run:
1 = W+P1+F1 (Hanger design restrained weight case)
2 = W+T1+F1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #1)
3 = W+T2+F1+P1+D1 (Hanger design load case #2)
4 = WNC+P1+F1 (Hanger design actual cold loads)
5 = W+T1+F1+P1+D1 (OPE)
6 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
7 = L5L6 (EXP)
Spectrum/Time History Load Cases 1 through 6 were defined by the client. The static sustained stresses
are to be combined with 1/2 the shock case 1 results, 1/2 the shock case 2 results, and 1.333 times the
shock case 3 results. The combination method is to be SRSS. A second combination case is to combine
1/2 the shock case 4 results, 1/2 the shock case 5 results, and 1.333 times the shock case 6 results. These
two combination load cases would be defined as shown as follows:
COMBINATION CASE 1:
COMBINATION(SRSS)
STATIC6 1
DYNAMIC1 1/2
DYNAMIC2 1/2
DYNAMIC3 1.333
<or>
COMB(SRSS)
S6 1
D1 0.5
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 37
D2 0.5
D3 1.333
COMBINATION CASE 2:
COMBINATION (SRSS)
STATIC6 1
DYNAMIC4 0.5
DYNAMIC5 0.5
DYNAMIC6 1.333
38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Spectrum Time History
Force
Maximum value of the dynamic load applied at this point. Units are as shown. Note that the total applied
force will be the product of this value, the selected force value from the spectrum or load profile, and the
factor entered for the load case.
Direction
Direction of the dynamic load. Can be entered as X, Y, or Z or direction cosines or direction vectors.
Direction cosines are entered in the form (cx,cy,cz), i.e. (0.707, 0, 0.707). Direction vectors are entered in
the form: (vx, vy, vz), i.e. (1,0,1).
Node
Node number where the force acts.
Force Set #
Number to uniquely identify this particular force load pattern. See the examples that follow for
clarification. This value defaults to 1.
The general procedure for applying a force spectrum load is as follows:
1 Determine the pulse time history that acts at a single node or over a group of nodes. Only the pulse
waveform must be the same for all nodes in group, the maximum pulse amplitude may vary. For
example, a particular shock load due to ocean current loading acts over the nodes 5, 10, 15, 20, 25,
and 30 on a production piping system, and the magnitude of the dynamic loading is 50 lb. at 5, 100 lb.
at 10, 200 lb. at 15, and so on up to 500 lb. at 30. Also the dynamic load as a function of time at each
point is equal to half of a sine wave with a period of one second. Even though the magnitude of the
dynamic load varies over the nodes from 5 to 30, the pulse waveform does not (The pulse waveform is
the half sine wave, and its shape is the same for each node). Thus the group of nodes from 5 to 30 can
be included in the same force set #, each node having a different dynamic force magnitude.
2 Using the CAESAR II DLF Spectrum Generator build a DLF vs. frequency file for the timepulse
waveform.
3 Using the Spectrum Definitions option, define the DLF vs. frequency file just created as a Force
spectrum data file with linear interpolation along the frequency axis and linear interpolation along the
ordinate axis. (The DLF Spectrum Generator builds a standard shock table file. Until the type of shock
data in the file is described to CAESAR II, the file can’t be used.) Remember to precede the shock name
with a “#” sign when defining it in the Spectrum Definitions so that CAESAR II knows to read the
shock table from the data file.
4 Determine the maximum force magnitude that acts on each node subject to the pulse load.
5 Using the Force Set Editor specify the maximum amplitude of the dynamic load, its direction, and the
nodes it acts on.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 39
6 Build the Spectrum/Time History Load Cases by entering the Force spectrum name (this is the name
that is preceded by the “#” sign, defined in the Spectrum Definitions editor), the table multiplication
factor (usually 1.0), a direction (this is only a label used for output processing and should be
characteristic of the shock, the actual force spectrum loads can act in multiple directions), and the
Force Set #. (The Force Set # refers to the force pattern defined in the Force Spectrum Editor in step 5
above.) It is step 6 that defines the link between the force spectrum and the force loading pattern.
7 Setup any other parameters needed to run the spectrum analysis for this job. Perform error checking,
and once there are no fatal errors, run the job.
40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
For a Time History analysis, the load profile used in step 2 would be entered directly in step 3, with the
rest of the process remaining the same.
Any number of user comment lines may be included. There can be any number of line entries in the Force
spectrum data.
If there are multiple force spectrum components in a single dynamic load case, the user should be
particularly careful with the combination method selected. In this case, the same rules that cover
earthquake shocks and components apply to force spectrum shocks and components.
EXAMPLES:
The nodes 5, 10, and 15 define a cantilever pipe leg that is part of an offshore production platform. The
dynamic load as a function of time is equal to a half sine wave. The waveform is the same for all three
nodes, but the maximum dynamic load on node 5 is 5030 lb., on node 10 is 10,370 lb., and on node 15 is
30,537 lb. Three force sets are to be built for this problem. One is with the dynamic loads acting in the X
direction. One is with the dynamic loads acting in the Z direction, and the third is with the dynamic loads
acting simultaneously in the X an Z directions. The force spectrum input data for this job is as follows:
* X DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING
5030 X 5 1
10370 X 10 1
30537 X 15 1
* Z DIRECTION HALF SINE WAVE/CURRENT LOADING
5030 Z 5 2
10370 Z 10 2
30537 Z 15 2
* X AND Z DIRECTION WAVE/CURRENT LOADING
5030 X 5 3
5030 Z 5 3
10370 X 10 3
10370 Z 10 3
30537 X 15 3
30537 Z 15 3
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 41
A relief valve at node 565 is being investigated for several different reactor decompression conditions.
The maximum load for the first condition is 320 kips in the X direction. This is a ramped time waveform.
The valve opens and closes in 5 milliseconds. The duration for the first decompression condition is 50
milliseconds. The maximum load for the second decompression condition is 150 kips in the X direction.
This also is a ramped time waveform. The valve opens and closes in 5 milliseconds and the duration for
the second decompression condition is 4 seconds. The third decompression condition maximum load is 50
kips, and has the same time waveform as the second condition. (It is this decompression state that is
expected to be the most frequent.)
There must be two shock tables defined, one for the 50 ms duration waveform, and one for the 4 second
duration waveform. Three different maximum force patterns are defined:
* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 1
320000 X 565 1
* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 2
150000 X 565 2
* REACTOR DECOMP CONDITION 3 (MOST FREQUENT)
50000 X 565 3
A startup shock wave passes through a single elbow system. Nodes in the piping model are 5, 10, and 15.
The system is shown as follows:
42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
As the wave starts off between 5 and 10 there is an initial dynamic axial load on the anchor at 5. When the
shock wave hits the elbow at 10, the axial load in the 510 element balances the initial imbalance at node
5, and there becomes an axial imbalance in the 1015 element. This shock load will be modelled as two
completely separate impacts on the piping system The first is the dynamic anchor load at 5. (If 5 is a
flexible anchor then this load may cause dynamic displacements of the piping system and 5 will just be
subject to the dynamic time history pulse due to the shock.) Assume the anchor at 5 is a flexible vessel
nozzle. The second shock load is the unbalanced dynamic pressure load in the 1015 element that exists
until the shock reaches the node 15. Friction in the line resisting movement of the shock wave is
considerable. In the time the wave leaves the anchor at 5 until it encounters the bend at 10 there is a 50%
drop in the pulse strength as shown in the following plot.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 43
This pressure drop was computed using a transient fluid simulator. Between node 10 and node 15 the
pulse strength drops even further as shown as follows.
The Force Spectrum input for this loading is as shown as follows:
* X DIRECTION LOAD ON FLEXIBLE ANCHOR AT 5
5600 X 5 1
* Z DIRECTION LOAD ON ELBOW AT 10
2800 Z 10 2
44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Lumped Masses
Lumped Masses
Mass
Enter the concentrated mass in the units shown, a positive concentrated mass is added to the mass at the
node. A negative concentrated mass is subtracted from the mass at the node and a zero entry deletes all
mass for the node.
Direction
Can be X, Y, Z, or ALL. ALL can be abbreviated “A”. If X, Y, or Z is entered, then the mass is only
added or subtracted for that direction.
Start Node
Node where the mass is to act. This entry is required. If entered without a stop node and increment, then
this node must exist in the piping system. If entered with a stop node and increment then the range of
nodes identified by the loop must include at least one node in the piping system. See the examples that
follow.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 45
Stop Node
Used as part of a “range of nodes” lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. This entry is
optional.
Increment
Used as part of a “range of nodes” lumped mass command. See the examples that follow. This entry is
optional.
There can be any number of line entries in the lumped mass data.
The zero mass capability with the “range of nodes” entry is particularly useful when the user has a part of
the system for which he is not interested in the modes. That part of the system would have been modeled
for its stiffness effect only. One example is structural steel models. It is not uncommon for a user to delete
all of the mass for nodes in the structural steel model. (Steel models are often only entered to include their
stiffness effects and so the omission of their dynamic effects is often not significant.)
EXAMPLES:
450 ALL 40
Note: The node range loop starts from node 12, which is not defined and goes through node 25 in steps
of 1. Some nodes don’t exist in this range but this is not an error as long as at least one node in the range
defined by 12 through 25 by 1, exists in the system.
0.0 ALL 12 25 1
375 A 25 50 5
0.0 X 1 600 1
0.0 Y 1 600 1
46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Snubbers
Snubbers
Stiffness
Enter the stiffness for the snubber in the units shown. If the snubber is rigid enter a value of 1.0E12. The
stiffness of the snubber must be given and must be positive.
Direction
Enter the line of action of the snubber as either X, Y, Z, or as direction cosines or direction vectors. The
format for direction cosines is (cx,cy,cz), and for direction vectors is (vx, vy, vz). See the example that
follows for the entry of some typical skewed snubbers.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 47
Node
Enter the node where the snubber acts. This is a required entry. If the snubber acts between the piping
system and a fixed point in space, then leave the CNode field blank. Connecting Nodes work for snubbers
just like they do for restraints.
CNode
If the snubber acts between one point on the piping system and another point on the piping system, then
enter the node that the snubber connects to.
EXAMPLES:
1 Add rigid snubber at node 150 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 150
2 Add rigid snubbers at nodes 160, 165, and 170 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 160
1E12 Z 165
1E12 Z 170
3 Add a rigid snubber between the structural steel node 1005 and the piping node 405 in the Z direction.
1E12 Z 405 1005
4 Add a 5,000 lb./in. snubber in the X and Y directions at the piping node 500. The X snubber should
connect to the structural steel node 1050 and the Y snubber should connect to the overhead line at
node 743.
HORIZONTAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND STEEL 5000 X 500 1050.
VERTICAL SNUBBER BETWEEN STEAM LINE AND OVER HEAD COOLING WATER
LINE 5000 Y 500 743
48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Dynamic Control Parameters
Control Parameters
The type of analysis chosen by the user in the Dynamic Input Processor determines the active Control
Parameters. CAESAR II will display only this list of active Control Parameters. In addition, the calculation
details can be finetuned using many of the other Control Parameters, maximizing accuracy of results for
most dynamic problems. The impact and use of these parameters, as well as their technical bases, are
described in this section.
The list of the control parameters, along with the Analysis Types for which they are active, is shown in the
following table.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 49
Notes:
Xrequired
1if system has nonlinear restraints or hanger design
2if any restraints have friction
3either "Max. No. of Eigenvalues" or "Frequency Cutoff" required
4if modal combination method is GROUP or 10%
5if modal combination method is DSRSS
6if USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 or Uniform Building Code seismic spectra are used
7if independent support movement (USM) loads are present
8if pseudostatic components are inducted
9if missing mass components are included
10if multiple spectrum loads are applied in the same direction
Analysis Type (Harmonic/Spectrum/Modes/TimeHistory)
The first parameter is used to select from the available dynamic analysis types, which are Harmonic
(direct solution), Response Spectrum (any combination of seismic, anchor movement, and force loadings),
Modal Extraction, Range, and Time History (linear modal). These analysis types are described below:
50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Harmonic Analysis
Generally, the response of a system to a dynamically applied load is expressed through the dynamic
equation of motion:
Where:
M = system mass matrix
= acceleration vector, as a function of time
C = system damping matrix
= velocity vector, as a function of time
K = system stiffness matrix
x(t) = displacement vector, as a function of time
F(t) = applied load vector, as a function of time
Unfortunately, this differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, except in a few specific cases.
Harmonic analysis looks at one of these cases—the set of dynamic problems where the forces or
displacements (i.e., pulsation or vibration) acting on the piping system take sinusoidal forms. Under
harmonic loading, when damping is zero, the dynamic equation of the system can be reduced to
M(t) + K x(t) = F0 cos (et + Q)
Where:
F0 = harmonic load vector
e = angular forcing frequency of harmonic load (radian/sec)
t = time
Q = phase angle (radians)
This differential equation can be solved directly, yielding the nodal displacements at any time (and
therefrom, the system reactions, forces and moments, and stresses).
The equation has a solution of the form
x (t) = A cos (et + Q)
Where:
A = vector of maximum harmonic displacements of system
Since acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time,
(t) = A e
2
cos et
Inserting these equations for displacement and acceleration back into the basic harmonic equation of
motion yields,
M A e
2
cos (et + Q) + K A cos (et + Q) = Fo cos (et + Q)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 51
Dividing both sides of this equation by cos (et + Q),
M A e
2
+ K A = Fo
Reordering this equation,
(K  M e
2
) A = Fo
This is exactly the same form of the equation as is solved for all linear (static) piping problems. The
appealing thing about this is that the solution time for each excitation frequency takes only as long as a
single static solution, and, when there is no phase relationship to the loading, the results give the
maximum dynamic responses directly. Due to the speed of the analysis, and because the solutions are so
directly applicable, it is advisable to make as much use of this capability as possible. Two considerations
must be kept in mind:
When damping is not zero, the harmonic equation can only be solved if the damping matrix can be
defined as the sum of multiples of the mass and stiffness matrix (Rayleigh damping), i.e.:
[C] = a [M] + b [K]
On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is
given as
2 2
Cc
o e  
= +

e
\ .
Where:
e= Undamped natural frequency of mode (rad/sec)
For practical problems, o is extremely small, and so may be ignored. Therefore the definition of  reduces
to
 = 2 Cc/e
CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis; however there are still two
problems. First, for multidegreeoffreedom systems, there is not really a single b, but there must be only
a single b in order to get a solution of the harmonic equation. The second problem is that the modal
frequencies are not known prior to generation of the damping matrix. Therefore the w used in the
calculation of b is the forcing frequency of the load, instead of the natural frequency of a mode. When the
forcing frequency of the load is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives a good estimation of the
true damping.
If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously, and they are not in phase, system response is the
sum of the responses due to the individual loads:
x(t) = S Ai cos (et + Qi)
Where:
Ai = displacement vector of system under load i
Qi = phase angle of load i
52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
In this case, an absolute maximum solution cannot be found. Rather, solutions for each load, and the sum
of these, must be found at various times in the load cycle. These combinations should then be reviewed in
order to determine which one causes the worst load case. Alternatively, CAESAR II can select the
frequency/phase pairs which maximize the system displacement.
Note: Damped harmonics will always cause a phased response.
The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field vibrations resulting from
either fluid pulsation or outofround rotating equipment displacements. The approach typically taken
towards solving this type of problem is described briefly below:
1 A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the field—either in terms of large cyclic vibrations
or high stresses (fatigue failure) being present in an existing piping system, raising questions of
whether this represents a dangerous situation. As many symptoms of the problem (quantifiable
displacements, overstress points, etc.) are identified as possible, for future use in refining the dynamic
model.
2 A model of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as accurately as possible,
since system, as well as load, characteristics affect the magnitude of the developed response.
Particular attention should be paid when modeling the area where the vibration occurs. This might
include accurately representing valve operators, flange pairs, orifice plates and other inline
equipment. It may also be a good idea to add additional nodes in the area of the vibration.
3 The engineer next postulates the cause of the load, and from that, an estimate of the frequency,
magnitude, point, and direction of the load. This is somewhat difficult because the dynamic loads can
come from many sources. Dynamic loads may be due to internal pressure pulses, external vibration,
flow shedding at intersections, two phase flow, etc., but in almost all cases, there is some frequency
content of the excitation that corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system mechanical natural
frequency. If the load is caused by equipment, then the forcing frequency is probably some multiple of
the operating frequency; if the load is due to acoustic flow problems, then the forcing frequency can
be estimated through the use of Strouhal’s equations (from fluid dynamics). Using the best
assumptions available, the user should estimate the magnitudes and points of application of the
dynamic load.
4 The loading is then modeled using harmonic forces or displacements (normally depending upon
whether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration) and several harmonic analyses are done,
sweeping the frequencies through a range centered about the target frequency (in order to account for
uncertainty). The results of each of the analyses are examined for signs of large displacements,
indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, the results of the analysis are compared to
the known symptoms from the field. If they are not similar (or if there is no resonance), this indicates
that the dynamic model is not a good one, so it must be improved, either in terms of a more accurate
system (static) model, a better estimate of the load, or a finer sweep through the frequency range.
Once the model has been refined, this step is repeated until the mathematical model behaves just like
the actual piping system in the field.
5 At this time, there is a good model of the piping system and a good model of the loads (or, more
accurately, a good model of the relationship of the load characteristics to the system characteristics).
The results of this run are evaluated in order to determine whether they indicate a problem. Since
harmonic stresses are cyclic, they should be evaluated against the endurance limit of the piping
material; displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or esthetic guidelines.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 53
6 If the situation is deemed to be a problem, its cause must be identified, where the cause is normally
the excitation of a single mode of vibration. For example, the Dynamic Load Factor for a single
damped mode of vibration, with a harmonic load applied is
2
2 2
1 (2 )
[1 ( ) ] (2 )
c f m
f m c f m
C
DLF
C
+ e e
=
÷ e e + e e
Where:
DLF = dynamic loading factor
Cc = ratio of system damping to “critical damping,”
where “critical damping” =
ef = forcing frequency of applied harmonic load
en = natural frequency of mode of vibration
A modal extraction of the system is done; one (or more) of these modes should have a natural frequency
close to the forcing frequency of the applied load. The guilty mode can be further identified as that one
having a shape very similar to the shape of the total system vibration, since this mode shape has certainly
been dynamically magnified far beyond the other modes (and thus predominates in the final vibrated
shape).
7. Once the guilty mode has been identified, it must be eliminated. This is done most easily by adding a
restraint at a high point (and in the direction thereof) of the mode shape. If this cannot be done, the mode
may also be altered by changing the mass distribution of the system. If no modification of the system is
possible, it may be possible to alter the forcing frequency of the load. If the dynamic load was postulated
to be due to internal acoustics, it is recommended that the pipe not be rerouted at this point, as rerouting
the pipe will change the internal flow conditions (which may resolve or amplify the problem, but in either
case will void CAESAR II’s “good model” of the system). After modifying the system, the harmonic
problem (using the single forcing frequency determined as a “good model”) is then rerun, and the
stresses, displacements, etc. are reevaluated.
8. If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now reanalyzed statically to
determine the effects of any modifications on the static loading cases. (Remember, adding restraint
normally increases expansion stresses, while adding mass increases sustained stresses.)
The user may process output from a harmonic analysis in two ways:
Use of the output processor to review displacement, restraint, force, or stress data either graphically or
in report form.
Animation of the displacement pattern for each of the frequency load cases.
Note: The results of harmonic dynamic loads cannot be combined using the Static/Dynamic
Combination option.
54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Spectrum Analysis
A spectrum analysis represents an attempt to estimate the maximum response developed in a system
during a transient load. The results are a statistical summation of the maximum displacements, forces,
reactions, stresses, etc; the individual responses do not represent an actual physical loading case in that the
maxima may all occur at different times. Spectrum analyses are especially useful when the loading profile
is random, or otherwise not known exactly, such as with seismic loads. CAESAR II provides the ability to
perform two types of spectrum analyses (which may be combined): for seismic and force loadings.
Seismic loadings may be evaluated either uniformly over the entire system, or applied through individual
support groups (with corresponding anchor movements). Force spectra analyses may be used to analyze
impulse loadings, such as those due to relief valve, fluid hammer, or slug flow. These two types are
described in the following paragraphs.
Seismic Spectrum Analysis. Seismic loads cannot be solved through time history analyses, since
earthquakes cause random motion, which may be different for each earthquake, even those occurring at
the same site. To simplify the analytical definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the expected
random waveform of acceleration (or velocity or displacement) vs. time into some simple frequency
content plot. The most predominantly used frequencycontent plot is the response spectrum. A response
spectrum for an earthquake load can be developed by placing a series of single degreeoffreedom
oscillators on a mechanical shake table and feeding a “typical” (typical for a specific site) earthquake time
history through it, measuring the maximum response (displacement, velocity, or acceleration) of each
oscillator.
The expectation is that even though all earthquakes are different, similar ones should produce the same
maximum responses, even though the time at which they occur will differ with each individual
occurrence. (Responses will be based on the maximum ground displacement and acceleration, the
dynamic load factors determined by the ratios of the predominant harmonic frequencies of the earthquake
to the natural frequencies of the oscillators, and system damping.) Response spectra for a number of
damping values can be generated by plotting the maximum response for each oscillator. A plot of a set of
typical response spectra is shown in the following figure.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 55
Seismic response spectra resemble harmonic Dynamic Load Factor curves, since seismic loads evidence
strong harmonic tendencies. As damping value increases, the system response approaches the ground
motion. Seismic spectra usually also show strong evidence of flexible, resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra
may have multiple peaks due to filtering by the building and/or piping system; however multiple peaks are
usually enveloped in order to account for uncertainties in the analysis. Seismic response spectra peaks are
typically spread to account for inaccuracies as well.
The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that a system’s modes of vibration will respond
to the load in the exact same manner as will a single degreeoffreedom oscillator. System response may
be plotted in terms of displacement, velocity, or acceleration, since these terms of the spectra are all
related by the frequency:
d = v / e= a / e
2
Where:
d = displacement from response spectrum at frequency
v = velocity from response spectrum at frequency
e= angular frequency at which response spectrum parameters are taken
a = acceleration from response spectrum at frequency
Response Spectrum analysis proceeds according to the following steps:
1 Modes of vibration are extracted from the system using an Eigensolver algorithm. Each mode has a
characteristic frequency and mode shape.
2 The maximum response of each mode under the applied load is determined from the spectrum value
corresponding to the mode’s natural frequency.
3 The total system response is determined by summing the individual modal responses, using methods
that reflect the time independence of the responses and the portion of system mass allocated to each
mode.
There are four major sources of earthquake spectra available to the CAESAR II user:
Predefined El Centro (available in the CAESAR II database—spectrum name = ELCENTRO): This
data is taken from J. Biggs’ Introduction to Structural Dynamics and is based on the northsouth
component of the May 18, 1940 El Centro California earthquake. The recorded maximum acceleration
was 0.33 g. The spectrum provided here is intended to apply to elastic systems having 5 to 10 percent
critical damping.
Predefined Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 (Available in the CAESAR II database): The predefined
spectrum names are:
1.60H.5 1.60V.5  Horizontal/vertical,0.5% damping
1.60H2 1.60V2  Horizontal/vertical,2.0% damping
1.60H5 1.60V5  Horizontal/vertical,5.0% damping
1.60H7 1.60V7  Horizontal/vertical,7.0% damping
1.60H10 1.60V10  Horizontal/vertical,10.0% damping
56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
These spectra are constructed according to the instructions given in Regulatory Guide 1.60 for seismic
design of nuclear plants. They must also be scaled up or down by the maximum ground acceleration
(ZPA—zero period acceleration), which can be specified in the CAESAR II control parameter spreadsheet.
Predefined Uniform Building Code (Available in the CAESAR II database). The predefined spectrum
names are:
UBCSOIL1 Spectrum for rock and stiff soils
UBCSOIL2 Spectrum for deep cohesionless or stiff clay soils
UBCSOIL3 Spectrum for soft to medium clays and sands
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 57
These spectra represent the normalized response spectra shapes (for three soil types) provided in Figure
233 of the Uniform Building Code (1991 Edition). When used, they must be scaled by the ZPA, which is
the product of Z and I (Where Z is the seismic zone coefficient and I is the earthquake importance factor,
from UBC Tables 23I and 23L, respectively). The ZPA can be specific using the CAESAR II control
parameter spreadsheet.
User defined spectra: User defined spectra may be entered with period or frequency as the range, and
displacement, velocity, or acceleration as the ordinate. These spectra may be read in from a text file or
entered directly into a spectrum table during dynamic input processing.
Independent Support Motion Applications. Earthquake ground motions are caused by the passing of
acoustic shock waves through the earth’s soil. These waves are usually hundreds of feet long. If supports
having foundations in the soil are grouped together within a several hundred foot radius of each other they
will typically see exactly the same excitation from the earthquake. If all of the supports for a particular
piping system are attached directly to ground type supports, each support will be excited by an essentially
identical time waveform. This type of excitation is known as uniform support excitation. Often pipe is
supported from rack, building, or vessel structures as well as from ground type supports. These
intermediate structures serve to, in some cases, filter and in some cases accentuate the effect of the
earthquake. In this situation, the supports attached to the intermediate structure are not exposed to the
same excitation as those that are attached directly to ground foundations. To accurately model these
systems different shocks must be applied to different parts of the piping system. This type of excitation is
known as independent support motion (ISM) excitation. While the different support groups are exposed to
different shocks, there are also relative movements between support groups that don’t exist for uniform
support excitation. The movement of one support group relative to another is termed pseudostatic
displacement, or seismic anchor movements. For uniform support excitation there are spatial and modal
response components available for combination. For independent support excitation there are spatial and
modal response components available for each different support group, plus pseudostatic components of
the earthquake that must be added into the dynamic response as well.
The major difference when running ISM type earthquake loads comes while building the shock load cases.
Whereas in the uniform excitation case the shock acts implicitly over all of the supports in the system, in
the ISM case different shocks act on different groups of supports. The shock load case input form appears:
Shock Name
Factor Dir Start Node Stop Node Incr Anchor Mvmt
Name, Factor, and Direction are all that is entered for uniform support excitations. For ISM type shocks,
the group of nodes over which the shock acts must be specified as well, using the Start Node, Stop Node,
and Increment entries. The Anchor Movement entry is used to explicitly define the seismic displacement
of the restraint set. This displacement is used to calculate the pseudostatic load components. If omitted, the
program defaults to the displacement derived from the response spectrum entry corresponding to the
lowest frequency.
Force Spectrum Analysis. A similar method can be followed for nonrandom loads, such as an impulse
load for which the force vs. time profile is known. A look at the equation for the earthquake problem
explains why the force spectrum solution is very similar to the earthquake solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
g
Mx t Kx t Mx t + =
The term on the right hand side is nothing more than a dynamic force acting on the piping system, i.e. F =
Ma, so the analogous equation to be solved for the force spectrum problem is:
( ) ( ) ( ) Mx t Kx t F t + =
58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Where:
F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve)
Instead of the displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem, a Dynamic
Load Factor spectrum is used for a force spectrum problem. A DLF spectrum gives the ratio of the
maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static displacement. Whereas the earthquake
response spectrum analysis method started with the time history of an earthquake excitation, the force
spectrum analysis method is done in exactly the same way—except that the analysis starts with the force
vs. time profile. Just as for the earthquake, this time history loading can be applied to a shake table of
single degreeoffreedom bodies, with a response spectrum (in this case, DLF vs. natural frequency) being
generated by dividing the maximum oscillator displacements by the static displacements expected under
the same load. An alternate means of generating a response spectrum for an impulse load is to numerically
integrate the dynamic equation of motion for oscillators of various frequencies under the applied load.
This can be done using the Pulse Table/DLF Spectrum Generator available from the CAESAR II Main
Dynamics Menu.
The user may process output from a spectrum analysis in two ways:
Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors,
included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. Dynamic results
also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and shock load responsible for that
contribution.
Animation of the individual mode shapes extracted for the spectrum analysis.
Modal Extraction. A modal extraction performs only an Eigensolution (an eigensolution is also performed
as the initial step of the spectrum or modal time history analyses). The Eigensolution algorithm uses an
iterative method to solve for natural frequencies and mode shapes of a piping or structural system. Each
mode of the piping system is associated with a shape and a frequency, which together define the system’s
tendency to vibrate; the mode shape defining the shape the system would like to take when it vibrates, and
the natural frequency defining the desired speed of the vibration. The eigensolver returns a set of these for
each mode, with the dimensionless mode shape called an eigenvector, and the frequency returned as the
square of the angular frequency ( e
2
), known as the eigenvalue. Given the eigenvalue, the modal
frequency can be expressed in angular frequency (radians per second), cyclic frequency (Hz), or period
(seconds per cycle):
eigenvalue = e
2
(radians squared per second squared)
angular frequency = e(radians per second)
cyclic frequency = e/ 2t (Hz, or cycles per second)
period = 2t / e(seconds per cycle)
The absolute magnitude of a mode shape displacement computed by an eigensolver is unknown, with only
the shape being given (i.e. only the ratios of the displacements at various degrees of freedom are known
for each mode, with these ratios being constant for each mode). One eigenpair can potentially be
calculated for each degree of freedom in the model that contains some nonzero mass (node point) and
some nonrigid stiffness (i.e., is not fully restrained). CAESAR II omits rotational degrees of freedom from
dynamic models in order to simplify the calculation—this is usually acceptable since rotational modes of
vibration usually have very high frequencies, and correspondingly very low mode participation factors.
The user may process output from a modal analysis in two ways:
Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies and mode shapes in report form.
Animation of the individual mode shapes.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 59
Time History
Time history analysis is a more accurate, more computationally intensive analytical method than is
response spectrum analysis, and is best suited to impulse loadings or other transient loadings where the
profile is known. This method of analysis involves the actual solution of the dynamic equation of motion
throughout the duration of the applied load and subsequent system vibration, providing a true simulation
of the system response at all times.
As noted previously, the dynamic equation of motion for a system is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Mx t Cx t Kx t F t + + =
This differential equation cannot be solved explicitly, but may be integrated using numeric techniques by
slicing the duration of the load into many small time steps. Based on an assumption of the behavior of the
system between time slices (i.e., that the change in acceleration between time slices is linear), the system
accelerations, velocities, displacements, and correspondingly, the reactions, internal forces, and stresses
can be calculated at successive time steps.
Since the total response of a system is equivalent to the sum of the responses of its individual modes of
vibration, the above equation can be simplified (assuming the damping matrix C is orthogonal), using the
transformation x = FX, to be expressed in modal coordinates:
1
( ) ( ) g ( ) h ( ) x t C x t x t F t ' + + =
Where:
x(t)
= acceleration vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
C´ = diagonal damping matrix, where entry C´i = ei ci
ei = angular frequency of mode i
ci = ratio of damping to critical damping for mode i
(t) = velocity vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
x(t) = displacement vector (in modal coordinates), as a function of time
O = diagonal stiffness matrix, where entry O i = ei
2
60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
This transformation represents N (where N is the number of modes of vibration extracted) uncoupled
second order differential equations, which can then be integrated and summed (using the inphase,
algebraic summation method) to give the total system response. The CAESAR II program uses the Wilson u
method (an extension of the Newmark method) to integrate the equations of motion, which provides an
unconditionally stable algorithm, regardless of time step size chosen.
Only one dynamic load may be defined for a time history analysis (this dynamic load case may be used in
as many static/dynamic combination load case as necessary). However, the single load case may consist of
multiple force profiles applied to the system simultaneously, or sequentially. Each force vs. time profile is
entered as a spectrum with an ordinate of FORCE (in current units) and a range of TIME (in milliseconds).
The profiles are defined by entering the time and force coordinates of the corner points defining the
profile. (Note that a time can only be entered once, and that times with zero force outside of the defined
profile need not be entered explicitly.)
For example, the profiles shown in the following figure are entered as:
TIME (MS) FORCE TIME (MS) FORCE
0.0 0.0 20.0 1000.0
10.0 300.0 60.0 1000.0
20.0 1000.0 30.0 0.0
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 61
The load profiles must then be linked with force sets (indicating magnitude, direction, and location of the
applied load) in the shock case. The magnitude of the applied load is determined by the product of the
profile force, the force set magnitude, and the scale in the shock case.
Currently only forces, not moments or restraint displacements, may be entered in the time history load
profile. However, moments can be modeled using force couples, and restraint displacements can be
simulated by entering forces equal to the desired displacement times the restraint stiffness in the direction
of the displacement).
The user may process output from a Time History analysis in three ways:
1 Use of the output processor to review the natural frequencies, mode shapes, participation factors,
included mass/force, displacements, restraint loads, forces, or stresses in report form. CAESAR II’s
implementation of time history analysis provides two types of results—one results case containing the
maximum individual components (axial stress, Xdisplacement, MZ reaction, etc.) of the system
response, along with the time at which it occurred, and several (the actual number is determined by
user request) results cases representing the actual system response at specific times. Dynamic results
also show the largest modal contributor, along with the mode and transient load responsible for that
contribution.
2 Animation of the shock displacement for the transient load cases. During animation, the
displacements, forces, moments, stresses, and other data associated with individual elements may be
displayed at every time step and for the dynamic load alone, or for any of the static/dynamic
combinations.
3 Animation of the individual mode shapes included in the time history response.
62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status
(Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History)
Currently all of CAESAR II’s dynamic analyses act only on linear systems, so any nonlinearities must be
linearized prior to analysis. This means that onedirectional restraints will not lift off and reseat, gaps will
not open and close, and friction will not act as a constant effort force. Therefore, for dynamic analyses, all
nonlinear effects must be modeled as linear—for example, a onedirectional restraint must be modeled as
either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a gap must be either open (inactive) or closed (active).
This process is automated when the static load case is selected here—CAESAR II automatically activates
the nonlinear restraints in the system to correspond to their status in the selected load case (the user may
think of this as being the loading condition—for example Operating—of the system at the time at which
the dynamic load occurs). It must be noted that this automated linearization does not always provide an
appropriate dynamic model, and it may be necessary to select other static load cases or even to manually
alter the restraint condition in order to simulate the correct dynamic response.
A static load case must precede the dynamics job whenever one or more of the following situations occur:
There are spring hangers to be designed in the job. The static runs must be made in order to determine
the spring rate to be used in the dynamic model.
There are nonlinear restraints, such as onedirectional restraints, largerotation rods, bilinear
restraints, gaps, etc. in the system. The static analysis must be made in order to determine the active
status of each of the restraints for linearization of the dynamic model.
There are frictional restraints in the job, i.e. any restraints with a nonzero j (mu) value.
The most common arrangement of static loads during typical CAESAR II analyses are shown below:
Example 1—analysis containing no hanger design:
1 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)
2 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
3 = L1L2 (EXP)
In this case, if the operating condition is most likely to exist throughout the duration of the dynamic
transient, the correct entry for this parameter is 1. If the installed condition is more likely to exist during
the transient, the entry for this parameter should be 2. It is extremely unlikely that the expansion case (3)
would be correct here, since it does not represent the system status at any given time, but rather represents
the difference between the first two cases.
Example 2—analysis containing hanger design:
1 = W+P1+F1 (For hanger design)
2 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (For hanger design)
3 = W+P1+D1+T1+F1 (OPE)
4 = W+P1+F1 (SUS)
5 = L3L4 (EXP)
In this case, the correct static load cases to use are those in which the selected spring hangers have been
included; if the operating condition is the correct load case, the entry for this parameter should be 3. For
the installed condition, an entry of 4 is correct.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 63
Stiffness Factor for Friction (0.0  Not Used)
(Active for: Harmonic, Spectrum, Modal, Range, and Time History)
As noted above, all of CAESAR II’s dynamic analyses are currently linear, so nonlinear effects must be
linearized. Modeling of friction in dynamic models presents a special case, since friction actually impacts
the dynamic response in two ways—static friction (prior to breakaway) affects the stiffness of the system,
by providing additional restraint, while kinetic friction (subsequent to breakaway) actually affects the
damping component of dynamic response; due to mathematical constraints, damping is ignored for all
analyses except time history and harmonics (for which it is only considered on a systemwide basis).
CAESAR II allows friction to be taken into account through the use of this Friction Stiffness Factor.
CAESAR II approximates the restraining effect of friction on the pipe by including stiffnesses transverse to
the direction of the restraint at which friction was specified. The stiffness of these “frictional” restraints is
computed as:
Kfriction = (F) (j) (Fact)
Where:
Kfriction = stiffness of frictional restraint inserted by CAESAR II
F = the force at the restraint taken from the static solution
j = mu, friction coefficient at restraint, as defined in the static model
Fact = Friction Factor from the control spreadsheet
This factor should be adjusted as necessary in order to make the dynamic model simulate the system’s
actual dynamic response (note that use of this factor does not correspond to any actual dynamic parameter,
but is actually a “tweak” factor to modify system stiffness). Entering a friction factor greater than zero
causes these friction stiffnesses to be inserted into the dynamics job. Increasing this factor correspondingly
increases the effect of the friction. Entering a friction factor equal to zero ignores any frictional effect in
the dynamics job.
64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Max. No. of Eigenvalues Calculated (0Not used)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
The first stage of the Spectrum, Modal, and Time History analyses, is the use of the Eigensolver algorithm
to extract the piping system’s natural frequencies and mode shapes. For the Spectrum and Time History
analyses, the response under loading is calculated for each of the modes, with the system response being
the sum of the individual modal responses. Obviously, the more modes that are extracted, the more the
sum of those modal responses resembles the actual system response. The problem is that this algorithm
uses an iterative method for finding successive modes, so extraction of a large number of modes usually
requires much more time than does a static solution of the same piping system. The object is to extract
sufficient modes to get a suitable solution, without straining computational resources.
CAESAR II permits the user to specify—either through a mode number cutoff or a frequency cutoff—the
number of modal responses to be included in the system results. This parameter is used, in combination
with the Frequency Cutoff described below, to limit the maximum number of modes of vibration to be
extracted during the dynamic analysis. If this parameter is entered as 0, the number of modes extracted is
limited only by the frequency cutoff (and potentially, the number of degreesoffreedom in the system
model).
If the analyst is more interested in providing an accurate representation of the system displacements, it
may only be necessary to request the extraction of a few modes, allowing a rapid calculation time.
However, if an accurate estimate of the forces, stresses, etc. in the system is the objective, calculation time
grows as it becomes necessary to extract far more modes. This is particularly true in the case when solving
a fluid hammer problem in the presence of axial restraints; often modes with natural frequencies of up to
300 Hz can be large contributors to the solution.
The usual procedure for determining how many modes are sufficient is to extract a certain number of
modes and review the results; then to repeat the analysis while extracting 5 to 10 additional modes, and
comparing the new results to the old. If there is a significant change between the results, a new analysis is
made, again extracting 5 to 10 more modes above those that were extracted for the second analysis. This
iterative process continues until the results taper off, becoming asymptotic.
This procedure has two drawbacks, the first one obvious—the time involved in making the multiple
analyses, as well as the time involved in extracting the potentially large number of modes. The second
drawback, occurring with Spectrum analysis, is less obvious—a degree of conservatism is introduced
when combining the contributions of the higher order modes. Possible spectral mode summation methods
include SRSS, ABSOLUTE, and GROUP—all methods that combine modal results as samesign
(positive) values. In reality, theory states that the rigid modes actually act in phase with each other, and
should therefore be combined algebraically, thus permitting the response of some rigid modes to cancel
the effect of other rigid modes (this is actually what occurs in a time history analysis). Because of this
conservatism, it is actually possible to get results which exceed twice the applied load, despite the fact that
the Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) of an impulse load cannot be greater than 2.0.
An alternative method of ensuring that sufficient modes are considered in the dynamic model is through
the use of the Included Mass Data Report. This report (available from the Dynamic Output Screen) is
compiled for all spectrum and time history shock cases, whether missing mass (see description in the
section Include Missing Mass Components) is to be included or not. It displays the percent of system mass
along each of the three global axes, as well as the percent of total force, which has been captured by the
extracted modes.
The percent of system mass active along each of the three global axes (X, Y, and Z) is calculated by
summing the modal mass (corresponding to the appropriate directional degreeoffreedom) attributed to
the extracted modes and dividing that sum by the sum of the system mass acting in the same direction:
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 65
% Active Massx
[ ]
[ ]
100( )
e
M i
M i
¯
¯
=
summed over i = 1 to n, by 6
(Xdirection degrees of freedom)
%Active MassY
[ ]
[ ]
100( )
e
M i
M i
¯
¯
=
summed over 1 = 2 to n, by 6
(Ydirection degrees of freedom)
%Active Massz
[ ]
[ ]
100( )
e
M i
M i
¯
¯
=
summed over 1 = 3 to n, by 6
(Zdirection degrees of freedom)
Where:
Me = vector (by degreeoffreedom) of sum (over all extracted modes) of effective modal
masses
M = vector corresponding to main diagonal of system mass matrix
The maximum possible percent of active mass which is theoretically possible is of course 100%, with 90
95% usually indicating that a sufficient number of modes have been extracted to provide a good dynamic
model.
