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Music and manipulation

11th October www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~s0897956/MusicPsych.html

Jacques Attali
Clamour, melody, dissonance, harmony; when it is fashioned by man with specic tools, when it invades mans time, when it becomes sound, noise is the source of purpose and power This is what well look at today

Plan
Music and purchasing Music and advertising Music and politics/ voting (censorship)

Readings for this week


North & Hargreaves: p. 257 - 275 (and more if you want to!) Street, J. (2003). Fight the power: The politics of music and the music of politics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing 114 - 130 Huron, D (1989). Music in advertising: An analytic paradigm. Music Quarterly, 73 (4), 557 - 574

Music and shopping


Supermarkets, shopping centres, boutiques, hotels, restaurants etc all use music to manipulate us Multi-million dollar industry Piped music used in the hopes that it will inuence our shopping/ keep us in store for longer/ encourage rash purchases etc

Pipe Down - www.pipedown.info


Uk-based pressure group dedicated to the removal of piped music - Julian Lloyd Webber, Lesley Garrett, Simon Rattle Claim that piped music doesnt work - no impartial evidence that sales increase Also claim it may harm health - Piped music raises blood pressure, depressing immune system, causes problems for people with tinnitus and hearing problems Object to removal of choice in music Believe all music is devalued by being used as acoustic wallpaper or a marketing tool

(How) is music used to inuence our purchases?


Different music used at different times of day Music at times used to speed us up, encourage impulse buys, or at times to calm us, keep us in the shop longer But does it actually work? Do we buy more/ differently because of the music playing? Whats the evidence supporting this use of music?

Initial feelings
Do you feel youre inuenced by music in shops? Does it bother you or are you (seemingly) oblivious of it? Does piped music really raise blood pressure, or are the Pipe Down people being too sensitive/ raising their own blood pressure? What do you think of the argument that music is devalued when used as acoustic wallpaper or a marketing tool?

Shops attitude to Muzac (www.muzak.com)


McDonalds manager: an excellent vehicle to support... McDonalds core equities, special offers and products...[and is] designed to generate increased trafc within a site The audio [marketing] worked so well [that our] video tape sold out We generate... sales daily from the Muzac on-hold messages But is this actually the case?

What do managers etc think is happening?


Areni 2003: hotel and pub managers had strong beliefs about power of atmospheric music. The more managers believed that atmospheric music: Inuences customers to interact with staff Must vary according to time of day Can draw customers to an establishment or drive them away Makes customers stay longer than they otherwise would Eliminates unacceptable silences The more they agreed that it inuences revenues, gross margins, operating prots of their establishment Testable predictions

How to test this?


Music Inuences customers to interact with staff Must vary according to time of day Can draw customers to an establishment or drive them away Makes customers stay longer than they otherwise would Eliminates unacceptable silences Inuences revenues, gross margins, operating prots of their establishment How could you test this? Manipulate music vs silence over different time frames Check real money taken in over times when music was playing

Speed of customer activity


Berlynes theory of musical preference states that as music becomes louder or faster it causes more arousal in the listener: greater arousal is correlated with faster physical activity Lots of studies have been informed by, and supported, this theory Studies on: Speed of movement through shops Money spent in shops Time spend in restaurants Money spent in restaurants Money spent on drinks According to speed and loudness of music played

Smith & Curnow (1966)


Played loud and soft music to 1,100 customers in two US supermarkets over 8 half-day sessions Measured time customers entered store, time they left, and money spent People spent less time in store when loud music played - 17.65 mins vs 18.53 No difference in money spent Loud music led to higher rate of spending than soft
if the store manager wishes to manipulate the number of persons in his store at any one time, he may do so by increasing or decreasing the volume of the music being played (256)

Milliman (1982)
Study conducted in medium-sized store in US - 9 week period Three types of music: no music, fast music (> 93 bmp), slow music (<73 bpm) Time taken to move between 2 points in the store noted, alongside gross sales store-wide Slow tempo: customers took 127.53s to move between 2 points, compared to 108.93s for fast tempo. No music: 119.86s Slow music: daily sales of $16,740.23. Fast: $12,112.85 - slow music led to 38.2% higher average daily sales Slow music: slower shopping,more browsing, saw more products

