[MUSIC] In the previous segment, we saw that humankind, for most of its existence, had large brains.

Had the ability to produce and use tools, had complex social structures, but remained week and marginal in the ecosystem. Eventually, however, human beings, at least in the last 100,000 years, ascended to the top of the food chain and became the most powerful animals around. How did they make this, this, this junk? Perhaps the first significant step on the way to the top was the domestication of fire. We don't know exactly when were and how humans did this, to domesticate fire. But we do know from archaeological evidence that by about 300,000 years ago some humans, like neanderthals and later homo sapiens, were using fire on a daily basis. Fire had important advantages to offer humans. It gave humans a source of light in darkness. And a source of warmth in winter when it's cold. Fire also gave our ancestors the first really effective weapon against dangerous animals, like lions and bears. A fire could also be used to start changing the environment. To fit our eh, not our but our ancestor's needs, the needs of humans hundreds of thousands of years ago. People, for example, could use fire to burn down forests, and once the forest and once the flames die down then humans could walk in and collect all kinds of dead animals that were cooked in the fire and eat them, so it was an easy meal. You just burn down the forest and you come and collect a lot of food, which you can now eat. So this was another important advantage of fire, but the most important thing that fire did, the best thing about fire was that it enabled humans to cook. We don't often think about cooking as eh, one of the big steps forward in the history of humankind, but cooking was of immense importance. First of all, cooking opened entire new sections in the supermarket of Nature before humankind. I mean that, all kinds of foods that exist in nature, but that humans cannot, cannot digest, cannot eat without cooking

but also in other kinds of food. Another big advantage of fire. For people who use fire in order to cook their food. say a wheat and eat it. they can survive with smaller teeth. This means that humans in contrast for example. eh. they could start eating these foods. is that it reduced. the calories and the vitamins that they can give you. it reduced the time that humans have to invest in chewing their food. to chimpanzees. and potatoes. Our cousins. once humans had control of fire. So once humans begin to cook their food. eh. to digest the food. one hour a day is sufficient and they need to expend much less energy eh. and live there. much of our digestion is ate. what fire. to digest them properly. with less powerful jaws and with shorter intestines. So basically. to fire. because they have a digestive system that can digest wheat. Food. and potatoes.uh it protected them against all kinds of health dangers. when it comes raw. for. and kill them. or once you bake wheat. Once fire eh. A cow can do it. eh. and rice. eh. a big advantage of fire.them. the. once you cook potatoes. you can eat it and enjoy the. of cooking. Another advantage was that cooking kills germs and parasites that infest food especially in meat. And similarly you cannot dig potatoes in the ground and just eat them. We don't have to do it ourselves. such as. a pig can do it. sorry. and a lot of energy. what cooking enables people to do. actually done by fire. and. and the time and energy needed to digest food. and then it takes the stomach and the guts a long time. to do much of the job for them. uncooked. is to outsource much of the digestion to. That otherwise may enter the body. . the chimpanzees. they spend an average of five hours each day just chewing and chewing food in order to make it easier for. wheat. because you can't digest wheat in it's natural form. But humans can't. People could start eating many new things. So this was a. and rice. you have to chew it for a long time. And against all kinds of parasites. Until they had fire eh. for the stomach. You cannot go around an just pick.

because they compete for the limited energy of the body. Once you shorten the intestines. And why do they claim this? Well. You can now open the way for a really a big brain. that once you cooked your food. that people began to cook. you don't need very big teeth. this is a very big advantage. and on the breadth of the wings in case of birds eh. and very long intestines because you don't need to invest much effort in chewing and digesting. depend upon their body. many scholars. The really big jump. So. your intestines became shorter and then your brain really got big. 400. we discussed earlier is the growth of the human brain and we said that it bigger every two and a half millions years ago but. This is why it's quite difficult to have both very long intestines and a large brain at the same time. And this is why again. that fire and cooking gave to humans. The power of almost of the other animals in nature. the power of your body and the power of the animal. on the size of the teeth. The stomach and the intestines. you don't need so much intestines to digest your food. with giant brains. the shortening of the human intestines. many scientists say that the first really significant gulf between men and all the other animals was the domestication of fire. came only in the last 300 or four.When you eat cooked food.000 years. with the appearance of species like the neanderthals and homo sapiens. And this is exactly the time. of the human body is that the two greatest. So some scholars say that there is a direct link. One of the interesting things about the energy economy of the body. so there is a . and the growth of the human brain. The power of the animal depends on the strength of the muscles. greatest consumers of energy in the body are the brain and the digestive system. in the size of human brains. And there is evidence that the big jump eh. Actually the old scholars believe that there is a direct link between the beginning of cooking. and very powerful jaws. There is a direct link between what kind of the false.

and even when they use the wings and the hot air. the location of these hot air columns. they gained control of an obedient force. More importantly. or by the strength of the muscles. and their allow the hot air to carry them upwards. When humans domesticated fire. and then they spread their wings. eh. And the size and shape of their bodies. An entire forest with thousands of trees. or the power of winds. the maximum power is still proportional to their wingspan. for example. between the body and the power of the animal. columns of hot air. The maximum carrying capacity. it's not enough to be able to lift a. Or by the form. but even when animals do that there is still a very close connection to the abilities. she can burn it down by herself. For instance animals can harness the power of water currents. that eagles use in order to to fly. they can use. So this is what I meant when I said that the power of animals is always directly dependent on the power of their bodies. they can not control. eagles can not decide. that some animals can use natural forces to increase the power. very powerful column of hot air.link here. Unlike eagles. or a flint. can burn down an entire forest in a matter of hours. but also on identifying winds. or anything like that. Because when humans domesticated fire. Even if an eagle locate a very. Eagles. and also a very potentially limitless force. It's up to them. A single woman. wingspan is simply not big enough. Now it is true. Eagles are able to identify a place where there are currents of hot air coming up. It's not like the eagle. to decide it. the. a force without limits. The power relies not only directly on their bodies. humans can choose when and where to ignite a fire. the eagle's eh. an elephant because the eag. that even when . which carries a torch. to the physical abilities of their bodies. But. and thousands of animals and birds and so forth. and thermal columns. the power of fire is not limited by the power of the body of the human who ignited it. it broke the link between the power of the animal and the size and power of the body of the animal.

that even after the domestication of fire. will be eh. in this respect. the real jump to the top of the food chain had to wait a few hundred thousand years more to the appearance and the spread and the triumphs of our species. Homo Sapiens. And fire made humans more different from all the other animals. was a sign of things to come. In the case of a woman burning down an entire forest. Eh. and more powerful. The domestication of fire was. the eh. appearance and spread. . there is absolutely no eh. However. this. And this eh. So. They were still not the most powerful animal in the world. it should be emphasized. this the. the subject of the next segment. proportion between the power of her body and her power as a master of fire that can burn down the whole forest. in a way.it can use the wind. it is still limited by the size of the wings. of our species of Homo Sapiens. to the atomic bomb. the first important step on the way eh. the domestication of fire. humans were still not the most important animal In the world.

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