The percent of active force is calculated by the following factors:
separately summing the components of the effective force acting along each of the three directional
degreesoffreedom
combining them algebraically
doing the same for the applied load
taking the ratio of the effective load divided by the applied load
For example:
Fe
x
= EFe
[i]
Fx = EF[i]
66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
summed over i = 1 to n, by 6
(X  direction degrees of freedom)
Fe
y
= EFe
[i]
Fy = EF[i]
summed over i = 2 to n, by 6
(Y  direction degrees of freedom)
Fe
z
= EFe
[i]
Fz = EF[i]
summed over i = 3 to n, by 6
(Z  direction degrees of freedom)
% Active Force
2 2 2
2 2 2
[ ]
100*
[ ]
e e e
F x F y F z
Fx Fy Fz
+ +
=
+ +
Where:
FeX,FeY,FeZ = effective force (allocated to extracted modes) acting along the global X, Y,
and Zaxes, respectively
Fr = vector of effective forces (allocated to extracted modes)
FX,FY,FZ = total system forces acting along the global X, Y, and Zaxes, respectively
F = vector of total system forces
The maximum possible percent which is theoretically possible for this value is also 100%; however, in
practice it may be higher, indicating an uneven distribution of the load and mass in the system model.
There is nothing inherently wrong with an analysis where the included force exceeds 100%—if the
missing mass correction is included, the modal loadings will be adjusted to conform to the applied loading
automatically. Often the percent of included force can be brought back under 100% by extracting a few
more modes. At other times, the situation can be remedied by improving the dynamic model through a
finer element mesh, or, more importantly, equalizing the mass point spacing in the vicinity of the load.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 67
Frequency Cutoff (HZ)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
As noted above, CAESAR II permits the user to specify either a number of modes or a frequency cutoff for
extracting modes to be considered in the dynamic analysis. Modal extraction ceases when the Eigensolver
extracts either the number of modes requested, or extracts a mode with a frequency above that of the
Frequency Cutoff, whichever comes first.
One recommendation for selection of a frequency cutoff point is that the user extract modes up to, but not
far beyond, a recognized “rigid” frequency, and then include the missing mass correction (discussed in the
section Include Missing Mass Components). Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the response
spectrum’s resonant peak will provide a nonconservative result, since resonant responses may be missed.
During spectrum analysis, using a cutoff frequency to the right of the peak, but still in the resonant range,
will yield either overly or underlyconservative results, depending upon the method used to extract the
ZPA from the response spectrum. (In the case of time history analysis, selecting a cutoff frequency to the
right of the peak, but still in the resonant range, will probably yield nonconservative results, since the
missing mass force is applied with a dynamic load factor of 1.0). Extracting a large number of rigid modes
for calculation of the dynamic response may be conservative in the case of Spectrum analysis, since all
spectral modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservative results versus the
algebraic combination method (always used during time history analysis), which gives a more realistic
representation of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum shown in the
following figure, an appropriate cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz.
Nonconservative cutoff (Misses amplification of any modes in resonant range)
Conservative cutoff (Multiplies missing mass contribution by excessive DLF—1.6)
Optimal cutoff (Includes all modes in resonant range, uses low DLF—1.05—for missing mass
contribution, minimizes combination of rigid modes)
Conservative Cutoff (Too many rigid modes combined using nonconservative summation methods)
68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
When the analysis type is SPECTRUM, MODES, or TIMEHIST, either this parameter or the previous one
must be entered.
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms)
(Active for: Spectrum/GROUP and Time History)
This parameter does double duty, depending upon the analysis type. For a Spectrum analysis type with
GROUP modal Combination Method (as defined by USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter
specifies the frequency spacing defining each modal group—i.e., the percent (of the base frequency)
between the lowest and highest frequency of the group. Regulatory Guide 1.92 specifies the group spacing
criteria as 10% (entered here as 0.1), so it is unlikely that the user would ever wish to change the Closely
Spaced Mode Criteria from the CAESAR II default value of 0.1. The GROUP modal combination method is
described in detail in the section Modal Combination Method found later in this chapter.
For a Time History analysis type, this parameter is used to enter the length of the time slice, in
milliseconds, to be used by the program during its stepbystep integration of the equations of motion for
each of the extracted modes (CAESAR II uses the unconditionally stable Wilson q integration method, so
any size time step will provide a solution, with a smaller step providing greater accuracy—and more strain
on computational resources). The time step should be sufficiently small that it can accurately map the
force vs. time load profile (i.e., the time step should be smaller than typical force ramp times).
Additionally, the time step must be small enough that the contribution of the higher order modes is not
filtered from the response. For this reason, it is recommended that the time step should be selected such
that Time Step (in seconds) times Maximum Modal Frequency (in Hz) be less than 0.1. For example, if the
modal frequency cutoff is set to 50 Hz, the time step should be set to a maximum of 2 milliseconds:
0.002 sec x 50 Hz = 0.1
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 69
Load Duration (Time History or DSRSS Method) (Sec.)
(Active for: Spectrum/DSRSS and Time History)
This parameter is used to specify the duration of the applied dynamic load. For a Time History analysis,
this parameter is used to specify the total length of time (in seconds) over which the dynamic response is
to be simulated. The load duration, divided by the time step size (see the previous section) gives the total
number of integration steps making up the solution (currently CAESAR II limits the number of time steps to
5000, or as permitted by available memory and system size). It is recommended that, if possible, the
duration be at least equal to the maximum duration of the applied load, plus the period (in seconds) of the
first extracted mode. This allows simulation of the system response throughout the imposition of the
external load, plus one full cycle of the resulting free vibration. After this point, the response will die out,
according to the damping value used. For example, if the applied load is expected to last 150 milliseconds,
and the lowest extracted frequency is 3 hz, the load duration should be set to a minimum of 0.150 plus 1/3,
or 0.483 seconds.
For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by
USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), this parameter is used to specify the duration of the earthquake, in
seconds. This duration is used to compute the modal correlation coefficients based on empirical data. The
DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in the section Modal Combination Method later in
this chapter.
Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (Ratio of Critical)
(Active for: Spectrum/DSRSS, Harmonics, and Time History)
This parameter is used to specify the system damping value, as a ratio of critical damping. Typical values
for piping systems, as recommended in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 and ASME Code Case N411,
range from 0.01 to 0.05, based upon pipe size, earthquake severity, and the system’s natural frequencies.
Generally, damping cannot be considered in the mathematical solutions required for spectrum or harmonic
analysis. It is therefore ignored (or solved as specialized cases) in most analyses, and must be instead
considered through adjustment of the applied loads (generation of the response spectrum) and/or system
stiffness.
For a Time History analysis, damping is used explicitly, since this method uses a numeric solution to
integrate the dynamic equations of motion.
For a Spectrum analysis using the Double Sum (DSRSS) modal Combination Method (as defined by
USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92), the damping value is used in the computation of the modal correlation
coefficients. (Note that CAESAR II does not permit the specification of damping values for individual
modes.) The DSRSS modal combination method is described in detail in the section Modal Combination
Method later in this chapter.
For a Harmonic analysis, this ratio is converted to Rayleigh Damping, where the damping matrix can be
expressed as multiples of the mass and stiffness matrices:
[C] = a [M] + b [K]
70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
On a modal basis, the relationship between the ratio of critical damping Cc and the constants a and b is
given as:
Where:
e= undamped natural frequency of mode (radians/sec)
For many practical problems, a is extremely small, and so may be ignored, reducing the relationships to:
o = 0  = 2 Cc / e
CAESAR II uses this implementation of damping for its harmonic analysis, with the exception that a single
b is calculated for the multidegreeoffreedom system, and the w used is that of the load forcing
frequency. When the forcing frequency is in the vicinity of a modal frequency, this gives an accurate
estimate of the true damping value.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 71
ZPA (Reg. Guide 1.60/UBC G's)/# Time History Output Cases
(Active for: Spectrum/1.60/UBC and Time History)
This parameter does double duty, depending upon the analysis type. When used with certain predefined
normalized response spectra, it is used as the acceleration factor (in g's) by which the spectrum is scaled.
For example, when a spectrum analysis uses one of the predefined spectra names beginning with "1.60"
(i.e., 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7), CAESAR II constructs an earthquake spectrum according to the instructions
given in USAEC (now USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.60. That guide requires that the shape of the response
spectrum be chosen from the curves shown in the following figures, based upon the system damping value
(for example, the .5 or 7 in the spectrum names 1.60H.5 or 1.60V7). If the analysis uses one of the pre
defined spectra names beginning with "UBC" (i.e., UBCSOIL1), CAESAR II uses the normalized seismic
response spectra for the corresponding soil type from Table 233 from the Uniform Building Code (1991
Edition). Both the Reg Guide 1.60 and the UBC curves are normalized to represent a ground acceleration
(ZPA) of lg; the true value is actually site dependent. Therefore, entering ZPA value here appropriately
scales any Regulatory Guide 1.60 or the Uniform Building Code response spectra.
72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
When performing Time History analysis, this parameter is used to specify the number of distinct times at
which the results of the load cases (the dynamic load as well as all static/dynamic combinations) should be
generated. In addition, CAESAR II generates one set of results (for each load case) containing the maximum
of each output value (displacement, force, stress, etc.) along with the time at which it occurred. The times
for which results are generated are determined by dividing as evenly as possible the load duration by the
number of output times—for example, if the load duration is 1 second, and 5 output cases are requested,
results will be available at 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 milliseconds (in addition to the maximum case).
The total number of results cases generated for an analysis is the product of the number of load cases (one
dynamic case plus the number of static/dynamic combination cases) times the number of results cases per
load (one maxima case plus the requested number of output cases). Currently the total number of results
cases is limited to 99:
(1 + # Static/Dynamic Combinations) x (1 + # Output Cases) <= 99
At least one output case (in addition to the automatically generated maxima case) must be requested; more
than one is not really necessary, since the worst case results are reflected in the Maxima case and
individual results at every time step are available through the ELEMENT command when animating the
Time History results.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 73
Reuse Last Eigensolution
(Active for: Spectrum and Time History)
When repeating a dynamic analysis, this parameter may be set to “Yes,” causing CAESAR II to skip the
eigensolution (reusing the results of the earlier analysis), and only perform the computations for
displacements, reactions, forces, and stresses. Activating this option is only valid after an initial
eigensolution has been performed and is still available. Additionally, the mass and stiffness parameters of
the model must be unchanged or the previous eigensolution is invalid.
Spatial or Modal Combination First
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive tells CAESAR II whether to combine the Spatial components or the Modal components of the
load case first.
When performing a spectrum analysis, each of the modal responses must be summed. In addition, if
multiple shocks have been applied to the structure in more than one direction, the results from different
directions must be combined—for example, spatially combining the Xdirection, Ydirection, and Z
direction results. The question arises as to whether the spatial summations should precede or follow the
modal summations. A difference in the final results (of Spatial first vs. Modal first) arises whenever
different methods are used for the spatial and modal combinations.
The combination of Spatial components first implies that the shock loads are dependent, while the
combination of Modal components first implies that the shock loads are independent.
Dependent and Independent refer to the time relationship between the X, Y, and Z components of the
earthquake. With a dependent shock case, the X, Y, and Z components of the earthquake have a direct
relationship—a change in the shock along one direction produces a corresponding change in the other
directions. For example, this would be the case when the earthquake acts along a specific direction having
components in more than one axis—such as when a fault runs at a 30° angle between the X and Zaxes.
In this case, the Zdirection load would be a scaled (by a factor of tan 30°), but otherwise identical version
of the Xdirection load. In this case, spatial combinations should be made first.
An Independent shock is one where the X, Y, and Z time histories produce related frequency spectra but
have completely unrelated time histories. It is the Independent type of earthquake that is far more
common, and thus in most cases the modal components should be combined first.
For example, IEEE 3441975 (IEEE Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E
Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations) states:
“Earthquakes produce random ground motions which are characterized by simultaneous but statistically
INDEPENDENT horizontal and vertical components.”
74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
This is usually less of an issue for force spectrum combinations, since normally there are no separate
spatial components to combine—i.e., there are not X, Y, and Zshocks acting simultaneously. However,
in the event that there is more than one potential force load (such as when there is a bank of relief valves
that can fire individually or in combination), the spatial combination method may be used to indicate the
independence of the loadings. For example, if two relief valves may or may not fire simultaneously (i.e.,
they are independent), the two shocks should be defined as being in different directions (for example, X
and Y), and the combination method selected should be “Modal before Spatial.” If under certain
circumstances, the two valves will definitely open simultaneously (i.e., the loadings are dependent), the
combination method should be “Spatial before Modal”. (Otherwise, the direction defined for a force
spectrum loading has no particular meaning.)
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) describes the requirements for combining
spatial components when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no
effect on Time History results.
Spatial Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This parameter is used to define the method for combining the spatial contributions of the shocks in a
single spectrum load case. This option is only used for spectrum runs with more than a single excitation
direction. Since directional forces are usually combined vectorially, this points to a Square Root of the
Sum of the Squares (SRSS) combination method as being most appropriate. An Absolute method is
provided for additional conservatism.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no
effect on Time History results.
Modal Combination Method (GROUP/10%/DSRSS/ABS/SRSS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
During a spectrum analysis, responses are calculated for each of the individual modes; these individual
responses are then combined to get the total system response. Considering that the response spectrum
yields the maximum response at any time during the course of the applied load, and considering that each
of the modes of vibration will probably have different frequencies, it is probable that the peak responses of
all modes will not occur simultaneously. Therefore an appropriate means of summing the modal responses
must be considered.
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976) defines the requirements for combining
modal responses when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants. The four
options presented there are also available, along with one other, for modal combinations under non
nuclear seismic and force spectrum analyses.
There are five available modal combination methods:
Grouping Method
Ten Percent Method
Double Sum Method
Absolute
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 75
Square Root of the Sum of the Squares
Grouping Method
This method is defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Grouping Method attempts to eliminate
the drawbacks of the Absolute and SRSS methods (see below) by assuming that modes are completely
correlated with any modes with similar (closely spaced) frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with
those modes with widely different frequencies. Therefore, the total system response is calculated as
1/ 2
2
1
1
(where 1 )
N
j P j
q m i lq mq l i
k
R Rk R R m
= = =
=
= + ¯ +¯ +¯ =
¯
Where:
R = total system response of the element
N = number of significant modes considered in the modal response combination
Rk = the peak value of the response of the element due to the kth mode
P = number of groups of closelyspaced modes (where modes are considered to be closelyspaced if
their frequencies are within 10% of that of the base mode in the group), excluding individual
separated modes. No mode can be in more than one group.
i = number of first mode in group q
j = number of last mode in group q
Rlq = response of mode l in group q
Rmq = response of mode m in group q
Effectively, this method dictates that the responses of any modes which have frequencies within 10% of
each other first be added together absolutely, with the results of each of these groups then combined with
the remaining individual modal results using the SRSS method.
Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of a group may be changed by using the Closely Spaced
Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. For more information see the corresponding section
earlier in this chapter.
Ten Percent Method
This method is defined in the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. The Ten Percent Method is similar to the
Grouping method in that it assumes that modes are completely correlated with any modes with similar
(closely spaced) frequencies, and are completely uncorrelated with those modes with widely different
frequencies. The differences between this one and the preceding method is that the Grouping Method
assumes that modes are only correlated with those that fall within the group i.e., are within a 10% band,
while this method assumes that modes are correlated with those that fall within 10% of the subject mode
effectively creating a 20% band  105 up and approximately 10% down. The total system response is
calculated as
1/ 2
2
1
2 (Where i j)
N
i j
k
R Rk R R
=
= + ¯ =
¯
76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Where:
Ri, Rj = the peak value of the response of the element due to the ith and jth mode, respectively, where
mode i and j are any frequencies within 10% of the each other,
Where:
(fi, fj) / fi = frequencies of modes i and j, respectively
Note: The 10% figure controlling the definition of closely spaced frequencies may be changed by using the
Closely Spaced Mode Criteria/Time History Time Step (ms) parameter. (See description in corresponding
section earlier in this chapter).
Double Sum Method (DSRSS)
This method is also defined in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.92. This combination method is the most
technically correct for earthquake loads, in that an attempt is made to estimate the actual intermodal
correlation coefficient based upon empirical data. The total system response is calculated as
Where:
Rs = the peak value of the response of the element due to mode s
eks = intermodal correlation coefficient
= [ 1 + {( ek'  es') /(ßk' ek + ßs' es)}
2
]
1
ek' = ek [ 1  ßk
2
]
1/2
es' = es [ 1  ßs
2
]
1/2
ßk' = ßk + 2 / ( td ek )
ßs' = ßs + 2 / ( td es )
ek = frequency of mode k, rad/sec
es = frequency of mode s, rad/sec
ßk = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode k, dimensionless
ßs = ratio of damping to critical damping of mode s, dimensionless
td = duration of earthquake, sec
Note: The load duration (td) and the damping ratio (ß) may be specified by using the Load Duration (Time
History or DSRSS method) (sec.) and Damping (Time History or DSRSS) (ratio of critical) parameters
described in the corresponding sections found earlier in this chapter.
Absolute Method
This method states that the total system response is equal to the sum of the absolute values of the
individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all correlation
coefficients equal to 1.0, or the Grouping method, with all modes being closely spaced.) The total system
response is calculated as:
1
N
i
i
R R
=
= ¯
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 77
This method gives the most conservative result, since it assumes that the all maximum modal responses
occur at exactly the same time during the course of the applied load. This is usually overlyconservative,
since modes with different natural frequencies will probably experience their maximum DLF at different
times during the load profile.
Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS)
This method states that the total system response is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of
the individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS method with all
correlation coefficients equal to 0.0, or the Grouping method, with none of the modes being closely
spaced.) The total system response is calculated as:
1/ 2
2
1
N
i
i
R R
=
=
¯
This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses are completely independent,
with the maxima following a relatively uniform distribution throughout the duration of the applied load.
This is usually nonconservative, especially if there are any modes with very close frequencies, since those
modes will probably experience their maximum DLF at approximately the same time during the load
profile.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no
effect on Time History results.
Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum/ISM)
This option is only used when Independent Support Motion (anchor movement) components are part of a
shock load case. The excitation of a group of supports produces both a dynamic response and a static
response. The static response is due to the movement of one group of supports or anchors relative to
another group of supports/anchors. These static components of the dynamic shock loads are called
“pseudostatic components.” USNRC recommendations, as of August 1985, suggest that the following
procedure be followed for pseudostatic components:
1 For each support group, the maximum absolute response should be calculated for each input direction.
2 Same direction responses should then be combined using the absolute sum method.
3 Combination of the directional responses should be done using the SRSS method.
4 he total response should be formed by combining the dynamic and pseudostatic responses, using the
SRSS method.
Therefore pseudostatic components should be included whenever Independent Support spectral loadings
are used.
78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Include Missing Mass Components (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum and Time History)
During spectrum (either seismic or force spectrum) or time history analyses, the response of a system
under a dynamic load is determined by superposition of modal results. One of the advantages of this type
of modal analysis is that usually only a limited number of modes are excited and need to be included in the
analysis. The drawback to this method is that although displacements may be obtained with good accuracy
using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require
extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained.
CAESAR II provides a feature, called the “Missing Mass Correction,” which helps solve these problems.
This feature offers the ability to include a correction which represents the contribution of the higher order
modes not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, thus providing greater accuracy without
additional calculation time. When this option is activated (by entering Yes for this parameter), the
program automatically calculates the net (inphase) contribution of all nonextracted modes and combines
it with the modal contributions—avoiding the long calculation time associated with the extraction of the
high order modes and the possible excessive conservatives of the summation methods. This feature is
described in Chapter 6 of this manual.
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Comb. Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive specifies the method by which the pseudostatic responses (see description in the earlier
section Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor
Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page 77)) are to be combined with the dynamic (inertial) responses;
therefore it is applicable only when there is at least one Independent Support Motion excitation component
in a shock load case. Pseudostatic combinations are done after all directional, spatial, and modal
combinations. Absolute combination gives conservative results, but, as noted in the section Include
Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components, the USNRC recommends using the SRSS method for
pseudostatic combinations.
Missing Mass Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive defines the method used to combine the missing mass/force correction components (see
description in an earlier section, Include Missing Mass Components (see "Include Missing Mass
Components (Y/N)" on page 78)) with the modal (dynamic) results. Research suggests that the modal and
rigid portions of the response are statistically independent, so the SRSS combination method (CAESAR II’s
default) is usually most accurate. The Absolute combination method provides a more conservative result,
based upon the assumption that the modal maxima occur simultaneously with the maximum ground
acceleration. Missing mass components are combined following the modal combination.
Note: Even though missing mass components may be included during Time History analyses, all Time
History combinations are done algebraically (inphase), so this parameter has no effect on Time History
results.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 79
Directional Combination Method (SRSS/ABS)
(Active for: Spectrum)
This directive specifies the method used for combining shock components acting in the same direction.
This directive is used most typically with Independent Support Motion load cases, where it defines the
way in which responses from different support groups caused by excitation in the same direction are
combined. Additionally, if there are multiple uniform shock spectra acting in the same direction (although
this is unusual), this directive would govern their combination. In general, directional combinations should
be made using the absolute method. (As noted in the earlier section, Include Pseudostatic (Anchor
Movement) Components (see "Include Pseudostatic (Anchor Movement) Components (Y/N)" on page 77),
this is the USNRC recommendation for directional combination of pseudostatic responses.) However, in
the case of force spectrum loads, if several loads (for example, several relief valve loads) are all defined
with the same “shock direction”, using an SRSS combination method would be a way of modeling these
as independent loads, while using the Absolute method would model them as dependent loads.
Note: Since all Time History combinations are done algebraically (inphase) this parameter has no
effect on Time History results.
Sturm Sequence Check on Computed Eigenvalues (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
In almost all cases, the eigensolver will detect modal frequencies from the lowest frequency to the highest.
Sometimes, when there is some strong directional dependency in the system, the modes may converge in
the wrong order. This could cause a problem if the eigensolver reaches the cutoff number of modes (i.e.,
20), but has not yet found the 20 modes with the lowest frequency (it may have found modes 1 through 18,
20, and 21, and would have found number 19 next). CAESAR II checks for this anomaly using the Sturm
Sequence calculation. This procedure determines the number of modes that should have been found
between the highest and lowest frequencies found, and compares that against the actual number of modes
extracted. If those numbers are different, the user is given a warning. For example, if 22 natural
frequencies are extracted for a particular system, and if the highest natural frequency is 33.5 Hz, the Sturm
Sequence check makes sure that there are exactly 22 natural frequencies in the model between zero and
33.5+p Hz, where p is a numerical tolerance found from:
10
Log [(Highest Eigenvalue)(Number of Significant Figures+1.5)]
10
p=
2n
80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The Sturm Sequence check would fail in the case where there are two identical frequencies at the last
frequency extracted. The significance of this failure can only be estimated by the user. For example,
consider a system with the following natural frequencies:
0.6637 1.2355 1.5988 4.5667 4.5667
If the user asks for only the first four natural frequencies, a Sturm Sequence failure would occur because
there are five frequencies, rather than four, which exist in the range between 0.0 and 4.5667 + p (where p
calculates to 0.0041). To correct this problem, the user can do either of the following:
Increase the frequency cutoff by the number of frequencies not found. (This number is reported by the
Sturm Sequence Check.)
Increase the cutoff frequency some small amount, if the frequency cutoff terminated the
eigensolution. This will usually allow the lost modes to fall into the solution frequency range.
Fix the subface size at 10 and rerun the job. Increasing the number of approximation vectors improves the
possibility that at least one of them will contain some component of the missing modes, allowing the
vector to properly converge.
The default here is “Yes,” and should be left alone unless the user has some specific reason for
deactivating the check.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 81
Advanced Parameters
Estimated Number of Significant Figures in Eigenvalues
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This is the approximate number of significant figures in the computed eigenvalues (e
2
, where eis the
angular frequency in rad/sec). For example, using the default value of 6, if a computed eigenvalue was
44032.32383, then the first digit to the right of the decimal is probably the last accurately computed figure.
The eigenvectors, or mode shapes, are computed to half as many significant figures as are the eigenvalues.
If the eigenvalues have 6 significant figures of accuracy, then the eigenvectors have 3.
This number should typically never be decreased. Increases to 8 or 10 are not unusual but result in slower
solutions with typically little change in response results.
82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
Eigen analyses are done using an NxN subspace for calculating the natural frequencies and mode shapes
for a reduced problem. The first step is to perform a Jacobi denationalization of the subspace. Iterations
are performed until the offdiagonal terms of the matrix are approximately zero. The offdiagonal terms
are considered to be close enough to zero when their ratio to the ondiagonal term in the row is smaller the
Jacobi Sweep Tolerance.
The default is 1.0E12. Users wishing to change this value should be aware of the computer’s precision
(the IEEE488 double precision word on the IBM PC has approximately 14 significant figures) and the
approximate size of the ondiagonal coefficients in the stiffness matrix for the problem to be solved
(which may be estimated from simple beam expressions).
Decomposition Singularity Tolerance
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
During the eigensolver’s decomposition of what may be a shifted stiffness matrix, a singularity check is
performed to make sure that the shift is not too close to an eigenvalue that is to be calculated. If a singular
condition is detected, a new shift, not quite as aggressive as the last one, is computed and a new
decomposition is attempted. If the new composition fails, a fatal error is reported from the eigensolver. In
certain cases, increasing the singularity tolerance is warranted and eliminates this fatal error. Values
should not be entered greater than 1.0 E13. Singularity problems may also exist when very light, small
diameter piping is attached to very heavy, large diameter, or when very, very short lengths of pipe are
adjacent to very, very long lengths of pipe.
Subspace Size (0Not Used)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
During an eigensolution, the NDOFxNDOF problem constructed by the user is reduced to an NxN
problem during each subspace iteration, where N is the subspace size. If a zero is entered in this field,
CAESAR II selects what is expected to be an optimal subspace size (so this value usually need not be
changed); if a nonzero value is entered here, it will override CAESAR II’s calculation and will be used as
the subspace size.
CAESAR II’s default is to use the square root of the bandwidth (with a minimum of 4) as the subspace size,
resulting in sizes of 4 to 8 for typical piping configurations. Increasing the subspace size slows the
eigensolution, but increases the numerical stability. Values in the range between 12 and 15 should
probably be used when unusual geometries or dynamic properties are encountered, or when a job is large
(has 100 elements or more, and/or requires that 25 or more frequencies be extracted).
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 83
No. to Converge Before Shift Allowed (0  Not Used)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
A zero in this field lets CAESAR II select what it thinks will be the most optimal shifting strategy for the
eigen problem to be solved. One way to speed the eigensolution is to improve the convergence
characteristics. The convergence rate for the lowest eigenpair in the subspace is inversely proportional to
e1 / e2, where e1 is the lowest eigenvalue in the current subspace and e2 is the next lowest eigenvalue in
the current subspace. A slow convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of approximately one,
and a fast convergence rate is represented by an eigenvalue ratio of zero. The shift is employed to get the
convergence rate as close to zero as possible. The cost of each shift is one decomposition of the system set
of equations. The typical shift value is equal to the last computed eigenvalue plus 90 percent of the
difference between this value and the lowest estimated eigenvalue still nonconverged in the subspace.
As e1 is shifted closer to zero, the ratio e1/e2 will become increasingly smaller thus increasing the
convergence rate. In certain instances where eigenvalues are very closely spaced, shifting can result in
eigenvalues being lost (the Sturm Sequence Check will detect this condition). A large value entered for
this parameter will effectively disable shifting, so no eigenvalues will be missed; however, the solution
will take longer to run. When the system to be analyzed is very large, shifting the set of equations can be
very time consuming—in these cases, the user is advised to set this parameter to somewhere between 4
and 8.
No. of Iterations Per Shift (0  Pgm computed)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
A zero in this field lets CAESAR II compute what it thinks is an optimal number of subspace iterations per
shift. This parameter, along with the next one (% of iterations per shift before orthogonalization) can work
together to control solution shifting. These two parameters are used to limit the number of GramSchmidt
orthogonalizations that are performed. Trying to limit this number is very dangerous for small subspace
problems, but less dangerous when the subspace size is large (around 1020 percent of the total number of
eigenpairs required).
The GramSchmidt orthogonalization is by default performed once during each subspace iteration. This
orthogonalization makes sure that the eigenvector subspace does not converge to an already found
eigenpair. When a large number of eigenpairs are to be computed this repeated computation can
appreciably slow down the extraction of the highest eigenpairs. Proper setting of these parameters can
cause the eigensolution to perform the orthogonalization every second, third, fourth, etc. iteration, thus
speeding the solution. Unfortunately, once orthogonalized, the subspace may still converge to earlier
eigenpairs during subsequent “nonorthogonalized” subspace iteration passes. Users setting these
parameters are urged to use caution. The Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (see "Force
Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)" on page 84) parameter (see corresponding section later in
this chapter) should probably also be set if the frequency of orthogonalization is slowed.
84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Percent of Iterations Per Shift Before Orthogonalization
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
CAESAR II computes a number of iterations per shift that are to be performed, which the user can alter if
desired. A maximum of N eigenpairs can conceivably converge per subspace pass, where N is the
subspace size (although this is highly unlikely). By default a GramSchmidt orthogonalization is
performed for each subspace pass. This directive allows the user to alter this default. For example, if there
are 12 iterations per shift, and the percentage of iterations per shift is 50 percent (an entry of 0.50), the
GramSchmidt orthogonalization would be performed every 6 iterations. Users employing this option
should also set the Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (see "Force Orthogonalization After
Convergence (Y/N)" on page 84) directive to “Yes”. The Percent of Iterations per Shift Before
Orthogonalization parameter is most often used in conjunction with the No. of Iterations per Shift (see
"No. of Iterations Per Shift (0  Pgm computed)" on page 83) parameter because then the user knows
exactly how many iterations will go by without an orthogonalization.
Force Orthogonalization After Convergence (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This parameter is only needed for eigensolutions for which the Percent of Iterations per Shift Before
Orthogonalization (on page 84) (the previous section) has been set to a nonzero value. When set to
“Yes” in this case, whenever a subspace pass that sees at least one eigenpair convergence completes, a
GramSchmidt orthogonalization is performed whether the specified percentage of iterations has been
completed or not.
Use OutOfCore Eigensolver (Y/N)
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This parameter is used primarily as a benchmarking and debugging aid. When entered as “Yes”, the out
ofcore eigensolver is automatically invoked regardless of the problem size. Using this solver can take
considerably more time than the incore solver, but should in all cases produce exactly the same results.
Note that if the problem is too big to fit into the incore solver (the capacity of which is based upon the
amount of available extended memory), the outofcore solver will be invoked automatically—this
parameter does not need to be changed to have this automatic switch occur when necessary.
Frequency Array Spaces
(Active for: Spectrum, Modal, and Time History)
This is the maximum number of eigenpairs that can be extracted for the problem. The default value of 100
is arbitrary. If the user needs to extract more than 100 eigenpairs, then some number greater than the
number to be extracted must be entered.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 85
Pulsation Loads
Unexpectedly, and sometimes after support changes or process modifications, an operating line will begin
experiencing large amplitude, low frequency vibration. The first step in the solution is the construction of
the dynamic model. Particular attention should be paid when modeling the piping system in the area of the
field vibration. This might include accurately representing valve operators, inline flange pairs, orifice
plates and measuring equipment. It is also a good idea to add extra nodes in the area where vibration is
experienced. The extra nodes would be put at bend “near” nodes and at span midpoints.
The next step is the eigenvalue/eigenvector extraction. If the system is large, then degrees of freedom far
removed from the area of local vibration should be eliminated. (610) natural frequencies should be
extracted. Natural frequencies and mode shapes define the systems “tendency to vibrate.” The mode
shapes extracted should show how the system in the area of the local vibration problem is tending to
displace. In most cases acoustic resonances are coupled with mechanical resonances to produce the large
amplitude vibrations experienced in the field.
Very typically one of the first mode shapes will show exactly the shape displayed by the pipe vibrating in
the field. If the mode shapes extracted do not show movement in the area of the local vibration, then not
enough degrees of freedom were removed from other areas. If the lowest mode shape in the area of the
local vibration problem is above (15) Hz. then there is a good possibility that either the vibration is
mechanically induced or the fluid pulsation peak pressures are very high. Either of these cases may
represent critical situations which should be evaluated by an expert.
When the mode shape is identified which corresponds to the observed field vibration, the pulsation load
model can be developed. Pulsation loads will exist at closed ends, at bends, and at changes in diameter.
Harmonically varying forces are put at these points in an attempt to get the mathematical model to vibrate
like the real piping system.
The driving frequency for the applied harmonic load should be equal to the frequency that pressure pulses
are introduced into the line.
The magnitude of the harmonic load can be estimated within a range of tolerances. The actual design
value is selected from this range such that resulting displacements of the model are close to those observed
in the field.
Output from the harmonic analysis can be processed in the static output processor and maximum restraint
loads due to the dynamic forces calculated.
It is critical when redesigning supports for dynamic loads that static thermal criteria are not violated by
any new support configuration designed.
Important: Static thermal criteria and dynamic displacement criteria must be satisfied
simultaneously.
The ultimate objective of the harmonic analysis will be to find the elbow pair whose unbalanced load
results in the observed field vibration.
Unbalanced loads exist between adjacent elbows because the pressure peak in the traveling wave hits each
elbow at a slightly different time.
86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
If the pressure at elbow “a” is denoted by Pa(t) and the pressure at elbow “b” is denoted by Pb(t), then the
unbalanced force which acts along the pipe connecting the two elbows is:
F = A * Pa(t)  A * Pb(t) EQ. (1)
Where A is the inside area of the pipe. The expression for Pa(t) can be found assuming the pressure peak
hits the elbow “a” at time t = 0:
Pa(t) = Pavg + 0.5 (dP) cos et EQ. (2)
Where:
(Pavg)  average pressure in the line,
(dP)  alternating component of the pressure, (PmaxPmin)
(e)  driving frequency.
If the straight pipe between the elbows “a” and “b” is (L) inches long, then the pressure peak that has just
passed elbow “a” will get to elbow “b” (ts) seconds later, where
(ts) = (L) / c,
(c) being the speed of sound in the fluid. (Remember, pressure pulses travel at the speed of sound, not the
speed of the fluid ! ! !) The expression for the pressure at “b” can now be written:
Pb(t) = Pavg + 0.5(dP) cos (et + Q) EQ.(3)
Q is the phase shift between the pressure peaks at “a” and “b”,
Q = e* (ts). (Where Q is in radians, and eis in radians/second)
Combining equations 1, 2, and 3 the unbalanced pressure force can be written:
F(t) = 0.5(dP)A * [ cos et  cos (etQ) ]
This function has a maximum:
Fmax = 0.5(dP)A sin Q/cos (Q/2)
and a period of 1/w, and will be approximated with:
f(t) = 0.5(dP)A (sin Q/cos (Q/2)) cos et
The formulation of the harmonic loads can be summarized as follows:
1 Decide which elbowelbow pair is most likely to have an unbalanced force which could cause the
displacements observed in the field.
2 Find upper and lower estimates for the following variables:
dP — Alternating pressure in the line (Pmax  Pmin)
e —Driving frequency.
c —Speed of sound in the fluid.
L —Length between the two elbows.
A —Area of the pipe.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 87
3. Find the time it takes the pressure wave to get from one elbow to the other.
ts = L / (c)
(c) is the lower estimate for the speed of sound in the fluid.
4. Find the largest estimated magnitude of the unbalanced pressure force:
Fmax = (0.5) (dP+)A * sin [(e+) (ts)] / cos [(et) (ts)/2]
(dP+) is the upper estimate for the alternating pressure.
(e+) is the upper estimate for the driving frequency.
5. Run a single harmonic analysis with a force of F = Fmax [cos (et)] acting along the axis of the pipe
between the two elbows. If the pattern of the displacement approximately that seen in the field, and if the
magnitude of the calculated displacement is greater than or equal to the magnitude of the displacement in
the field, then the harmonic load to be used for the design of the new restraints has been found.
88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Relief Valve Thrust Load Analysis
There can be two types of destructive dynamic forces associated with relief devices:
Thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface
Acoustic shock due to the sudden change in fluid momentum and the associated traveling pressure
wave(s).
The analyst must evaluate the effective contribution of both types of loads. Dynamic forces associated
with relieving devices can cause considerable mechanical damage to equipment and supports. The
discussion below concerns only the thrust at the valve/atmosphere interface. The acoustic traveling
pressure wave can be dealt with similar to the water hammer problem, addressed elsewhere.
The first step in performing a relief load analysis is to compute the magnitudes of the relieving thrust
forces. For opentype vent systems CAESAR II has a RELIEF LOAD SYNTHESIZER that will make these
computations automatically for the user. There are two procedures incorporated into the synthesizer, one is
for gases greater than 15 psig, and the other is for liquids. Both are discussed as follows.
Relief Load Synthesis for Gases Greater Than 15 psig
CAESAR II assumes that a successful vent stack/relief system design maintains the following gas
properties:
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 89
The input for the gas relief load synthesis is shown as follows:
Line Temperature
Enter the stagnation condition temperature of the gas to be relieved. (Usually just the gas temperature
upstream of the relief valve.)
Line Pressure
Enter the stagnation pressure of the gas to be relieved. (Usually just the gas pressure upstream of the relief
valve.) Note that stagnation properties can vary considerably from line properties if the gas flow velocity
in the line is high.
ID of Relief Valve Orifice
Enter the flow passage inside diameter for the smallest diameter in the relief valve throat. (This
information is usually provided by the relief valve manufacturer).
ID of Relief Valve Piping
Enter the inside diameter of the piping attached directly to the exhaust of the relief valve.
ID of Vent Stack Piping
If CAESAR II is to size the vent stack then leave this ID blank. If the vent stack piping is the same size as
the relief valve piping, i.e. it is oneinthesame, then this field may be left blank. Otherwise enter the
inside diameter of the vent stack piping.
90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Length of the Vent Stack
Enter the length of the vent stack. This is a required entry. Add double the lengths of fittings and elbows
(or compute the appropriate equivalent lengths for nonpipe fittings and add the lengths).
Some typical values for these constants are given below:
Ratio of GasSpecific Heats (k) Gas Constant (R) (ft. lbf./lbm./deg. R
Superheated Steam 1.300 Nitrogen 55.16
Saturated Steam 1.100 Carbon Dioxide 35.11
Nitrogen 1.399 Acetylene 59.35
Carbon Dioxide 1.288 Ammonia 90.73
Acetylene 1.232 nButane 26.59
Ammonia 1.304 Ethane 51.39
nButane 1.093 Ethylene 55.09
Ethane 1.187 Methane 96.33
Ethylene 1.240 Propane 35.05
Methane 1.226
Propane 1.127
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 91
Does the Vent Pipe Have an Umbrella Fitting (Y/N)
Enter a Y or a N. See the following figures to determine if the connection of the vent stack to the vent
piping is via an umbrella fitting.
92 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Should CAESAR II Size the Vent Stack (Y/N)
Enter a Y if CAESAR II should size the vent stack. The sizing algorithm searches through a table of
available inside pipe diameters starting at the smallest diameter until a vent stack ID is found that satisfies
the thermodynamic criteria shown in the figure above. The computed ID is automatically inserted into the
input.
Example input and output from the relief load synthesizer is shown and discussed as follows:
Relief Load Synthesis Input (Gas)
Relief Load Synthesis Output (Gas)
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 93
Computed Mass Flowrate (Vent Gas)
This is CAESAR II’s computed gas mass flow rate based on choked conditions at the relief orifice. If
greater mass flow rates are expected, then the error in either the approach used by CAESAR II or in the
expected mass flow rate should be investigated.
Thrust at Valve Pipe/Vent Pipe Interface
If there is an umbrella fitting between the vent stack and the relief valve piping then this is the thrust load
that acts back on the relief valve piping. (See the following figure.) If the vent stack is hard piped to the
relief valve piping then this intermediate thrust will be balanced by tensile loads in the pipe and can be
ignored.
Thrust load acts directly on valve opening. Only the valve pipe/vent stack interface thrust
acts in this configuration.
Thrust at the Vent Pipe Exit
When there is an elbow in the vent stack piping, this is the thrust load that acts on the elbow just before
the pipe opening into the atmosphere. (See the following figures for clarification.)
94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening
This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave will move back through the relief
system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The
magnitude of this wave is estimated as (PoPa)*Ap, where Po is the stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is
atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping.
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing
This is the estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief valve slams shut. This positive pressure wave will move back through the relief
system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water hammer type system. The
magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the gas density, c is the speed of sound in the
gas and dv is the change in the velocity of the gas.
Thermodynamic Entropy Limit /Subsonic Vent Exit Limit
These values should always be greater than 1. If either of these computed limits fall below 1.0 then the
thermodynamic assumptions made regarding the gas properties are incorrect and the computed thrust
values should be disregarded.