Milliman (1986)
Medium-sized restaurant above-average priced Slow music played on 4 weekends, fast on 4 weekends Slow music: 56 mins to nish meals. Fast: 45 mins Slow music: $30.47 spent on drinks. Fast: $21.62 Gross margins per customer: Slow: 55.82, fast: $48.62 (gross margins per minute very similar - $1.08 vs $1) Slow music didnt lead to customers buying more expensive food, just more drinks, as they spent longer in the restaurant

Roballey et al (1985)
University staff cafeteria - three musical conditions: slow (56 bpm), fast (122 bpm), no music - instrumental, nonclassical collections - constant volume Average bites per minute (over 10 minute period) Fast music: 4.4 bites per minutes, Slow music: 3.83 bites per minute, no music: 3.23 bites per minute No difference in total time taken to eat meals - fast music led to more bites, but each with less food?

Sullivan (2002)
Medium-sized mid-range restaurant in British city centre Soft vs loud music Soft music: longer meal durations than loud (72.75 vs 59.75 minutes) Soft music: more money spent on food (7.16 vs 6.66) - perhaps because of time spent in restaurant Same effect for sales of drinks: 3.70 vs 3.33

Conclusions from these studies


Arousing music (loud or fast) makes customers do things more quickly than less arousing music Implications for shops: Play different musical speeds in different parts of the shop - slow music at neglected areas, fast music at busy, crowded areas Implications for restaurants: Play fast music at weekends when busiest - to hurry people out the door, slow music during weekday mornings - to encourage people to say longer, thereby buying more drinks, possibly more food Trade-off between speed or customer activity and money spent Slow: more money spent, fast: less money spent, but more customers through the door

Is this the whole story?


Consider other factors: Motivation of customers - if a Mother pops to the shop before picking up her child from school, no amount of slow music will induce her to abandon her child while she shops Effect of preference of the music - does liked music encourage more sales? How would we determine what music is liked? Direct measures of arousal: elevated heart rate - how do these interact with speed/ sales

Discussion questions
What implications does this work have on your approach to shopping? Do you think music alone creates this effect, or could other ways of inducing arousal do the same? Is it appropriate and valid to manipulate people in this way? Is the music devalued by being used so cynically? Are Pipe Downs concerns justied, on the basis of this information?

Music and advertising


Whats musics role in advertising? Attract attention Implicitly or explicitly carry a message Create emotional states Act as mnemonic clue (Hecker 1984) Appeal to age group

How much do advertisers use music?


Stewart and Furse (1986) analysed 1,000 tv ads, nding that 42% use music Similar frequency found in Stewart and Koslows 1989 study of larger sample Ads screened internationally: music use increased to 89.3% in Applebaum and Halliburtons 1993 study They suggest that music is typically the predominant element in these ads Ads for kids: music present in 80% (Furnham, Abramsky and Gunger 1997) Ads liked more when music is less complex/ active, and according to perceived beauty (Balasubramanian 1990)

How music might condition us


Advertising used to focus on attitude towards the brand - in hopes that (potential) customers would believe that Fairy Liquid makes your hands softer However, from 80s on, advertising became more focused on attitude towards the ad - in hopes that (potential) customers liked the advertising Research indicated that the emotions people felt after watching an ad was an important mediator of consumer behaviour Conditioning approach: a product (conditioned stimulus) is paired with a liked piece of music (unconditioned stimulus) to produce an association between the two (conditioned response) & like for product Theory: music effects response to the product

Experiment (like Gorn 1982)

Gorn 1982 explained


Participants shown either blue or beige pen, at same time as hearing liked (Grease soundtrack) or disliked (Indian classical music) Then told they could take one away with them 79% chose the colour pen associated with the liked music But theyre JUST PENS! Huge effect of musical conditioning - 29% above chance level

Gorn (1982) further test


Half participants told they would receive a pen for taking part in experiment Half not told Half who were not told they would receive a pen chose the pen associated with the liked music Half who knew they would receive a pen chose it on the basis of it not smudging Indicates that musical conditioning occured when participants had no reason to evaluate the product. Product information more important when participants knew this evaluation mattered.

Problems with classical conditioning approach


Some failed studies: Pitt & Abratt (1988) failed to use music to condition preferences for blue or red condoms Alpert & Alpert (1989, 1990) found that mood associated with different greeting cards could not be conditioned by pairing with sad or happy songs However, purchasing choice could be conditioned

Methodological issues?
Studies fail to consider interaction of emotions and other responses to aspects of ads (Olsen & Pracejus 2004) Dunbar (1990) studies tend to use still pictures rather than moving ads Murray & Murray (1996) - differences in musical content of ads from USA and Dominican Republic indicate that we should consider culture when analysing effect of music in ads - there isnt a global effect of conditioning Classical conditioning approach may not be capturing the intricacies of the role of music in advertising

Musical t
While some people passively perceive advertisements, some are highlyinvolved, actively analysing the messages contained in ads Music might have a positive effect on these consumers if it ts the ad, or corresponds with central ad message Music primes beliefs about the product while the consumer is actively considering it Test example: Timotei ad - what do you think the advertisers are trying to get at with the music used?

Timotei ad
www.youtube.com/watch?v=7yzjZptRYtY

Contradicting theories
Musical t: Music may enhance recall if it ts expectations Resource-matching approach: Music may reduce recall of ad/product as it detracts from cognitive resources Incongruity between elements in an ad may improve recall by encouraging deeper processing - incongruous music may be optimal in facilitating recall Dispute over whether participants perceive music as experimenters think they do - t vs no t may be the wrong approach This may explain the failed attempts at classical conditioning experiment

Discussion questions
What do you think about the effect of music on advertising? Do you think you are a high-involvement consumer? What do you think of the musical t theory? Do we really know whats going on? For you, does music add to, or take away from, the message of the ad?

Music and politics/ voting


Music (perhaps all arts) can never be completely divorced from politics...perhaps music is simply politics by other means; it never exists in a vaccuum, independent of other considerations Craig A. Lockard (1998: 28) Formation of national identify Censorship - what happens when governments/ dictators try to suppress music? How and why do politicians use music?

News coverage of music & politics


www.nme.com/news/james/40035
www.guardian.co.uk/music/2011/oct/05/primal-scream-theresa-may-rocks www.guardian.co.uk/music/2011/jun/29/tom-petty-michele-bachmann www.guardian.co.uk/music/2008/sep/08/sarah.palin.heart.soundtrack www.guardian.co.uk/music/2009/feb/24/nicolas-sarkozy-party-compensates-mgmt www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/aug/21/arts.germany www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/apr/21/david-cameron-uncool-paul-weller

Music and politics - long history


God save the king - form of state propaganda, legitimising monarchy, particularly in the empire Horst Wessel - written by a martyr Compulsory in school - Hitler Youth training schools encouraged the use of the song at key points in the daily ritual After WWII, CIA set up the Psychological Strategy Board, which oversaw, amongst other things, the broadcast of folk music Voice of America, another CIA creation, used music to evoke feelings of America - US propaganda

Promoting national/indigenous music


Canada and Scandinavia have imposed quotas on Anglo-American pop music, in order to promote indigenous music Under Apartheid, South African authorities encouraged the playing of rural music on bantu radio stations; urban music was censored. Aim was to create a sense of nationhood Ireland - RTE Raidio na Gaeltachta promotes Irish language and music - First broadcast was 1972, and only in 2005 were songs with English lyrics allowed - between 9pm and 1am, in a new popular music strand called Anocht FM

Music and censorship/suppression


1920s; Soviet Union tried to ban the saxophone Nazi Germany: Swing Youth were persecuted USSR and Nazi Germany: Jazz scorned as decadent Jewish and degenerate SA: Records were deliberately scratched to ensure they couldnt be played Afghanistan: all music banned by the Taliban. The ban on music has drastic effects on weddings and other celebrations...Lack of music is slowly turning the Afghan people into a dead nation, their weddings and funerals are performed in the same manner

Censorship closer to home


Sex Pistols God save the Queen Serge Gainsbourg & Jane Birkins Je Taime Frankie goes to Hollywoods Relax Paul McCartneys Give Ireland back to the Irish The Pogues Birmingham Six The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994) provides for the banning of music...characterised by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats

Censorship
Shows how very important music is Tells us more about the censors and their motivations than the banned parties By censoring, the state may increase popularity, sending it underground Sending it underground just makes it all the more powerful New York city ordinance banning Jazz groups of over 3 instruments was overturned on the basis of free expression - music as a form of speech, protected by the constitution

Music used by politicians


Function? To associate themselves with the spirit of the song To associate themselves with the bands prestige Evokes particular images and associations Campaign songs work in the same way as lm music To make themselves seem cool, enlightened, modern (some cases) Is musical taste a mark of political credibility?