Valve Orifice Gas Conditions /Vent Pipe Exit Gas Conditions/Subsonic Velocity Gas Conditions
These are the thermodynamic properties of the gas at three critical points in the relief system. These three
points are shown in the figure on the opposite page. The entire formulation for the thrust gas properties is
based on an ideal gas equation of state. If the pressures and temperatures displayed above for the gas being
vented are outside of the range where the ideal gas laws apply then some alternate source should be sought
for the computation of the system’s thrust loads.
In addition, all three of these points should be sufficiently clear of the gas saturation line. When the exit
gas conditions become saturated, the magnitude of the thrust load can be reduced significantly. In this case
the manufacturer should be consulted. In several instances at COADE, saturated exhaust thrust loads were
50 to 75% less than the CAESAR II computed values.
Relief Load Synthesis for Liquids
CAESAR II assumes that the liquid vent system has one of the two following configurations:
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 95
The input for the liquid relief load synthesis is shown as follows:
Relief Valve or Rupture Disk
Enter “RV” if the relieving device is a relief valve and “RD” if the relieving device is a rupture disk. If the
user has his own relief exit coefficient it can be entered here in place of the letters RV or RD. An entry of
zero represents No appreciable head loss due to the relief opening configuration. The exit coefficient for a
relief valve is 0.25 and for a rupture disk is 0.5.
Supply Overpressure
Enter the stagnation, or zero velocity pressure in the fluid upstream of the relief valve.
ID Relief Orifice or Rupture Disk Opening
Enter the manufacturers inside diameter of the contracted opening in the particular relieving device. (For
special purpose calculations this ID may be equal to the ID of the Relief exit piping.)
ID Relief Exit Piping
Enter the inside diameter of the piping connected to the downstream side of the relief valve.
ID Manifold Piping
If the relief exit piping runs into a manifold then enter the inside diameter of the manifold. Leave this field
blank or zero if there isn't a manifold.
ID Supply Header
Enter the inside diameter of the supply header.
96 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Fluid Density
Enter the specific gravity of the fluid being relieved.
Length of Relief Exit Piping
Enter the equivalent length of the relief exit piping. Add twice the piping length for fittings and elbows, or
the calculated fitting equivalent length.
Length of Manifold Piping
Enter the equivalent length of the manifold piping, if any. If there isn't a manifold system then leave this
field blank or zero. Add twice the piping length for fitting and elbows. If the manifold is not filled by the
relieving fluid then leave the manifold length zero.
Fluid Bulk Modulus
Enter the bulk modulus of the fluid. If omitted a valve of 250,000 psi will be used as the default. Some
typical values for use are given as follows. These are the values for an isothermal compression as taken
from “Marks Standard Handbook for Engineers,” p. 335, 8th edition.
Supply Header Pipe Wall Thickness
Enter the wall thickness of the supply header.
Note: When running the relief load synthesis for liquids, the error message: NUMERICAL ERROR OR
NO FLOW CONDITION DETECTED, means a physically impossible configuration was described.
Flashing of volatile relief liquids is not considered. If the relieving liquid flashes in the exhaust piping as
its pressure drops to atmospheric then some other means should be used to compute the resulting gas
properties and thrust Loads.
Output From the Liquid Relief Load Synthesizer
Computed Mass Flow rate
The computed exhaust mass flow rate in U.S. Gallons per minute. CAESAR II makes the necessary pressure
drop calculations between the stagnation pressure upstream of the relief device and atmospheric
conditions at the exit of the manifold.
Thrust at the End of the Exit Piping
The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the exit piping. If there is no manifold then this is the
external thrust load that acts on the piping system. If there is a manifold then this thrust is opposed by
tension in the pipe wall at the junction of the exit piping and manifold. See the figures that follow for
clarification.
Thrust at the End of the Manifold Piping
The computed thrust load at the last cross section in the manifold piping. If there is no manifold system
then this thrust will be equal to the thrust at the end of the exit piping. See the figures that follow for
clarification.
Chapter 5 Controlling the Dynamic Solution 97
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Opening
This is the estimated magnitude of the negative pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief valve fist opens. This negative pressure wave will move back through the relief
system piping similar to the pressure wave in the downstream piping of a water hammer type system. The
magnitude of this wave is estimated as (PoPa)*Ap, where Po is the stagnation pressure at the source, Pa is
atmospheric pressure, and Ap is the area of the header piping.
Transient Pressure Rise on Valve Closing
This is the estimated magnitude of the positive pressure wave that will be superimposed on the line
pressure when the relief valve slams shut. This positive pressure wave will move back through the relief
system piping similar to the pressure wave in the supply side piping of a water hammer type system. The
magnitude of this wave is estimated from: r*c*dv where r is the gas density, c is the speed of sound in the
gas and dv is the change in the velocity of the gas.
98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Orifice Flow Conditions/Exit Pipe End Flow Conditions/Manifold Pipe End Flow Conditions
These are the computed fluid properties at the three critical crosssections in the relief piping. If pressures
or velocities here do not seem reasonable then some characteristic of the relief model is probably in error.
Note: If the “L” dimensions are significant in any of the previous figures (several feet) then unbalanced
thrust loads will act between the elbowelbow pairs that is very similar to a water hammer load. Water
hammer pulses travel at the speed of sound in the fluid, while the fluid/atmosphere interface “pulses”
travel at the velocity of the flowing fluid. For this reason, these unbalanced loads can cause significant
piping displacements in much shorter pipe runs. The magnitude of these loads is equivalent to the
computed thrust and the duration may be found from the computed fluid velocity and distance between
each elbowelbow pair.
1
In This Chapter
Rigid Element Application..........................................................2
Cold Spring .................................................................................4
Expansion Joints..........................................................................7
Hanger Sizing Algorithm.............................................................10
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities.........................................................14
Modeling Friction Effects ...........................................................17
Nonlinear Code Compliance .......................................................19
Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints ...............................20
Static Seismic Loads ...................................................................24
Wind Loads .................................................................................27
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading ..............................30
Evaluating Vessel Stresses ..........................................................44
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction.........................................49
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II............................................54
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping.............................................70
Code Compliance Considerations ...............................................93
Local Coordinates .......................................................................127
C H A P T E R 6
Technical Discussions
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Rigid Element Application
CAESAR II forms rigid elements by multiplying the wall thickness of the element by 10. The inside
diameter, and the weight of the element, remain unchanged.
The “rigid” element in CAESAR II is rigid relative to the pipe around it. If a 6in. line ties into a 72in. heat
exchanger, then the rigid elements modeling the heat exchanger should have a diameter closer to 72 than
6.
The user that is sensitive to the “rigidness” of the rigid element can increase or decrease the diameter or
wall thickness of the rigid to simulate any order of magnitude stiffness.
Rigid Material Weight
The weight of the rigid element is entered by the user. If no value is input then the weight of the rigid is
taken to be zero. The entered weight is the weight of the rigid excluding insulation or fluid. If the weight
of the rigid element is entered as zero or blank, then no additional weight due either to insulation or fluid
will be added.
Rigid Fluid Weight
CAESAR II automatically adds fluid loads for rigid elements if a nonzero fluid density is entered on the
pipe spreadsheet. The fluid weight in a rigid element is assumed to be equal to the fluid weight in an
equivalent straight pipe of similar length and inside diameter.
Rigid Insulation Weight
CAESAR II also automatically adds insulation loads if the line containing the rigid element is insulated. The
insulation weight for the rigid is assumed to be equal to 1.75 times the insulation for an equivalent length
of straight pipe of equal outside diameter.
The cumulative rigid element weight calculation is as follows:
Weight = 0.0 Wu = 0.0
Weight = Wu + Wf + 1.75Wi Wu > 0.0
Where:
Wu = User entered rigid weight
Wf = Calculated fluid weight for equivalent straight pipe
Wi = Calculated insulation weight for equivalent straight pipe
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 3
The user’s entered weight for the rigid element is not reflected in the Thermal Expansion/Pipe Weight
Report optionally printed during error checking.
Stresses are not calculated on Rigid elements since they are often used to simulate components that have
variable crosssections along the length of the element, i.e. a valve, and is normally not of concern for this
type of analysis anyway. Forces and Moments are not normally printed on nodes between two rigid
elements, but can be by selecting the appropriate check box found in KauxSpecial Execution Parameters
from the Piping Input Spreadsheet.
Zeroweight rigids ("dummy" rigids) are often used to model components whose weight is not important
to the analysis, but where thermal growth may be a consideration. Dummy rigids are often used to model
restraints. Tie rods in an expansion joint, rod hangers, and trunnions are examples of restraints modeled as
dummy rigids. Dummy rigids may also be used to provide connectivity between the center line of an
element and its outside edge. The most common example of this is the addition of a dummy rigid that runs
from the node at the center line of the vessel to the edge where a nozzle is to be connected. Sometimes
equipment is modeled through a series of rigid elements. This is particularly true when multiple nozzles
are attached and the equipment is restrained such that the interactions between the various nozzles must
be taken into account due to the thermal growth of the attached piping system. The use of dummy rigids is
explained in the CAESAR II Applications Guide in various sections as appropriate to a particular modeling
technique.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Cold Spring
Cold spring is the process of offsetting (or preloading) the piping system with displacement loads
(usually accomplished by cutting short or long the pipe runs between two anchors) for the purpose of
reducing the absolute expansion load on the system. Cold spring is used to do the following:
hasten the thermal shakedown of the system in fewer operating cycles
reduce the magnitude of loads on equipment and restraints, since often, only a single application of a
large load is sufficient to damage these elements
Several things should be considered when using cold spring:
Cold reactions on equipment nozzles due to cold spring should not exceed nozzle allowables.
The expansion stress range should not include the effect of the cold spring.
The cold spring should be much greater than fabrication tolerances.
Note: No credit can be taken for cold spring in the stress calculations, since the expansion stress
provisions of the piping codes require the evaluation of the stress range, which is unaffected by cold
spring (except perhaps in the presence of nonlinear boundary conditions, as discussed below). The cold
spring merely adjusts the stress mean, but not the range.
Many engineers avoid cold spring due to the difficulty of maintaining accurate records throughout the
operating life of the unit. Future analysts attempting to make field repairs or modifications may not
necessarily know about (and therefore include in the analysis) the cold spring specification.
Due to the difficulty of properly installing a cold sprung system, most piping codes recommend that only
2/3 of the specified cold spring be used for the equipment load calculations.
The cold spring amount is calculated as:
Ci = 1/2Li o dT
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 5
Where:
Ci = length of cold spring in direction i (where i is X, Y, or Z), (inches)
Li = total length of pipe subject to expansion in direction i, (inches)
o = mean thermal expansion coefficient of material between ambient and operating temperature,
(in/in/°F)
dT = change in temperature, (°F)
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Note that the 1/2 in the equation for the cold spring amount is used such that the mean stress is zero. In
some cases it is desirable to have the operating load on the equipment as close to zero as possible. In this
latter case the 1/2 should be omitted. The maximum stress magnitude will not change from a system
without cold spring, but will now exist in the cold case rather than the hot.
To model a cold spring in CAESAR II specify the elements as being made of cut short or cut long
materials. Cut short describes a cold sprung section of pipe fabricated short by the amount of the cold
spring, requiring an initial tensile load to close the final joint. Cut long describes a cold sprung section of
pipe fabricated long by the amount of cold spring, requiring an initial compressive load to close the final
joint. The software models cut shorts and cut longs by applying end forces to the elements sufficient to
reduce their length to zero (from the defined length) or increase their length to the defined length (from
zero) respectively. (It should be remembered to make the lengths of these cold spring elements only 2/3 of
their actual lengths to implement the code recommendations.) This is effectively what occurs during
application of cold spring. The end forces applied to the elements are then included in the basic loading
case F (for force), whereby they can be included in various load combinations.
Special material numbers 18 and 19 are used to signal CAESAR II that the element currently in the
spreadsheet actually represents a length of pipe that is to be cut short or long during fabrication.
Material # 18  Cut Short
Material # 19  Cut Long
The user should be sure to reset the material property on the element following the cold spring element.
The following load cases are recommended when analyzing a cold spring system:
Load Case 1 (OPE) W+T1+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring
Load Case 2 (OPE) W+P1+CS includes all of the design cold spring but not the temperature.
Load Case 3 (SUS) W+P1 standard sustained case for Code Stress check
RUN # 1
Load Case4 (EXP) L1L2 expansion case for code stress check.
Cold spring is allowed to reduce the magnitude of equipment loads because, often, only a single
application of a large load is sufficient to cause damage to rotating machinery.
Cold spring does not change the “range” of stresses that the piping system is subject to, and so, no
allowance is given for stress reduction. (The maximum value of the stress is lowered, but the range is
unchanged.)
Both the sustained loads and the operating loads should be within the manufacturer’s allowables for the
particular piece of equipment. If the designer isn't careful, the installation of the cold spring in the ambient
state can overload a piece of rotating equipment as the unit starts up.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 7
Expansion Joints
To define an expansion joint, activate the Expansion Joint check box (see "Expansion Joints" on page
19) on the pipe element spreadsheet.
Expansion joint elements may have a zero or nonzero length. The expansion joint will have a zero length
if the Delta fields in the spreadsheet are left blank or zero. The expansion joint will have a nonzero length
if at least one of the element’s spreadsheet Delta fields is nonblank and nonzero. When an expansion
joint has a finite length CAESAR II evenly distributes the expansion joint stiffnesses over the entire length
of the element. This will usually result in a more accurate stiffness model in what is typically a very
sensitive area of the piping system.
Four stiffnesses define the expansion joint
Axial Stiffness
Transverse Stiffness
Bending Stiffness
Torsional Stiffness
These stiffnesses are defined as shown in the following figure:
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The transverse and the bending stiffnesses are directly related when a finite length joint is defined. In this
case the bending stiffness should be left blank and the transverse stiffness entered. CAESAR II will
compute the proper bending stiffness from the relationship between the bending and transverse stiffnesses.
Bending stiffnesses from manufacturers catalogs should generally only be entered for zero length
expansion joints modeling hinges or gimbals. Before a manufacturers bending stiffness is used for a finite
length bellows it should be multiplied by 4.0 (note that in this case the transverse stiffness would be left
blank).
Torsional stiffnesses are often not given by expansion joint manufacturers. In this case the user is
recommended to insert a large torsional stiffness value and ensure that the resulting load on the bellows is
not excessive. When the piping system is tight, and the diameter large, the magnitude of this “large”
torsional stiffness can significantly effect the magnitude of the torsion carried by the bellows, i.e.
stiffnesses of 100,000 in.lb./deg. and 1E12 in.lb./deg. can produce considerably different torsional load
results. The tendency would be to go with the larger stiffness, i.e. being conservative, except that the
torsional stiffness value is probably closer to the 100,000 in.lb./deg. In the instance where the “largeness”
of the torsional stiffness value is important, the manufacturer should be pressed for his “bestguess” at the
stiffness, or the following equation should be used to get an estimate, which the user can then
conservatively increase to get reasonable torsional loads on the bellows and surrounding equipment.
The equation for estimating bellows torsional stiffness is
3
( ) ( )( )
(1 )
Re t E
L
t
+ v
Where
t = 3.14159
Re = Expansion joint effective radius
t = Bellows thickness
E = Elastic Modulus
v = Poisson’s Ratio
L = Flexible bellows length
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 9
When the expansion joint has a zero length, none of the expansion joint stiffnesses are related. The user
must be sure that a value is entered into all four of the Stiffness fields.
CAESAR II will calculate pressure thrust on the expansion joint if the bellows effective id is given in the
expansion joint auxiliary screen. The mathematical model for pressure thrust applies a force equal to the
pressure times the effective area of the bellows at either end of the expansion joint. The force will tend to
open the bellows if the pressure is positive, and close the bellows if the pressure is negative. Users should
note that this model does not exactly distribute the pressure loads correctly in the vicinity of the expansion
joint. In most cases the misapplied load does not effect the solution. There are two components of the
pressure thrust to be applied in practice, rather than the one component applied in the model. The first
component is equal to the pressure times the inside area of the pipe and acts at the first change in direction
of the pipe on either side of the expansion joint. This load will tend to put the pipe wall between the
change in direction and the expansion joint in tension. The second component is equal to the pressure
times the difference between the bellows effective area and inside pipe area. This load acts at the end of
the expansion joint and tends to open the bellows up, putting the pipe between the expansion joint and the
change in direction in compression. In the mathematical model the full component of the pressure thrust
force is placed on the ends of the bellows instead of having a portion shifted out on either side of the
expansion joint. A large number of expansion joint examples can be found in Chapter 5 of the Applications
Guide.
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Hanger Sizing Algorithm
The basic function of the hanger design algorithm is to calculate the hot load and travel for userspecified
hanger locations.
Once the hot load and travel are known, spring tables are entered and the theoretical cold load is
calculated for each spring in the table.
Spring Design Requirements
The smallest single spring that satisfies all design requirements is selected as the designed spring.
The spring design requirements are
1 Both hot and the cold loads must be within the spring allowed working range.
2 If the user specified an allowed load variation then the absolute value of the product of the travel and
the spring rate divided by the hot load must be less than the specified variation.
3 If the user specified some minimum available clearance then the spring selected must fit in this space.
If a single spring cannot be found that satisfies the design requirements, CAESAR II will try to find two
identical springs that do satisfy the requirements.
If satisfactory springs cannot be found, CAESAR II recommends a constant effort support for the location.
There are several variations of this approach that arise due to the different design options available in
CAESAR II, but for the most part the general algorithm remains unchanged.
Restrained Weight Case
Hanger hot loads are calculated in the “restrained weight” case.
In any job, if a hanger is to be designed, the first analysis case that must be run is the “restrained weight”
case. This case usually includes weight, pressure and concentrated loads.
For the “restrained weight” run, rigid “Y” restraints are placed at each hanger location, and any anchors to
be freed are properly released.
Loads on the “Y” restraints at hangers, calculated from the “restrained weight” case, are the hanger hot
design loads.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 11
Operating Case
Immediately after the “restrained weight” case, an operating analysis is performed. The “Y” restraints are
removed from the hanger locations and the hot loads just calculated are inserted. Any anchors that were
freed for the “restrained weight” analysis are fixed.
The operating case vertical displacement at each hanger location defines that hanger’s “travel.” If there
were single directional restraints or gaps in the system that changed status in the operating case then the
possibility exists that loads on hangers will be redistributed. When a nonlinear status change is detected
CAESAR II reruns the “restrained weight” case with the restraints left as they were at the end of the
operating case. New restraint loads are calculated and another operating case is run to get the updated
“travel.”
The operating case must always be the second load case in the set of defined analysis cases.
The user has the ability to define the “restrained weight” or operating load cases for hanger design any
way he sees fit. For simplicity, CAESAR II recommends the load cases it thinks should be run whenever it
detects the first attempt to analyze a particular system. The user can accept or reject CAESAR II’s
recommendations. The user that sets up his own hanger design load cases should be sure he understands
exactly what is done in the “restrained weight” and operating passes of the hanger design algorithm.
Installed Load Case
If the user requested the calculation of the actual hanger installed loads, the third analysis level
combination case must define the weight configuration that will exist in the field when the spring is
installed. Typically this case includes weight without fluid contents and concentrated loads.
The theoretical cold, or installed, load is the load on the spring when the pipe has exactly zero
displacement. The actual installed load may differ from the theoretical installed load by (K)(d), where (K)
is the spring stiffness and (d) is the displacement of the pipe in the installed condition. In essence, the
actual installed load is calculated by taking the piping system and “freezing” all displacements at zero.
With the pipe in this condition, the hangers are installed and the theoretical cold load is applied. The pipe
is then “defrosted” and allowed to adjust its weight position due to the hanger, restraint, and anchor
stiffnesses and the installed hanger loads. Once the system settles out, the total load on each of the hangers
is read and recorded as the “actual” hanger installed load.
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Setting Up the Spring Load Cases
The load cases that must exist for hanger design, as described above, are
Restrained Weight
Operating
Installed Weight ...if the user requested actual hanger installed loads.
After the hanger algorithm has run the load cases it needs to size the hangers. The newly selected springs
are inserted into the piping system and included in the analysis of all remaining load cases.
The spring rate becomes part of the global stiffness matrix, and is therefore added into all subsequent load
cases. Hanger installed loads are concentrated forces and are only included in subsequent load cases that
contain the first concentrated force set, (i.e., +H).
The user may specify any number of his own load cases after the required spring load cases are set up.
Spring hanger design does not affect CAESAR II’s ability to check code compliance. In fact, in CAESAR II’s
recommended load cases, the normal code compliance cases always follow the set of load cases required
for hanger design.
Multiple operating case spring hanger design implies that hanger loads and “travels” from more than one
operating case are included in the spring hanger selection algorithm.
Each spring in a multiple operating case hanger design has a multiple load case design option. This design
option tells CAESAR II how the multiple loads and travels for a single hanger are to be combined to get a
single design load and travel. The setup of the analysis cases is slightly different for multiple operating
case hanger design, and as might be expected, the difference is that now there is more than one operating
case. The actual number of operating cases is specified by the user on the Hanger Design Control dialog
and can be up to 9.
Load cases that must be set up for a multiple load case hanger design that considers two hanger design
operating cases are:
Restrained Weight (this doesn't change)
Operating case #1
Operating case #9
Installed Weight ...if the user requested that actual installed loads are to be calculated.
Constant Effort Support
The specification of the support load for a constant effort hanger completely defines the hanger location.
If the user enters this value it will be included in all hanger design runs and all analysis cases following the
hanger cases that include concentrated loads in their formulation. This value is the load on each support at
this location.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 13
Including the Spring Hanger Stiffness in the Design Algorithm
The operating cases for hanger travel are normally analyzed with no stiffness included at the hanger
locations (hence these cases are traditionally referred to as "free thermal" cases). However, when the
piping system is very flexible, or the selected springs are very stiff, the actual resulting spring loads in the
hot condition can vary significantly from the theoretically calculated results. In that case, CAESAR II offers
the option to include (via an iterative process) the stiffness of the selected springs in the operating cases
for hanger travel. This can be activated by setting the Hanger Stiffness Load Case option to "As
Designed" for that operating case. (Activating the Configure/Setup option "Include Travel cases to
default to "As Designed".) The user is warned that selection of this option may lead to convergence
problems. If this option is used, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case (In the physical
system) be adjusted to match the reported hanger Cold Load.
Spring Hanger Hot Loads for as designed springs are always included in all Operating Hanger Travel
cases. Cold loads can be included in subsequent load cases through the use of the H load component. (Note
that applying thermal and displacement effects to the system should make the Cold Load move to the Hot
Load in the operating case.)
Other Notes on Hanger Sizing
Users should note that whenever a hanger location is found to “hold the pipe down,” a beep and a warning
message is flashed to the user. These locations in output are flagged as zero load constant effort supports.
These supports are usually found to be at poor hanger design locations.
Hanger design load cases, unless specifically designed with a "KEEP" status by the user, show up in the
output report as being “NOT ACTIVE.” Results from these analysis are reflected in the spring hanger
table only.
14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Class 1 Branch Flexibilities
This analytical option was added to CAESAR II for the following reasons:
Automatic local flexibilities at intersections help the user bound the true solution. Because the
computer time to do an analysis is getting less expensive, more frequently an analyst is running
several solutions of the same model using slightly different input techniques to determine the effect of
the modeling difference on the results. (This gives the analyst a degree of confidence in the numbers
he is getting.) For example, structural steel supporting structures may be modeled to see the effect of
their stiffnesses, nozzle flexibilities may be added at vessel connections to see how these features
redistribute load throughout the model, friction is added to watch its effect on displacements and
equipment loads, and with CAESAR II users may include Class 1 intersection flexibilities. The
characteristic that makes this option convenient to use is that the use can turn the Class 1 flexibilities
“on” and “off” via a single parameter in the setup file. There is no other modification to the input
required.
In WRC 329, there are a number of suggestions made to improve the stress calculations at
intersections. These suggestions are fairly substantial, and are given in order of importance. The most
important item, as felt by Rodabaugh in improving the stress calculations at intersections is given, in
part, as follows:
“In piping system analyses, it may be assumed that the flexibility is represented by a rigid joint at the
branchtorun centerlines juncture. However, the Code user should be aware that this assumption can be
inaccurate and should consider the use of a more appropriate flexibility representation.”
User of the Class 1 branch flexibility feature may be summarized as follows:The user adds the option:
CLASS_1_BRANCH_FLEX to the setup file. This option is a flag, and merely has to appear in the
setup file to activate the option.
Where reduced branch geometry requirements are satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset from
the centerline of the header pipe to its surface, and then adds the local flexibility of the header pipe,
between the end of the offset, at the header, and the start of the branch. Stresses computed for the
branch, are for the point at its connection with the header.
Where reduced branch geometry requirements are not satisfied, CAESAR II constructs a rigid offset
from the centerline of the header pipe to its surface. The branch piping starts at the end of this rigid
offset. There is NO local flexibility due to the header added. (It is deemed to be insignificant.)
Stresses computed for the branch, are for the point at its connection with the header.
The reduced branch geometry requirements checked by CAESAR II are
d/D s 0.5 and D/T s 100.0
Where:
d = Diameter of branch
D = Diameter of header
T = Wall thickness of header
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 15
When the Class 1 branch flexibilities are used, intersection models in the analysis will become stiffer
when the reduced geometry requirements do not apply, and will become more flexible when the reduced
geometry requirements do apply. Stiffer intersections typically carry more load, and thus have higher
stresses (lowering the stress in other parts of the system that have been “unloaded”). More flexible
intersections typically carry less load, and thus have lower stresses, (causing higher stresses in other parts
of the system that have “picked up” the extra load).
The branch flexibility rules used in CAESAR II are taken from ASME III, Subsection NB, (Class 1), 1992
Edition, Issued December 31, 1992, from Code Sections NB3686.4 and NB3686.5.
When the reduced branch rules apply, the following equations are used for the local stiffnesses:
TRANSLATIONAL:
AXIAL = RIGID
CIRCUMFERENTIAL = RIGID
LONGITUDINAL = RIGID
ROTATIONAL:
AXIAL = RIGID
CIRCUMFERENTIAL = (kx)d/EI
LONGITUDINAL = (kz)d/EI
Where:
RIGID = 1.0E12 lb./in. or 1.0E12 in.lb./deg.
d = Branch diameter
E = Young’s Modulus
I = Cross Section Moment of Inertia
D = Header diameter
T = Header thickness
Tb = Branch fitting thickness
kx = 0.1(D/T)
1.5
[(T/t)(d/D)]
0.5
(Tb/T)
kz = 0.2(D/T)[(T/t)(d/D)]
0.5
(Tb/T)
16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Users are referred to WRC 329 Section 4.9 “Flexibility Factors.” A brief quote from this section follows:
“The significance of “k” depends upon the specifics of the piping system. Qualitatively, if “k” is small
compared to the length of the piping system, including the effect of elbows and their kfactors, then the
inclusion of “k” for branch connections will have only minor effects on the calculated moments.
Conversely, if “k” is large compared to the piping system length, then the inclusion of “k” for branch
connections will have major effects. The largest effect will be to greatly reduce the magnitude of the
calculated moments acting on the branch connection. To illustrate the potential significance of “k’s” for
branch connections, we use the equation [above] to calculate “k” for a branch connection with D=30 in.,
d=12.75 in. T=t=0.375 in.:
k = 0.1(80)
1.5
(0.425)
0.5
* (1.0) = 46.6
This compares to the more typical rigidjoint interpretation that k=1, rather than k=46.6 !”
Further discussion in section 4.9 illustrates additional problems that can arise by overestimating the
stiffness at branch connections. Problems arise by believing “mistakenly” that the stress at the intersection
is too high. Further reference should be made to this section in WRC 329.
The branch automatic flexibility generation can be used where the user has only defined the branch
element in the model, i.e. has left the header piping out of the analysis. In this case there will be no
“offset” equal to onehalf of the header diameter applied to the branch end. A “partial intersection” is one
where either the header pipe is not modelled, is modelled with a single element, or is part of a geometric
intersection where the header pipes are not colinear. In the case where there is no header pipe going to the
intersection there will be no modification to the model for the class 1 branch flexibilities. When at least a
single header pipe is recognized, the local flexibility directions are defined by the branch alone and in
accordance with the CAESAR II defaults for circumferential and longitudinal directions for the branch and
header. Users are recommended to build full intersection models at all times (not only when employing
the class 1 branch flexibility.) In most cases building full intersection models will eliminate problems
caused by the assumptions necessary when a partial intersection is described.
In the equations in NB3686.5 for tn, the thickness of the branch pipe is used in all cases.
When branches are skewed with respect to the header pipe, and where the two header pipes are colinear,
the local Class 1 flexibilities are still taken to be the longitudinal and circumferential directions that are
tangent to the header surface at its intersection with the branch.
Class 1 branch flexibilities can be formed at both ends of a single pipe element.
Note: The offsets necessary to form the class 1 intersections are automatically generated by CAESAR II.
There is no extra input required by the user to have CAESAR II build these intersections.
(If there are already userdefined offsets at an intersection end, the computed offset to get from the header
centerline to its surface along the centerline of the branch will be added to the already entered user offset.)
Automatic offsets will be generated providing that the distance from the header centerline to the header
surface along the branch centerline is less than or equal to 98% of the total pipe straight length.
When a bend curved element is part of an intersection model, the offset and flexibility calculations will
not be performed.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 17
Modeling Friction Effects
There are two approaches to solving the friction problem; insert a force at the node which must be over
come for motion to occur, or insert a stiffness which applies an increasing force up to the value of Mu *
Normal force. CAESAR II uses the restraint stiffness method. (An excellent paper on this subject is
“Inclusion of a Support Friction Into a Computerized Solution of a SelfCompensating Pipeline” by J.
Sobieszczanski, published in the Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, August
1972. A summary of the major points of this paper can be found below.)
Ideally, if there is motion at the node in question, the friction force is equal to (Mu * Normal force).
However, since we have a nonrigid stiffness at that location to resist the initial motion, the node can
experience displacements. The force at the node will be the product of the displacement and the stiffness.
If this resultant force is less than the maximum friction force (Mu * Normal force), the node is assumed to be
“not sliding,” even though we see displacements in the output report.
The maximum value of the force at the node is the friction force, Mu * Normal force. Once this value is
reached, the reaction at the node stops increasing. This constant force value is then applied to the global
load vector during the next iteration to determine the nodal displacements.
Basically here is what happens in a “friction” problem.
1 The default friction stiffness is 1,000,000 lb./in. This value should be decreased to improve
convergence.
2 Until the horizontal force at the node equals Mu * Normal force, the restraint load is the displacement
times the friction stiffness.
3 Once the maximum value of the friction force is reached, the friction force will stop increasing, since
a constant effort force is inserted.
18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
By increasing the friction stiffness in the setup file, the displacements at the node will decrease to some
degree. This may cause a redistribution of the loads throughout the system. However, this could have
adverse affects on the solution convergence.
If problems arise during the solution of a job with friction at supports, reducing the friction stiffness will
usually improve convergence. Several runs should be made with varying values of the friction stiffness to
insure the system behavior is consistent.
Summary of J. Sobieszczanski’s ASME Paper
For dry friction, the friction force magnitude is a step function of displacement. This discontinuity
determines the problem as intrinsically nonlinear and eliminates the possibility of using the
superposition principle.
The friction loading on the pipe can be represented by an ordinary differential equation of the fourth
order with a variable coefficient that is a nonlinear function of both dependent and independent
variables. No solution in closed form is known for an equation of this type. Solution has to be sought
by means of numerical integration to be carried out specifically for a particular pipeline configuration.
Dry friction can be idealized by a fictitious elastic foundation, discretized to a set of elastic (spring)
supports.
A wellknown property of an elastic system with dry friction constraints is that it may attain several
static equilibrium positions within limits determined by the friction forces.
THE WHOLE PROBLEM THEN HAS CLEARLY NOT A DETERMINISTIC, BUT A
STOCHASTIC CHARACTER.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 19
Nonlinear Code Compliance
Nonlinear piping code compliance can be directly satisfied by
1 Performing an operating and sustained analysis of the system including in each case the effect of
nonlinear restraints.
2 Subtracting the sustained case displacements from the operating case displacements to find the
“displacement range.”
3 Calculating the expansion stresses from the displacement range solved for in #2 above.
Approximate approaches usually involve some combination of the above. The approximate combination
used depends typically on the inherent limitations of the base program. In several commonly used
programs, the approach taken is
1 Formulate and solve for operating case displacements including an iteration to deal with the effect of
nonlinear restraints in the system.
2 Run the thermalonly analysis of the system to calculate expansion stresses with restraints in the same
condition as they were at the end of #1.
3 Run the weight+pressure only analysis of the system to calculate sustained stresses, again with
restraints in the same condition as they were at the end of #1.
This alternate approach is identical to the first method only when the sustained analysis final stiffness
matrix is the same as the operating analysis final stiffness matrix. The resulting error in the displacement
range can be found from
{[Fo]  [Fs]}fs.
Where:
[Fo] is the operating analysis final flexibility matrix. (i.e. the inverse of the stiffness matrix.)
[Fs] is the sustained analysis final flexibility matrix.
fs is the sustained analysis load vector.
CAESAR II uses the exact method described above for calculating the expansion stress range. In addition
CAESAR II scans the user’s input and recommends loading cases and combinations for performing the
operating, sustained and expansion stress calculations. This recommendation can prove very useful when
performing spring hanger analysis of a multiple operating case system.
20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Sustained Stresses and Nonlinear Restraints
The proper computation of sustained stresses has been an issue since the late 1970s, when computerized
pipe stress analysis programs first attempted to address the problem of nonlinear restraints. The existing
piping codes offered little guidance on the subject, since their criteria were developed during the era when
all analyses were considered to behave in a strictly linear fashion. The problem arises because the codes
require that a piping system be analyzed separately for sustained loadings — the engineer must determine
which stresses are caused by which loadings. Sustained loads are force loadings which are assumed not to
change, while expansion loadings are displacement loadings which vary with the system operating
conditions. Determination of the sustained loads is the simple part — most everybody agrees that those
forces consist of weight, pressure, and spring preloads — these forces remain relatively constant as the
piping system goes through its thermal growth. However, confusion occurs when the status of nonlinear
restraints change (pipes lift off of supports, gaps close, etc.) as the pipe goes from its hot to cold state — in
this case, which boundary conditions should be used when evaluating the applied forces? Or in other
words, what portion of the stress in the operating case is caused by weight loads, and what portion is
caused by expansion effects? (Note that there is no corresponding confusion on the question of calculating
expansion stresses, since the codes are explicit in their instructions that the expansion stress range is the
difference between the operating and cold stress distributions, both of which are known.)
The obvious answer to this question, to the developers of some pipe stress programs, was that the
sustained stress calculation should be done using the operating, or hot boundary condition. This
compounded the problem, in that the laws of superposition no longer held — in other words, the results of
sustained (W+P) and thermal (T) cases, when added together, did not equal the results of the operating
(W+P+T) case! One pioneering program, DYNAFLEX, attempted to resolve this by introducing the
concept of the “thermal component of weight” — an oxymoron, in our opinion. Other programs, notably
those which came from the mainframe/linear analysis world, had to approximate the behavior of these
nonlinear restraints. Their approach to the problem is to run an operating case, obtain the restraint status,
and modify the model according to these results. All subsequent load cases analyzed use this restraint
configuration. The fact that the laws of static superposition didn't hold was hopefully not noticed by the
user. CAESAR II, on the other hand, represents new technology, developed expressly for operation on the
PC, and therefore incorporates directly the effects of nonlinear restraints. This is done by considering
each load case independently — the restraint configuration is determined for each load case by the
program as it runs, based upon the actual loads which are considered to be present.
Some users have asserted that there are actually two sustained load cases. In fact, there has been a B31.3
code interpretation that indicates that the sustained stress may also be checked with the operating restraint
configuration. Calculating the sustained stresses using the operating restraint status raises several other
issues; what modulus of elasticity should be used, and which sustained stresses should be used for
occasional cases.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 21
It is COADE’s assertion that there is only one sustained case (otherwise it is not “sustained”) — there can
be, however, multiple sustained stress distributions. The two most apparent are those associated with the
cold (installed) and hot (operating) configurations, however, there are also numerous inbetween, as the
piping system load steps from cold to hot. Whether the “true” sustained load case occurs during the
installed or operating case is a matter of the frame of reference. If an engineer first sees a system in its
cold condition, and watches it expand to its operating condition, it appears that the first case (since weight
and pressure — primary loads — are present) is the sustained case, and the changes he viewed are thermal
effects (due to heat up) — secondary loads due to displacements. If a second engineer first sees the same
system in the operating case and watches it cool down to the cold case, he may believe that the first case
he saw (the operating case) is the sustained case, and changes experienced from hot to cold are the thermal
expansion effects (the thermal stress ranges are the same in both cases). Consider the further implications
of cryogenic systems — where changes from installed to operating are the same as those experienced by
hot systems when going from operating to installed. Once elastic shakedown has occurred, the question
becomes clouded even further, due to the presence of thermally induced prestresses in the pipe during
both the cold and hot conditions. We feel either the operating or installed case (or some other one in
between) could justifiably be selected for analysis as the sustained case, as long as the program is
consistent.
We have selected the installed case (less the effect of cold spring) as our reference sustained case, since
thermal effects can be completely omitted from the solution (as intended by the code), and this best
represents the support configuration when the sustained loads are initially applied. If the pipe lifts off of a
support when going from installed to operating, we view this as a thermal effect — consistent with the
piping codes’ view of thermal effects as the variation of stress distribution as the piping system goes from
cold to hot (this view is explicitly corroborated by one code — the French petrochemical code, which
states that weight stress distributions due to thermal growth of the pipe should be considered as expansion
stresses). For example, we feel that a change in a rigid support load from 2,000 lbs to zero should be
treated no differently than would be a variable spring load changing from 6,000 lbs to 4,000 lbs (or
another rigid support load going 2,000 lbs to 1 lb). In the former case, if the pipe became “overstressed”, it
would yield, and sag back to the support, relieving the stress. This process is identical to the way that all
other expansion stresses are relieved in a piping system.
We are confident that our interpretation is correct. However, we understand that our users may not always
agree with us — that is why CAESAR II provides the greatest ability to custom tailor the analysis to one’s
individual specifications. If desired, a “hot sustained” case can be analyzed by adding two load cases to
those normally recommended by CAESAR II. This would be done by assuming that the pipe expands first,
and then the sustained loads are applied (this is of course an idealized concept, but the stresses can only be
segregated by segregating the applied loads, so the sustained loads can only be applied either before, or
after, the expansion loads). Following are the default load cases, as well as those required for a “hot
sustained.”
Default New
W+P1+T1(OPE) W+P1+T1(OPE)
W+P1(SUS) W+P1(SUS)
L1L2(EXP) T1 (EXP)
L1L2(EXP)
L1L3(SUS)
22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
In the new load case list, the second case still represents the cold sustained, while the fourth case
represents the expansion case (note that L1L2, or W+P1+T1WP1, equals T1, with nonlinear effects
taken into account). The third case represents the thermal growth of the “weightless,” nonpressurized
pipe, against the nonlinear restraints.
The fifth case (L1L3, or W+P1+T1T1, equals W+P1) represents the application of weight and pressure
to that expanded case, or the “hot sustained” case. Note that when the piping system is analyzed as above,
the actual effects of the nonlinear restraints are considered (they are not arbitrarily removed from the
model), and the laws of superposition still hold.
An alternative school of thought believes that a "hot sustained" is only valid if (1) the sustained, primary
loads are applied, (2) all springs are showing their Hot Load settings, and (3) any supports that lift off (or
otherwise become nonactive) have been removed from the model. An analysis such as this is achievable
by setting the "Keep/Discard" status of the Restrained Weight case (the first hanger design load case) to
"Keep", thus permitting the results of that case to be viewable as for any other load case. The Restrained
Weight case automatically removes restraints that become nonactive during the designated operating
case, and apply the Hot Load at each of the hanger locations.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 23
Notes on Occasional Load Cases
Several piping codes require that the stresses from occasional loads (such as wind or earthquake) be added
to the sustained stresses (due to weight, pressure, and other constant loads) before comparing them to their
allowables. This combination is easily created in CAESAR II:
CASE # 1 W+P+F1 (SUS) :Sustained stresses
2 WIND (OCC) :Wind load set
3 U1 (OCC) :Uniform (g) load set for earthquake
4 L1+L2 (OCC) :Code stresses for wind *
5 L1+L3 (OCC) :Code stresses for earthquake*
* Scalar Summation Method required
If nonlinear effects are modeled in the system these combinations may not be so straight forward. Friction,
onedirection restraints and doubleacting restraints with gaps are the nonlinear items which present this
complication. Wind loading on a long vertical run of pipe with a guide will serve as an example. Assume
there is a one inch gap between the pipe and guide. Under normal operation, the pipe moves 3/4 inch
towards the stop leaving a gap of 13/4 inch on either side of the pipe and a 1/4 inch gap on the other side.