New Labour
1997: D:reams Things can only get better 2001:Lighthouse Familys Lifted 2004: Eric Prydzs Call on Me 2005: U2s Beautiful Day

All have explicit titles - no hiding the intention here Things can only get better with New Labour, youll be lifted up from the drudge if you vote New Labour, you can depend on Tony, life can be beautiful Not exactly the cutting edge of music, but uncontroversial

D:ream Things can only get better


The lyrics serve not only to denounce the previous government: Things can only get better, but asks the audience of potential voters to support New Labour: They can only get better if we see it through - That means me and I mean you too Things can only get better, they can only get better, now Ive found you, Now Ive found you, and you and you The opening lyrics aim to inspire camaraderie between politician and voter: You can walk my path, you can wear my shoes, Learn to talk like me and be an angel too Here, the lyrics seem to be saying: If you support New Labour, you too could be as sophisticated, learned and successful as us politicians. Strong message of inclusion and hope - very manipulative Serves both to criticise previous govt and promise a better future

New Labour manifesto ad (from c. 1 minute)


www.youtube.com/watch?v=KoDmkKXNUH4

Silly video of Blair singing


www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDMJHYKrHNA

Lighthouse Family Lifted


The lyrics allude to hard times which can be weathered together. Strong emphasis on we, again a device used to foster a feeling of inclusion and trust between voter and political party. The main emphasis of the lyrics is on being lifted from these hard times. The lyrics serve to imply that whatever hard times may come, the New Labour Party will be there to lift their constituents from the shadows When it all gets dark again The whole thing falls apart I guess It doesnt really matter bout the rain Cause well get through it anyway Well get up and start again Cause we could be lifted, lifted, lifted We could be lifted From the shadows, lifted Oh we could be, lifted up today Lifted all the way, you and I forever Baby, lifted, lifted, lifted, hey

Labour 2001 ad
www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebiJ_MvXsRo

Eric Prydz Call on Me


Call on Me features two main lyric hooks Call on me and Im the same boy I used to be These lyrics strive to conrm to voters and supporters that Tony Blair and the Labour party are approachable, and that their aims have not changed since 1997 Blair wanted to assure that he was the same boy oozing youthful promise as he was in 1997 The choice of song, a dance track marketed to young people, with a video featuring scantily clad women, appears to be an attempt by the New Labour Public Relations Department to paint the party as cool, hip and relevant to the youth of today, clearly having recognized the powerful relationship between youth culture and pop. However, this attempt may have back-red on them. As soon as a counter/sub-cultural medium gets absorbed by the market, it loses its cultural message and becomes meaningless

U2 Beautiful Day
Bono, singer with the band, endorses Tony Blair and Gordon Browns global development standpoint, calling them the Lennon and McCartney of global development at the 2004 New Labour rally in Brighton . However, a closer analysis of the lyrics to the song may illuminate meanings which could be read with irony in reference to New Labours track record. Theres no room, no space to rent in this town could be read as seemingly in recognition of the downside of Browns economic miracles (Harris) However, this stanza ties up with the lines Its a beautiful day, Dont let it get away, presumably the upbeat message intended by New Labour in choosing this song. Dont let it get away implies that the party are urging the public not to risk the beautiful day of politics by voting for another party

Motivation for use of these songs?


New Labour saw itself as The future of Britain. The party wanted to appeal to the youth of
the country, and secure votes from new voters

D:Ream, The Lighthouse Family, Eric Prydz and U2 were highly popular when their songs

were released. They achieved great success, with much support coming from young people

Labour wish to be aligned with this youthful vigour and success in the minds of the public,

and they do so by appealing to their emotional, left-brain sides, by using music as a tool of power.