If wind loads are analyzed alone, the pipe is allowed to move 1 inch from its center point in the guide to
the guide stop. Since occasional loads are usually analyzed with the system in operation, the pipe may be
limited to a 1/4 inch motion as the gap is closed in one direction, and 13/4 inch if the gap is closed in the
opposite direction. With nonlinear effects modeled in the system, the occasional deflections (and stresses)
are influenced by the operating position of the piping.
The following list of CAESAR II load cases take this point into consideration. Note that the load cases
shown below are only for wind acting in one direction, i.e., +X. Depending on the system, the most critical
loads could occur in any direction, i.e., +/X, +/Z or skewed in an XZ direction.
The intention of the following load case construction is to find the occasional load’s effect on the piping
system in the operating condition. The stress due to the moment change from the operating to the
operating plus wind case is added to the stress from the sustained case.
The isolated wind effect on the piping system in the operating condition in is computed in Case 5. Case 6
adds the stresses from Case 5 to the sustained stresses from Case 2.
CASE # 1 W+T+P (OPE) :Operation analysis
2 W+P (SUS) :Sustained stresses
3 W+T+P+WIND (OPE) :Operating analysis with wind
4 L1L2 (EXP) :Expansion stresses (Algebraic summation)
5 L3L1 (OCC) :Wind’s net deflection (Algebraic summation)
6 L2+L5 (OCC) :Code stresses for wind (Scalar summation)
24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Static Seismic Loads
Static earthquake loads are applied in a manner very similar to static wind loads. The static loading
magnitude is considered to be in direct proportion to the element’s weight. Earthquake load magnitudes
are given in terms of the gravitational acceleration constant, i.e. g’s. If an earthquake is modeled as having
a 0.5g load in the X direction, then half of the systems weight is turned into a uniform load and applied in
the X direction.
Earthquake static load cases are set up exactly as they are for wind occasional loads, i.e. the same load
case, nonlinearity, and directional sensitivity logic. In some cases the client specifies the magnitude of the
earthquake loading in g’s and the direction(s). In others, the analysis is left to the sole discretion of the
analyst. It is not unusual to see only X or XY components of an earthquake. It is not uncommon to see Y
only components, or X, Y, and Z simultaneous components.
Dynamic earthquakes are discussed later in this chapter, in the dynamic analysis and output chapters, and
in the screen reference chapter.
The ASCE #7 method for determining earthquake coefficients is described below. Once calculated, the g
factors should be entered as uniform loads on the piping spreadsheet.
Note: The Uniform Load in G's (on page 112) check box must also be enabled in the spreadsheet
special execution parameters.
The total lateral force at the base of a structure is to be computed from:
V = ZIKCSW
Where:
V  total lateral force or shear at the base
Z—numerical coefficient from table 22
K—numerical coefficient from table 23
C—numerical coefficient from Sect. 9.4
S—soil factor from table 25
W—total dead load
The gfactor can be found by dividing Eq. 6 through by W.
g’s = V/W = ZIKCS
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 25
The product CS does not need to exceed the value 0.14. Use this value as a conservative maximum.
The following table provides the seismic zone coefficient (Z)
.
Seismic Zone
Coefficient, Z
4 1
3 3/4
2 3/8
1 3/16
0 1/8
From the following table, the importance factor can be found: (However use a value for I = 1.0. The
categories in this table are identical for those used in the wind load calculation.)
The following table shows K varying from 0.67 to 2.0. Use K=2.0 for “Structures other than buildings.”
So the equation for the “g” load:
g = ZIKCS
reduces to:
g = Z (1.0) (2.0) (0.14)
and for the various value of Z:
26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Seismic Zone Product "g" Load
4 (1)(1)(2)(0.14) 0.28
3
(3/4)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.21
2
(3/8)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.105
1
(3/16)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.0525
0
(1/8)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.035
Seismic Zones from A58.1  1982 fig. 13, p.50
ASCE #7  1990 is the 1990 revision to ANSI A58.1 1982. There are no revisions to this code which
affect CAESAR II.
ASCE #7  1993 has completely changed the approach for "static" seismic analysis. These changes
are not addressed by this discussion.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 27
Wind Loads
Wind loads are generated by multiplying the pipe exposed area, including insulation, and considering
angle to the wind, by the equivalent wind pressure and the pipe shape factor. There are typically three
different ways to get at the equivalent wind pressure:
ASCE #7 (1995)
Pressure vs. elevation table entry
Velocity vs. elevation table entry
The total wind force on the element is calculated from
F = PeqSA
Where:
F = the total wind force on the element
Peq = the equivalent wind pressure (dynamic pressure)
S = the pipe element wind shape factor
A = the pipe element exposed area as shown in the figure as follows:
Peq is calculated for each end of the element and the average taken. The average applies uniformly over the
whole length of the element. Note, the wind force is applied in the three global directions as a function of
the element direction cosines.
If the user enters a velocity vs. elevation table then the velocity is converted to a dynamic pressure using
the following equation:
P = 1/2 pV
2
where V is the wind velocity and p is the air density.
The WIND SHAPE FACTOR is entered on the pipe spreadsheet and, for cylindrical elements, the value
from Table 12 is between 0.5 and 0.7. A value of 0.65 is typical. The wind shape factor as entered is
“distributive.” This means that the shape factor applies for all following elements until zeroed or changed.
Important The user does not have to enter the shape factor on each pipe spreadsheet. Zero (or turn
"Off") the wind shape factor if the piping system runs inside of building or similarly protective structure.
Wind load data is entered on the Wind Loads (on page 59) tab of the Static Load Case Builder. Up to four
different wind loads can be entered per analysis. These typically might be set up to model wind loads in
the +X, Y, and Z directions.
The ASCE #7 ( 1995) Method for computing equivalent pressure requires several computerized table look
ups and interpolation. The user enters the following parameters:
1 Basic wind speed (mph)  The minimum allowed basic wind speed is 85 mph. This does not include
averages for abnormally high wind loading events such as hurricanes or tornadoes.
ASCE #7 refers to fig. 61 for basic wind speeds in the continental United States. The following
description is a crude representation of Figure 1:
28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
California 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec)
Other West Coast Areas 85 mph (124.6 ft/sec)
Great Plains 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec)
NonCoastal Eastern United States 90 mph (132.0 ft/sec)
Gulf Coast 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec)
Florida Carolinas 130 mph (190.6 ft/sec)
Miami 145 mph (212.6 ft/sec)
New England Coastal Areas 120 mph (176.0 ft/sec)
2 Wind Exposure Options
Large oily center
Urban, suburban, and wooded areas
Open terrain
Flat coastal areas
3 Structural Classification Options
Everything except the following options (used most often)
Primary occupancy more than 100 people
Essential facilities, i.e. hospitals
Failure represents low hazard
4 Topographic Factor Parameters (sec. 6.5.5)
Height of hill or escarpment
Crest distance
Height above ground level
Distance from crest to site
Hill type
The following procedure from the appendix is used to calculate the effective wind pressure:
1 Get the Importance Factor from Table 62 (p.17)
2 Get (Alpha), Zg, from Table C 62.
3 Calculate Kz from Eq. C2 (p.152)
4 Calculate Kzt from Eq. 62 (p.34)
5 Calculate qz from Eq. 61, (p.17)
6 Calculate Gz from sec 6.6
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 29
7 Calculate the effective wind pressure from
PRESSURE = Gz * qz * Shape Factor
Note: Winds of 20 to 40 mph can cause vortex shedding and excitation in the 30 Hz and higher range
that can cause fatigue failure in smaller line sizes particularly susceptible to fatigue type failures. To
analyze vortex shedding, use harmonic analysis methods.
Elevation
The accurate elevation of each individual piping element may, or may not be important depending on the
total height, diameter and rigidity of the piping system and attachments. By default, CAESAR II starts the
first node on the first element at an elevation of 0.0. If this is not close enough to the true elevation then
the user should set the true coordinates of the piping system through the command EDIT  GLOBAL. This
presents a dialog requesting coordinates for the first node of any disconnected section. The coordinates for
up to 100 node points can be specified and saved as part of the input data from the model.
30 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Hydrodynamic (Wave and Current) Loading
Ocean waves are generated by wind and propagate out of the generating area. The generation of ocean
waves is dependent on the wind speed, the duration of the wind, the water depth, and the distance over
which the wind blows is referred to as the fetch length. There a variety of two dimensional wave theories
proposed by various researchers, but the three most widely used are the Airy (linear) wave theory, Stokes
5
th
Order wave theory, and Dean's Stream Function wave theory. The later two theories are nonlinear
wave theories and provide a better description of the near surface effects of the wave.
(The term two dimensional refers to the unidirectional wave. One dimension is the direction the wave
travels, and the other dimension is vertical through the water column. Two dimensional waves are not
found in the marine environment, but are somewhat easy to define and determine properties for, in a
deterministic sense. In actuality, waves undergo spreading, in the third dimension. This can be easily
understood by visualizing a stone dropped in a pond. As the wave spread, the diameter of the circle
increases. In addition to wave spreading, a real sea state includes waves of various periods, heights, and
lengths. In order to address these actual conditions, a deterministic approach can not be used. Instead, a
sea spectrum is utilized, which may also include a spreading function. As there are various wave theories,
there are various sea spectra definitions. The definition and implementation of sea spectra are usually
employed in dynamic analysis. Sea Spectra and dynamic analysis will not be discussed in this article.)
The linear or Airy wave theory assumes the free surface is symmetric about the mean water level.
Furthermore, the water particle motion is a closed circular orbit, the diameter of which decays with depth.
(The term circular should be taken loosely here, the orbit varies from circular to elliptical based on
whether the wave is in shallow or deep water.) Additionally, for shallow water waves, the wave height to
depth ratio (H/D) is limited to 0.78 to avoid breaking. (None of the wave theories address breaking
waves!) The figure below shows a typical wave and associated hydrodynamic parameters.
SWL  The still water level.
L  The wave length, the horizontal distance between successive crests or troughs.
H The wave height, the vertical distance between the crest and trough.
D  The water depth, the vertical distance form the bottom to the still water level.
n  The surface elevation measured from the still water level.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 31
Ocean Wave Particulars
The Airy wave theory provides a good first approximation to the water particle behavior. The nonlinear
theories provide a better description of particle motion, over a wider range depths and wave heights. The
Stokes 5
th
wave theory is based on a power series. This wave theory does not apply the symmetric free
surface restriction. Additionally, the particle paths are no longer closed orbits, which means there is a
gradual drift of the fluid particles, i.e. a mass transport.
Stokes 5
th
order wave theory however, does not adequately address steeper waves over a complete range
of depths. Dean’s Stream Function wave theory attempts to address this deficiency. This wave theory
employs an iterative numerical technique to solve the stream function equation. The stream function
describes not only the geometry of a two dimensional flow, but also the components of the velocity vector
at any point, and the flow rate between any two streamlines.
The most suitable wave theory is dependent on the wave height, the wave period, and the water depth.
Based on these parameters, the applicable wave theory can be determined from the figure below (from
APIRP2A, American Petroleum Institute  Recommended Practice 2A).
32 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Applicable Wave Theory Determination
The limiting wave steepness for most deep water waves is usually determined by the Miche Limit:
H / L = 0.142 tanh( kd )
Where:
H is the wave height
L is the wave length
k is the wave number (2t)/L
d is the water depth
PseudoStatic Hydrodynamic Loading
CAESAR II allows individual pipe elements to experience loading due to hydrodynamic effects. These fluid
effects can impose a substantial load on the piping elements in a manner similar to, but more complex than
wind loading.
The various wave theories incorporated into CAESAR II as well as the various types of current profiles are
discussed below. The wave theories and the current profile are used to compute the water particle
velocities and accelerations at the node points. Once these parameters are available, the force on the
element can be computed using Morrison’s equation:
F = 1/2 * p * Cd * D * U * U + t/4 * p * Cm * D
2
* A
Where
p  is the fluid density
Cd is the drag coefficient
D  is the pipe diameter
U  is the particle velocity
Cm  is the inertial coefficient
A  is the particle acceleration
The particle velocities and accelerations are vector quantities which include the effects of any applied
waves or currents. In addition to the force imposed by Morrison’s equation, piping elements are also
subjected to a lift force and a buoyancy force. The lift force is defined as the force acting normal to the
plane formed by the velocity vector and the element’s axis. The lift force is defined as:
Fl = 1/2 * p * Cl * D * U
2
Where
p  is the fluid density
Cl  is the lift coefficient
D  is the pipe diameter
U  is the particle velocity
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 33
The buoyancy force acts upward, and is equal to the weight of the fluid volume displaced by the element.
Once the force on a particular element is available, it is placed in the system load vector just as any other
load is. A standard solution is performed on the system of equations which describe the piping system.
(The piping system can be described by the standard finite element equation:
[K] {x} = {f}
Where
[K]  is the global stiffness matrix for the entire system
{x}  is the displacement / rotation vector to solve for
{f}  is global load vector
The element loads generated by the hydrodynamic effects are placed in their proper locations in {f},
similar to weight, pressure, and temperature. Once [K] and {f} are finalized, a standard finite element
solution is performed on this system of equations. The resulting displacement vector {x} is then used to
compute element forces, and these forces are then used to compute the element stresses.)
Except for the buoyancy force, all other hydrodynamic forces acting on the element are a function of the
particle velocities and accelerations.
AIRY Wave Theory Implementation
Airy wave theory is also known as “linear” wave theory, due to the assumption that the wave profile is
symmetric about the mean water level. Standard Airy wave theory allows for the computation of the
water particle velocities and accelerations between the mean surface elevation and the bottom. The
Modified Airy wave theory allows for the consideration of the actual free surface elevation in the
computation of the particle data. CAESAR II includes both the standard and modified forms of the Airy
wave theory.
To apply the Airy wave theory, several descriptive parameters about the wave must be given. These values
are then used to solve for the wave length, which is a characteristic parameter of each unique wave.
CAESAR II uses NewtonRaphston iteration to determine the wave length by solving the dispersion
relation, shown below:
L = (gT
2
/ 2t) * tanh(2tD / L)
Where
g  is the acceleration of gravity
T  is the wave period
D  is the mean water depth
L  is the wave length to be solved for
Once the wave length (L) is known, the other wave particulars of interest may be easily determined. The
parameters determined and used by CAESAR II are: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and
UY ), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and the surface elevation above (or
below) the mean water level ( ETA ). The equations for these parameters can be found in any standard text
(such as those listed at the end of this section) which discusses ocean wave theories, and therefore will not
be repeated here.
34 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
STOKES Wave Theory Implementation
The Stokes wave is a 5th order gravity wave, and hence nonlinear in nature. The solution technique
employed by CAESAR II is described in a paper published by Skjelbreia and Hendrickson of the National
Engineering Science Company of Pasadena California in 1960. The standard formulation as well as a
modified formulation (to the free surface) are available in CAESAR II Stokes 5th Order Wave Theory.
The solution follows a procedure very similar to that used in the Airy wave, characteristic parameters of
the wave are determined by using NewtonRaphston iteration, followed by the determination of the water
particle values of interest.
The NewtonRaphston iteration procedure solves two nonlinear equations for the constants beta and
lambda. Once these values are available, the other twenty constants can be computed. After all of the
constants are known, CAESAR II can compute: the horizontal and vertical particle velocities ( UX and UY
), the horizontal and vertical particle acceleration ( AX and AY ), and the surface elevation above the
mean water level (ETA).
Stream Function Wave Theory Implementation
In addition to the forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be subjected to forces
imposed by ocean currents. There are three different ocean current models in CAESAR II; linear, piece
wise, and a power law profile.
The linear current profile assumes that the current velocity through the water column varies linearly from
the specified surface velocity (at the surface) to zero (at the bottom). The piecewise linear profile
employs linear interpolation between specific “depth/velocity” points specified by the user. The power law
profile decays the surface velocity to the 1/7 power.
While waves produce unsteady flow, where the particle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly
change, current produces a steady, nonvarying flow.
Ocean Currents
In addition to forces imposed by ocean waves, piping elements may also be subjected to forces imposed
by ocean currents. There are three different ocean current models in CAESAR II; linear piecewise linear
profile, and a power law profile. The linear current profile assumes that the current velocity though the
water column varies linearly from the specified surface velocity (at the surface to zero (at the bottom). The
piecewise linear profile employs linear interpolation between specific "depth /velocity" points specified
by the user. The power law profile decays the surface velocity to the 1/7 power.
While waves produce unsteady flow, where the particle velocities and accelerations at a point constantly
change, current produces a steady, nonvarying flow.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 35
Technical Notes on CAESAR II Hydrodynamic Loading
The input parameters necessary to define the fluid loading are described in detail in the next section. The
basic parameters describe the wave height and period, and the current velocity. The most difficult to
obtain, and also the most important parameters, are the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients, Cd, Cm, and Cl.
Based on the recommendations of API RP2A and DNV (Det Norske Veritas), values for Cd range from 0.6
to 1.2, values for Cm range from 1.5 to 2.0. Values for Cl show a wide range of scatter, but the
approximate mean value is 0.7.
The inertia coefficient Cm is equal to one plus the added mass coefficient Ca. This added mass value
accounts for the mass of the fluid assumed to be entrained with the piping element.
In actuality, these coefficients are a function of the fluid particle velocity, which varies over the water
column. In general practice, two dimensionless parameters are computed which are used to obtain the Cd,
Cm, and Cl values from published charts. The first dimensionless parameter is the KeuleganCarpenter
Number, K. K is defined as:
K = Um * T / D
Where:
Um  is the maximum fluid particle velocity
T  is the wave period
D  is the characteristic diameter of the element.
The second dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds number, Re. Re is defined as
Re = Um * D / v
Where:
Um  is the maximum fluid particle velocity
D  is the characteristic diameter of the element.
v  is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid (1.26e5 ft
2
/sec for sea water).
36 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Once K and Re are available, charts are used to obtain Cd, Cm, and Cl. (See Mechanics of Wave Forces on
Offshore Structures by T. Sarpkaya, Figures 3.21, 3.22, and 3.25 for example charts, which are shown in
the figures below.)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 37
In order to determine these coefficients, the fluid particle velocity (at the location of interest) must be
determined. The appropriate wave theory is solved, and these particle velocities are readily obtained.
Of the wave theories discussed, the modified Airy and Stokes 5
th
theories include a modification of the
depthdecay function. The standard theories use a depthdecay function equal to cosh(kz) / sinh(kd),
Where:
k  is the wave number, 2t /L
L  is the wave length
d  is the water depth
z  is the elevation in the water column where the data is to be determined
The modified theories include an additional term in the numerator of this depthdecay function. The
modified depthdecay function is equal to cosh(od) / sinh(kd),
Where:
o  is equal to z / (d + n)
38 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The term od represents the effective height of the point at which the particle velocity and acceleration are
to be computed. The use of this term keeps the effective height below the still water level. This means that
the velocity and acceleration computed are convergent for actual heights above the still water level.
As previously stated, the drag, inertia, and lift coefficients are a function of the fluid velocity and the
diameter of the element in question. Note that the fluid particle velocities vary with both depth and
position in the wave train (as determined by the applied wave theory). Therefore, these coefficients are in
fact not constants. However, from a practical engineering point of view, varying these coefficients as a
function of location in the Fluid field is usually not implemented. This practice can be justified when one
considers the inaccuracies involved in specifying the instantaneous wave height and period. According to
Sarpkaya, these values are insufficient to accurately predict wave forces, a consideration of the previous
fluid particle history is necessary. In light of these uncertainties, constant values for Cd, Cm, and Cl are
recommended by API and many other references.
The effects of marine growth must also be considered. Marine growth has the following effects on the
system loading: the increased pipe diameters increase the hydrodynamic loading; the increased roughness
causes an increase in Cd, and therefore the hydrodynamic loading; the increase in mass and added mass
cause reduced natural frequencies and increase the dynamic amplification factor; it causes an increase in
the structural weight; and possibly causes hydrodynamic instabilities, such as vortex shedding.
Finally, Morrison’s force equation is based the “small body” assumption. The term “small” refers to the
“diameter to wave length” ratio. If this ratio exceeds 0.2, the inertial force is no longer in phase with the
acceleration of the fluid particles and diffraction effects must be considered. In such cases, the fluid
loading as typically implemented by CAESAR II is no longer applicable.
Additional discussions on hydrodynamic loads and wave theories can be found in the references at the end
of this article.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 39
Input: Specifying Hydrodynamic Parameters in CAESAR II
The hydrodynamic load analysis requires the specification of several measurable parameters which
quantify the physical aspects of the environmental phenomenon in question.
Note: Users can enter four different wave loads here. Use the Editing Load Case buttons to move up or
down between the Wave Load Input Spreadsheets.
The necessary hydrodynamic parameters are discussed in the following paragraphs and a CAESAR II
hydrodynamic loading dialog is shown in the figure below.
Wave Loading Editing in the Load Case Editor
Current Data
Profile Type—This entry defines the interpolation method used by CAESAR II to determine the current
velocity as a function of depth. Available options for this entry are: a power law profile, a piecewise
linear profile, and a linear profile.
The power law profile determines the current velocity at depth D according to the equation:
Vd = Vs * [di / D]
p
Where
Vd  is the velocity at depth di
Vs  is the specified velocity at the surface
D  is the water depth
p  is the power, set to 1/7
40 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The piecewise linear profile performs a linear interpolation of a velocity verse depth table (provided by
the user) to obtain the current velocity at depth di. When this type profile is specified, a table of depths and
velocities must be provided. The table should start at the surface (a depth of zero) and progress in the
direction of increasing depth, to the sea bed.
The linear profile also performs a linear interpolation to obtain the current velocity at depth di. However,
this method assumes the current velocity varies linearly from the specified surface velocity to zero at the
sea bed.
Current Speed — This entry defines the current speed at the surface. The units for this entry are
(length/time) as defined by the active units file at the time of input. This value should always be a positive
entry.
Current Direction Cosines — These entries define the direction of fluid transport due to the current. These
fields are unitless, and follow the standard software global axis convention.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 41
Wave Data
Wave Theory Indicator —This entry specifies which wave theory is to be used to compute the water
particle velocities and accelerations. The wave theories presently available are:
Standard Airy Wave — This is also known as linear wave theory. Discussion of this theory can be found in
the previously mentioned references.
Modified Airy Wave — This is a modification of the standard Airy theory which includes the free surface
effects due to the wave. The modification consists of determining a depth scaling factor equal to the depth
divided by the depth plus the surface elevation. Note that this scale factor varies as a function of the
location in the wave train.
Standard Stokes 5th Wave — This is a 5th order wave theory, also discussed in the previously mentioned
references.
Modified Stokes 5th Wave — This is a modification of the standard Stokes 5th theory. The modification is
the same as applied to the Airy theory.
Stream Function Wave — This is Dean’s Stream Function theory, also discussed in the previously
mentioned references.
Modified Stream Function Wave — This is Dean’s Stream Function theory, modified to directly consider
current in the wave solution.
Stream Function Order — When the Stream Function theory is activated, the solution order must be
defined. Typical values for the stream function order range from 3 to 13 (see APIRP2A figure).
Water Depth — This entry defines the vertical distance (in units of length) from the still water level (the
surface) to the sea bed.
Wave Height — This entry defines the height of the incident wave. The height is the vertical distance (in
units of length) from the wave crest to the wave trough.
Wave Period — This entry defines the time span (in seconds) for two successive wave crests to pass a
fixed point.
Wave Kinematic Factor — Because the two dimensional wave theories do not account for spreading, a
reduction factor is often used for the horizontal particle velocity and acceleration. Wave kinematic
measurements support values in the range of 0.85 to 0.95. Refer to the applicable offshore codes before
using this item.
Wave Direction Cosines — These entries define the direction of wave travel. These fields are unitless, and
follow the standard software global axis convention.
Wave Phase Angle —This entry defines the position of the wave relative to the starting node of the piping
system. The phase angle is a measure (in degrees) of position in the wave train, where 0 is the wave crest,
180 is the wave trough, and 360 is the following crest. Since the wave propagates over the piping
structure, each point in the structure experiences all possible wave phase angles. One analysis technique
specifies the wave phase at the system origin, and then the phase at each node point in the model is deter
mined. From these exact phase locations, the water particle data is computed from the wave theory.
42 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Alternatively, a conservative engineering approach is to use the same phase angle (usually zero) for all
points in the model. This technique produces higher loads, however, the extra conservatism is warranted
when given the unknowns in specifying environmental data.
Seawater Data
Free Surface Elevation — This entry defines the height of the free surface, from the global system origin. If
the system origin is at the free surface, this entry should be specified as zero. If the system origin is at the
sea bottom, this entry is equal to the water depth. By default, the first node in a CAESAR II model is at an
elevation of zero. This elevation can be changed using the [AltG] key sequence.
Kinematic Viscosity — This entry is used to define the kinematic viscosity of water. This value is used to
determine the Reynolds number, which is subsequently used to determine they hydrodynamic coefficients
Cd, Cm, and Cl. Typical values of kinematic viscosity for sea water are listed in the table below.
Temp Deg (F) v(ft
2
/sec) Temp (C) v(m
2
/sec)
60 1.26
e5
15.556 1.17058
e6
50 1.46
e5
10.000 1.35639
e6
40 1.55
e5
4.444 1.44000
e6
30 2.00
e5
1.111 1.85807
e6
Fluid Weight Density  This entry defines the weight density of the fluid. For sea water, this value is
approximately .037037 pounds per cubic inch (.001025 kg/cm3, 1.0256SG).
Piping Element Data
Element Exposure — In implementing hydrodynamic loading in a software program, one must be able to
indicate that elements are either exposed to the fluid or not exposed to the fluid. In CAESAR II, this is
accomplished by a set of “radio buttons,” which indicate that the particular element is exposed to
hydrodynamic loads, wind loads, or not exposed. This specification carries forward for all subsequent
elements, until changed.
Hydrodynamic Coefficients — Piping elements which are to be subjected to hydrodynamic loading must
have a drag (Cd), an inertia (Cm), and a lift (Cl) coefficient defined. The specification of these items is
optional. A user may specify these values as constants to be applied to all subsequent exposed elements,
regardless of depth or phase position in the wave. Alternatively, these values may be left blank, which will
cause CAESAR II to interpolate their values from the charts previously discussed.
Marine Growth — This entry defines the amount of marine growth on the piping elements. The value of
this entry is used to increase the diameter of the piping elements. The units for this field are the current
diameter units. The diameter used in the computation of the hydrodynamic forces is equal to the pipe
diameter plus twice the marine growth entry.
References
1 Mechanics of Wave Forces On Offshore Structures, Turgut Sarpkaya and Michael Isaacson, Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982, ISBN 0442254024.
2 Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering, Myers, Holm, and McAllister, McGrawHill Book
Co., 1969, ISBN 07044245 2.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 43
3 Fifth Order Gravity Wave Theory, Lars Skjelbreia and James Hendrickson, National Engineering
Science Co., Pasadena, California, 1960.
4 Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms, McClelland and Reifel, Van Nostrand Reinhold
Co., 1986, ISBN 0442252234.
5 Intercomparison of NearBottom Kinematics by Several Wave Theories and Field and Laboratory
Data, R. G. Dean and M. Perlin, Coastal Engineering, #9 (1986), p399437.
6 A Finite Amplitude Wave on a Linear Shear Current, R. A. Dalrymple, Journal of Geophysical
Research, Vol 79, No 30, 1974.
7 Application of Stream Function Wave Theory to Offshore Design Problems, R. G. Dean, OTC #1613,
1972.
8 Stream Function Representation of Nonlinear Ocean Waves, R. G. Dean, Journal of Geophysical
Research, Vol 70, No 18, 1965.
9 American Petroleum Institute  Recommended Practice 2A (APIRP2A), American Petroleum
Institute, July 1993.
10 Improved Algorithm for Stream Function Wave Theory, MinChih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Port,
Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, January 1989.
11 Stream Function Wave Theory with Profile Constraints, MinChih Huang, Journal of Waterway, Port,
Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, January/February 1993.
44 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Evaluating Vessel Stresses
The ASME Section VIII, Division 2 code provides for a fairly elaborate procedure to analyze the local
stresses in vessels and nozzles. Only the elastic analysis approach will be discussed in this manual. The
user should always refer to the applicable code if any of the limits described in this section are
approached, or if any unusual material, weld, or stress situation exists, or there are nonlinear concerns
such as the material's operation in the creep range.
The first step in the procedure is to determine if the elastic approach is satisfactory. Section AD160
contains the exact method and basically states that if all of the following conditions are met, then fatigue
analysis need not be done:
1 The expected design number of fullrange pressure cycles does not exceed the number of allowed
cycles corresponding to an Sa value of 3Sm (4Sm for nonintegral attachments) on the material fatigue
curve. The Sm is the allowable stress intensity for the material at the operating temperature.
2 The expected design range of pressure cycles other than startup or shutdown must be less than 1/3 (1/4
for nonintegral attachments) the design pressure times (Sa/Sm), where Sa is the value obtained on the
material fatigue curve for the specified number of significant pressure fluctuations.
3 The vessel does not experience localized high stress due to heating.
4 The full range of stress intensities due to mechanical loads (including piping reactions) does not
exceed Sa from the fatigue curve for the expected number of load fluctuations.
Once the user has decided that an elastic analysis will be satisfactory, either a simplified or a
comprehensive approach may be taken to the vessel stress evaluation. Both methods will be described in
detail below, after a discussion of the Section VIII Div. 2 Requirements.
ASME Section VIII Division 2  Elastic Analysis of Nozzle
Ideally, in order to address the local allowable stress problem, the user should have the endurance curve
for the material of construction and complete design pressure / temperature loading information. If any of
the elastic limits are approached, or if there is anything out of the ordinary about the nozzle/vessel
connection design, the code should be carefully consulted before performing the local stress analysis. The
material Sm table and the endurance curve for carbon steels are given in this section for illustration. Only
values taken directly from the code should be used in design.
There are essentially three criteria that must be satisfied before the stresses in the vessel wall due to nozzle
loads can be considered within the allowables. These three criteria can be summarized as:
Pm < kSmh
Pm + Pl + Pb< 1.5kSmh
Pm + Pl + Pb + Q < 3Smavg
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 45
Where Pm, Pl, Pb, and Q are the general primary membrane stress, the local primary membrane stress, the
local primary bending stress, and the total secondary stresses (membrane plus bending), respectively; and
K, Smh, and Smavg are the occasional stress factor, the hot material allowable stress intensity, and the average
material stress intensity (Smh + Smc) / 2.
Due to the stress classification defined by Section VIII, Division 2 in the vicinity of nozzles, as given in
the Table 4120.1, the bending stress terms caused by any external load moments or internal pressure in
the vessel wall near a nozzle or other opening, should be classified as Q, or the secondary stresses,
regardless of whether they were caused by sustained or expansion loads. This causes Pb to disappear, and
leads to a much more detailed classification:
Pm—General primary membrane stress (primarily due to internal pressure)
Pl—Local primary membrane stress, which may include
Membrane stress due to internal pressure
Local membrane stress due to applied sustained forces and moments
Q—Secondary stresses, which may include
Bending stress due to internal pressure
Bending stress due to applied sustained forces and moments
Membrane stress due to applied expansion forces
Bending stress due to applied expansion forces and moments
Membrane stress due to applied expansion moments
Each of the stress terms defined in the above classifications contain three parts: two stress components in
normal directions and one shear stress component. To combine these stresses, the following rules apply:
Compute the normal and shear components for each of the three stress types, i.e. Pm, Pl, and Q;
Compute the stress intensity due to the Pm and compare it against kSmh;
Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to Pmand Pl; compute the resultant stress
intensity and compare its value against 1.5kSmh;
Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to Pm, Pl, and Q, compute the resultant
stress intensity, and compare its value to against 3Smavg.
If there is an occasional load as well as a sustained load, these types may be repeated using a k value
of 1.2.
These criteria can be readily found from Figure 4130.1 of Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2
and the surrounding text. Note that the primary bending stress term, Pb, is not applicable to the shell stress
evaluation, and therefore disappears from the Section VIII, Division 2 requirements. Under the same
analogy, the peak stress limit may also be written as:
Pl + Pb + Q + F < Sa
The preceding equation need not be satisfied, provided the elastic limit criteria of AD160 is met based on
the statement explicitly given in Section 5100, which is cited below:
“If the specified operation of the vessel meets all of the conditions of AD160, no analysis for cyclic
operation is required and it may be assumed that the peak stress limit discussed in 4135 has been
satisfied by compliance with the applicable requirements for materials, design, fabrication, testing and
inspection of this division.”
46 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Procedure to Perform Elastic Analyses of Nozzles
The procedure for checking stresses in vessel shells using WRC 107 can be summarized as follows:
1 Check geometric limitation to see whether WRC 107 is applicable;
2 If yes, check to see whether or not the elastic approach as outlined in Section VIII, Division 2, AD
160 is satisfactory;
3 Compute the sustained, expansion and occasional loads in the vessel shell due to the applied nozzle
loads. Consider the local restraint configuration in order to determine whether or not the axial pressure
thrust load (P * Ain) should be added to the sustained (and occasional loads). If desired by the user,
this thrust load will be automatically calculated and added to the applied loads.
4 Calculate pressure stresses, Pm, on the vessel shell wall in both longitudinal and circumferential (hoop)
directions for both sustained and occasional cases. Notice that two different pressure terms are
required in carrying out the pressure stress calculations. P is the design pressure of the system
(sustained), while Pvar is the DIFFERENCE between the peak pressure and the design pressure of the
system, which will be used to qualify the vessel membrane stress under the occasional load case.
Note: The Pm stresses will be calculated automatically if a pressure value is enter by the user.
1 Run WRC 107 to calculate the Pl, and Q stresses as defined earlier. Note that the local stresses due to
sustained, expansion and occasional loads can now be compute simultaneously.
2 Various stress components can be obtained from combining the stress intensities computed from
applying the sustained, expansion and occasional loads, if applicable. These stress intensities can then
be used to carry out the stress summations and the results are used to determine acceptability of the
local stresses in the vessel shell. Notice now CAESAR II can provide the WRC 107 stress summation
module in line with the stress calculation routines
Under the above procedure, the equations used in CAESAR II to qualify the various stress components can
be summarized as follows:
Pm(SUS) < Smh
Pm(SUS + OCC) < 1.2Smh
Pm(SUS) + Pl(SUS) < 1.5Smh
Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) < 1.5(1.2)Smh
Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(Smc + Smh)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 47
Description of Alternate Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Nozzle Analysis
The most difficult problem associated with the comprehensive ASME Sect. VIII, Div. 2 nozzle/vessel
analysis involves the pressure calculation. Hoop and longitudinal hand pressure calculations can not be
considered dependable, and axial pressure loading on the junction is often calculated incorrectly or
omitted. A smaller, yet significant problem with the comprehensive calculation is the time it takes to
organize and manipulate the stress data.
For these reasons, an alternate simplified approach was developed. To eliminate the concern for pressure,
both the pressure term in the loading on the left side of the inequality and the pressure term in the
allowable on the right side of the inequality are cancelled.
The first check is Pm (due to pressure) must be less than or equal to 1.0 Smh. Assuming that the area
reinforcement around the nozzle will satisfy the pressure requirements, let this first check equal the
maximum value.
The second check is Pm + Pl + Pb must be less than or equal to 1.5 Smh. Subtracting the stresses due to
pressure (assumed equal to Smh) reduces this check to: Pl + Pb (due to external sustained forces without
pressure) < 0.5 Smh.
Unfortunately, the third check on the Pm + Pl + Q terms are at the root of an application controversy. There
are primarily three schools of thought:
Pm+Pl+Q is an operating loading condition, and as such, includes the loads due to pressure and weight.
Pm+Pl+Q is the range of loads, i.e. the expansion loading condition, and as such, excludes the effects
of sustained, or primary loads. Primary sustained loads, such as weight and pressure, should be
excluded.
Pm+Pl+Q is the range of loads and should exclude the primary load weight, but should include the
varying pressure load at least in those thermal load cases where the system goes from a startup
(ambient temperature and pressure condition to operating condition).
For the simplification, it is assumed that the Pm component due to pressure should be included in both the
left and right side of the Pm+Pl+Pb+Q < 3Sm inequality, thus assuming that the area reinforcement
requirements are exactly satisfied, i.e.
Again, letting Pm = Sm and subtracting this pressure term from the “expansion” allowable (Pm + Pl + Q <
3Sm) provides a simplified allowable limit.
The expansion (or operating, or both) loads from the CAESAR II restraint report should satisfy the
computed stress requirement:
Pl + Pb + Q (operating or expansion excluding pressure) < 2Sm.
In summary
Ensure proper nozzle reinforcement for pressure and assume pressure stresses are at their maximum.
Compare primary stresses (without pressure) to 1/2 Smh.
Compare stresses due to the sum of primary and secondary loads to 2Sm(avg); where Sm(avg) is the average
of the hot and cold allowable stress intensities (Smh & Smc).
48 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Simplified ASME Sect. VIII Div. 2 Elastic Nozzle Analysis
1 Perform a CAESAR II analysis of the piping loads on the vessel/nozzle junction. Use WRC 297
flexibilities to compute loads more accurately, but less conservatively (or do two analysis, one with
flexibilities and one without). From this analysis the user should have sustained, operating, and
expansion loads on the vessel/nozzle junction.
2 Find Smh and Smc from the Sect. VIII allowable stress tables. Smh is the vessel material hot allowable,
and Smc is the vessel material cold allowable.
3 Run WRC 107 with the sustained loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure
that the computed stress intensities are less than 0.5 Smh. This conservatively considers bending
stresses from internal pressure and sustained moments to have a primary classification; if it fails, the
stresses must be reviewed in more detail.
4 Run WRC 107 with the operating loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure
that the computed stress intensities are less than Smh + Smc.
5 Run WRC 107 with the expansion loads on the vessel/nozzle junction from CAESAR II, and make sure
that the computed stress intensities are less than Smh + Smc.
Should any of the checks described fail, then the more comprehensive analysis (described earlier) of the
junction should be performed.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 49
Inclusion of Missing Mass Correction
The response of a system under a dynamic load is often determined by superposition of modal results,
with CAESAR II specifically providing the spectral analysis method for use. One of the advantages of
modal analysis is that usually only a limited number of modes are excited and need be included in the
analysis. The drawback to this method is that although displacements may be obtained with good accuracy
using only a few of the lowest frequency modes, the force, reaction, and stress results may require
extraction of far more modes (possibly far into the rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained.
CAESAR II’s Missing Mass option offers the ability to include a correction which represents the quasi
static contribution of the higher order modes not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response, thus
providing greater accuracy with reduced calculation time.
The dynamic response of a linear multidegreeoffreedom system is described by the following equation:
Ma(t) + Cv(t) + Kx(t) = F(t)
Where:
M= n x n mass matrix of system
C = n x n damping matrix of system
K = n x n stiffness matrix of system
a(t) = n x 1, timedependent acceleration vector
v(t) = n x 1, timedependent velocity vector
x(t) = n x 1, timedependent displacement vector
F(t) = n x 1, timedependent applied force vector
Assuming harmonic motion and neglecting damping, the free vibration eigenvalue problem for this system
is
Ku  Mu e
2
= 0
Where:
u = n x n mode shape matrix
e
2
= n x n matrix where each diagonal entry is the frequency squared of the corresponding mode
The modal matrix u may be normalized such that u
T
M u = I (where I is the n x n identity matrix) and u
T
K u = e
2
.
The modal matrix u may be partitioned into two submatrices:
u = [ ue ur ]
Where:
ue = mode shapes extracted for dynamic analysis (i.e., lowest frequency modes)
ur = residual (nonextracted) mode shapes (corresponding to rigid response, or the “missing mass”
contribution)
50 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The extracted mode shapes are orthogonal to the residual mode shapes, or:
ue
T
x ur = 0
The displacement components can be expressed as linear combinations of the mode shapes:
x = uY = ue Ye + ur Yr = xe + xr
Where:
x = total system displacements
xe = system displacements due to extracted modes
xr = system displacements due to residual modes
Y = generalized modal coordinates
Ye = partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted modes
Yr = partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes
The dynamic load vector can be expressed in similar terms:
F = K u Y = K ue Ye + K ur Yr = Fe + Fr
Where:
F = total system load vector
Fe = load vector due to extracted modes
Fr = load vector due to residual modes
Y = generalized modal coordinates
Ye = partition of Y matrix corresponding to extracted modes
Yr = partition of Y matrix corresponding to residual modes
Normally, modal superposition analyses completely neglect the rigid response — the displacements X r
caused by the load Fr. This response, of the nonextracted modes, can be obtained from the system
displacement under a static loading Fr. Based upon the relationships stated above, Fr can be estimated as
follows:
F = K ue Ye + K ur Yr
Multiplying both sides by ue
T
(and considering that ue
T
ur = 0):
ue
T
F = ue
T
K ue Ye + ue
T
K ur Yr = ue
T
K ue Ye
Substituting ee
2
for ue
T
K ue and solving for Ye:
ue
T
F = ee
2
Ye
Ye = ue
T
ee
2
F
The residual force can now be stated as
Fr = F  K ue Ye = F  ue
T
K ue ee
2
F
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 51
As seen earlier
u
T
M u e
2
= I e
2
= u
T
K u
Substituting ue
T
Mue ee
2
for ue
T
K ue:
Fr = F  ue
T
M ue ee
2
ee
2
F = F  ue
T
M ue F
Therefore, CAESAR II calculates the residual response (and includes it as the missing mass contribution)
according to the following procedure:
1 The missing mass load is calculated for each individual shock load as
Fr = F  ue
T
M ue F
Note: The load vector F represents the product of the force set vector and the rigid DLF for force
spectrum loading; the product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and directional vector for nonISM seismic loads;
and the product of the mass matrix, ZPA, and displacement matrix (under unit ISM support displacement)
for seismic anchor movement loads. Note that the missing mass load will vary, depending upon the
number of modes extracted by the user and the cutoff frequency selected (or more specifically, the DLF or
acceleration corresponding to the cutoff frequency). "Rigid,” for the purposes of determining the rigid
DLF, or the ZPA, may be designated by the user, through a setup parameter, to be either the
DLF/acceleration associated with the frequency of the last extracted mode, or the true spectral DLF/
ZPA—that corresponding to the largest entered frequency of the input spectrum.
2 The missing mass load is applied to the structure as a static load. The static structural response is then
combined (according to the userspecified combination method) with the dynamically amplified
modal responses as if it were a modal response. Actually this static response is the algebraic sum of
the responses of all nonextracted modes— representing inphase response, as would be expected
from rigid modes.
3 The Missing Mass Data report is compiled for all shock cases, whether missing mass is to be included
or not. The percent of mass active is calculated according to:
% Active Mass = 1  (¯ Fr[i] / ¯ F [i])
summed over i = 1 to n
52 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The maximum possible percent that is theoretically possible for this value is of course 100%, however
numerical inaccuracies may occasionally cause the value to be slightly higher. If the missing mass
correction factor is included, the percent of mass included in the correction is shown in the report as well.
Since CAESAR II’s procedure assumes that the missing mass correction represents the contribution of rigid
modes, and that the ZPA is based upon the spectral ordinate value at the frequency of the last extracted
mode, it is recommended that the user extract modes up to, but not far beyond, a recognized “rigid”
frequency. Choosing a cutoff frequency to the left of the spectrum’s resonant peak will provide a non
conservative result, since resonant responses may be missed. Using a cutoff frequency to the right of the
peak, but still in the resonant range, will yield conservative results, since the ZPA/rigid DLF will be
overestimated. Extracting a large number of rigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response may be
conservative, since all available modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give
conservative results versus the algebraic combination method which gives a more realistic representation
of the net response of the rigid modes. Based upon the response spectrum shown below, an appropriate
cutoff point for the modal extraction would be about 33 Hz.
CAESAR II provides two options for combining the missing mass correction with the modal (dynamic)
results—SRSS and Absolute. The Absolute combination method of course provides the more conservative
result, and is based upon the assumption that the dynamic amplification is going to occur simultaneously
with the maximum ground acceleration or force load. Literature (References 1, 2) states that the modal and
the rigid portions of the response to typical dynamic loads are actually statistically independent, so that an
SRSS combination method is a more accurate representation of reality. For this reason, CAESAR II’s
default missing mass combination method is SRSS.
References
1 A. K. Gupta, Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Design of Structures, CRC Press,
1990
2 K. M. Vashi, “Computation of Seismic Response from Higher Frequency Modes,” ASME 80
C2/PVP50, 1980
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 53
3 O. E. Hansteen and K. Bell, “On the Accuracy of Mode Superposition Analysis in Structural
Dynamics,” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Volume 7, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,
1979
54 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Fatigue Analysis Using CAESAR II
For most piping codes supported by CAESAR II, performance of fatigue analysis is an extension to, rather
than an explicit part of, the code requirements (however, it is an explicit part of the IGE/TD/12 Pipework
Stress Analysis for Gas Industry Plant code).
Fatigue Basics
Piping and vessels have been known to suffer from sudden failure following years of successful service.
Research done during the 1940s and 1950s (primarily advanced by A. R. C. Markl’s “Piping Flexibility
Analysis,” published in 1955) provided an explanation for this phenomenon, as well as design criteria
aimed at avoiding failures of this type. The explanation was that materials were failing due to fatigue, a
process leading to the propagation of cracks, and subsequent fracture, following repeated cyclic loading.
Steels and other metals are made up of organized patterns of molecules, known as crystal structures.
However, these patterns are not maintained throughout the steel producing an ideal homogeneous
material, but are found in microscopic isolated islandlike areas called grains. Inside each grain the pattern
of molecules is preserved. From one grain boundary to the next the molecular pattern is the same, but the
orientation differs. As a result, grain boundaries are high energy borders. Plastic deformation begins
within a grain that is both subject to a high stress and oriented such that the stress causes a slippage
between adjacent layers in the same pattern. The incremental slippages (called dislocations) cause local
coldworking. On the first application of the stress, dislocations will move through many of the grains that
are in the local area of high stress. As the stress is repeated, more dislocations will move through their
respective grains. Dislocation movement is impeded by the grain boundaries, so after multiple stress
applications, the dislocations tend to accumulate at grain boundaries, eventually becoming so dense that
the grains “lock up,” causing a loss of ductility and thus preventing further dislocation movement.
Subsequent applications of the stress cause the grain to tear, forming cracks. Repeated stress applications
cause the cracks to grow. Unless abated, the cracks propagate with additional stress applications until
sufficient cross sectional strength is lost to cause catastrophic failure of the material.
The fatigue capacity of a material can be estimated through the application of cyclic tensile/compressive
displacement loads with a uniaxial test machine. A plot of the cyclic stress capacity of a material is called
a fatigue (or endurance) curve. These curves are generated through multiple cyclic tests at different stress
levels. The number of cycles to failure usually increases as the applied cyclic stress decreases, often until a
threshold stress (known as the endurance limit) is reached below which no fatigue failure occurs,
regardless of the number of applied cycles. An endurance curve for carbon and low alloy steels, taken
from the ASME Section VIII Division 2 Pressure Vessel Code is shown in the following figure.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 55
Fatigue Analysis of Piping Systems
The IGE/TD/12 code does, on the other hand, present specific requirements for true fatigue evaluation of
systems subject to a cyclic loading threshold. Furthermore, ASME Section III, Subsection NB and ASME
Section VIII Division 2 provide guidelines by which fatigue evaluation rules may be applied to piping
(and other pressure retaining equipment). These procedures have been adapted, where possible, to
CAESAR II’s methodology.
To perform fatigue analyses:
1 Assigning fatigue curve data to the piping material: This is done on the Allowable auxiliary screen.
Fatigue data may be entered directly, or read in from a text file (a number of commonly used curves
have been provided). Users may define their own fatigue curves as defined later in this section.
2 Defining the fatigue load cases: This may be done in either the static or dynamic load case builders.
For this purpose, a new stress type, FAT, has been defined. For every fatigue case, the number of
anticipated cycles must also be defined.
3 Calculation of the fatigue stresses: This is done automatically by CAESAR II – the fatigue stresses,
unless explicitly defined by the applicable code are calculated the same as CAESAR II calculates stress
intensity, in order to conform to the requirements of ASME Section VIII, Division 2 Appendix 5. (The
IGE/TD/12 is currently the only piping code supported by CAESAR II which does have explicit
instructions for calculating fatigue stresses.) The equations used in the calculation of fatigue stresses
are documented at the end of this section.
4 Determination of the allowable fatigue stresses: Allowables are interpolated logarithmically from the
fatigue curve based upon the number of cycles designated for the load case. For static load cases, the
calculated stress is assumed to be a peaktopeak cyclic value (i.e., thermal expansion, settlement,
pressure, etc.), so the allowable stress is extracted directly from the fatigue curve. For harmonic and
dynamic load cases, the calculated stress is assumed to be a zerotopeak cyclic value (i.e., vibration,
earthquake, etc.), so the extracted allowable is divided by 2 prior to use in the comparison.
56 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
5 Determination of the allowable number of cycles: The flip side of calculating the allowable fatigue
stress for the designated number of cycles is the calculation of the allowable number of cycles for the
calculated stress level. This is done by logarithmically interpolating the “Cycles” axis of the fatigue
curve based upon the calculated stress value. Since static stresses are assumed to be peaktopeak
cyclic values, the allowable number of cycles is interpolated directly from the fatigue curve. Since
harmonic and dynamic stresses are assumed to be zerotopeak cyclic values, the allowable number of
cycles is interpolated using twice the calculated stress value.
6 Reporting the results: CAESAR II provides two reports for viewing the results of load cases of stress
type FAT. The first of these is the standard stress report, which displays the calculated fatigue stress
and fatigue allowable at each node. Stress reports may be generated individually for each load case,
and show whether any of the individual load cases in isolation would fail the system.
However, in those circumstances where there is more than one cyclic load case potentially contributing to
fatigue failure, the Cumulative Usage report is appropriate. In order to generate this report, the user selects
all of the FAT load cases which contribute to the overall system degradation. The Cumulative Usage
report lists for each node point the usage ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles), and then sums
these up for total Cumulative Usage. A total greater than 1.0 indicates a potential fatigue failure.
Static Analysis Fatigue Example
Consider a sample job that potentially has several different cyclic load variations:
1 Operating cycle from ambient (70°F) to 500°F (12,000 cycles anticipated)
2 Shut down external temperature variation from ambient (70°F) to 20°F (200 cycles anticipated)
3 Pressurization to 1800 psig (12,000 cycles anticipated)
4 Pressure fluctuations of plus/minus 30 psi from the 1800 psig (200,000 cycles anticipated)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 57
In order to do a proper fatigue analysis, these should be grouped in sets of load pairs which represent the
worstcase combination of stress ranges between extreme states. These load variations can be laid out in
graphical form. The figure below shows a sketch of the various operating ranges this system experiences.
Each horizontal line represents an operating range. At the each end of each horizontal line, the
temperatures and pressures defining the range are noted. At the center of each horizontal line, the number
of cycles for each range is defined.
58 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Using this sketch of the operating ranges, the four fatigue load cases can be determined. The procedure is
as follows.
Case 1: Cover the absolute extreme, from –20°F and 0 psi to 500°F and 1830 psi. This occurs 200 times.
As a result of this case, the cycles for the ranges defined must be reduced by 200. The first range (20,0 to
70,0) is reduced to zero, and has no contribution to additional load cases. The second range (70,0 to
500,1800) is reduced to 11,800 cycles. The third and fourth ranges are similarly reduced to 199,800
cycles.
These same steps can be used to arrive at cases 2 through 4, reducing the number of “considered” cycles at
each step. This procedure is summarized in the table below.
Segment
20, 0 to 70, 0
70, 0 to 500, 1800 500, 1700 to 500, 1800 500, 1800 to 500, 1830
Case
Initial 200 12,000 200, 000 200,000
After 1 0 11,800 200, 000 199,800
After 2 0 0 200, 000 188,000
After 3 0 0 12,000 0
After 4 0 0 0 0
This table is then used to set the load cases as cycles between the following load values:
Between 20°F, 0 psig and 500°F, 1830 psig (200 cycles)
Between 70°F, 0 psig and 500°F, 1830 psig (11,800 cycles)
Between 500°F, 1770 psig and 500°F, 1830 psig (188,000 cycles)
Between 500°F, 1770 psig and 500°F, 1800 psig (12,000 cycles)
These temperatures and pressures are entered as operating conditions accordingly:
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 59
Static Analysis Fatigue Example
It is next necessary to enter the fatigue curve data for the material. This is done by clicking the Fatigue
Curves… button, revealing the Material Fatigue Curve dialog box. This can be used to enter the fatigue
curve for the material (note: for the IGE/ TD/12 code it is necessary to enter five sets of fatigue curves, for
fatigue classes D, E, F, G, and W). Up to eight Cycle vs. Stress data points may be entered to define the
curve; interpolations are made logarithmically. Cycle/Stress pairs should be entered in ascending order
(ascending by cycles). Stress values should be entered as allowable Stress Range, rather than allowable
Stress Amplitude.
60 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Material Fatigue Curves Dialog
Fatigue curves may be alternatively acquired from a text file, by clicking on the Read from file… button.
This displays a list of all \CAESAR\SYSTEM\*.FAT files.
Read from File Dialog
Shipped with the program are the following fatigue curve files (the user may easily construct additional
fatigue curve files, as described in Appendix A below):
51101A.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.1, UTS < 80 ksi
51101B.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.1, UTS = 115130 ksi
51102A.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.2, Curve A
51102B.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.2, Curve B
51102C.FAT ASME Section VIII Division 2 Figure 5110.2, Curve C
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 61
In this case, for A106B low carbon steel, operating at 500°F, 51101A.FAT is the appropriate selection.
This fills in the fatigue curve data:
A106B Low Carbon Steel Example Fatigue Curve Data
At this point, the job can be error checked, and the load cases can be set up.
The static load case builder offers a new stress type, FAT (fatigue). Selecting this stress type does the
following:
1 invites the user to define the number of cycles for the load case (dragging the FAT stress type into the
load case or pressing the Load Cycles button opens the Load Cycles field),
2 causes the stress range to be calculated as per the fatigue stress method of the governing code
(currently this is stress intensity for all codes except IGE/TD/12),
3 causes the calculated stress range to be compared to the full value extracted from the fatigue curve,
and
4 indicates that the load case may be included in the Cumulative Usage report.
62 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The last four load cases represent the load set pairs defined earlier.
Example with Fatigue Load Cases Defined in the Load Case Editor
Once the job has been run, note that the presence of a FAT stress type adds the Cumulative Usage report to
the list of available reports.
Static Output Processor
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 63
The fatigue stress range may be checked against the fatigue curve allowable for each load case by simply
selecting it along with the Stresses report. Review of each load case shows that all stress levels pass.
Example of a Fatigue Stress Report
However, this is not a true evaluation of the situation, because it is not a case of “eitheror.” The piping
system is subjected to all of these load cases throughout its expected design life, not just one of them.
Therefore, we must review the Cumulative Usage report, which shows the total effect of all fatigue load
cases (or any combination selected by the user) on the design life of the system. This report lists for each
load case the expected number of cycles, the allowable number of cycles (based upon the calculated
stress), and the Usage Ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles). The Usage Ratios are then
summed for all selected load cases; if this sum exceeds 1.0, the system has exceeded its fatigue
capabilities. In this case, it is apparent that the sum of all of the cyclic loadings at node 115 can be
expected to fail this system:
64 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Cumulative Usage Report
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 65
Fatigue Capabilities in Dynamic Analysis
Fatigue analysis capability is also available for harmonic and dynamic analyses as well. Harmonic load
cases are entered as they always have been; they may be designated as being stress type FAT simply by
entering the number of expected load cycles on the harmonic input screen:
Harmonic Input Screen
This produces the same types of reports as are available for the static analysis; they can be processed as
discussed earlier.
66 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Static Output Processor
The only difference between the harmonic and static fatigue analyses is that for harmonic jobs, the
calculated stresses are assumed to be zerotopeak calculations, so they are compared to only half of the
stress value extracted from the fatigue curve. Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage report, the
number of allowable cycles is based upon twice the calculated stress.
For other dynamic applications (response spectrum and time history), the stress type may be identified as
fatigue by selecting the stress type from the drop list for the Load Case or Static/Dynamic Combination,
and by entering the number of expected cycles in the provided field.
Note that as with the harmonic analyses, the calculated stresses are assumed to be zerotopeak
calculations, so they are compared to only half of the stress value extracted from the fatigue curve.
Likewise, when creating the Cumulative Usage report, the number of allowable cycles is based upon twice
the calculated stress.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 67
Creating the .FAT Files
The .FAT file is a simple text file, containing the data points necessary to describe the fatigue curve for
the material, for both butt welded and fillet welded fittings. A sample FAT file is shown below.
* ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION 2 FATIGUE CURVE
* FIGURE 5110.1
* DESIGN FATIGUE CURVES FOR CARBON, LOW ALLOY, SERIES 4XX,
* HIGH ALLOY AND HIGH TENSILE STEELS FOR TEMPERATURES NOT
* EXCEEDING 700 F
* FOR UTS <= 80 KSI
*
0.5000000  STRESS MULTIPLIER (PSI); ALSO CONVERTS AMPLITUDE TO FULL
RANGE
*
10 580000.0
100 205000.0
1000 83000.0
10000 38000.0
100000 20000.0
500000 13500.0
1000000 12500.0
0 0.0
*
This text file can be created using any available text editor. Any line beginning with an asterisk is treated
as a comment line. It is highly recommended that comment lines be used so that the data can be related
back to a specific material curve.
The first actual data line in the file is a stress multiplier. This value is used to adjust the data values from
“zero to peak” to “peak to peak” and/or to convert the stress levels to psi (the entered values will be
divided by this number  i.e., if the stress values in the file represent a stress amplitude, in psi, rather than
a range, this "stress multiplier should be 0.5). Following this line is the fatigue curve data table. This table
consists of eight lines, of two columns. The first column is the Cycle column, the second column is the
Stress column. For each value in the cycle column, the corresponding stress value from the material
fatigue curve should be listed in the stress column.
68 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Fatigue curves intended for use in the IGE/TD/12 code are built slightly different. The first data line
contains not one, but three values: the “stress multiplier” described above, a “modulus of elasticity
correction”, and a “modulus of elasticity multiplier” (the correction factor is divided by this to convert to
psi) – upon file read, the “modulus of elasticity correction” is inserted into the appropriate field on the
fatigue curve screen. Furthermore, the IGE/TD/12 fatigue files include five fatigue curves (sequentially
Fatigue Class D, E, F, G, and W), rather than one. Optional comment lines may be used to separate the
tables – these comments aid in the readability of the data file. The format of the IGE/TD/12 fatigue files
can best be determined by reviewing the contents of the file TD12ST.FAT.
In all tables, the number of cycles increases as you work down the table. If there is not enough data to
utilize all eight lines, unused lines should be populated with zeroes.
Calculation of Fatigue Stresses
For the IGE/TD/12 piping code, the computation of fatigue stresses are detailed in Section 5.4.4 of that
code. This section of the code states: "The principal stress in any plane can be calculated for any set of
conditions from the following formula:"
2 2
1
2
( ) ( ) 4
h a h a q
S S S S S
× + ± ÷ +
Where,
S
h
= Hoop stress
S
a
= Axial stress
S
q
= Shear stress
"This should be used for establishing the range of stress, due regard being paid to the direction and sign."
For all other piping codes in CAESAR II, the fatigue stress is computed as the stress intensity, as follows:
3D Maximum Shear Stress Intensity (Default)
SI = Maximum of:
S1OT  S3OT
S1OB  S3OB
Max(S1IT,RPS)  Min(S3IT,RPS)
Max(S1IB,RPS)  Min(S3IB,RPS)
Where:
S1OT=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
= (SLOT+HPSO)/2.0+(((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
)1/2
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 69
S3OT=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOT+HPSO)/2.0(((SLOTHPSO)/2.0)2+TSO2) 1/2
S1IT=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0+(((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
S3IT=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Top
=(SLIT+HPSI)/2.0(((SLITHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
S1OB=Maximum Principal Stress, Outside Top
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0+ (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
) 1/2
S3OB=Minimum Principal Stress, Outside Bottom
=(SLOB+HPSO)/2.0 (((SLOBHPSO)/2.0)
2
+TSO
2
) 1/2
S1IB=Maximum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0+ (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
S3IB=Minimum Principal Stress, Inside Bottom
=(SLIB+HPSI)/2.0 (((SLIBHPSI)/2.0)
2
+TSI
2
) 1/2
RPS=Radial Pressure Stress, Inside
HPSI=Hoop Pressure Stress (Inside, from Lame's Equation)
HPSO=Hoop Pressure Stress (Outside, from Lame's Equation)
SLOT=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Top
SLIT=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Top
SLOB=Longitudinal Stress, Outside Bottom
SLIB=Longitudinal Stress, Inside Bottom
TSI=Torsional Stress, Inside
TSO=Torsional Stress, Outside
70 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Pipe Stress Analysis of FRP Piping
Underlying Theory
The behavior of steel and other homogeneous materials has been long understood, permitting their
widespread use as construction materials. The development of the piping and pressure vessel codes
(Reference 1) in the early part of this century led to the confidence in their use in piping applications; the
work of Markl et. al. in the 1940’s and 1950’s was responsible for the formalization of today’s pipe stress
methods, leading to an ensuing diversification of piping codes on an industry by industry basis. The
advent of the digital computer, and with it the appearance of the first pipe stress analysis software
(Reference 2), further increased the confidence with which steel pipe could be used in critical applications.
The 1980’s saw the wide spread proliferation of the micro computer, with associated pipe stress analysis
software, which in conjunction with training, technical support, and available literature, has brought stress
analysis capability to almost all engineers. In short, an accumulated experience of close to 100 years, in
conjunction with ever improving technology has led to the utmost confidence on the part of today’s
engineers when specifying, designing, and analyzing steel, or other metallic, pipe.
For fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and other composite piping materials, the situation is not the same.
Fiberglass reinforced plastic was developed only as recently as the 1950’s, and did not come into wide
spread use until a decade later (Reference 3). There is not a large base of stress analysis experience,
although not from a lack of commitment on the part of FRP vendors. Most vendors conduct extensive
stress testing on their components, including hydrostatic and cyclic pressure, uniaxial tensile and
compressive, bending, and combined loading tests. The problem is due to the traditional difficulty
associated with, and lack of understanding of, stress analysis of heterogeneous materials. First, the
behavior and failure modes of these materials are highly complex and not fully understood, leading to
inexact analytical methods, and a general lack of agreement on the best course of action to follow. This
lack of agreement has slowed the simplification and standardization of the analytical methods into
universally recognized codes (BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping
Systems for Individual Plants or Sites) and UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of
GRP Piping Offshore being notable exceptions). Secondly, the heterogeneous, orthotropic behavior of FRP
and other composite materials has hindered the use of the pipe stress analysis algorithms developed for
homogeneous, isotropic materials associated with crystalline structures. A lack of generally accepted
analytical procedures has contributed to a general reluctance to use FRP piping for critical applications.
Stress analysis of FRP components must be viewed on many levels. These levels, or scales, have been
called “MicroMiniMacro” levels, with analysis proceeding along the levels according to the “MMM”
principle (Reference 4).
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 71
MicroLevel Analysis
Stress analysis on the “Micro” level refers to the detailed evaluation of the individual materials and
boundary mechanisms comprising the composite material. In general, FRP pipe is manufactured from
laminates, which are constructed from elongated fibers of a commercial grade of glass (called Eglass),
which are coated with a coupling agent or sizing prior to being embedded in a thermosetting plastic
material, typically epoxy or polyester resin.
This means, on the micro scale, that an analytical model must be created which simulates the interface
between these elements. Since the number and orientation of fibers is unknown at any given location in
the FRP sample, the simplest representation of the micromodel is that of a single fiber, extending the
length of the sample, embedded in a square profile of matrix.
Evaluation of this model requires use of the material parameters of
1 the glass fiber
2 the coupling agent or sizing layer (normally of such microscopic proportion that it may be ignored)
3 the plastic matrix
It must be considered that these material parameters may vary for an individual material based upon
tensile, compressive, or shear applications of the imposed stresses, and typical values vary significantly
between the fiber and matrix (Reference 5):
Young's Modulus Ultimate Strength Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Material tensile (MPa) tensile (MPa) m/m/°C
Glass Fiber 7.25 x 10
3
1.5 x 10
3
5.0 x 10
6
Plastic Matrix 2.75 x 10
3
7.0 x 10
1
7.0 x 10
3
The following failure modes of the composite must be similarly evaluated:
failure of the fiber
failure of the coupling agent layer
failure of the matrix
failure of the fibercoupling agent bond
failure of the coupling agentmatrix bond
Because of uncertainties about the degree to which the fiber has been coated with the coupling agent and
about the nature of some of these failure modes, this evaluation is typically reduced to
failure of the fiber
failure of the matrix
failure of the fibermatrix interface
72 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
MicroLevel GRP Sample Single Fiber Embedded in Square Profile of Matrix
Stresses in the individual components can be evaluated through finite element analysis of the strain
continuity and equilibrium equations, based upon the assumption that there is a good bond between the
fiber and matrix, resulting in compatible strains between the two. For normal stresses applied parallel to
the glass fiber:
cf = cm = oaf / Ef = oam / Em
oaf = oam Ef / Em
Where:
cf = strain in the fiber
c = strain in the matrix
oaf = normal stress parallel to fiber, in the fiber
Ef = modulus of elasticity of the fiber
oam = axial normal stress parallel to fiber, in the matrix
E = modulus of elasticity of the matrix
Due to the large ratio of the modulus of elasticity of the fiber to that of the matrix, it is apparent that nearly
all of the axial normal stress in the fibermatrix composite is carried by the fiber. Exact values are
(Reference 6):
oaf = oL / [o + (1o)Em/Ef]
oam = oL / [oEm/Ef + (1o)]
Where:
oL = nominal longitudinal stress across composite
o = glass content by volume
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 73
The continuity equations for the glassmatrix composite seem less complex for normal stresses
perpendicular to the fibers, since the weak point of the material seems to be limited by the glassfree
crosssection shown in the following figure.
For this reason, it would appear that the strength of the composite would be equal to that of the matrix for
stresses in this direction; in fact, its strength is less than that of the matrix due to stress intensification in
the matrix caused by the irregular stress distribution in the vicinity of the stiffer glass. (Since the
elongation over distance D1 must be equal to that over the longer distance D2, the strain, and thus the stress
at location D1 must exceed that at D2 by the ratio D2/D1.) Maximum intensified transverse normal stresses
in the composite are:
( )
1.25
2
2 2
1 ( ) /(1 )
(1 0.85 )[1 (2 3 )1 ( )(1 )]
m f m
m f m
E E V
E E V
±

o ÷o + o ÷
o =
+ o ÷ ¸ o¸ t ÷ ÷
Where:
ob = intensified normal stress transfer to the fiber, in the composite
o^ = nominal transverse normal stress across composite
V= Poisson’s ratio of the matrix
Note: Because of the Poisson effect, this stress produces an additional s'
’
am equal to the following:
oam = Vm o 
Shear stress can be allocated to the individual components again through the use of continuity equations; it
would appear that the stiffer glass would resist the bulk of the shear stresses; however, unless the fibers
are infinitely long, all shears must eventually pass through the matrix in order to get from fiber to fiber.
Shear stress between fiber and matrix can be estimated as
1.25
m f
o
2
m f
T(1p) +p(G /G )
q =
(1+0.6rp )1r( 2rp3 n)1(G /G )
74 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Where:
tab = intensified shear stress in composite
T = nominal shear stress across composite
Gm = shear modulus of elasticity in matrix
Gf = shear modulus of elasticity in fiber
Determination of the stresses in the fibermatrix interface is more complex. The bonding agent has an
inappreciable thickness, and thus has an indeterminate stiffness for consideration in the continuity
equations. Also, the interface behaves significantly differently in shear, tension, and compression,
showing virtually no effects from the latter. The state of the stress in the interface is best solved by
omitting its contribution from the continuity equations, and simply considering that it carries all stresses
which must be transferred from fiber to matrix.
Once the stresses have been apportioned, they must be evaluated against appropriate failure criteria. The
behavior of homogeneous, isotropic materials such as glass and plastic resin, under a state of multiple
stress is better understood. A failure criterion for isotropic material reduces the combined normal and
shear stresses (sa, sb, sc, tab, tac, tbc) to a single stress, an “equivalent stress,” which can be compared to the
tensile stress present at failure in a material under uniaxial loading, i.e. the ultimate tensile stress, Sult.
Different theories, and different equivalent stress functions f(sa, sb, sc, tab, tac, tbc) have been proposed, with
possibly the most widely accepted being the Hubervon MisesHencky criterion, which states that failure
will occur when the equivalent stress reaches a critical value – the ultimate strength of the material:
oeq = \{1/2 [(oa  ob)
2
+ (oa  oc)
2
+ (ob  oc)
2
] + 6(tab
2
+ tac
2
+ tbc
2
)} s Sult
This theory does not fully cover all failure modes of the fiber, in that it omits reference to direction of
stress (i.e., tensile vs. Compressive). The fibers, being relatively long and thin, predominantly demonstrate
buckling as their failure mode when loaded in compression.
The equivalent stress failure criterion has been corroborated (with slightly nonconservative results) by
testing. Little is known about the failure mode of the adhesive interface, although empirical evidence
points to a failure criterion which is more of a linear relationship between the normal and the square of the
shear stresses. Failure testing of a composite material loaded only in transverse normal and shear stresses
are shown in the following figure; the kink in the curve shows the transition from the matrix to the
interface as the failure point.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 75
MiniLevel Analysis
Although feasible in concept, micro level analysis is not feasible in practice. This is due to the uncertainty
of the arrangement of the glass in the composite—the thousands of fibers which may be randomly
distributed, semirandomly oriented (although primarily in a parallel pattern), and of randomly varying
lengths. This condition indicates that a sample can truly be evaluated only on a statistical basis, thus
rendering detailed finite element analysis inappropriate.
For minilevel analysis, a laminate layer is considered to act as a continuous (hence the common reference
to this method as the “continuum” method) material, with material properties and failure modes estimated
by integrating them over the assumed crosssectional distribution, i.e., averaging. The assumption
regarding the distribution of the fibers can have a marked effect on the determination of the material
parameters; two of the most commonly postulated distributions are the square and the hexagonal, with the
latter generally considered to be a better representation of randomly distributed fibers.
The stressstrain relationships, for those sections evaluated as continua, can be written as:
caa = oaa/EL  (V L/EL)obb  (V L/EL)occ
76 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
cbb = ( VL/EL)oaa + obb/ET  (VT/ET)occ
ccc = ( VL/EL)oaa  (VT/ET)obb + occ/ET
cab = tab / 2 GL
cbc = tbc / 2 GT
cac = tac / 2 GL
Where:
cij = strain along direction i on face j
oij, tab = stress (normal, shear) along direction i on face j
EL = modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction
VL = Poisson’s ratio of laminate layer in longitudinal direction
ET = modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in transverse direction
VT =Poisson’s ratio of laminate layer in transverse direction
GL = shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in longitudinal direction
GT = shear modulus of elasticity of laminate layer in transverse direction
These relationships require that four moduli of elasticity (EL, ET, GL, and GT) and two Poisson’s ratios (VL
and VT) to be evaluated for the continuum. Extensive research (References 4  10) has been done to
estimate these parameters. There is general consensus that the longitudinal terms can be explicitly
calculated; for cases where the fibers are significantly stiffer than the matrix, they are:
EL = EF o + EM(1  o)
GL = GM + o/ [ 1 / (GF  GM) + (1  o) / (2GM)]
VL = VFo + VM(1  o)
Parameters in the transverse direction cannot be calculated; only their upper and lower bounds can.
Correlation with empirical results have yielded approximations (Reference 5 and 6):
GT = GM (1 + 0.6\o) / [(1  o)
1.25
+ o (GM/GF)]
VT = VL (EL / ET)
Use of these parameters permits the development of the homogeneous material models which facilitate the
calculation of longitudinal and transverse stresses acting on a laminate layer. The resulting stresses may be
allocated to the individual fibers and matrix using relationships developed during the micro analysis.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 77
MacroLevel Analysis
Where Minilevel analysis provides the means of evaluation of individual laminate layers, Macrolevel
analysis provides the means of evaluating components made up of multiple laminate layers. It is based
upon the assumption that not only the composite behaves as a continuum, but that the series of laminate
layers acts as a homogeneous material with properties estimated based on the properties of the layer and
the winding angle, and that finally, failure criteria are functions of the level of equivalent stress.
Laminate properties may be estimated by summing the layer properties (adjusted for winding angle) over
all layers. For example
ELAM = (1 / tLAM)(Ek Cik + E^k Cjk) tk
Where:
ELAM = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate
tLAM = thickness of laminate
E^k = Longitudinal modulus of elasticity of laminate layer k
Cik = transformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to longitudinal laminate axis
Cjk = transformation matrix orienting axes of layer k to transverse laminate axis
tk = thickness of laminate layer k
Once composite properties are determined, the component stiffness parameters may be determined as
though it were made of homogeneous material – i.e., based on component crosssectional and composite
material properties.
Normal and shear stresses can be determined from 1) forces and moments acting on the crosssections,
and 2) the crosssectional properties themselves. These relationships can be written as
oaa = Faa / Aaa ± Mba / Sba ± Mca / Sca
obb = Fbb / Abb ± Mab / Sab ± Mcb / Scb
occ = Fcc / Acc ± Mac / Sac ± Mbc / Sbc
78 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
tab = Fab / Aab ± Mbb / Rab
tac = Fac / Aac ± Mcc / Rac
tba = Fba / Aba ± Maa / Rba
tbc = Fbc / Abc ± Mcc / Rbc
tca = Fca / Aca ± Maa / Rca
tcb = Fcb / Acb ± Mbb / Rcb
Where:
oij = normal stress along axis i on face j
Fij = force acting along axis i on face j
Aij = area resisting force along axis i on face j
Mij = moment acting about axis i on face j
Sij = section modulus about axis i on face j
tij = shear stress along axis i on face j
Rij = torsional resistivity about axis i on face j
Using the relationships developed under macro, mini, and micro analysis, these stresses can be resolved
back into local stresses within the laminate layer, and from there, back into stresses within the fiber and
the matrix. From these, the failure criteria of those microscopic components, and hence, the component as
a whole, may be checked.
Implementation of MacroLevel Analysis for Piping Systems
The macrolevel of analysis described above is the basis for the preeminent FRP piping codes in use
today, including the BS 7159 Code (Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced Plastics Piping Systems
for Individual Plants or Sites) and the UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of
GRP Piping Offshore.
BS 7159 uses methods and formulas familiar to the world of steel piping stress analysis in order to
calculate stresses on the crosssection, with the assumption that FRP components have material parameters
based on continuum evaluation or test. All coincident loads, such as thermal, weight, pressure, and axial
extension due to pressure need be evaluated simultaneously. Failure is based on the equivalent stress
calculation method; since one normal stress (radial stress) is traditionally considered to be negligible in
typical piping configurations, this calculation reduces to the greater of (except when axial stresses are
compressive):
S
eq
S
x
2
4t
2
+ =
(when axial stress is greater than hoop)
S
eq
S
h
2
4t
2
+ =
(when hoop stress is greater than axial)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 79
A slight difficulty arises when evaluating the calculated stress against an allowable, due to the orthotropic
nature of the FRP piping – normally the laminate is designed in such a way to make the pipe much
stronger in the hoop, than in the longitudinal, direction, providing more than one allowable stress. This is
resolved by defining the allowable in terms of a design strain ed, rather than stress, in effect adjusting the
stress allowable in proportion to the strength in each direction – i.e., the allowable stresses for the two
equivalent stresses above would be (ed ELAMX) and (ed ELAMH) respectively. In lieu of test data, system design
strain is selected from Tables 4.3 and 4.4 of the Code, based on expected chemical and temperature
conditions.
Actual stress equations as enumerated by the BS 7159 Code are shown below:
1 Combined stress: straights and bends:
oC = (of
2
+ 4oS
2
)
0.5
s cd ELAM
or
oC = (oX
2
+ 4oS
2
)
0.5
s cd ELAM
Where:
oC = combined stress
o = circumferential stress
=o P + o B
oS =torsional stress
= MS(Di + 2td) / 4I
oX = longitudinal stress
= oXP + oXB
o P = circumferential pressure stress
= mP(Di + td) / 2 td
o B = circumferential bending stress
= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIF i)
2
+ Mo SIF o)
2
]
0.5
(for bends, = 0 for straights)
MS = torsional moment on crosssection
D = internal pipe diameter
td = design thickness of reference laminate
I = moment of inertia of pipe
m = pressure stress multiplier of component
P = internal pressure
Mi = inplane bending moment on crosssection
SIF i = circumferential stress intensification factor for inplane moment
M = outplane bending moment on crosssection
SIF = circumferential stress intensification factor for outplane moment
oXP = longitudinal pressure stress
= P(Di + td) / 4 td
80 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
oXB = longitudinal bending stress
= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFxi)
2
+ Mo SIFxo)
2
]
0.5
SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for inplane moment
SIF = longitudinal stress intensification factor for outplane moment
2 Combined stress: branch connections:
oCB = ((o P + obB)
2
+ 4oSB
2
)
0.5
£ ed ELAM
Where:
oCB = branch combined stress
o P = circumferential pressure stress
= mP(Di + tM) / 2 tM
obB = nondirectional bending stress
= [(Di + 2td) / 2I] [(Mi SIFBi)
2
+ Mo SIFBo)
2
]
0.5
oSB = branch torsional stress
= MS(Di + 2td) / 4I
tM = thickness of the reference laminate at the main run
SIFBi = branch stress intensification factor for inplane moment
SIFB = branch stress intensification factor for outplane moment
3 When longitudinal stress is negative (net compressive):
o  Vfx ox s c ELAM
Where:
Vfx = Poisson’s ratio giving strain in longitudinal direction caused by stress in circumferential direction
c = design strain in circumferential direction
ELAM = modulus of elasticity in circumferential direction
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 81
The BS 7159 Code also dictates the means of calculating flexibility and stress intensification (k and i)
factors for bend and tee components, for use during the flexibility analysis.
82 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
BS 7159 SIF Factors for Bends
The BS 7159 Code imposes a number of limitations on its use, the most notable being the limitation of a
system to a design pressure of 10 bar, the restriction to the use of designated design laminates, and the
limited applicability of the k and i factor calculations to pipe bends (i.e, mean wall thickness around the
intrados must be 1.75 times the nominal thickness or less).
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 83
BS 7159 SIF Factors for Tees
This code appears to be more sophisticated, yet easy to use, than any available alternative, so it is
recommended here that its calculation techniques be applied even to FRP systems outside its explicit
scope, with the following recommendations:
Pressure stiffening of bends should be based on actual design pressure, rather than allowable design
strain.
Design strain should be based on manufacturer’s test and experience data wherever possible (with
consideration for expected operating conditions).
Fitting k and i factors should be based on manufacturer’s test or analytic data if available.
The UKOOA Specification is similar in many respects to the BS 7159 Code, except that it simplifies the
calculational requirements in exchange for imposing more limitations and more conservatism on the
piping operating conditions.
Rather than explicitly calculating a combined stress, the specification defines an idealized envelope of
combinations of axial and hoop stresses which cause the equivalent stress to reach failure. This curve
represents the plot of:
(ox / oxall)
2
+ (ohoop / ohoopall)
2
 [ox ohoop / (oxall ohoopall)] s 1.0
Where:
oxall = allowable stress, axial
ohoopall = allowable stress, hoop
The Specification conservatively limits the user to that part of the curve falling under the line between oxall
(also known as sa(0:1)) and the intersection point on the curve where ohoop is twice sx(a natural condition for
a pipe loaded only with pressure), as shown in the following figure.
CAESAR II UKOOA Envelope Graphics
An implicit modification to this requirement is the fact that pressure stresses are given a factor of safety
(typically equal to 2/3) while other loads are not. This gives an explicit requirement of
Pdes s f1 f2 f3 LTHP
Where:
Pdes = allowable design pressure
84 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
f1 = factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usually 0.85
f2 = system factor of safety, usually 0.67
f3 = ratio of residual allowable, after mechanical loads
= 1  (2 oa
b
) / (r f1 LTHS)
oa
b
= axial bending stress due to mechanical loads
r = oaa(0:1) / oa(2:1)
oa(0:1)
b
= long term axial tensile strength in absence of pressure load
oa(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength under only pressure loading
LTHS = long term hydrostatic strength (hoop stress allowable)
LTHP = long term hydrostatic pressure allowable
Note: This has been implemented in the CAESAR II pipe stress analysis software as:
Code Stress
Code Allowable
oa
b
(f2 /r) + PDm / (4t)
s
(f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0
Where:
P = design pressure
D = pipe mean diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
and ifactors for bends are to be taken from the BS 7159 Code, while no such factors are to be used
for tees.
The UKOOA Specification is limited in that shear stresses are ignored in the evaluation process; no
consideration is given to conditions where axial stresses are compressive; and most required calculations
are not explicitly detailed.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 85
FRP Analysis Using CAESAR II
Practical Applications
CAESAR II has had the ability to model orthotropic materials such as FRP almost since its inception. It also
can specifically handle the requirements of the BS 7159 Code and the UKOOA Specification.
FRP material parameters corresponding to those of many vendors’ lines are provided with CAESAR II and
may be preselected by the user to be the default values whenever FRP piping is used. Other options, as to
whether the BS 7159 pressure stiffening requirements should be carried out using design strain or actual
strain can be set in CAESAR II’s configuration module as well.