All of the songs used by the Labour Party fall under the category of popular music. This
may have been a clear choice, as popular music has certainly blurred class lines enabling for different people to express a false unity in their identifying with the same cultural form (Dasilva: 96)

Labour party do not appear elitist by choosing e.g. classical music, but are appealing the
the common man

Politicians, Music and humanization


Richard Nixon sought to humanize himself during the 1960 presidential race by playing the piano on The Tonight Show. After a humiliating defeat for the 1962 California Governors seat, he appeared on the Jack Paar show, playing a song he wrote himself. Nixon eventually succeeded to the Presidency in 1968, becoming the 37th president of the United States. Bill Clinton followed Nixons example by appearing on an MTV show, where he played the saxophone. Clinton, who succeeded in the election, said his appearance had helped to energise young people about politics. Clinton her used music to communicate with teenagers in a discourse they understood. Both politicians sought to humanise themselves, align themselves with popular culture, and interact with people in a less formal way

Some errors
George W Bush 2000 presidential campaign used Gary Glitters Rock and Roll Part II to excite voters at political rallies Gary Glitter is a listed sex offender since 1999, at the time convicted of downloading child pornography Massive Attack when Conservative Party leader William Hague took to the stage in September 2004 to the strains of their song Man Next Door: How dare they use our music to promote their bullshit? Massive Attack have not and will never support the Conservative party or their politics Tom Petty has told Michelle Bachmann to stop using his song American Girl In 2008, he allowed Hillary Clinton to use the song for her presidential bid. In 2000 George W Bush was discovered to be playing I Won't Back Down at his rallies. "This use has not been approved... any use made by you or your campaign creates, either intentionally or unintentionally, the impression that you and your campaign have been endorsed by Tom Petty, which is not true."

Politicians use of music in ads


Brader: Candidates can signicantly alter the motivation and persuasive power of ads by using music and images to elicit emotions such as dear or enthusiasm He found that citizens who were made anxious by the music and imagery were likely to be attentive and logical in their choice of political candidate, whilst those enthused by the ads tend to rely on party predispositions Thus, we might surmise that Blair and Bush have used music with up-beat tempo and lyrics to create an enthusiasm, in an attempt to keep voters. John Kerry (Us presidential election 2004) took the opposite tactic by eliciting fear of an incompetent government to appeal to voters rational sides, and thereby perhaps sway their vote - not successful Brader found that the power of ads seems to come in eliciting emotions while delivering the argument to vote for me. By stirring fear or enthusiasm, images and music seem to change the way viewers hear these words

Does use of music inuence voting?


Difcult thing to quantify Cant get very accurate info in the eld of voting patterns and inuences of music How could we test this experimentally?

Brader (2005)
Investigating the roles of music and imagery in political ads Testing the old theory that: Positive ads lead voters to like the sponsor/ politician Negative ads lead voters to dislike the opponent Does this ring true? Does music (and imagery) have an effect on interest in politics, willingness to vote, etc?

Brader (2005)
Predictions: Cueing enthusiasm using music and imagery motivates participation and activates existing loyalties Cueing fear stimulates vigilance, increases reliance on contemporary evaluation, and facilitates persuasion Enthusiasm: Content and imagery associated with success and good times Fear: Content and imagery associated with threat

Brader (2005)
Study done during 1998 Democratic primary campaign for Governor 286 subjects - 53% female Exposed to a 30 minute news program, with a campaign ad inserted Ad exposure was incidental - not presented as main focus of the experiment, so like the way we perceive political ads in real life Campaign ads varied emotionality in ad: Neutral - no music/ imagery Reassuring - uplifting music, colourful images of children Threatening - tense, discordant music, black and white pictures of violence and drugs Baseline reassuring and threatening ads also made with no music/images

Brader (2005)
After seeing ad as part of tv program, participants were asked about their mood while watching - anxious/excited/hopeful? Found that participants who had seen the reassuring ad with music and imagery felt more excitement and hope than those who saw the baseline ad without images or music Participants who had seen threatening ad with music and imagery felt more anxious than those who had seen the ad without music and imagery So, there was clearly an effect of music and imagery on mood Also asked about interest in campaign, intention to vote

Results

Enthusiasm priming (reassuring ad with music and images) had signicant effect on interest in campaign and intention to vote

Results

Fear priming (threatening ad with music and images) had no signicant effect on interest in campaign and intention to vote

Results
Participants who were exposed to enthusiasm-eliciting music and images: felt more excited and hopeful showed greater interest in the campaign were more willing to vote relied more on pre-existing preferences to choose a candidate Participants who were exposed to feat-eliciting music and images: felt more anxious showed no greater interest in the campaign were no more willing to vote were provoked to seek more information

What does this study tell us?