The FRP Properties Table of the Configuration Setup Dialog
86 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Special Execution Parameters for Activating the Orthotropic Material Model
Selecting material 20 — Plastic (FRP) – activates CAESAR II’s orthotropic material model and brings in
the appropriate material parameters from the preselected materials. The orthotropic material model is
indicated by the changing of two fields from their previous isotropic values: “Elastic Modulus (C)” —>
“Elastic Modulus/axial” and “Poisson's Ratio” —> “Ea/Eh*Vh/a”. These changes are necessary due to the
fact that orthotropic models require more material parameters than do isotropic. For example, there is no
longer a single modulus of elasticity for the material, but now two — axial and hoop. There is no longer a
single Poisson’s ratio, but again two — Vh/a (Poisson’s ratio relating strain in the axial direction due to
stressinduced strain in the hoop direction) and Va/h (Poisson’s ratio relating strain in the hoop direction due
to stressinduced strain in the axial direction). Also, unlike isotropic materials, the shear modulus does not
follow the relationship G = 1 / E (1V), so that value must be explicitly input as well.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 87
Example of Orthotropic Parameters Required in Piping Input
In order to minimize input, a few of these parameters can be combined, due to their use in the program.
Generally, the only time that the modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction, or the Poisson’s ratios are
used during flexibility analysis is when calculating piping elongation due to pressure (note that the
modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction is used when determining certain stress allowables for the BS
7159 code):
dx = (ox / Ea  Vh/a * ohoop / Eh) L
Where:
dx = extension of piping element due to pressure
ox = longitudinal pressure stress in the piping element
Ea = modulus of elasticity in the axial direction
Vh/a = Poisson’s ratio relating strain in the axial direction due to stressinduced strain in the hoop
direction
ohoop = hoop pressure stress in the piping element
Eh = modulus of elasticity in the hoop direction
L = length of piping element
88 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
This equation can be rearranged, to require only a single new parameter, as
dx = (ox  ohoop * (Ea / Eh * Vh/a)) * L / Ea
Note: In theory, that single parameter, (Ea / Eh * Vh/a) is identical to Va/h.
The shear modulus of the material is required in ordered to develop the stiffness matrix; in CAESAR II, this
value, expressed as a ratio of the axial modulus of elasticity, is brought in from the preselected material,
or can be changed on a problemwise basis using the special execution parameter screen accessed by the
Kaux “menu” from the piping spreadsheet (see figure). This screen also shows the coefficient of thermal
expansion (extracted from the vendor file or entered by the user) for the material, as well as the default
laminate type, as defined by the BS 7159 Code:
Type 1 – All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with an internal and an external surface tissue
reinforced layer.
Type 2 – Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with an internal and an
external surface tissue reinforced layer.
Type 3 – Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with an internal and an
external surface tissue reinforced layer.
The latter is used during the calculation of flexibility and stress intensification factors for piping bends.
Bend and tee information may be entered easily through use of auxiliary spreadsheets. Bend radius and
laminate type may be changed on a bend by bend basis, as shown in the corresponding figure. BS 7159
fabricated and moulded tee types are specified by defining CAESAR II tee types 1 and 3 respectively at
intersection points. CAESAR II automatically calculates the appropriate flexibility and stress intensification
factors for these fittings as per code requirements.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 89
Required code data may be entered on the ALLOWABLES auxiliary spreadsheet; with the program
providing fields for CODE (both number 27 – BS 7159 and 28 – UKOOA are available). After selection
of BS 7159, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the following code parameters:
SH1,2,3 = longitudinal design stress = cd ELAMX
Kn1,2,3 = cyclic reduction factor (as per BS 7159 paragraph 4.3.4)
Eh/Ea = ratio of hoop modulus of elasticity to axial modulus of elasticity
K = temperature differential multiplier (as per BS 7159 paragraph 7.2.1)
90 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
After selection of UKOOA, CAESAR II provides fields for entry of the following code parameters:
SH1,2,3 = hoop design stress = f1 * LTHS
R1,2,3 = ratio r (oa(0:1) / oa(2:1))
f1 = system factor of safety (defaults to 0.67 if omitted)
K = temperature differential multiplier (same as BS 7159)
These parameters need only be entered a single time, unless they change at some point in the system.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 91
Performing the analysis is even simpler than the system modeling. CAESAR II evaluates the operating
parameters and automatically builds the appropriate load cases; in this case three are built:
Operating (includes pipe and fluid weight, temperature, equipment displacements, pressure, etc.). This
case is used to determine maximum code stress/strain, operational equipment nozzle and restraint
loads, hot displacements, etc.
Cold (same as above, except excluding temperature and equipment movements). This case is used to
determine cold equipment nozzle and restraint loads.
Expansion (cyclic stress range between the cold and hot case). This case may be used to evaluate
fatigue criteria as per paragraph 4.3.4 of the BS 7159 Code.
After analyzing the response of the system under these loads, CAESAR II presents the user with a menu of
possible output reports. Reports may be designated by selecting a combination of load case and results
type (displacements, restraint loads, element forces and moments, and stresses). From the stress report, the
user can determine at a glance whether the system passed or failed the stress criteria.
For UKOOA code, the piping is considered to be within allowables when the operating stress falls within
the idealized stress envelope (indicated by the straight line in the following figure).
Conclusion
A reliable, powerful, yet easy to use, pipe stress analysis program with world wide acceptance is now
available for evaluation of FRP piping systems as per the requirements of the most sophisticated FRP
piping codes. This means that access to the same analytical methods and tools long enjoyed by engineers
using steel pipe is available to any potential user of FRP piping – ensuring that design.
92 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
References
1 Cross, Wilbur, An Authorized History of the ASME Boiler an Pressure Vessel Code, ASME, 1990
2 Olson, J. and Cramer, R., “Pipe Flexibility Analysis Using IBM 705 Computer Program MEC 21,
Mare Island Report 27759,” 1959
3 Fiberglass Pipe Handbook, Composites Institute of the Society of the Plastics Industry, 1989
4 Hashin, Z., “Analysis of Composite Materials – a Survey,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Sept. 1983
5 Greaves, G., “Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Design,” CibaGeigy Pipe Systems
6 Puck, A. and Schneider, W., “On Failure Mechanisms and Failure Criteria of FilamentWound Glass
Fibre/Resin Composites,” Plastics and Polymers, Feb. 1969
7 Hashin, Z., “The Elastic Moduli of Heterogeneous Materials,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, March
1962
8 Hashin, Z. and Rosen, B. Walter, “The Elastic Moduli of Fibre Reinforced Materials,” Journal of
Applied Mechanics, June 1964
9 Whitney, J. M. and Riley, M. B., “Elastic Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials,” AIAA
Journal, Sept. 1966
10 Walpole, L. J., “Elastic Behavior of Composite Materials: Theoretical Foundations,” Advances in
Applied Mechanics, Volume 21, Academic Press, 1989
11 BS 7159: 1989 – British Standard Code of Practice for Design and Construction of Glass Reinforced
Plastics (GRP) Piping Systems for Individual Plants or Sites
12 UK Offshore Operators Association Specification and Recommended Practice for the Use of GRP
Piping Offshore — 1994
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 93
Code Compliance Considerations
General Notes for All Codes
This section comprises general notes that cover code compliance. The first several pages contain
information that applies to all of the codes. The last pages contain codespecific discussions. The user is
urged to review the general notes once, highlighting those that apply to his specific type of problem. He is
also recommended to review the notes for the particular piping code to be used.
Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) of the Technical Reference Manual gives
details about the various parameters that can be used in the CAESAR II setup file. Many of these parameters
are discussed from an “application pointofview” in the text that follows. Users not familiar with the
setup file should see Chapter 2 (see "Configuration and Environment" on page 1) of the Technical
Reference Manual.
An SIF of 2.3 is used for threaded joints for all codes. An SIF of 1.2 is used for double welded slipon
flanges for all codes. An SIF of 1.6 is used for lap joint flanges with B16.9 stub ends for all codes.
The only piping codes that cannot take advantage of the WRC 329 options, or the option to use the ASME
NC and ND rules for reduced intersections, are BS806 and the Swedish Power Method 1. These codes
have no provision for using the effective section modulus, and any extrapolation of the ASME methods
into these codes at this time is considered unwarranted.
The Weld ID on the SIF & TEE Auxiliary field is used in the calculation of the Bonney Forge Sweepolet
and Bonney Forge Insert Weldolet. If the user can be sure that the welds for these fittings will be finished
or dressed, then the specification of the Weld ID will result in lower stress intensification factors.
Bend SIF overrides by the user effect the entire cross section of the bend, and as such cannot be specified
for only a single point on the bend curvature. The user’s defined SIF should be specified for the bend
“TO” node. CAESAR II will then apply this SIF, (in place of the code’s SIF) over the entire bend curvature,
i.e. from weldline to weldline.
The default fiberglassreinforced plastic (FRP) bend and intersection SIF is 2.3. This value is used for all
bends and for all intersections unless otherwise modified by the user. Flexibility factors for FRP bends are
1.0. Users modifying these values are cautioned that SIFs generated from steel fatigue tests may not be
applicable as a basis for SIFs for FRP fittings.
At this time stress intensification factors cannot be less than 1.0. Because original SIF work used girth butt
welds as a basis, some manufacturers are generating SIFs for their fittings that are less than 1.0 implying
that the fitting is stronger than a girth butt weld. CAESAR II does not permit the use of these reduced SIFs
at this time.
The REDUCED_INTERSECTION calculations discussed at length in the following text apply whenever
d/D < 0.975. Where (d) is the outside diameter of the branch, and (D) is the outside diameter of the header.
WRC 329/330 for the codes: B31.3, B31.4, B31.11, and B31.1 (1967) does the following:
1 Include torsional stresses in all stress calculations, (i.e. Sustained and Occasional)
2 Use a torsional SIF of (r/R) io.
94 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
3 Compute i(ib) from: 0.6(R/T)**2/3 [1+0.5(r/R)**3](r/rp)
4 For i(ob) use 1.5(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.5
when (r/R) < 0.9., use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and i(ob)(t/T)>1.0
when (r/R) = 1.0, and use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9
5 For ir use 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/R), and ir > 2.1
6 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may
be divided by 2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.
WRC 329/330 for the codes: B31.1, B31.8, ASME III NC & ND, Navy 505, Z183, Z184, and Swedish
Method 2, do the following:
1 For ib, use 1.5(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.5
when (r/R) < 0.9.
use 0.9(R/T)**2/3 (r/rp), and ib(t/T)>1.0
when (r/R) = 1.0, and
use interpolation when 1.0 > (r/R) > 0.9
2 For ir, use 0.8 (R/T)**2/3 (r/R), and ir > 2.1
3 If a radius at the junction is provided greater than the larger of t/2 or T/2, then the calculated SIFs may
be divided by 2.0, but with ib>1.5 and ir>1.5.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 95
Bonney Forge Sweepolets tend to be a little more conservative because they are used for fittings in the
Nuclear industry. The Bonney Forge Sweepolet equations can generate SIFs less than one because they
are stronger than the girth butt weld used as the unity basis for the code fitting SIFs. CAESAR II does not
permit SIFs of less than 1.0. If a Bonney Forge Sweepolet SIF is generated that is less than 1.0, 1.0 will be
used.
Even though CAESAR II allows the specification of two element intersections, the user cannot specify two
SIFs at a single node and get an increased SIF. For example a socketweld SIF and an intersection SIF
cannot be specified at the same point.
For two element joints the largest diameter and the smallest T is used when discrepancies exist between
the two adjoining pipes. When the two element fitting is a socket weld then the largest T is used. These
selections are made to generate the largest SIFs and thus the most conservative stress calculations for
under specified fittings.
Note: The mismatch given for girth butt welds is the average mismatch and not the maximum mismatch.
Users must make sure that any maximum mismatch requirements are satisfied themselves.
If a fillet leg is given in conjunction with a socket weld SIF definition, then both socket weld types result
in the same SIF.
The B31.3 sustained case SIF factor in the setup file affects all of the following codes: B31.4, B31.8,
B31.11, Navy 505, Z662, and B31.1 (1967). The default for the B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=1.0.
The calculation for the corroded effective section modulus is made from (pi)(r
2
)te where (r) is the average
cross sectional radius of the noncorroded pipe and (te) is the corroded thickness. The thickness (te) is
selected based on the noncorroded thicknesses of the branch and header, i.e. the lesser of Th and iTb. The
resulting value has the corrosion subtracted from it before the effective section modulus calculation is
made.
The Maximum Shear Stress is always calculated with the corroded wall thickness, regardless of the setting
of the ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED flag in the setup file.
If different piping codes are used in one job. The code reported at the top of the output stress report will be
the code that was last encountered during model input. SIFs, allowables and code equations are all
computed in accordance with the code that is varying with the input.
The following piping codes do not, by default, include torsion in the sustained or occasional stress
calculations:
B31.3 Navy 505
B31.4 Z662
B31.8 B31.1 (1967)
B31.11
96 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Torsion is not added because these codes instruct the user to add the “longitudinal stresses” due to weight,
pressure and other sustained loadings. Torsional shear stresses are not longitudinal stresses. The user can
request that torsion be added into the sustained and occasional stress equations by putting the parameter:
ADD_TORSION_IN_SL_STRESS=YES in the setup file. The torsion stress is still however not
intensified, as it is in the power piping codes. This lack of intensification is considered an oversight, and is
corrected in WRC 329. The user can implement this fix in his running of any of the above codes by
putting the parameter: USE_WRC330 in the setup file.
Note that the radius given in CAESAR II is always the equivalent “closely spaced miter” radius. The radius
calculation given for widely spaced miters in the piping codes is only to be used when the user breaks the
widely spaced miter bend down into individual single cut miters as recommended.
B31.1 and the ASME Section III piping codes provide stress intensification factors for reduced branch
ends. None of the other piping codes provide these SIFs. The REDUCED INTERSECTION=<option>
parameter in the setup file allows the user of other piping codes to access these improved SIFs for reduced
fittings. Users taking advantage of this option should review the notes associated with the B31.1 and the
ASME Section III codes that follow to make sure that any other parameters or input associated with the
reduced intersection calculations are set as necessary.
When the user requests pressure stiffening for those codes that do not normally provide it, the pressure
stiffening is applied for all bends and for both miter types.
The defaults for the occasional load factor from the setup file used in the evaluation of the allowable
stress, is given in the text that follows for each of the piping codes.
B31.1: The occasional load factor is 1.15.
B31.3: The occasional load factor is 1.33.
B31.4: This is 0.8Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.4. OCC does not effect a B31.4
analysis in CAESAR II.
B31.5: The occasional load factor is 1.33.
B31.8: An occasional case is not specifically defined. If the user enters an OCC load case the
allowable will default to 1.0 times the sustained allowable stress, i.e. OCC=1.0
B31.11: This is 0.88Sy as defined in the most recent edition of B31.11 OCC does not effect a B31.11
analysis in CAESAR II.
ASME Section III NC and ND: The default value of OCC is 1.2 so, the occasional stress allowable is
1.8 (1.2 X 1.5) Sh but not greater than 1.5 Sy. If OCC is set to 1.5 or 2.0, the allowable is set to the
minimum of 2.25 Sh/1.8 Sy (Level C) or 3.0 Sh/2.0Sy (Level D). Note in the latter two cases, Sm
should be entered for Sh.
Navy 505: Occasional cases are not addressed but will default to the method used in B31.1, and an
OCC value of 1.15 will be used as the default.
Z662: Occasional cases not defined, but if entered by the user the allowable for the case will default
to 1.0 times the sustained allowable.
BS806: The occasional load case is not defined. If entered the allowable stress for the OCC load case
will be K Sh, (the occasional load factor times the sustained allowable). The default for “k” is 1.0.
Swedish Method 1: OCC is not used. The load cases are not differentiated. The same allowable
Sigma(ber)/1.5 is used for all load cases.
Swedish Method 2: An OCC default of 1.2 as recommended in the Swedish Piping Code is used.
B31.1(1967): OCC default is 1.15.
Stoomwezen: OCC default is 1.2.
RCCM C&D: OCC default is 1.2.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 97
CODETI: OCC default is 1.15.
NORWEGIAN: OCC default is 1.2.
FBDR: OCC default is 1.15
BS 7159: The occasional load case is not defined.
UKOOA: The occasional load case is not defined.
IGE/TD/12: Occasional stress increases are addressed is Table 4 of the code. The occasional factor in
the setup file has no bearing on this code.
The occasional load factor can be changed from the program defaults via the setup file. The value should
be entered in percent. To get an occasional load factor of 1.5, the user would enter 50.0
Intersections are not “FULL” intersections in CAESAR II whenever the branch outside diameter is less than
0.975 times the header outside diameter.
When there are multiple piping codes in the same piping job, and a piping code change occurs at an
intersection, if the intersection is completely defined with three pipes framing into the intersection then the
piping code used to generate the SIF equations will be that one associated with the first header pipe
framing into the intersection. If the intersection is only partially defined, then the piping code will be
selected from the first pipe framing into the intersection point.
The material, thermal expansion, and modulus of elasticity data are for the B31 piping codes. Users may
enter their own material and thermal expansion properties if desired.
There is a small difference between USE_WRC330 and REDUCED_INTERSECTION =WRC330. The
first applies for all full and reduced intersections that are not welding tees or reinforced tees. The latter
applies only for reduced fittings that are not welding tees or reinforced fabricated tees. A fitting is reduced
when d/D is less than 0.975.
The Bonney Forge SIF Data came from the technical flyer: “Bonney Forge Stress Intensification Factors”
Bulletin 789/SI1, Copyright 1976.
The ASME piping codes primarily combine moments for thermal expansion stresses. When there is any
tendency for large axial forces to exist in the pipe these code equations are not adequate. An example of
this is for a buried, or partially buried pipe. Here the axial stresses can be very high. B31.4 directs the user
to compute a longitudinal stress for completely restrained pipe. CAESAR II allows the user to specify just
how much of the pipe is buried. This longitudinal stress is then added to the stress calculations for thermal
and will contribute to a failure prediction that might have otherwise been ignored. Similar effects can be
achieved in CAESAR II by using the axial soil restraint and telling the setup file to include F/A components
in the stress calculations. Users should be aware that for any type of problem, if large axial loads are
developed because of the design, the piping code may not be adequately considering it.
98 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
CodeSpecific Notes
B31.1
Pressure stiffening is implemented by default. Users may deactivate pressure stiffening for B31.1 runs by
entering the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
B31.1 does not by default add F/A into the stress calculation. F/A and the pressure stresses are added to
the bending stress (whether the tensile or compressive component of bending), to produce the largest
longitudinal stress component. This is true for all codes insofar as the addition of axial and pressure terms
are concerned. The user can cause CAESAR II to include the axial force terms into the code stress by
inserting the parameter ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A forces discussed here are
structural forces developed in the piping independent of pressure PD/4t forces.
In 1980 B31.1 added a reduced branch stress intensification factor equation to Appendix D. This equation
came directly from ASME Section III. B31.1 continued however to use the effective section modulus
calculation for the branch. The ASME Section III rules clearly stated that the branch section modulus,
NOT the effective section modulus should be used with the new SIF. B31.1’s using of the effective
section modulus produced unnecessarily high calculated stresses. This error was corrected in the 1989
version of B31.1. Prior to Version 3.0 CAESAR II users had two options:
Use the pre1980 version of the B31.1 SIF rules.
Use the very conservative, post1980 B31.1 SIF rules.
In version 3.0 (and later) these options also exist, except that the section modulus problem is corrected.
For users that wish to run version 3.0 (and later) just like they ran version 2.2, i.e. without the section
modulus correction, they can do so by putting the parameter: B31.1_REDUCED_Z_FIX=NO in the setup
file.
The reduced intersection branch SIFs were not intended for reinforced or welding tees. Conservative
results are produced, but the original researchers did not intend for the SIFs to be used for these fittings.
The CAESAR II user can disable the reduced branch fitting calculations for reinforced or welded tees by
putting the parameter NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_AND_WLT in the setup file. This will produce
less conservative results, but can, in some cases be justified.
B31.1 102.3.2 (c) tells the user to divide the allowable stresses coming from the stress tables in Appendix
A by the applicable weld joint factors listed in Para. 102.4.3.
Stress allowables for B31.1 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh)  Sl ]
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * (Occ)
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 99
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Sl = Sustained Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.15)
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept the same in the B31.1 stress
calculation.
The B31.1 criteria “B” length for closely spaced miters is not checked by CAESAR II.
For reducers B31.1 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5
+ .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ length / (D1D2)/2 ]
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60° and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 can not exceed 100.
B31.3
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.
Since the B31.3 piping code gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that equation
does not include the longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CAESAR II does not include the F/A
component of the stress in the expansion stress equation. (The code also says that the user may wish to add
in the F/A component where it may be significant.) Users can change this by placing the parameter:
ADD_F/ A_IN_STRESS=YES to the setup file. The F/A longitudinal stress component is by default
added to the code stress component for all other stress categories.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without “undercut.” Codes that do differentiate
use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all B31.3 socket
welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is specified).
Stress allowables for B31.3 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh)  Sl ]
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * (Occ)
100 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Weld Joint Efficiency (Only for pre1980 B31.3)
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Sl = Sustained Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default = 1.33)
For B31.3 the flag ALL_STRESS_CASES_CORRODED=NO flag in the setup file returns the corroded
stress calculations to the way they were performed in the 2.2 version of CAESAR II. The corrosion is
removed from the sustained and occasional stress calculations.
See Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual for the setup file parameter
B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR=<nnn>. This value can have a considerable impact on the sustained
case stress calculations.
Pressure effects on miters are allowed in the B31.3 piping code.
For reducers B31.3 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.
B31.4
Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening
off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.
The Allowables for B31.4 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)
Sustained Allowable = (0.75)(0.72)(Sy)
Occasional Allowable = (0.8)(Sy)
Operating Allowable = (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive, no code check done if the
axial stress is tensile
Where:
Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 101
B31.4 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The minimum yield stress is all
that is required to compute flexibility stress allowables.
B31.4 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
B31.4 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. This particular option is not used for B31.4
stress allowable calculations. The occasional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining
the allowable stress for occasional load sets) is not used in B31.4, as the allowable stress is expressly
given as 0.8 times the minimum yield stress.
CAESAR II assumes that 419.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress at 90% of
Sy; when the net axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudinal pressure stresses can be ignored in
underground pipes). The last sentence in the paragraph establishes that: “Beam bending stresses shall be
included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the restrained line which are supported above
ground.” CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in their analyses:
1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A parameter into the setup file. Set the “fac”
value to 0.001 to indicate that the line is buried, so longitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so
the hoop stress component must be considered.
2 Use the “fac” value to have CAESAR II compute the “axiallyrestrained” stress and include it during
stress calculations. If a nonzero “fac” value is entered, the pressure plus axial loads in the pipe are
multiplied by (1Fac). This gives a more realistic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the
user has included both of the effects above.
Users should note that paragraph 419.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the
product of Poisson’s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addiction of the hoop stress to the axial
stress. The latter represents the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive,
implying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted
directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load Case, where the hoop stress is
added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If “fac” is set to
0.001, the piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the
product of Poisson’s ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 419.6.4(b). “fac” is
automatically set to 0.001 when B31.4 pipe is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress
due to axial force will also be included for these elements.
The “fac” variable should probably not be set to 1.0 with B31.4 and thermal expansion cases where the
user is going from one thermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1DS2, and both
DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures. In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe
calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the load case definition. In the example above the
thermal expansion associated with the DS2 load case.
The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used by B31.4 when the hoop stress is calculated for
the restrained pipe longitudinal stress calculation. The default is to base the hoop stress calculation on the
average diameter, and the equation PD/2t. In the mechanical stress calculations the hoop stress is based on
the inside diameter. (This is the hoop stress that is printed in the 132 column CAESAR II stress report.)
For reducers B31.4 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.
102 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
B31.4 Chapter IX
Chapter IX presents the offshore requirements of the B31.4 code.
All Stress Intensification Factors, Flexibility Factors, and section moduli are calculated exactly as in the
standard B31.4 Code. Stress calculations are made using the uncorroded wall thickness.
Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code
check for an Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load
cases, three stress calculations are done, each with a different allowable. The stress calculation causing the
highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress report, along with its specific allowable. These stress
checks are:
Hoop Stress: Sh <= F1 Sy
Longitudinal Stress: SL <= 0.8 Sy
Equivalent Stress: Se <= 0.9 Sy
Where:
Sh = (Pi – Pe) D / 2t
Pi = internal pressure
Pe = external pressure
D = outer diameter
t = wall thickness
F1 = hoop stress design factor (0.60 or 0.72, see Table A402.3.5(a) of the B31.4 Code)
Sy = specified minimum yield strength
SL = Sa + Sb or Sa  Sb, whichever results in greater stress value
Sa = axial stress (positive tensile, negative compressive)
Sb = bending stress
Se = 2[((SL  Sh)/2)
2
+ St
2
]
1/2
St = torsional stress
B31.5
For reducers B31.5 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states the SIF is 1.0.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 103
B31.8
Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening
off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without “undercut”. Codes that do differentiate
use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all B31.8 socket
welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is specified).
B31.8 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
The allowables used for B31.8 are
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)
Sustained Allowable = (0.75)(Sy)
Occasional Allowable = (0.75)(Sy)*(Occ)
Operating Allowable = (Sy)
Where:
Occ = is the occasional load factor (Default=1.0)
Sy = is the specified minimum yield stress
104 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
In B31.8 Table E1, note 8 to this table allows ii=io. This produces more conservative results and is
recommended by Rodabaugh in WRC 329, and so is the CAESAR II default for SIFs. The only time the
SIFs are kept different is when d/D is between 0.5 and 1.0. In this case the outofplane stress
intensification factor as computed is multiplied by 1.5. See note 10 to Table E1. In this case ii = 1.5*io.
Where d/D is less than 0.5 there is no change to the SIF. (ii=io). ‘
There is no “liberal allowable” calculation for B31.8.
The OCC occasional load default for B31.8 is 1.0. There is no provision in B31.8 for occasionally acting
loads, and the stress summation discussion in 833.4(c) includes: “the longitudinally bending stress due to
external loads, such as weight of pipe and contents, wind, etc....” There is no differentiation between the
weight load and the wind load. The user must interpret the intention of the code in this case.
For reducers B31.8 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5
+ .01*alpha* (D2/t2)^2/3
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ length / (D1D2)/2]
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60° and the larger of D1/SQRT(t1) and D2/SQRT(t2) can not
exceed 100.
B31.8 Chapter VIII
Chapter VIII presents the offshore requirements of the B31.8 code.
All Stress Intensification Factors, Flexibility Factors, and section moduli are calculated exactly as in the
standard B31.8 Code. Stress calculations are made using the uncorroded wall thickness.
Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code
check for an Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load
cases, three stress calculations are done, with different allowables. The stress calculation causing the
highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress report, along with its specific allowable. These stress
checks are:
Hoop Stress: Sh <= F1 S T
Longitudinal Stress: SL <= 0.8 S
Equivalent Stress: Se <= 0.9 S
Where:
Sh = (Pi – Pe) D / 2t
Pi = internal pressure
Pe = external pressure
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 105
D = outer diameter
t = wall thickness
F1 = hoop stress design factor (0.50 or 0.72, see Table A842.22 of the B31.8 Code)
S = specified minimum yield strength
T = temperature derating factor (see Table 841.116A of the B31.8 Code)
Note: The product of S and T (i.e., the yield stress at operating temperature) is required in the SH field
of the CAESAR II input
SL = maximum longitudinal stress (positive tensile, negative compressive)
Se = 2[((SL  Sh)/2)
2
+ Ss
2
]
1/2
Ss = torsional stress
B31.11
Pressure stiffening is automatically included as directed per the code. Users may turn pressure stiffening
off by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept separate and unique.
The Allowables for B31.11 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)
Sustained Allowable = (0.75)(0.72)(Sy)
Occasional Allowable = (0.88)(Sy)
Operating Allowable = (0.9)(Sy) if the axial stress is compressive, no code
check done if the axial stress is tensile
Where:
Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
106 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
B31.11 does not use EFF, (found in the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field). The minimum yield stress is
all that is required to compute flexibility stress allowables.
B31.11 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
B31.11 does not include a provision for the liberal allowable. This particular option is not used for B31.11
stress allowable calculations. The occasional load factor (used in the other piping codes for determining
the allowable stress for occasional load sets) is not used in B31.11, as the allowable stress is expressly
given as 0.88 times the minimum yield stress.
CAESAR II assumes that 1119.6.4(b) establishes a requirement for the allowable operating stress at 90% of
Sy; when the net axial stress is compressive (i.e., when longitudinal pressure stresses can be ignored in
underground pipes). The last sentence in the paragraph establishes that: “Beam bending stresses shall be
included in the longitudinal stress for those portions of the restrained line which are supported above
ground.” CAESAR II users have two options for including this axial stress in their analyses:
1 Include axial friction restraints and include the ADD_F/A parameter into the setup file. Set the “fac”
value to 0.001 to indicate that the line is buried, so longitudinal pressure stresses are not present, so
the hoop stress component must be considered.
2 Use the “fac” value to have CAESAR II compute the “axiallyrestrained” stress and include it during
stress calculations. If a nonzero “fac” value is entered, the pressure plus axial loads in the pipe are
multiplied by (1Fac). This gives a more realistic estimation of the axial stress in the pipe when the
user has included both of the effects above.
Users should note that paragraph 1119.6.4(b) requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the
product of Poisson’s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addition of the hoop stress to the axial
stress. The latter represents the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive,
implying that there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the pressure loads are transmitted
directly to the soil). CAESAR II handles this case in the Operating Load Case, where the hoop stress is
added in and the allowable stress is set to 0.9 Sy whenever the axial stress is compressive. If “fac” is set to
0.001, the piping element is considered to be buried, so the longitudinal pressure stress is replaced by the
product of Poisson’s ratio and the hoop stress, in keeping with the spirit of paragraph 1119.6.4(b). “fac” is
automatically set to 0.001 when B31.11 pipe is sent through CAESAR II's buried pipe modeler. The stress
due to axial force will also be included for these elements.
The “fac” variable should probably not be set to 1.0 with B31.11 and thermal expansion cases where the
user is going from one thermal state to another state, i.e. where the case is of the form: DS1DS2, and both
DS1 and DS2 contain temperatures. In this case the thermal expansion used in the restrained pipe
calculation comes from the last thermal specified in the load case definition. In the example above the
thermal expansion associated with the DS2 load case.
The base hoop stress on OD flag in the setup file is used by B31.11 when the hoop stress is calculated for
the restrained pipe longitudinal stress calculation. The default is to base the hoop stress calculation on the
average diameter, and the equation PD/2t. In the mechanical stress calculations the hoop stress is based on
the inside diameter. (This is the hoop stress that is printed in the 132 column CAESAR II stress report.)
For reducers B31.11 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that the SIF is 1.0.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 107
ASME III Subsections NC and ND
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in
the analysis by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the configuration file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
The minimum SIF for reinforced and unreinforced fabricated tees is 2.1.
B1 and B2 are calculated according to ASME NC and ND. Equations used are shown in the Help screens
for B1 and B2.
If in the odd situation where the user is using the ASME III piping code, and is running dynamics, and is
calling one of the dynamic case expansion, and has the liberal allowable flag turned on, the liberal
allowable request will be ignored, and the difference between Sh and Sl will not be added to the expansion
allowable. This is more of a programming decision than an interpretation of the piping code or a
recommendation for doing dynamic analysis.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors are the same for the ASME
Section III piping codes.
When using USE_WRC330 with ASME NC or ND, for all intersections that are not welding tees or
reinforced fabricated tees, the approximate section modulus is used for the stress calculations, i.e. pi*r
2
*t.
This includes all reduced intersections and all d/D ratios.
Users that DO NOT wish to use the branch stress intensification factors found in Appendix D of the Code
for welding and reinforced reducing tees, should put the flag:
NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_AND_WLT in the setup file.
The allowables for ASME III NC and ND are computed from
Expansion Allowable = f( 1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (ShSl)
Sustained Allowable = 1.5Sh (If not at an intersection)
Occasional Allowable = 1.8Sh not greater than 1.5Sy (If OCC=1.2); 2.25Sh not greater than
1.8Sy (If OCC=1.5); 3.0Sh not greater than 2.0Sy (If OCC=2.0)
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Sc = Cold Allowable
Sh = Hot Allowable
Sl = Sustained stress from PD/4t+0.75iMb.
Sy = Material Yield Stress
OCC = Occasional factor from the CAESAR II configuration file
108 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
For two pipe intersections, i.e. butt welds, socket welds, etc. B1 and B2 factors are 1.0. If the ratio of the
average branch to average run radius is less than 0.5 then the reduced intersection rules are applied to the
B1 and B2 calculations regardless of the intersection type. If the reduced intersection rules do not apply
then the rules for butt welded fittings are used, i.e.
B2b= 0.4 * (R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0,
B2r = 0.5 * (R/T)**2/3 but not < 1.0.
Users can always modify the B1 and B2 values for any node in the SIF&TEE Auxiliary field. B1 and B2
values modified on an auxiliary field only apply for that element, regardless of whether the node is an
intersection or not. When r/R < 0.5 the following equations are used for B1 and B2:
B2b= 0.50 C2b but not < 1.0,
B2r = 0.75 C2r but not < 1.0,
C2b= 3(R/T)**2/3 (r/R)**1/2 (t/T)(r/rp), but not < 1.5
C2r = 1.15(r/t)**1/4 but not < 1.5.
WRC329 does result in smaller branch SIFs than ASME NC and ND, and the same run SIFs. The branch
SIFs are smaller by a factor of 2. This is when d/D<0.5, and WRC 329 corrects the Mob inconsistency
when d/D is between 0.5 and 1. Thus in the lower ranges of d/D ratios WRC 329 is less conservative than
the present codes and in the higher ranges WRC 329 is more conservative than the present codes.
The Pvar value in the allowable stress spreadsheet is for the DIFFERENCE between the operating
pressure and Pmax to be used in eq 11. This is because of the way the occasional stresses are formed in
CAESAR II, i.e. the direct addition of two stress components. So we are computing the sustained stress
(including pressure) and adding it to the occasional stress, including the stress difference between the
operating pressure and the peak pressure that is to be used in the ASME occasional stress equation 11.
The equations 10 or 11 are satisfied by using as the allowable for the iMc/Z stress as the maximum of
either f(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) or f(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (ShSl) where Sl is the sustained stress as defined by
equation 11 as PDo/4tn+0.75iMa/Z.
The CAESAR II approach taken for ASME NC and ND for moment summations at intersections to satisfy
equations 8 and 9 is the same as for equations 10 and 11, i.e. the SRSS of the moments at each end of the
pipe framing into the intersection is found. The cumulative moment summation rules for a single
intersection as per NB 3683.1 are not adhered to. In addition the effective section modulus rules of NC
and ND are used for all intersection stress calculations, i.e. for equations 8 and 9. (The NB subsection is
used to get the values for B1 and B2 only, and to compute the local flexibility if requested) Because of this
approach in CAESAR II, there is no allowable calculated for intersection points and sustained or occasional
loads.
The sustained case SIF factor is not used in the ASME class 2 or 3 calculations.
For reducers NC states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 109
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ length / (D1D2)/2 ]
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60 º. The larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100.
B1=.5 if alpha s 30 º, 1.0 if 30 º < alpha s 60 º B2 = 1.0.
For reducers ND states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is: 2.0 max or 0.5 +
.01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ length / (D1D2)/2 ]
Note: There is an error in the code, the code states note 12 however, they meant note 14. Alpha cannot
exceed 60 º. The larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 can't exceed 100.
B1=.5 if alpha s 30 º, 1.0 if 30 º < alpha s 60 º B2 = 1.0.
110 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
CANADIAN Z662
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends
by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
There is no limit in Z662 for the beneficial effect of the pad on an intersection. Most codes limit the pad
thickness to 1.5 times the header thickness. For Z662 CAESAR II will not limit the pad thickness.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are the same.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without “undercut.” Codes that do differentiate
use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all Z662 socket
welds (unless a fillet weld leg length is specified). This code has no provision for using an effective
section modulus calculation at intersections.
The allowable stresses are computed from
Expansion Allowable = (0.72)(Sy)(T)
Sustained Allowable = (Sy)(Fac)(T)(L)
Occasional Allowable = (Sy)(Fac)(T)(Occ)(L)
Operating Allowable = 0.9(Sy)(T) If pipe is buried and axial stress is compressive
= (Sy)(T) If pipe is not buried and axial stress is compressive
Where:
Sy = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
Fac = Construction Design Factor
T = Temperature Derating Factor
Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (=1.0)
L = Location Factor
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 111
CAESAR II assumes that Section 4.6.2 of the Z662 code establishes a requirement for the allowable
operating stress of 0.9 x S x T whenever the net axial stress is compressive in the absence of bending
stress, and an allowable operating stress of S x T when the net axial stress is compressive in the presence
of bending stress.
Users should note that Section 4.6.2 requires 1) the reduction of the axial expansion stress by the product
of poisson’s ratio and the pressure hoop stress, and 2) the addition of the hoop stress to the axial stress.
The latter represents the calculation of stress intensity when the axial stress is compressive, implying that
there is no longitudinal pressure stress in buried pipe (the longitudinal pressure thrust loads are transmitted
directly to the soil).
CAESAR II handles these requirements, in the OPERATING load case, in the following manner:
1 If FAC is set to 1.0, the implication is that the piping system is fully restrained (in the axial direction)
as described in Section 4.6.2.1, and the operating stress is calculated as:
Sh + E a (T2  T1)  v Sh < 0.9 S x T
2 If FAC is set to 0.001, the implication is that the piping system is buried, but the soil supports are
modeled (rather than just assumed to be fully rigid). This setting removes the longitudinal pressure
stress from the equation (as described above), takes bending stresses into consideration, as required by
Section 4.6.2.2.1. In this case, the operating stress is calculated as:
Sh +Fax/A + Sb  v Sh < S x T
3 If FAC is set to 0.0, the implication is that the piping system is either not restrained, or is a “freely
spanning” or “above ground” portion of a restrained line, as described in Section 4.6.2.2.1. In this
case, the longitudinal pressure stress is restored, so this formula only comes into effect if the net axial
stress (including pressure) is compressive, in which case the operating stress is calculated as:
Sh +Slp + Fax/A + Sb < S x T
4 For those elements for which the net axial stress is longitudinal, no operating code stress check is
done.
5 Users should note that CAESAR II does not check for buckling, as required by Section 4.6.2.2.2.
For reducers Z662 states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The Code also states that the SIF is 1.0.
112 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
NAVY 505
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in
the analysis by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
Navy 505 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at intersections.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are the same.
Navy 505 has no provision for a “liberal allowable,” i.e. adding the difference between Sh and Sl to the
allowed expansion stress range. This flag in the control parameter spreadsheet has no affect on 505 runs.
Navy 505 does use Eff in computing the cold and the hot allowable. The use of this parameter is subject to
some speculation however.
Navy 505 has no specific allowable for occasional loads. An occasional load factor, similar to B31.1’s will
be used, and the occasional allowable calculated from kSh.
The allowable stresses for Navy 505 are calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f/Eff(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * Occ
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Joint Efficiency (Not explicitly in the Code)
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.15)
The B31.3_SUS_CASE_SIF_FACTOR can be used for 505 to multiply the stress intensification factors
for sustained and occasional loads to be more in line with the current B31.1 practice.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 113
BS806
For BS806 the maximum hot stress case is considered to be the operating load case. Operating load case
allowables are only given as per BS806 when the creep rupture strength governs the stress range
allowable. See BS806 sect 4.11.2.
BS806 SIFs printed are fti and fto for bends, and Bi and Bo for intersections.
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends
by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications due to flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bend types. This includes closely and
widely spaced mitered bends.
There is no limit in BS806 to the beneficial effect of the pad on an intersection. Most codes limit the pad
thickness to 1.5 times the header thickness. For BS806, CAESAR II will not limit the pad thickness.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
Important When there is more than one thermal case to evaluate, the following note should be read
carefully concerning CAESAR II's application of BS806.
Note: Re: BS806 4.11.3.1 paragraph 2, for sectionalized systems: At this time CAESAR II only makes the
moment summation on a load case by load case basis, and does not take the largest moments for an axis
for any combination of load cases. The CAESAR II method was set up to allow the user to make, and
combine the effects of each of the load transients that the piping system undergoes. This is, for the most
part the method used in the B31/ASME piping codes. The BS806 method will be conservative in that it
uses what is basically a shakedown approach and computes a single worst case moment difference. The
CAESAR II approach still satisfies the shakedown theory, but computes the moment range for each
different load traversed. The BS806 method of combining the maximum moment range will be more
conservative. The BS806 approach also eliminates the need to know where on the pipe the stress is the
highest. In reference to the moment tables in Appendix F, CAESAR II users can get the moment difference
between any two load cases, but not the maximum moment difference for any of the three moment axes as
requested by the sectionalized piping rules. In satisfying 4.11.3.1(a) CAESAR II uses the moment difference
between the cold and the hot case to compute the stress.
Only a single modulus of elasticity can be entered for a single element for each job. Different elements
can have different moduli of elasticity, but that modulus cannot be varied between load cases in the same
run, i.e. cold and hot moduli of elasticity cannot be used in the same run at this time.
For BS806 in 4.11.5.2 the value of “n” is always taken as 1.0., i.e. all branches are of the noninteracting
type. See 4.11.4.2 for the definition of “n” for interacting branches (n is defined in the fourth paragraph of
4.11.4.2).
The CAESAR II equation modeling of the BS806 SIF curves for bends is shown in the following plots.
114 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The BS 806 allowable stresses are calculated as follows:
Expansion Allowable = lesser of (H)(Sc)+(H)(Sh) <or> (H)(Sc)+F
Sustained Allowable = Sy
Occasional Allowable = (Sy)(Occ)
Operating Allowable = S avg rupture at design temperature
Where:
H = Multiplication Factor (0.9 or 1.0 from CAESAR II)
Sc = 0.2% proof stress at room temperature
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 115
Sh = 0.2% proof stress at design temperature
F = Mean stress to failure in design life at design temperature.
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.0)
The pressure calculation at intersections is made as required in BS806 4.8.5.1 Eq. (17). The pressure stress
as per 17 is computed and then combined with the bending and torsional moments at each of the
intersection ends 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The “m” factor is computed as required with a value of n=1, i.e.
for noninteracting intersections.
BS806 does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.
Swedish Method 1 and 2
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the Swedish Code. Users may include pressure stiffening on
bends in the analysis by including the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications due to flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends providing the bend is not a
widely spaced miter.
The Swedish Method 1 cannot take advantage of the WRC330 recommendations. WRC 330, if requested
is ignored.
The Swedish Method 1 has no provision for using an effective section modulus calculation at
intersections.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors for intersections are kept the same.
The Swedish Code item 9 is dealt with as a US tapered transition. Also items 10 and 11 in the Swedish
table 9:2 correspond to items 8 and 9 in the CAESAR II nomenclature.
The Allowable Stress for Method 1 is calculated from:
Sber = lesser of Sh <or> F
Allowable = (Fac)(Sber) / 1.5
Where:
Sh = Yield stress at temperature
F = Creep rupture stress at temperature
Fac = Usually 1.5, for prestressed pipe 1.35.
The Allowable Stress for Method 2 is calculated from:
Expansion Allowable = f ( 1.17S1 + 0.17S2 )
Sustained Allowable = Sh
116 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Occasional Allowable = Sh * Occ
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
S1 = lesser of Sc <or> 0.267Sy
S2 = lesser of Sh <or> 0.367Sy
Sc = Allowable stress at room temperature (Stn2)
Sh = Allowable stress at design temperature (Stn1)
Sy = Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.2)
If the weld is ground flush inside and out then the SIF of a girth butt weld can be taken to be 1.0. A weld
ID = 1, informs CAESAR II that the weld is finished and ground flush, and will result in a girth butt weld
SIF of 1.0.
Swedish methods 1 and 2 Beta in the code is entered in the Pvar field on the Allowable Stress Auxiliary
screen. Pvar is entered in percent, i.e. 10.0 for ten percent. The default if no value is entered is 10 percent.
Limits on the reasonable beta’s that users may enter for the Swedish piping code is 0.1 to 25%. Anything
entered less than 0.1 will be taken to be 10% and anything entered greater than 25% will be taken to be
25%. If no value is entered then beta will default to 10%. Note that 10% is entered in the Pmax field as
10.0. This applies equally for Swedish Method 1 and Method 2.
The USE_PDo/4t line for the setup file causes the Swedish method 1 code compliance to use the thin
walled equations as given in the codes for stress calculations.
The user of Swedish Method 1 should note that implied in the CAESAR II allowable calculation is the
assumption that the SIGMA(tn) multiplier is 1.5 for piping that is not prestressed. Users of prestressed
pipe (i.e. cold sprung) should change “Fac” on the Allowable Stress Auxiliary field to be 1.35 as directed
in the Swedish code.
Note: The corroded section modulus is used for all stress calculations as per the definition of Di in the
Swedish code.
The default occasional load factor for Swedish Method 2 is 1.2.
The Swedish piping codes allow the pad thickness on an intersection to reduce stresses up to pad thickness
of 2.5 times the header wall thickness. This is greater than most code’s value of 1.5 times the header wall
thickness.
For reducers the Swedish piping codes states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that
SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 117
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[length / (D1D2)/2 ]
B31.1 (1967)
The 1967 B31.1 piping code uses ii=io for full sized intersections for both the header and the branch, and
for reduced intersections uses ii=0.75io + 0.25 for both the header and the branch.
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default. Users may activate pressure stiffening for B31.1 (1967) runs
by entering the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the setup file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends providing the bend is not
a widely spaced miter.
The SIF for a girth butt weld is taken as 1.0, as this was Markl’s original basis for SIFs.
No differentiation is made between socket welds with and without “undercut.” Codes that do differentiate
use 1.3 for socket welds with no undercut, and 2.1 for all others. An SIF of 1.3 is used for all socket welds
(unless a fillet weld leg length is specified).
The B31.1 (1967) allowable stresses are computed from:
Expansion Allowable = f [ (1.25/Eff)(Sc+Sh)  Sl ]
Sustained Allowable = Sh/Eff
Occasional Allowable = Sh/Eff * Occ
Where:
f = Cyclic reduction factor
Eff = Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency
Sc = Cold Allowable Stress
Sh = Hot Allowable Stress
Sl = Sustained Stress
Occ = Occasional Load Factor (Default=1.15)
Stoomwezen
SC = the yield stress at room temperature, referred to as Re in the code.
SH1 = the yield stress at design temperature, referred to as Re (um) in the code.
SH2 = not used
SH3 = not used
118 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
FN = the average creep stress to produce one percent set, referred to as Rrg in the code. F2 is
the average creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmg in the
code. F3 is the minimum creep tensile stress to produce rupture, referred to as Rmmin in the
code.
EFF = the cyclic reduction factor, referred to as Cf in the code.
SY = the tensile strength at room temperature, referred to as Rm in the code.
FAC = a constant whose value is either 0.44 or 0.5. Refer to Stoomwezen Section 5.2
for details.
PVAR = the Cm coefficient in the code whose value is usually 1.0.
Stoomwezen does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.
RCCM Subsection C and D
Pressure stiffening is not defined by default in the code. Users may include pressure stiffening on bends in
the analysis by including the parameter.
USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES in the configuration file.
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code providing the bend is not a widely
spaced miter.
Inplane and outofplane stress intensification factors are the same for these piping codes.
Users who do not wish to use the stress intensification factor for branch connections found in Figure
C3680.1 of the code for welding and reinforced reduced tees, should set
NO_REDUCED_SIF_FOR_RFT_ AND_WLT=YES in the configuration file.
The allowables for RCCM C and D are computed from:
Expansion Allowable = F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh)+(Sh  SSl)
Sustained Allowable = Sh
Occasional Allowable = OCC + Sh (Defaults to 1.2, Level B)
(Use OCC = 1.8 for Level C)
(Use OCC = 2.4 for Level D)
Where:
F = Cyclic reduction factor
Sc = Cold allowable
Sh = Hot allowable
Ssl = Sustained stress (PD/4t + 0.75i Mb/Z)
OCC = Occasional factor from the CAESAR II configuration file)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 119
The Pvar value in the allowable stress spreadsheet is for the DIFFERENCE between the design pressure
and Pmax to be used in equation 10.
Equations 7 or 8 are satisfied by using as the allowable for the i Mc/Z stress the maximum of either F
(1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) or F (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh) + (Sh  Ssl) where Ssl is the sustained stress as defined by
equation 6.
For reducers RCCM states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ length / (D1D2)/2 ]
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60° and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100.
CODETI
Modifications resulting from flanged ends are permitted in the code for all bends, including widely spaced
miters.
Inplane and outplane stress intensification factors of intersections are kept separate and unique.
Since the CODETI piping code gives the equation for the expansion stress explicitly, and since that
equation does not include the longitudinal stress due to axial loads in the pipe, CAESAR II does not include
the F/A component of the stress in the expansion stress equation. Users can change this by setting
ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS=YES to the configuration file. The F/A longitudinal stress component is by
default added to the code stress component for all other stress categories.
Stress allowables for CODETI are calculated from
Expansion Allowable = F [1.25 (Sc + Sh)]  Sl
Sustained Allowable = Sh
Occasional Allowable = OCC x Sh
Where:
F = Cyclic reduction factor
Sc = Cold allowable stress
Sh = Hot allowable stress
Sl = Sustained stress
OCC = Occasional load factor from configuration (defaults to 1.15)
120 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Pressure stiffening of bends is automatically included as directed by the code. Users may deactivate it by
setting the parameter USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the configuration file.
Flexibility coefficients and stress intensification factors are phased in for bends with an included angle
between 15° and 45°. Their value is 1.0 for smaller than 15° bends.
The stress intensification factor of fabricated tees having an angle of incidence other than 90° are
increased by dividing them by (sin a)
3/2
.
Recommended occasional load factors are 1.15, 1.2, and 1.3, as per Code Table C3.3.
CODETI requires that when “the design temperature is such that the creep characteristics are determinant,
and if a section of the piping presents locally weaker characteristics,” the sum of the primary and
secondary stresses must not exceed the value FF (from Section C1.4.3). This requirement has not been
implemented in CAESAR II and has been left to the user to verify.
For reducers CODETI states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is 1.0.
Norwegian (TBK 56)
Pressure stiffening of bends is required for flexibility factors only and is done that way, by default. Users
may deactivate pressure stiffening completely by setting USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=NO in the
configuration file. Pressure stiffening may be activated for stress intensification factors as well by setting
USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING=YES.
The Norwegian Code does not by default add F/A into the stress calculation. The user can cause
CAESAR II to include the axial force term into the code stress by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS=YES in
the configuration file.
The code uses a circumferential weld strength factor (Z) when calculating longitudinal pressure stress.
This value is entered as EFF.
The cyclic reduction factor should be calculated as F = (7000/Ne)
0.2
(where Ne is the number of anticipated
cycles), and may be as high as 2.34, but shall not be greater than 1.0 when Rm governs the expansion
stress allowable.
Inplane and outofplane stress intensification factors for bends and intersections are kept the same in the
stress calculation.
Stress allowables for the Norwegian Code are
Expansion allowable = Sr + F2  SSUS
Sustained allowable = F2
Occasional allowable = Occ x F2
Where:
Sr = Minimum of 1.25F1 + 0.25F2; Fr x Rs  F2; or Fr (1.25 R1 + 0.25 R2) (The latter for higher
temperatures; above 425°C for austenitic stainless steel, or above 370°C for other materials)
F2 = Hot allowable stress (entered in Sh)
OCC = Occasional load factor from the configuration file (defaults to 1.2)
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 121
SSUS = Sustained stress
F1 = Allowable stress at ambient (entered in Sc)
Fr = Cyclic reduction factor
Rs = Permissible extent of stress for 7000 cycles (from Code Table 10.2)
R1 = Smaller of F1 and 0.267 RM
R2 = Smaller of F2 and 0.367 RM
Rm = Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature
Stress intensification factors for fitting types 6 (branch with raised edge radius), 7 (branch on locally
thickened pipe), 13 (conical reducer with knuckles), and 14 (reducer without knuckles) have not been
implemented in CAESAR II and are the responsibility of the user to enter manually.
The Norwegian code offers an alternative stress analysis method in Appendix D. CAESAR II does not
implement that method.
For reducers the Norwegian code states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
FDBR
The FDBR code is similar to B31.1 in most aspects. However, the following differences should be noted.
For reinforced tees, FDBR limits the pad thickness to a maximum equal to the header thickness. If a pad
thickness greater than the header thickness is entered, the program overrides it with the header thickness.
Reduced intersections are treated as in ASME NC, not as in B31.1.
The SIF values for butt welds differ from B31.1. FDBR uses either 1.0 or 1.8, depending on the thickness.
FDBR requires the use of the Hot Modulus of Elasticity in the flexibility analysis. Additionally, the
computation of the Expansion Case Allowable Stress incorporates the ratio of Ehot to Ecold. The user can
override the program computed ratio by manually entering it in the FAC field.
For reducers FDBR states that the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. The code also states that SIF is:
2.0 max or 0.5 + .01*alpha* SQRT(D2/t2)
Where D1 and t1 are the diameter and thickness of the large end and D2 and t2 are the diameter and
thickness of the small end.
Alpha is the reducer cone angle in degrees.
Where:
Alpha = atan[ length / (D1D2)/2 ]
122 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Note: Alpha cannot exceed 60° and the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 cannot exceed 100.
BS 7159
The BS 7159 Code for Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Pipe requires that a single load case (OPE) be
evaluated. For that case, the following combined stress requirements must be met:
If Sx is tensile:
S
x
2
4 S
s
( )
2
+ S
h
<
and
S
o
2
4S
s
2
+ S
h
E
o
E
x

\ .

 
<
or, if Sx is compressive:
S
o
v
o
S
x
– S
h
E
o
E
x

\ .

 
<
and
S
x
1.25S
h
<
Where:
S
x
P D
m
( )
4t
d
( )
 =
i
si
M
i
( )
2
i
xo
M
o
( )
2
+
Z
 +
or
S
x
P D
m
( )
4t
d
( )
 =
i
xi
M
i
( )
2
i
xo
M
o
( )
2
+
Z
 –
F
x
A
 –
(if
F
x
A

P D
m
( )
4t
d
( )
 >
, and it is compressive)
S
s
M
T
2Z ( )
 =
S
o
mP D
m
( )
2t
d
 =
for straight pipe
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 123
S
o
mP D
m
( )
2t
d

i
o
M
i
( )
2
i
o
M
o
( )
2
+
Z
 + =
for bends
S
o
mP D
m
( )
2t
d

i
xi
M
i
( )
2
i
xo
M
o
( )
2
+
Z
 + =
for tees,
Where Dm & td are always for the run pipe
BS 7159 allowables are based on material design strain ed . Therefore allowable stresses differ in the axial
and hoop directions by the ratio of the axial and hoop moduli of elasticity:
Sh = cdEx SHOOP = (cdEx) (Eh/Ex)
The ratio Eh/Ex is entered in the allowable stress Eff field; if omitted, it defaults to 1.0 (isotropic material).
Pressure stiffening of bends is done assuming the bends are fully pressurized up to the design strain of the
components (as per the code requirements). This can be deactivated by setting
USE_PRESSURE_STIFFENING = NO in the configuration file.
BS 7159 does not by default add F/A into the stress calculation (unless this puts an element into
compression as described above). The user can cause CAESAR II to include the axial force term into the
code stress by setting ADD_F/A_IN_STRESS = YES in the configuration file.
The fatigue factor Kn is used inversely relative to the cyclic reduction factor in most codes, so its value
should be greater than or equal to 1.0 (allowable stress is divided by this number). Kn is calculated as:
Kn = 1.0 + 0.25 (As/on) (Log10(n)  3.0)
Where:
As = stress range during fatigue cycle
on = maximum stress during fatigue cycle
n = number of cycles during design life
Kn is entered in the Cyclic Reduction Factor field(s).
124 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
BS 7159 requires that the temperature of the pipe material be considered as being typically only 80% 
85% of the difference between the fluid and the ambient temperatures. This reduction factor K is entered
in the allowable stress FAC field; if omitted, it defaults to 1.0.
The stress intensity and flexibility factors of bends vary based on laminate type:
All chopped strand mat (CSM) construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and woven roving (WR) construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer
Chopped strand mat (CSM) and multifilament roving construction with internal and external surface
tissue reinforced layer
The laminate type may be entered in the Bend Type field, or a type default may be set in the Special
Execution Parameter screen.
BS 7159 does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.
UKOOA
The UKOOA (United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association) Specification and Recommended
Practice for the Use of GRP Piping Offshore is similar in many respects to the BS 7159 Code, except that
it simplifies the calculational requirements in exchange for imposing more conservatism on the piping
operating conditions. Rather than explicitly calculating a combined stress, the specification defines an
idealized envelope of combinations of axial and hoop stresses which cause the equivalent stress to reach
failure. This curve represents the plot of:
(ox / oall)
2
+ ohoop / ohoopall)
2
 [ox ohoop / (oxall ohoopall)] s 1.0
Where:
oxall = allowable stress, axial
ohoopall = allowable stress, hoop
The Specification conservatively limits the user to that part of the curve falling under the line between sxall
(also known as sa(0:1)) and the intersection point on the curve where shoop is twice sx(a natural condition for a
pipe loaded only with pressure). An implicit modification to this requirement is the fact that pressure
stresses are given a factor of safety (typically equal to 2/3) while other stresses are not. This gives an
explicit requirement of:
Pdes s f1 f2 f3 LTHP
Where:
Pdes = allowable design pressure
f1 = factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usually 0.85
f2 = system factor of safety, usually 0.67
f3 = ratio of residual allowable, after mechanical loads
= 1  (2 sa
b
) / (r f1 LTHS)
oa
b
= axial bending stress due to mechanical loads
r = sa(0:1) / sa(2:1)
oa(0:1) = long term axial tensile strength in absence of pressure load
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 125
oa(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength in under only pressure loading
LTHS = long term hydrostatic strength (hoop stress allowable)
LTHP = long term hydrostatic pressure allowable
Note: This has been implemented in the CAESAR II pipe stress analysis software as:
Code Stress Code Allowable
oa
b
(f2 /r) + PDm / (4t) s (f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0
Where:
P = design pressure
Dm = pipe mean diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
On the Allowable auxiliary screen, the product of f1 and LTHS is entered in the SH1, SH2, SH3 fields; r is
entered in the F1, F2, F3 fields; f2 is entered in the EFF field; and the temperature reduction factor K
(described for BS 7159 above) is entered in the FAC field – if omitted, it defaults to 1.0.
K and ifactors for bends and tees are taken from (laminate types may be entered in the Bend Type
fields), and bending and pressure stresses are calculated as described in, the BS 7159 Code.
Note: UKOOA refers to BS7159 for SIF calculations.
IGE/TD/12
CAESAR II performs calculations as per the IGE/TD/12 Edition 2 code requirements. The complexity of
these requirements far exceeds what can be described here. It is recommended that the user acquire a
copy of this code from the International Institution of Gas Engineers & Managers or request COADE’s
supplementary IGE/TD/12 documentation.
Note: The current implementation of the IGE/TD/12 code has yet not been granted approval for use on
Transco projects.
126 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
This code is entitled “Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems.” The Allowable Stress Design (ASD)
provisions of the code are implemented here, rather than the limit state requirements.
Since the DNV code does not provide any guidance on Stress Intensification Factors, Flexibility Factors,
or section moduli; these are calculated as per the B31.1 Power Code (this decision was based upon an
informal poll of experts and users of the DNV Code). All stress calculations are made using the corroded
wall thickness.
Operating, Sustained, or Occasional load cases are treated identically (there is no provision for a code
check for an Expansion load case, so no Expansion cases are generated under this code). For these load
cases, three stress calculations are done, with different allowables. The stress calculation causing the
highest percent of allowable is reported in the stress report, along with its specific allowable. These stress
checks are:
Hoop Stress: Sh s ns SMYS
Hoop Stress: Sh s nu SMTS
Longitudinal Stress: SL s n SMYS
Equivalent Stress: Se s n SMYS
Where:
Sh = (Pi – Pe) (D – t) / 2t
Pi = internal pressure
Pe = external pressure
D = outer diameter
t = wall thickness
ns = hoop stress yielding usage factor (see Tables C1 and C2 of the DNV Code)
SMYS = specified minimum yield strength, at operating temperature
nu = hoop stress bursting usage factor (see Tables C1 and C2 of the DNV Code)
SMTS = specified minimum tensile strength, at operating temperature
SL = maximum longitudinal stress
n = equivalent stress usage factor (see Table C4 of the DNV Code)
Se = [Sh
2
+ SL
2
 ShSL + 3t
2
]
1/2
t = torsional stress
DNV does not make mention of reducers for SIF calculations.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 127
Local Coordinates
Many analytical models in engineering are based upon being able to define a real physical object
mathematically. This is accomplished by mapping the dimensions of the physical object into a similar
mathematical space. Mathematical space is usually assumed to be either twodimensional or three
dimensional. For piping analysis, the three dimensional space is necessary, since almost all piping
systems are three dimensional in nature.
Two typical threedimensional mathematical systems are shown below in Figure 1. Both of these systems
are “Cartesian Coordinate Systems”. Each axis in these systems is perpendicular to all other axes.
Figure 1 – Typical Cartesian Coordinate Systems
In addition, for these Cartesian coordinate systems, the “right hand rule” is used to define positive rotation
about each axis, and the relationship, or ordering, between the axes. Before illustrating the “right hand
rule”, there are several traits of the systems in Figure 1 that should be noted.
Each axis can be thought of as a “number line”, where the “zero point” is the point where all of the
axes intersect. While only the positive side of each axis is shown in Figure 1, each axis has a negative
side as well.
The direction of the “arrow heads” indicates the “positive” direction of each axis.
In Figure 1, the “X” axis has one arrowhead, the “Y” axis has two arrowheads, and the “Z” axis has
three arrowheads. The circular arcs labeled “RX”, “RY”, and “RZ” define the direction of “positive”
rotation about each axis. (This point will be discussed later.)
Any point in space can be mapped to these coordinate systems by using its position along the number
lines. For example, a point 5 units down the “X” axis would have a coordinate of (5.0, 0.0, 0.0). A
point 5 units down the “X” axis and 6 units down the “Y” axis would have a coordinate of (5.0, 6.0,
0.0).
128 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Notice that if the system on the right side of Figure 1 is rotated a positive 90 degrees about the “X”
axis, the result is the system on the left side of Figure 1.
The coordinate system on the left side of Figure 1 is the default CAESAR II global coordinate system. In
this system, the “X” and “Z” axes define the horizontal plane, and the “Y” axis is vertical. (The other
coordinate system in Figure 1 can be obtained in CAESAR II by selecting the “Zaxis Vertical” option,
discussed later in this chapter.) All further discussion in this chapter will target this default coordinate
system, unless otherwise noted.
Other Global Coordinate Systems
There are other types of coordinate systems that can be used to mathematically map a physical object.
A “Polar” coordinate system maps points (in a two dimensional space) using a radius and a rotation
angle, (r, theta).
A “Cylindrical” coordinate system maps points using a radius, a rotation angle, and an elevation, (r,
theta, z). The origin in this system could be considered the center of the bottom of a cylinder.
Cylindrical coordinates are convenient to use when there is an “axis” of symmetry in the model.
A “Spherical” coordinate system maps points using a radius and two rotation angles, (r, theta, phi).
The origin in this system could be considered the center of a sphere. Spherical coordinates are
convenient to use when there is a “point” which is the center of symmetry in the model.
Typically, none of these coordinate systems are easily used to map piping systems. Most piping software
deals exclusively with the “Cartesian” coordinate system.
The Right Hand Rule
In the “Cartesian” coordinate system, each axis has a positive and a negative side, as previously
mentioned. Translations, straightline movement, can be defined as movement along these axes. Rotation
can also occur around these axes, as illustrated by the arcs in Figure 1.
A standard rule must be applied in order to define the direction of positive rotation about these axes. This
standard rule (known as the “right hand rule”) is: “Put the thumb of your right hand along the axis, in the
positive direction of the axis. The direction your fingers curl is positive rotation about that axis.” This is
best illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2 – The Right Hand Rule
The “right hand rule” can also be used to describe the relationship between the three axes.
Mathematically, the relationship between the axes can be defined as:
X cross Y = Z EQ 1
Y cross Z = X EQ 2
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 129
Z cross X = Y EQ 3
Where “cross” indicates the “vector cross product”.
Physically, using your right hand, what do the above equations mean? This question is best answered by
Figure 3.
Figure 3 – The Right Hand Rule  Continued
The left pane of Figure 3, corresponds to vector equation 3 above. Similarly, the center pane in Figure 3
also corresponds to vector equation 3 above. The right pane in Figure 3 corresponds to vector equation 2
above. All panes of Figure 3 refer to the left hand image of Figure 1.
Straightline movement along any axis can be therefore described as positive or negative, depending on
the direction of motion. This straightline movement accounts for three of the six degrees of freedom
associated with a given node point in a model. (Analysis of a model requires the discretization of the
model into a set of nodes and elements. Depending on the analysis and the element used, the associated
nodes have certain degrees of freedom. For pipe stress analysis, using 3D Beam Elements, each node in
the model has six degrees of freedom.) The other three degrees of freedom are the rotations about each of
the axes. In accordance with the “right hand rule”, positive rotation about each axis is defined as shown in
Figures 1 and 2.
When modeling a system mathematically, there are two coordinate systems to deal with, a global (or
model) coordinate system and a local (or elemental) coordinate system. The global or model coordinate
system is fixed, and can be considered a constant characteristic of the analysis at hand. The local
coordinate system is defined on an elemental basis. Each element defines its own local coordinate system.
The orientation of these local systems varies with the orientation of the elements.
Note: An important concept here (which will be reiterated later) is the fact that local coordinate systems
are defined by, and therefore associated with, elements. Local coordinate systems are not defined for, or
associated with, nodes.
130 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Pipe Stress Analysis Coordinate Systems
As noted previously, most pipe stress analysis computer programs utilize the 3D Beam Element. This
element can be described as an infinitely thin stick, spanning between two nodes. Each of these nodes has
six degrees of freedom  three translations and three rotations. Piping systems (models) are constructed by
defining a series of elements, connected by nodes. These pipe elements are typically defined as vectors, in
terms of “delta dimensions” referenced to a global coordinate system. Several example pipe elements are
shown below in Figure 4.
Figure 4  Example Pipe Elements
For most pipe stress applications, there are two dominant global coordinate systems to choose from, either
“Y” axis or “Z” axis up. These two systems are depicted in Figure 1. As previously noted, the global
coordinate system is fixed. All nodal coordinates and element delta dimensions are referenced to this
global coordinate system. For example, in Figure 4 above, the pipe element spanning from node 10 to
node 20 is defined with a DX (delta X) dimension of 5 ft. Additionally, node 20 has a global “X”
coordinate 5 ft. greater that the global “X” coordinate of node 10. Similar statements could be made about
the other two elements in Figure 4, only these elements are aligned with the global “Y” and global “Z”
axes.
In CAESAR II, the user can choose between the two global coordinate systems shown in Figure 1. By
default, the CAESAR II global coordinate system puts the global “Y” axis vertical, as shown in the left half
of Figure 1, and in Figure 4. There are two ways to change the CAESAR II global coordinate system so that
the global “Z” axis is vertical.
The first method is to modify the configuration file in the current data directory. This can be
accomplished from the Main Menu, by selecting TOOLS\CONFIGURE SETUP. Once the configuration dialog
appears, select the Geometry tab, as shown in Figure 5. On this tab, check the Z Axis Up check box, as
shown in the figure below.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 131
Figure 5  Geometry Configuration
Once the Z Axis Vertical check box is activated, the CAESAR II global coordinate system will be in
accordance with the right half of Figure 1. This configuration affects all new jobs created in this data
directory. Existing jobs with the “Y” axis vertical are not affected by this configuration change.
The second method to obtain a global coordinate system with the “Z” axis vertical is to switch coordinate
systems from within the input for the specific job at hand. This can be accomplished from the Special
Execution Parameters dialog of the piping input processor. This dialog is shown below in Figure 6.
132 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Figure 6  Special Execution Parameters Dialog
Checking the Z Axis Vertical check box will immediately change the orientation of the global coordinate
system axis, with corresponding updates to the element delta dimensions. However, the relative positions
and lengths of the elements are not affected by this switch.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 133
Defining a Model
Using the CAESAR II default coordinate system (Y axis vertical), and assuming the system shown below in
Figure 7, the corresponding element definitions are given in Figure 8.
Figure 7  Sample Piping Model
Figure 8  Sample Piping Model Element Definitions
For this sample model, most of the element definitions are very simple:
The first element, 1020, is defined as 5 ft. in the positive global “X” direction. This element starts at
the model origin.
The second element, 2030, is defined as 5 ft. in the positive global “Y” direction. This element
begins at the end of the first element, since both elements share node 20.
The third element, 3040, is defined as 5 ft. in the negative global “Z” direction. Note in Figure 8 that
the delta dimension for this element is a negative number. This is necessary to define the element in a
negative direction.
The fourth element, 4050, runs in both the positive global “X” and negative global “Y” directions,
this element slopes to the right and down. This element is defined with delta dimensions in both the
DX and DY fields. Notice that these delta dimensions are equal in magnitude; therefore this element
slopes at 45 degrees.
134 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Continuing the model, from node 50, along the same 45 degree slope can be rather tedious, since most
often only the overall element length is know, not its components in the global directions. In
CAESAR II this can be best accomplished by activating the Direction Cosine dialog box, shown below
in Figure 9. The Direction Cosine dialog can be activated by clicking the Browse button next to the
DY field. Using this dialog box, the element length can be entered, and CAESAR II will determine the
appropriate components in the global directions, based on the current direction cosines (which default
to those of the preceding element).
Figure 9  Direction Cosine Dialog
CAESAR II provides an additional coding tool, for longer runs of pipe with uniform node spacing. An
“element break” option is provided, which allows an element to be broken into equal length segments,
given a node number increment.
In the preceding example, the model is defined solely using “delta dimensions”. By constructing the
model in this fashion, it is assumed that the world coordinates of node 10 (the first node in the model) are
at (0., 0., 0.). This assumption is acceptable in all but a one instance, when environmental loads are
applied to the model. In this instance, the elevation of the model is critical to the determination of the
environmental loads, and therefore must be specified. In CAESAR II, the specification of the starting node
of the model can be accomplished using the [Alt+G] key combination, and all nodal coordinates will be
displayed as “absolute” coordinates. Regardless of whether or not the global coordinates of the starting
node are specified, the model relative geometry will plot the same.
Once a model has been defined, there are a number of operations that can be performed on the entire
system, or on any section of the system. These operations include:
Translating the model: translation can be accomplished by specifying the global coordinates of the
starting node of the model. If the model consists of disconnected segments, CAESAR II requests the
coordinates of the starting node of each segment.
Rotating the model: rotation can be accomplished by using the [LIST] processor or by clicking the
button. The [LIST] processor presents the model in a spreadsheet, or grid, format, as shown in
Figure 8. Options in this processor allow the model (or any subsection of the model) to be rotated
about any of the three global axes, a specified amount. For example, if the model shown in Figures 7
and 8 is rotated a (negative) 90 degrees about the global “Y” axis, the result is as shown in Figure 10.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 135
Figure 10  Example of Model Rotation
Duplicating the model: duplication can also be accomplished by using the [LIST] processor. The
entire model, or any subsection of the model, can be duplicated.
Using Local Coordinates
When analyzing a piping system, there are a number of items that must be checked and verified. These
items include:
Operating loads on restraints and terminal points Maximum operating displacements
Hanger design results Code stresses for code cases
Equipment Evaluations Vessel Nozzle Evaluation
Expansion joint evaluation
Restraint loads and displacements are checked in the global coordinate system. This is necessary because
restraint loads and displacements are nodal quantities. Element loads and stresses are most often
evaluated in their local coordinate system. A good example illustrating the use of a local (element)
coordinate system is the free body diagram, of forces and moments. The forces and moments in this free
body diagram remain the same, regardless of the position of the element in the global coordinate system.
Note however, that each element has its own local coordinate system. Furthermore, the local coordinate
system of one element may be different from the local coordinate system of a different element.
While the global coordinate system is typically referred to using the capital letters ‘X”, “Y”, and “Z”, local
coordinate systems use a variety of nomenclature. In almost all cases, local coordinate systems use lower
case letters. Typical local coordinate system axes are: “xyz”, “abc”, and “uvw”. CAESAR II uses “xyz” to
denote the local element coordinate system.
The local coordinate system for an element is related to the global coordinate system through a rule.
There may be a number of such rules, depending on the type of element. In CAESAR II, the following rules
are used to define the local coordinate systems of the piping elements in a model.
136 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
CAESAR II Local Coordinate Definitions
Rule 1  Straight Pipe: For straight pipe elements, the local “x” axis always points from the “From Node”
to the “To Node”. The local “y” axis can be found by the vector cross product of the local “x” axis with
the global “Y” axis. Applying the “right hand rule”, this local “y” axis can be found by performing the
following steps:
1 Lay your right hand on the pipe, with the wrist at the “From Node”, and the fingers pointing to the
“To Node”.
2 Align or rotate your hand so that the global “Y” axis points perpendicularly out from the palm. The
thumb is now aligned with the local “y” axis for this element.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 137
The local “z” axis can be found by the vector cross product of the local “x” and local “y” axes.
An exception to this rule is the case of a vertical element. In this case, the local “x” axis is still aligned in
the “From  To” direction. However, you can’t “cross” a vertical element into global “Y”, so the local “y”
axis was arbitrarily assigned to align with the global “X” axis.
The straight elements of the model in Figure 7 are reproduced below in Figure 11, along with their local
coordinate systems. Notice that each of these straight elements has its own local coordinate system, and
that in this model, they are all aligned differently.
Figure 11  Local Coordinate Systems for Straight Elements (1)
In Figure 11, the positive direction of the local “x” axis for each element is defined according to the “From
 To” definition of the element. For example, the local “x” axis of element 1020 is aligned with the
positive global “X” axis, because that is the direction defined in moving from node 10 to node 20. The
local “x” axis of element 3040 is aligned with the negative global “Z” axis, because that is the direction
defined in moving from node 30 to node 40. Figure 11 should be studied to ensure a good understanding
of how the local element coordinate system can be defined based on the definition of the element,
especially with regard to the skewed element 4050.
As an additional example, the local element coordinate systems for the rotated system of Figure 10 are
shown below in Figure 12.
138 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Figure 12  Local Coordinate Systems for Straight Elements (2)
Rule 2  Bend Elements: For the “near weld line” of bend elements, the local “x” axis is directed along the
incoming tangent, in the “From – To” direction. The local “z” axis points to the center of the circle
described by the bend. For the “far weld line” of bend elements, the local “x” axis is directed along the
outgoing tangent, in the “From – To” direction. The local “z” axis points to the center of the circle
described by the bend. In both cases, the local “y” axis can be found by applying the “right hand rule”.
The local coordinate system for the bends in the example model of Figure 7 are shown below in Figure 13.
Figure 13 – Local Coordinate Systems for Bend Elements
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 139
Rule 3  Tee Elements: For tees, there is no element or “fitting” as there is in a CAD application. Rather
designating a node as a tee simply applies code defined SIFs at that point, for the three elements framing
into the tee node. As usual, the local “x” axis is defined by the element “From  To” direction. The local
“y” axis coincides with the line that defines the “inplane” plane of the tee (in other words, the local “y”
axis is perpendicular to the plane of the three tee elements). The positive direction of the local “y” axis is
found by (vectorally) crossing the local “x” axis of the header element with the local “x” axis of the
branch, and then (strangely enough) reversing the sign (direction). (In those cases where the two header
elements have opposite local “x” axes, CAESAR II chooses the first one that it finds.) The local “z” axis
can then be determined using the righthand rule.
Note that the local “z” axis coincides with the “outofplane” axis of the tee, for each element. Examples
of local coordinates for elements framing into tees are depicted below in Figure 14.
Figure 14  Local Coordinate Systems for Tee Elements
140 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Applications  Utilizing Global and Local Coordinates
Global coordinates are used most often when dealing with piping models. Global coordinates are used to
define the model and review nodal results. Even though element stresses are defined in terms of axial and
bending directions, which are “local coordinate system terms”, local coordinates are rarely used. A
typical piping analysis scenario is as follows.
A decision is made as to how the global coordinate system for the piping model will align with the
plant coordinate system. Usually, one of the two horizontal axes is selected to correspond to the
“North” direction. However, if this results in a majority of the system being skewed with respect to
the global axes, one should consider realigning the model. It is best to have most of the system
aligned with one of the global coordinate axes.
The piping system is then assigned node points at locations where: there is a change in direction, a
support, a terminal point, a point of cross section change, a point of load application, or any other
point of interest.
Once the nodes have been assigned the piping model can be defined using the “delta dimensions” as
dictated by the orientation of the global coordinate system. Analysts should take advantage of the
tools provided by CAESAR II in constructing the model  this includes the element Break option, the
LIST, Rotate and Duplicate options, and the Direction Cosine facility.
After verifying the input, confirming the load cases, and analyzing the model, output review
commences.
Output review involves checking various output reports to ensure the system responds within certain
limits. These checks include:
Checking that operating displacements make sense and are within any operational limits (to avoid
ponding etc.). Displacements being “nodal quantities”, are reviewed in the global coordinate system.
There is no local coordinate system associated with nodes. For the model defined in Figures 7 and 8,
the operating displacements are shown in Figure 15 below.
Figure 15  Operating Displacements
This report shows the movements of all of the nodes in the model, in each of the six degrees of freedom,
in the global coordinate system.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 141
Checking that the restraint loads for the “structural load cases” are reasonable. This includes
ensuring that the restraints can be designed to carry the computed load. Restraints being “nodal
quantities”, are reviewed in the global coordinate system. There is no local coordinate system
associated with restraints. For the model defined in Figures 7 and 8, the operating / sustained restraint
summary is shown in Figure 16 below.
Figure 16  Operating / Sustained Restraint Summary
This report shows the loads on the anchor at 10 and the nozzle at 50, for all six degrees of freedom, for the
two selected structural load cases, in the global coordinate system.
Checking the “Code cases” for codes stress compliance. Typically the “code stress” is compared to
the “allowable stress” for each node on each element. Occasionally, when there is an overstress
condition, a review of axial, bending, and torsion stresses are necessary. These stresses (axial,
bending, and torsion) are “local coordinate system terms”, and therefore relate to the element’s local
coordinate system. For the model defined in Figures 7 and 8, a portion of the sustained stress report is
shown in Figure 17 below.
142 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Figure 17  Sustained Stress Report
These reports provide sufficient information to evaluate the pipe elements in the model, to ensure proper
behavior and code compliance. However, the analyst’s job is not complete, loads and stress must still be
evaluated at terminal points, where the piping system connects to equipment or vessel nozzles. Depending
on the type of equipment or nozzle, various procedures and codes are applied. These include API610 for
pumps and WRC107 for vessel nozzles, as well as others. In the case of API610 and WRC107, a local
coordinate system specific to these codes is employed. These local coordinate systems are defined in
terms of the pump or nozzle/vessel geometry.
When the equipment coordinate system aligns with the global coordinate system of the piping model, the
nozzle loads from the restraint report (node 50 in Figure 14) can be used in the nozzle evaluation.
However, when the equipment nozzle is skewed (as it is in the case of node 50 in Figure 14), the
application of the loads is more difficult. In this case, it is best to use the loads from the element’s
force/moment report, in local coordinates. The only thing to remember here is to flip the signs on all of
the forces and moments, since the element force/moment report shows the loads on the pipe element, not
on the nozzle. For the element from node 40 to node 50, the local element force/moment report is shown
in Figure 18 below.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 143
Figure 18  Local Element Force/Moment Report
Because the correlation between the pipe model’s coordinate systems and those of equipment codes (API,
WRC, etc.) are often times tedious and error prone, CAESAR II provides an option in its equipment
modules to acquire the loads on the nozzle directly from the static output. The user simply has to select
the node and the load case; CAESAR II will acquire the loads and rotate them into the proper coordinate
system as defined by the applicable equipment code. The user really does not have to be concerned with
the transformation from global to local coordinates, even for skewed components. This is illustrated
below, in Figure 19. In this figure, the API610 nozzle loads at node 50 have been acquired by clicking
the Get Loads from Output File button.
Notice that the loads shown in Figure 19 are in the CAESAR II global coordinate system. This can be
easily verified by comparing these values to those in the restraint summary (for the Operating load case)
as shown previously in Figure 16.
144 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Figure 19  API610 Nozzle Load Acquisition
In the corresponding output report for this API610 analysis, both the global and API local loads are
reported. This is shown below in Figure 20.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 145
Figure 20  API610 Nozzle Output Report Segments
Notice in Figure 20, that each report segment indicates which values are related to the global coordinate
system and which are related to the local API coordinate system.
146 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Transforming from Global to Local
Converting (or transforming) values from the CAESAR II global coordinate system to a local coordinate
system involves applying a number of rotation matrices to the global values. Matrix mathematics is not a
trivial task, and one must exercise the utmost care to arrive at the correct result. For those that want to
undertake this task themselves, a small utility (discussed in the July 2001 issue of COADE’s Mechanical
Engineering News) can be downloaded from the COADE web site to perform this transformation. The
use of this utility (GlbtoLocal) is illustrated here, using the nozzle at node 50 as an example.
The element 4050 is defined with the delta coordinates of:
DX = 3 ft. 6.426 in
DY = 3 ft. 6.426 in
DZ = 0.0
The global restraint forces at node 50, in global coordinates, for the operating case are:
FX = 323. MX = 953.