Old idea that positive ads lead voters to like the politicians, and negative ads lead voters to dislike the opposition not proven Doesnt seem to tell the whole story Emotionally evocative ads dont simply sway voters directly, but change how they make decisions This experiment looked at music and images in conjunction Would be very easy to tease these apart in another experiment, using same basic paradigm Music would seem to have some sway on voting behaviour, perhaps indirectly

Discussion Questions
How effective do you think politicians use of music is? Are you aware of music in ad campaigns etc? Are you concious of the intent of the music? Do you think music can serve to humanise politicians? Do you think it can have an effect on your voting choice? Is music devalued by being used in this way?

Recap
Music and purchasing Music and advertising Music and politics/ voting (censorship)

Readings for next week


North & Hargreaves: 217 - 236 Rosenstone, R.A. (1969). The times, they are a-changin: The music of protest. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 382, 131 - 144

References
Alpert, J.I. & Alpert, M.I. (1989). Background music as an inuence in consumer mood and advertising responses. Advances in Consumer Research, 16, 485 - 491 Alpert, J.I. & Alpert, M.I. (1989). Music inuences on mood and purchase intentions. Psychology and Marketing, 7, 109 - 133 Applebaum, V. & Mlliburton, C. (1993). How to develop international advertiging campaigns that work: the example of the European food and beverage sector. International Journal of Advertising, 12, 223 241 Areni, C.S. (2003). Exploring managers theories of how atmospheric music affects perception, behaviour, and nancial performance. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service, 10, 263 - 274 Attali, J. (2004). Noise and Politics in Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner (eds), Audio Culture: Readings in Music. New York: Continuum, 7 - 9 Baum, M. A. (2005). Talking the Vote: Why Presidential Candidates Hit the Talk Show Circuit. The American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 49, no.2, 213 234 Balasubramanian, S.K. (1990). Temporal variations in the evaluation of televisions advertisements: the role of key nonverbal cure. Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 651 - 657 Berlyne, D.E. (1960). Conict, arousal and curiosity. New York: McGraw Hill

References
Brader, T. Striking a Responsive Chord: How Political Ads Motivate and Persuade Voters by Appealing to Emotions in The American Journal of Political Science Vol. 49, no.2 (April 2005) pp.388 405 Dasilva, F., A. Blasi and D. Dees. The Sociology of Music University of Notre Dame Press (1984) Dunbar, D.S. (1990). Music and advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 9, 197 - 203 Furnham, A., Abramsky, S., & Gunter, B. (1997). A cross-cultural content analysis of childrens television advertisements. Sex Roles. 37, 91 - 99 Gorn, G.J. (1982). The effect of music in advertising on choice behaviour: a classical conditioning approach. Journal of Marketing, 46, 94 - 101 Harris, John. Notes For Votes in Guardian, March 29 2005 www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,1447057,00.html accessed 11/04/2007, 11:00 Lockard, Craig A. Dance of Life: Popular Music and Politics in Southeast Asia University of Hawaii Press (1998) Milliman, R. E. (1982). Using background music to affect the behaviour of supermarket shoppers. Journal of Marketing, 46, 86 - 91

References
Milliman, R. E. (1986). The inuence of background music on the behaviour of restaurant patrons. Journal of Consumer Research, 133, 286 - 289 Murray, N.M. & Murray, S.B. (1996). Music and lyrics in commercials: a cross-cultural comparison between commercials run in the Dominican Republic and in the United States. Journal of Advertising, 25, 51 - 63 Olsen, G.D., & Pracejus, J.W. (2004). Integration of positive and negative affective stimuli. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14, 374 - 384 Pitt, L. F. & Abratt, R. (1988). Music in advertisements for unmentionable products: a classical conditioning experiment. International Journal of Advertising, 7, 130 - 137 Roballey, T.C., McGreevy, C., Rongo, R.R., Schwantes, M.L., Steger, P.J., Wininger, M.A. & Gardner, E.B. (1985). The effect of music on eating behaviour. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 221 - 222 Stewart, D.W. & Furse, D.H. (1986). Effective television advertising: a study of 1000 commercials. Lexington: Lexington books Stewart, D.W. & Koslow, S. (1989). Executional factors and advertising effectiveness: a replication. Journal of Advertising, 18, 21 - 32