FY = 4. MY = 9.
FZ = 271. MZ = 548.
Using this data as input to GlbtoLocal, the utility yields the forces on the restraint in the element’s local
coordinate system. This is shown in Figure 21 below.
Figure 21  Example Global to Local Transformation
The set of values labeled “Rotated Displacements / Load Vector” can be compared with the “Local
Element Force / Moment” report, as shown in Figure 18. Note however, that a change in sign is
necessary, since the restraint report shows loads acting on the restraint, while the element report shows
loads acting on the element.
Chapter 6 Technical Discussions 147
Frequently Asked Questions
What are global coordinates? Global coordinates defines the mapping of a physical system into a
mathematical system. For any given model, the global coordinate system is fixed for the entire model. In
CAESAR II, there are tow alternative global coordinate systems that can be applied to a model. Both
coordinate systems follow the "right hand rule" and use "X", "Y", and "Z" as mutually perpendicular axes.
The first uses the "Y" axis vertical, while the second uses the "Z" axis as vertical.
What are local coordinates? Local coordinates represent the mapping for a single element. Local
coordinate systems are used to define positive and negative directions and loads on elements. Local
coordinate systems are aligned with the elements, and therefore vary throughout the model.
What coordinates are used to plot and view the model? The model's global coordinate system is used to
generate plots of the model. This is necessary since each element has its own local coordinate system, and
these local systems can vary from element to element. Local coordinate systems are an element property,
not a system property.
How do you obtain restraint loads in local coordinates? In general, you don't  this doesn't make any sense.
Restraint loads are a nodal property. Nodes don't have local coordinate systems, elements do. While an
argument can be made that the local coordinate system of the connecting element should be used, this is
only valid if one single element frames into the restraint.As soon as multiple elements frame into the
restraint, there are multiple local coordinate systems to deal with. The lone exception is when a single
element frames into a nozzle. In this instance, the restraint loads in this single element's coordinate system
can be obtained from the element's local force/moment report, with a change in sign.
How do you obtain nodal displacements in local coordinates? In general, you don't  this doesn't make any
sense. Displacements are a nodal property. Nodes don't have local coordinate systems, elements do. Refer
to the preceding discussion on restraint loads for additional details.
What do you do with local coordinates? In most instances nothing. The only time local coordinates are
useful in CAESAR II is when dealing with a skewed nozzle. The CAESAR II software interface makes the
use of local coordinates unnecessary except in this one instance.
1
In This Chapter
Accounting ..................................................................................2
Batch Stream Processing.............................................................9
CAESAR II Fatal Error Processing.............................................11
C H A P T E R 7
Miscellaneous Processors
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Accounting
The CAESAR II accounting system has the following characteristics:
Its use is optional. Users not wishing to keep accounting records of their runs never need to know that
an accounting capability exists.
Users conveniently controls all pricing factors. The total price of any job is computed from:
IF (C4 > 0.0) THEN
cost = C1*cputime + (C2*nodes + C3*elements) * C4 * numcases + C5
ELSE
cost = C1*cputime + (C2*nodes + C3*elements) + C5
ENDIF
Users enters C1, C2, C3, C4, and C5 one time, and changes them only when needed.
Any of the constants may be zero but at least one must be greater than zero.
Accounting reports are generated on a per run basis and are summarized on a per account basis.
Reports may be generated for any user requested combination of account numbers.
Account numbers are userdefined and may be up to 25 alphanumeric characters.
Account and program access can be controlled through the accounting system via optional password
protection.
Account numbers can be identified for each job using either of two methods:
Account number must be selected from a displayed table of allowed account numbers, or will
default to the last valid account number input. The account number table is set up and maintained
by the account manager.
Account number must be some nonblank string. There is no default, and the user’s entry must
match one of the allowed account numbers input previously by the account manager. Access to
the available account number list is password protected. Users not having valid account numbers
will not be permitted to run.
Generated reports contain:
Account number
Jobname
Time and Date of Run
Number of Nodes, Elements, and Load Cases
Calculated Job Cost
Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Processors 3
Accounting summary reports include subtotals on a per account number basis, the number of jobs run
under the account, and the time period the account has been active.
The accounting system is delivered in an uninitialized state. To use the accounting system, users must
change this state to active. (It may later be deactivated if the user does not want to use the account record
keeping feature.) To activate the accounting system from the CAESAR II Main Menu, select TOOLS 
ACCOUNTING. The Accounting dialog displays.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Select the applicable accounting method (either type 1 or type 2) and then click the Activate Accounting
button. The user will receive a that it is indeed activating the accounting as requested. Next set the
Pricing Factors by selecting the next tab in the window to show the sheet as displayed below.
Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Processors 5
Users should enter any costs as appropriate; blanks are allowed. Each rate is multiplied by the respective
job quantity, and the sum of these products is equivalent to the job cost. Job costs are calculated on an
integer dollar basis, and will never be less than one dollar. Any of the 5 rate constants can be zero, but not
all; and none of the constants may be negative.
Account numbers are entered under the Account Numbers tab as shown below. These are the numbers
that will be used to prompt users for an account number during program execution. Be sure to click the
Save button before exiting!
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Once the accounting system is initialized and the pricing factors are set, users can return to the CAESAR II
Main Menu and initiate jobs with account tracking. The prompt for the account number will appear during
analysis, immediately after the user starts a CAESAR II execution. If type 2 accounting is implemented then
users must match the appropriate account number exactly, whereas all account numbers will be displayed
in a list box if type 1 accounting has been activated.
Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Processors 7
The prompt for accounting information requires useraccount identification.
For type 2 accounting the user is expected to type in a valid account number, or click OK for the default
(last used) account number. For type 1 accounting users simply select the appropriate account number
from the list and click OK to continue.
An example Accounting report displays below:
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Accounting File Structure
The format of the CAESAR II accounting file is structured so that users may write a program to access
and/or manipulate this file. The name of the CAESAR II accounting file is ACCTG.DAT. This file contains
all of the information used by CAESAR II to produce accounting reports. The accounting file may be
opened (in FORTRAN) with the following:
OPEN(1,FILE=’ACCTG.DAT’,STATUS=’OLD’,FORM=’BINARY’,
ACCESS=’DIRECT’,RECL=55)
The following information is stored on each record:
Variable Type Definition
JOBNAME CHARACTER*8 Name of the job being run.
ICPUTIME INTEGER*4 Analysis CPU time used (Seconds)
NODES INTEGER*2 Number of nodes in the job
NELEMS INTEGER*2 Number of elements in the job
NLOADS INTEGER*2 Number of load cases in the job
MYEAR INTEGER*2 Year the job was run
MMONTH INTEGER*2 Month the job was run
MDAY INTEGER*2 Day of the month the job was run
MHOUR INTEGER*2 Hour of the day the job was run
MMINUTE INTEGER*2 Minutes of the hour when the job was run
MSECOND INTEGER*2 Seconds of the minute when the job was run
ACCOUNTNO CHARACTER*25 Account number to be billed for job
The first record contains only a single integer value (ILAST) giving the last valid record number in the
accounting file. The number of job entries is equal to (ILAST1). This first record may be read:
READ(1,REC=1) ILAST
Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Processors 9
Batch Stream Processing
The Batch Stream Processor is a module which allows users to analyze multiple jobs, in batch mode. This
enables users to instruct the computer to run up to twelve different jobs completely unattended. The
following are the requirements to properly initiate a batch stream process:
The jobs must all be located in the same data directory, and the Default Data Directory must be
set to this directory.
The jobs must be ready to run. This means that the jobs must have successfully passed error
checking and static and dynamic load cases have been defined. If the static load cases have not
been defined, CAESAR II uses the standard recommended cases.
Accounting should be turned off, or set so that a default account number can be assumed by the
program.
Adequate disk space must be available to generate the scratch and output files for all of the jobs.
Users can enable the Batch Stream Processor from the CAESAR II MAIN MENU by clicking TOOLS 
MULTI JOB ANALYSIS.
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The Define Jobs to Run button enables users to define the names and job types to be executed in the
stream. The job names are the usual CAESAR II job names that the user has prepared for analysis. The job
name specification screen is shown in the following figure.
Once the job names (up to forty) have been specified, click the OK button. The Batch Stream window
returns. Clicking the Analyze Specified Jobs button will start the analysis of all previously defined jobs.
The user does not have to analyze the jobs immediately. The job names and analysis types are stored in a
data file, BATCH.STM, which can be invoked at any time by the user. When the user is ready, the Batch
Stream Processor can be started and the “analyze” option invoked. The user can then leave the computer,
and return to review the output at a later time.
The Batch Stream Processor creates a “log” file of its progress so that users have an idea of how long the
process took, or can diagnose any failures in the batch process. This log file is named “BATCH.LOG” and
can be found in the directory with the jobs. This file is a standard ASCII text file which can be edited or
printed.
Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Processors 11
CAESAR II Fatal Error Processing
Every effort has been made to alert the user that data may be inconsistent or unusual for the type of
analysis being attempted. However, there exists the potential for user modeling techniques or
hardware/operating system problems to generate an error condition within the CAESAR II computation
routines. Recognizing this potential, internal self checks are performed by CAESAR II to trap these
abnormal conditions. (Examples of abnormal conditions are: full hard disks, invalid or expired ESLs, file
corruption, insufficient free memory, etc.)
Whenever a fatal error condition arises, CAESAR II will abort the current process. However, CAESAR II
attempts to provide the user with an explanation of what went wrong to cause the process to be aborted.
This is accomplished in several stages as outlined in the following discussion.
First, each error trap/condition is assigned a unique number. When an abort condition occurs, this error
number and a short description of the error are displayed in a window. An example of such a message is
given in the next figure.
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
When the OK button is clicked the error text window is closed and the user has the option of referencing
further error information. (This may be desirable when one error definition references another.) The OK
button from the additional error information window returns program control to the main CAESAR II Main
Menu. This additional error information may be called upon at any time from the CAESAR II Main Menu by
selecting the DIAGNOSTICSERROR REVIEW menu option.
1
In This Chapter
Overview of CAESAR II Interfaces ............................................2
CAD Interfaces............................................................................4
Generic Neutral Files ..................................................................74
Computational Interfaces.............................................................95
Data Export to ODBC Compliant Databases ..............................102
C H A P T E R 8
Interfaces
2 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Overview of CAESAR II Interfaces
There are several external interfaces in existence which allow data transfer between CAESAR II and other
software packages. These interfaces can be accessed via the Tools menu item on the CAESAR II Main
Menu. Choosing the External Interface menu item exposes an additional menu shown below from which
many interface packages are available.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 3
These interfaces are the means through which CAESAR II data is accepted from other sources, or data
generated in CAESAR II is provided to other packages. For the most part, this data transfer is from a
drawing or analysis package to CAESAR II. The CAESAR II Neutral File transfers both to and from
CAESAR II, and the AUTOCAD interface only transfers CAD data from CAESAR II.
Note CADWorx/PIPE provides a seamless, bidirectional interface between AutoCAD and CAESAR II, but
does not have to go through a translation procedure.
1 Most of the interfaces are CAD interfaces. The exceptions are: LIQT, PIPENET, the C2DAT Matrix,
and the CAESAR II Neutral File.
2 The CAD interfaces are intended to transfer the piping geometry into CAESAR II. The resulting
CAESAR II input must be thoroughly checked, with loads, restraints, and other specifics added.
3 The interface labeled “CAESAR II Neutral File” is the only interface (aside from CADWorx/PIPE) that is
capable of transferring 100% of the data which comprises the _A (input) file.
4 PROISO, CADPIPE, and AutoPlant are not standalone CAD packages. Instead, these are intelligent
symbols libraries for use with AutoCAD. The interface out to AutoCAD does not utilize any of these
three packages; it just creates a DXF file.
5 LIQT is a transient analysis package for liquids in piping networks, and can calculate pressure
imbalances as a function of time. This LIQT output is converted by the CAESAR II interface to create
force response spectra for CAESAR II dynamic input.
6 PIPENET is a transient analysis package for liquids in piping networks, and can calculate pressure
imbalances as a function of time. This PIPENET output is converted by the CAESAR II interface to
create a CAESAR II dynamic input file for a force response spectrum analysis.
7 The interfaces typically prompt the user for a file name, transfer the data, and then prompt for another
file name. This circular procedure is continued until a blank file name is encountered or the user
presses the Cancel button.
8 Users and third party developers beginning an interface to CAESAR II are urged to follow the
requirements of the CAESAR II Neutral File interface, since this will enable all of the spreadsheet data
to be transferred.
9 CADWorx/PIPE is COADE's piping design and drafting program for the AutoCAD environment. Data
may be completely and seemlessly transferred between CAESAR II and CADWorx/PIPE, without
creating any neutral files or going through any intermediate steps.
4 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
CAD Interfaces
CADWorx/PIPE Link
CADWorx is an AutoCAD based design/drafting program (developed by COADE) with a bidirectional data
transfer link to CAESAR II. CADWorx allows models to be created in ortho, iso, 2D, or 3D modes. Models
constructed in CADWorx can be sent into CAESAR II, and models built in CAESAR II can be sent into
CADWorx. Modifications made in either program are retained for future transfers.
In addition, CADWorx allows CAESAR II output data to be imported and placed on the drawing. This
provides the ability to generate stress and restraint isometrics.
Since the interface operates seemlessly, no action need be taken on the CAESAR II side—CADWorx/PIPE
simply uses CAESAR II _A (input) and _P (output) files—so the CADWORX/PIPE option on this menu serves
only as a reminder. For more information on importing and exporting CAESAR II files to and from
CADWorx/PIPE, refer to that product's User Manual.
DXF AutoCAD Interface
Once a job has successfully passed error checking, its geometric information can be converted into an
AutoCAD DXF file using the CAESAR II External Interface Module. The job must pass the error checker,
since several of the execution files created by the error checker are used. To generate an AutoCAD DXF
file simply choose the AUTOCAD DXF FILE menu item, enter the name of the job to be converted into a DXF
file when prompted, and click OK on the dialog box.
When the file conversion is complete, the program will prompt for another job name. This cycle will be
repeated until the Cancel button is clicked. Next, the user should copy all of the just created DXF files
into the AutoCAD subdirectory.
Start AutoCAD as normal, begin a new drawing, and enter a drawing name. The BEGIN NEW DRAWING option
must be selected. At the first prompt, issue the DXFIN command. This will cause AutoCAD to prompt for
the file tp read. When reading the specified file, AutoCAD will rescale and display the model. To access
the COADE supplied LISP routines, which scale node numbers, a LISP file must be loaded. The command
to accomplish this is (load "NODISZ").
Note: The parentheses in the previous command are required.
Information about pipes and node points can be obtained by using the LIST command. The ATTDISP
command can be used to turn on/off the attribute display, which at this point consists of only node
numbers. the size of the node numbers can be changed by using the LISP routine NODISZ. To resize the
node numbers, simply enter NODISZ, and answer the prompts. To resize the node numbers, simply enter
NODISZ and answer the prompts.
In order for this interface program to function properly, all of the intermediate data files, generated by the
CAESAR II error checker, must be present. This is the only problem that has ever terminated this interface
program.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 5
CADPIPE Interface
The interface between CAESAR II and CADPIPE is a oneway transfer of the geometry data from
CADPIPE to CAESAR II. The geometry data consists of the pipe lengths, diameters, thicknesses,
connectivities, and node numbers. All nodal specific quantities (restraints, loads, displacements, etc.) must
be added to the CAESAR II input file in the usual manner by the user.
The CADPIPE interface is set up so that several models can be transferred in a single session. The first
prompt is for the name of the CADPIPE connectivity (.UDE ) neutral file. Once the user specifies this file
name, the transfer process occurs and the interface program prompts for another neutral file name. This is
an endless cycle until the user terminates with the Cancel button.
The neutral file read by the interface program must be generated by the CADPIPE program. Details of this
step can be found in the CADPIPE documentation. The CADPIPE neutral file must be transferred into the
CAESAR II directory so that it is available to the interface program.
The interface program reads the CADPIPE neutral file and generates the CAESAR II input file and a log file
of the transfer process. Users should check the data in both the CAESAR II input file and the log file for
consistency and any assumptions made by the interface. The following paragraphs describe the layout of
the data extracted from the CADPIPE neutral file and how it is arranged for storage in this interface
program. The data storage is maintained in two arrays, the first contains geometry data for each pipe
element, the second array contains additional loading and specification data.
In the first array, an entry is required for each piece of pipe in the system. A “pipe” in this sense is an
entity between two nodes, which could be a pipe, or a rigid element. There are 12 values per entry, where
all values must be specified.
Field 1  ELMT
This is the pipe element number, which may correspond to an entry in the second array. This is also the
pipe/element number in the model. These values should be sequential from 1.
Field 2  N1
This is the “FROM” node number, i.e. the starting node for the element. These values must be greater than
zero and less than 32000.
Field 3  N2
This is the “TO” node number, i.e. the ending node for the element. These values must be greater than
zero and less than 32000.
Field 4  DX
This is the “delta X” dimension for the element. This is the distance between N1 and N2 in the “X”
direction.
Field 5  DY
This is the “delta Y” dimension for the element. This is the distance between N1 and N2 in the “Y”
direction. In CAESAR II, “Y” is vertical.
Field 6  DZ
6 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
This is the “delta Z” dimension for the element. This is the distance between N1 and N2 in the “Z”
direction.
Field 7  DIAM
This is the pipe outer diameter.
Field 8  THK
This is the pipe wall thickness.
Field 9  ANCH
This is a restraint (support) indicator flag. If ANCH is 1, then there is a restraint on N1. If ANCH is 2,
then there is a restraint on N2. The type of restraint can be obtained from the second array.
Field 10  BND
This field indicates the presence of a bend at the N2 end of the element. If BND is 1, there is a bend at N2.
If BND is 0, this is a straight pipe.
Field 11  BRAD
This field is used to specify the bend radius if the bend is not a long radius bend. The value here should be
the desired bend radius.
Field 12  RIGD
This field is a flag used to indicate that the current element is a rigid element. The weight of the element
can be obtained from the second array.
Records in the second array are only necessary when additional data is required. This means there will
always be a record in first array for pipe element #1 (this could be the only entry in the array). Any
additional entries will contain some type of change to data normally duplicated forward by CAESAR II.
Field 1  ELMT
This is the pipe element number, which corresponds to an entry in the first array. This is also a
pipe/element number in the model. These numbers are sequential from 1.
Field 2  TEMP1
This is the operating temperature for load case 1, found by scanning the CADPIPE data for the maximum
temperature.
Field 3  PRESS1
This is the operating pressure for load case 1, found by scanning the CADPIPE data for the maximum
pressure.
Field 4  RGDWGT
This value is the weight of rigid elements. This entry is only required if the “RIGID” flag was set in the
first array.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 7
Field 5  TEEFLG
This value indicates the “TEE” type.
1  reinforced
2  unreinforced
3  welding tee
4  sweepolet
5  weldolet
6  extruded welding tee
Field 6  RESTYP
This value is the restraint (support) type indicator. Type values are:
0  anchor
1  double acting X
2  double acting Y
3  double acting Z
4  double acting RX
5  double acting RY
6  double acting RZ
Field 7  RINFO1
Data for supports, by default, the restraint stiffness.
Field 8  RINFO2
Data for supports, by default, the restraint gap.
Field 9  RINFO3
Data for supports, by default, the restraint friction coefficient.
Field 10  MATID
The CAESAR II material ID value. Note that if the coefficient of expansion is to be changed, it should be
entered in the Temperature field above (Field 2).
Field 11  EMOD
8 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
The value of Young’s modulus.
Field 12  POIS
The value of Poisson’s ratio.
Field 13  GAMMA
The weight density of the material.
Field 14  INSTHK
The insulation thickness.
Field 15  INSWGT
The weight density of the insulation material.
Field 16  FLDWGT
The weight density of the pipe contents (fluid).
Field 17  TEENOD
The element node number where there is a tee.
Field 18  (Placeholder for future development.)
Field 19  (Placeholder for future development.)
Field 20 (Placeholder for future development.)
Chapter 8 Interfaces 9
CADPIPE Example Transfer
The following is an example connectivity file produced by the CADPIPE program. Examination of this
file reveals two distinct regions. The first region defines the entities which make up the piping system,
while the second region connects the entities. Both regions are required for the interface to work properly.
The first line of each entity definition contains various codes which define: the element type, the element
diameter, and the element thickness.
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 1
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C2OBB—1dLATL
INSERTION 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END 1.80000000e+002 3.35999961e+002 1.20350000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 2
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C2OPP—ATLATL 134.50
INSERTION 1.80000000e+002 3.35999997e+002 1.27075000e+003
END 1.80000000e+002 3.35999961e+002 1.20350000e+003
END 1.80000000e+002 3.36000033e+002 1.33800000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 3
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C3O1B—ATLATL
INSERTION 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 1.89000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 1.80000000e+002 3.36000033e+002 1.33800000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 4
10 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0OPP—ATLATL 105.38
INSERTION 2.41687500e+002 3.35999959e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 1.89000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 2.94375000e+002 3.35999917e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 5
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0O2H—ATLATLATL
INSERTION 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.05625000e+002 3.36000083e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 2.94375000e+002 3.35999917e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.00000083e+002 3.30375000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 6
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0O1B—ATLATL
INSERTION 4.02000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.93000000e+002 3.35999934e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 4.01999934e+002 3.45000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 7
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0OPP—ATLATL 90.00
INSERTION 4.02000017e+002 3.90000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 4.01999934e+002 3.45000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 4.02000099e+002 4.35000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
Chapter 8 Interfaces 11
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 8
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C3O1B—ATLATL
INSERTION 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 4.02000099e+002 4.35000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 4.02000033e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.33800000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 9
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C2OBB—1dLATL
INSERTION 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END 4.02000000e+002 4.43999961e+002 1.20350000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 10
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C2OPP—ATLATL 134.50
INSERTION 4.02000017e+002 4.43999981e+002 1.27075000e+003
END 4.02000000e+002 4.43999961e+002 1.20350000e+003
END 4.02000033e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.33800000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 11
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0O1B—ATLATL
INSERTION 3.00000000e+002 2.16000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 2.99999967e+002 2.25000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.09000000e+002 2.16000033e+002 1.34700000e+003
12 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 12
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0OPP—ATLATL 105.38
INSERTION 3.00000025e+002 2.77687500e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 2.99999967e+002 2.25000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.00000083e+002 3.30375000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 13
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0OPP—ATLZTL 69.00
INSERTION 3.43500000e+002 2.16000017e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.09000000e+002 2.16000033e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.78000000e+002 2.16000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_ENTITY
ENTITY_NUMBER 14
ATTRIBUTES 1CAESAR AAA1 C0OPP—ATLATL 87.38
INSERTION 3.49312500e+002 3.36000008e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.05625000e+002 3.36000083e+002 1.34700000e+003
END 3.93000000e+002 3.35999934e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_ENTITY
BEGIN_RUN
LINE_NUMBER CAESAR AAA1
BEGIN_COORD 1.80000000e+002 3.00000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END_COORD 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
BEGIN_SEGMENT
Chapter 8 Interfaces 13
BEGIN_COORD 1.80000000e+002 3.00000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END_COORD 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
ENTITY 1
END_SEGMENT
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END_COORD 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
ENTITY 1
ENTITY 2
ENTITY 3
END_SEGMENT
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 1.80000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
ENTITY 3
ENTITY 4
ENTITY 5
END_SEGMENT
END_RUN
BEGIN_RUN
LINE_NUMBER CAESAR AAA1
BEGIN_COORD 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 3.78000000e+002 2.16000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 3.00000000e+002 2.16000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
ENTITY 5
14 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
ENTITY 12
ENTITY 11
END_SEGMENT
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 3.00000000e+002 2.16000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 3.78000000e+002 2.16000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
ENTITY 11
ENTITY 13
END_SEGMENT
END_RUN
BEGIN_RUN
LINE_NUMBER CAESAR AAA1
BEGIN_COORD 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 4.44000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 3.00000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 4.02000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
ENTITY 5
ENTITY 14
ENTITY 6
END_SEGMENT
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 4.02000000e+002 3.36000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
ENTITY 6
ENTITY 7
ENTITY 8
Chapter 8 Interfaces 15
END_SEGMENT
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.34700000e+003
END_COORD 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
ENTITY 8
ENTITY 10
ENTITY 9
END_SEGMENT
BEGIN_SEGMENT
BEGIN_COORD 4.02000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
END_COORD 4.44000000e+002 4.44000000e+002 1.20000000e+003
ENTITY 9
END_SEGMENT
END_RUN
As the interface runs, status messages are displayed on the user’s terminal for informative purposes. Once
the transfer is complete, the user should review the .LOG file generated to insure that there are no
unexplained errors or warnings. The .LOG file generated for the above .UDE file is listed as follows.
*** CAESAR II / CADPIPE Geometry Translator ***
CADPIPE data as read in for NEUTRAL file: NRGTST1.UDE
General Notes
This file contains the status of the data conversion from the CADPIPE ISO system to the CAESAR II stress
analysis package.
The data contained in this file is grouped into three sections:
1 Entity information
2 Segment connectivity information
3 Final interpreted CAESAR II data.
16 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Anomalies with final CAESAR II model geometry should be traced through this file, possibly back to the
CADPIPE connectivity file. Notes and warning messages are shown below as necessary.
Since all required CAESAR II data is not available in the CADPIPE environment, CAESAR II must make
certain modeling assumptions. Users are cautioned to verify the following assumptions:
1 Thicknesses of .05 are program generated because no match could be found in the standard CAESAR II
diameter/thickness tables. This value must be corrected once in CAESAR II.
2 Rigid elements are assumed to have a weight of 1.0. This value should be corrected once in
CAESAR II.
3 Temperatures, pressures, and other loading items are not available for transfer by the interface.
4 Restraint information is not available for transfer by the interface.
5 Material #1 (low carbon steel) is assumed by the interface program.
Error Code Definitions
1 The item code for this entity indicates that it is a custom bend. This interface will make the transfer
assuming it is a long radius elbow. The correction to the proper radius must take place on the CAESAR
II spreadsheet.
2 The item code for this entity indicates that it is a mitered bend. This interface will make the transfer
assuming it is a long radius elbow. The correction to the proper radius and number of cuts must take
place on the CAESAR II spreadsheet.
3 The item code for this entity indicates that it is some type of "OLET" fitting. Since there is only a
single reference to this entity in the CADPIPE neutral file, this segment will be discontiguous with the
rest of the model in CAESAR II. This interface will attempt to connect the "OLET" as it sees fit. The
final geometry should be checked!
4 The item code for this entity is unknown to the current version of the interface. The entity will be set
to a 2 node, zero length rigid element. The user must modify the CAESAR II data to correct this
anomaly.
5 The segment being processed referenced and ENTITY that was not defined in the "ENTITY
Information " section of the ".UDE" file. This indicates some type of error during the generation of
the neutral file. Regenerate the neutral file before using the interface again.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 17
CADPIPE LOG File Discussion
The .LOG file is very useful in locating problems which may have been encountered by the interface
program. The .LOG file is broken down into the following sections:
Introduction: A one page summary listing general notes about the interface and defines the error code.
Section 1: Lists the entity information as read from the CADPIPE connectivity file. Note that each
entity has been grouped into one of four possible element types, node numbers have been assigned,
and the coordinate system has been rotated to conform to the standard pipe stress coordinate system
(Y vertical).
Section 2: Details the interpretation and model building process.
Section 3: Lists the final transformed data which the interface program wrote as the CAESAR II input
file.
A sample .LOG file follows.


Section 1Entity Information
Element types are: 1  Pipe 2  Bend 3  Intersection 4  Rigid
Interpreted Entity information for: 14 Entities.
18 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Section 2Segment Information
Processing LINE_NUMBER:
CAESAR AAA1
Entity 1 Original nodes: 10. 20.
STARTING new segment with new Entity # 1, “FROM” node is 10.
CAESAR II type is PIPE
Final nodes: 10. 20.
Finished processing segment with entities: 1
Entity 1 Original nodes: 10. 20.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 1, “FROM” node is 20.
CAESAR II type is 1.
Entity 1 PIPE has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 2 Original nodes: 30. 40.
Final nodes: 20. 40.
Entity 3 Original nodes: 50. 60.
Switched TO/FROM orientation.
Final nodes: 40. 50.
Finished processing segment with entities: 1 2 3
Entity 3 Original nodes: 60. 50.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 3, “FROM” node is 50.
CAESAR II type is 2.
Entity 3 BEND has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 4 Original nodes: 70. 80.
Final nodes: 50. 80.
Entity 5 Original nodes: 90. 100.
Resetting element 4 “TO” node from 80. to 100. and adjusting
deltas.
Finished processing segment with entities: 3 4 5
Chapter 8 Interfaces 19
Processing LINE_NUMBER: CAESAR AAA1
Entity 5 Original nodes: 100. 100.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 5, “FROM” node is 100.
CAESAR II type is 3.
Entity 5 TEE has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 12 Original nodes: 230. 240.
Switched TO/FROM orientation.
Final nodes: 100. 230.
Entity 11 Original nodes: 210. 220.
Final nodes: 230. 220.
Finished processing segment with entities: 5 12 11
Entity 11 Original nodes: 210. 220.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 11, “FROM” node is 220.
CAESAR II type is 2.
Entity 11 BEND has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 13 Original nodes: 250. 260.
Final nodes: 220. 260.
Finished processing segment with entities: 11 13
Processing LINE_NUMBER: CAESAR AAA1
Entity 5 Original nodes: 100. 100.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 5, “FROM” node is 100.
CAESAR II type is 3.
Entity 5 TEE has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 14 Original nodes: 270. 280.
Final nodes: 100. 280.
Entity 6 Original nodes: 110. 120.
Final nodes: 280. 120.
20 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Finished processing segment with entities: 5 14 6
Entity 6 Original nodes: 110. 120.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 6, “FROM” node is 120.
CAESAR II type is 2.
Entity 6 BEND has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 7 Original nodes: 130. 140.
Final nodes: 120. 140.
Entity 8 Original nodes: 150. 160.
Final nodes: 140. 160.
Finished processing segment with entities: 6 7 8
Entity 8 Original nodes: 150. 160.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 8, “FROM” node is 160.
CAESAR II type is 2.
Entity 8 BEND has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Entity 10 Original nodes: 190. 200.
Switched TO/FROM orientation.
Final nodes: 160. 190.
Entity 9 Original nodes: 170. 180.
Switched TO/FROM orientation.
Final nodes: 190. 170.
Finished processing segment with entities: 8 10 9
Entity 9 Original nodes: 180. 170.
STARTING new segment with old Entity # 9, “FROM” node is 170.
CAESAR II type is 1.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 21
Entity 9 PIPE has already been processed. Skip in progress.
Finished processing segment with entities: 9
22 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Section 3Final CAESAR II Data
*** C A E S A R I I INTERPRETED GEOMETRY DATA ***
*** C A E S A R I I INTERPRETED PROPERTY DATA *** Part 1
*** C A E S A R I I INTERPRETED PROPERTY DATA *** Part 2


Data transferred to CAESAR II array structures.
The CAESAR II job file name is: NRGTST._A
Starting generation of CAESAR II input file for:
13 Elements
4 Bends
0 Rigids
0 Restraints
Conversion of data to CAESAR II completed.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 23
Checking the CADPIPE/CAESAR II Data Transfer
It is very important that the resulting CAESAR II input file be verified by the user. The first step in the
verification process is the review of the log file to see if any errors or warnings were generated. The .LOG
file is a standard ASCII text file which can be printed on the system printer or scanned with a text editor.
The second step is to enter the input mode of the CAESAR II program and plot the model. The CAESAR II
plot for the CADPIPE example is shown in the following figure.
24 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
If the resulting CAESAR II geometry is inconsistent with the CADPIPE drawing, look for the problem in
the .LOG file. First, identify the problem area and locate the relevant elements in Section 3 of the .LOG
file. Next, find the appropriate segment in Section 2 of the .LOG file and ensure it contains the same
entities as shown in the CADPIPE connectivity file. Finally, verify the information in Section 1 of the
.LOG file matches the interpreted data in Section 3.
Anomalies with the resulting CAESAR II geometry can usually be attributed to one of the following causes:
Occasionally an unexpected geometry condition will be handed to the CAESAR II interface program.
The solution to this problem is to update the interface program for the current condition. The user
should forward the .UDE file to COADE for analysis and subsequent interface modification.
An unknown item code was encountered. This indicates that the CADPIPE program has been revised
and new item codes added, which the interface program is unaware of. As before, the interface
program will have to be modified to handle this condition. The user should contact COADE and
inform the CAESAR II Technical Support staff of this error message.
The reassembly of a geometry containing OLETS should be checked carefully. OLET entities in the
CADPIPE connectivity file do not contain a reference to the piping element they intersect. The
interface attempts to determine the associated pipe via coordinate computation and 3D intersection
calculations. There is the potential for this procedure to pass over the intersection point. In this case,
the branch containing the OLET will plot at the origin of the CAESAR II model. This condition can be
fixed in the CAESAR II input by breaking the intersected pipe and assigning the OLET node number to
the break point.
Some CADPIPE connectivity files which have been submitted to COADE for analysis contained
errors. These errors consisted of either pipe doubling back on itself, or piping elements indicated as
bends where there was no change in direction. Both of these errors will be detected by the CAESAR II
error checker. However, most users quit before that stage and conclude that the interface is wrong.
Both of these errors should be detected in CADPIPE before the connectivity file is generated.
ComputerVision Interface
The interface between CAESAR II and ComputerVision is a one way transfer of the geometry data from
ComputerVision to CAESAR II. The geometry data consists of the pipe lengths, diameters, thicknesses,
connectivities, and node numbers. All nodal specific quantities (restraints, loads, displacements, etc.) must
be added to the CAESAR II input file in the usual manner by the user.
The ComputerVision interface is set up so that several models can be transferred in a single session. The
first prompt by the interface is for the name of the ComputerVision neutral file. Once the user specifies
this file name, the transfer process occurs and the interface program prompts for another neutral file name.
This is an endless cycle until the user terminates the session by pressing the Cancel button.
The neutral file read by the interface must be generated by the ComputerVision “EXTRACT PIPE”
module. Details of this step can be found in the ComputerVision documentation. The ComputerVision
neutral file must be transferred into the CAESAR II directory so that it is available to the interface program.
The interface program reads the ComputerVision neutral file and generates the CAESAR II input file and a
log file of the transfer process. Users should check the data in both the CAESAR II input file and the log file
for consistency and any assumptions made by the interface.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 25
ComputerVision Interface Prompts
Once the ComputerVision interface is started, it prompts the user for the name of the neutral file to be
translated. The user must enter the full file name (prefix, dot, suffix) correctly, or the prompt is repeated.
The interface checks for the file’s existence and then prompts for an arbitrary coordinate conversion
factor. An affirmative response to this query produces a prompt for the conversion factor. This conversion
factor is used to ensure the coordinates are in the same units as the diameters and thicknesses.
The interface then prompts the user for the location in the neutral file of the tangent intersection points
(TIPTs) of the elbows. Normally, the TIPTs of the bends will be in the section of the neutral file labeled
component data. If this is the case, answer [Y] to the prompt, otherwise answer [N].
Note: The interface will not translate the geometry properly if the TIPTs for some bends is in the
component data, while the TIPTs for other bends is in the grid data.
After these prompts have been answered, the interface translates the ComputerVision neutral file and
displays the name of the generated CAESAR II input file. The interface then prompts for the name of
another neutral file for conversion and the cycle is repeated.
ComputerVision Neutral File
The ComputerVision neutral file is a standard ASCII text file generated by the “EXTRACT PIPE”
module. The data for the piping system is broken down into distinct sections in the neutral file as outlined
below:
General Data. Defines the line name and the units system used to generate the neutral file. The current
CAESAR II units file should match this units specification, or utilize the “arbitrary conversion factor”
discussed above.
Anchor Data. Defines the coordinates of points described as anchors to the system.
Grid Data. Defines the coordinates of the other nodal points in the system.
Member Data. Describes the element connectivity of the system and references special conditions to the
Component Data.
Component Data. Defines the coordinates of bend tangent intersection points.
Section Data. Defines the diameter and wall thickness of the various pipe cross sections used in the
Member Data.
The other sections of the neutral file are not utilized by the interface program. One assumption made by
the interface is that each of the sections are separated in the file by a blank line. This is important,
depending on how the neutral file was transferred to the CAESAR II directory on the PC. Some
communication setups compress out blank lines, which will cause the interface to abort with an error
message.
26 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
CAESAR II Log File
The log file generated by the interface contains an image of the data utilized from the neutral file. This
data consists of the Anchor data, the Grid data, the Member data, the Component data, and the Section
data. Note that the node numbers are reassigned, starting with and incrementing by tens. Following the
image of the neutral file is the interpreted data, listed in the standard CAESAR II data matrix format.
Checking the ComputerVision/CAESAR II Data Transfer
It is very important that the resulting CAESAR II input file be verified by the user. The first step in the
verification process is the review of the log file to see if the interpreted data makes sense. The .LOG file is
a standard ASCII text file which can be printed on the system printer or scanned with a text editor. The
second step is to enter the input mode of the CAESAR II program and plot the model. The CAESAR II plot
for the ComputerVision example is shown in the following figure.
Intergraph Interface
This interface transfers a piping system geometry from an Intergraph neutral file into a standard CAESAR II
binary input file. The geometry data consists of the pipe lengths, diameters, thicknesses, connectivities,
and node numbers. All nodal specific quantities (loads, displacements, etc.) must be added to the
CAESAR II input file in the usual manner by the user.
There are three basic steps necessary to generate a CAESAR II input file from an Intergraph neutral file:
1 Run the Intergraph PDS Interface module to create an Intergraph neutral file. This ASCII file should
then be transferred to the CAESAR subdirectory.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 27
2 As many Intergraph neutral files as necessary may be created and transferred. The interface will
continue to prompt the user for neutral file names, until the session is terminated by the user by
clicking the Cancel button.
3 Ensure the proper units file is active in the directory in which the neutral file is located. This is
necessary for the proper conversion of the data.
Start CAESAR II as usual and enter the TOOLS  EXTERNAL INTERFACES INTERGRAPH and answer the prompts.
File Name
This is the full path name to the neutral file, which must include the file suffix. On startup, this field is
filled with the current data path. You can manually add a file name to the end of this string, or use the
Browse button to search for a neutral file.
Browse
This button invokes a standard file selection dialog box from which you can search for the desired neutral
file. The top of this dialog contains controls for switching directories or drives, while the bottom of this
dialog contains a control to switch between the neutral file suffix types (.N or .NEU).
28 CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual
Minimum Anchor Node
This edit box allows the user to change the node number interpreted as the minimum node number for a
terminal point in the model. You should only change the default value if your Intergraph system has been
set up with a different anchor node range.
Maximum Anchor Node
This edit box allows the user to change the node number interpreted as the maximum node number for a
terminal point in the model. You should only change the default value if your Intergraph system has been
set up with a different anchor node range.
Starting Node Number
This edit box allows you to specify the starting node number in the resulting CAESAR II model. The entire
model will be renumbered (by default) using this value as the starting point for the model. To disable
renumbering, this value must be set to zero (as well as the node number increment).
Node Number Increment
This edit box allows you to specify the value used as a node number increment, employed during the
renumbering of the model. To disable renumbering, this value must be set to zero (as well as the starting
node number.
Filter Out Elements Whose Diameter is Less Than
This edit box is used to define a minimum allowed pipe size. Any elements less than this minimum
diameter will be ignored. The purpose of this entry is to keep drain lines and taps out of the stress model.
Remove HA Elements
This check box determines whether or not HA elements are removed by this interface. Normally HA
(hangersupport direction) elements should be removed. The support is placed on the pipe where the HA
element joints it. Unchecking this box leaves HA elements in the stress model.
Force Consistent Bend Materials
This check box allows the interface to insure that all bend elements (incoming and outgoing) have the
same material name and properties. Often, bends are given a different material name than that of the
attached piping, while the properties are the same. This check box allows the program to change the
material information as necessary on the bend elements to that of the attached piping.
Include Additional Bend Nodes
This check box allows the interface to add a midpoint node and a nearpoint node on bends. Unchecking
this box causes bends to have only the farpoint node.
Enable Advanced Element Sort
This check box allows a second, more thorough sorting of the elements. This sort considers the length of
the runs, the diameter, and the elevation in determining where to begin the node numbering sequence.
(This option is enabled by default). Turning this option off employs only the first sort where the elements
are sorted starting with the largest (diameter) anchor nodes and proceeds to the smallest.
Chapter 8 Interfaces 29
Model Tees as 3 Elements
This option instructs the software to treat tees as 3 elements, instead of condensing them down to a point.
In either case, the SIF is applied at the tee node. Using 3 elements allows pipe properties of the tee to
differ from the attached piping.
Model Rotation
This group of radio buttons is used to specify the rotation of the model about the Y axis. The default is
zero which leaves the model alone. The +90 button rotates