The Wilson’s Creek Staff Ride and Battlefiel

FOREWORD

All the information and components needed ta conduct a staff ride or b&lefie2d tmr ts~ Wilaon’Es Creek are prcmided by the author--ensuring an enlightening expetimce of one of’ the great engagements c& the Civil War &X those vi&iag the site.

rhewi lsor-h Cree Staff Ride and Battlefield Tour
r

Major George E. Knapp, U.S.Army Re.tired

bY

Combat Studies Institute U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 66027-6900 -

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication

Data

Knapp, George E. (Gorge Edward), 1949The Wihon’e Creekatafflri$e and battlefield tour / by Gemge E. bPP. p. cm. include8 bibIiograp&al referencee. I. Wilson’8 Creek; Battle of, 1861. 2. Wilson”8 Creek National BattMeld (MO.) -Guidebooks. I. Title. E472.23X53 1993 973.7’3L-dc20 92-42329 CIP

CONTENTS
Maps Tables .~.............. . ..*.....*...**.*...*....l............ v vii lx 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~...........*...............I~. . . . . . . . ..I....~......*...*,.,.............*..,...

Introduction II. III.

I. The Campaign for Missouri, Summer 1861 . ..*...I.......

The Armies at Wilson’s Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 1 15 Staff Ride and Battlefield Tour Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . ti. . 27

Appendix A. CharactersforRolePlaying . . *. . . . . . . . . . . . ..- . . . . . . . . %.w71 .._. B. Medal of Honor RGipients at Wilson’s Creek, 81 10 August 1861 . ...*....................*.......*,,* C. Families on the Wilson’s Creek Battlefield Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . ..I..~.......I....................t... . . . . . . . ~. . . . . . . 83 89 D. Order of Battle, Wilson% Creek, 10 August 1861 . . . . . . . . . . 85

111
I..

MAPS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The campaign for Missouri, summer 1861 . . . ..a............ 2 Tour stands for the staff ride or battlefield tour at Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 The Wilson’s Creek battlefield, 1861 . . , . a. . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 05OO-U60~ . ..*.** . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 06OQ-0800 . . ..e.*.....*..*... The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 0800-1000 . . . . ..l.....I...... The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, IOOO-1130 ..*.“.....*I%,..... 42 56 66

TABLES
1.

Artillery at Wilson’s Creek

I..............................

18 30

2.

Stands and grid numbers for the staff ride or battlefield tour . . .,........................*...r....l.*

vii
_I___-.-.--. -

INTRODUCTION
Armies of the North and South fought the Rattle of Wilson’s Creek about ten miles southwest of Springfield, Missouri, on Saturday, 10 August 1861. Like most battles, Wilson’s Creek provides fertile ground for studying military art and science. It is particularly useful for examining the dynamics of battle and the effect of personalities on the action. While the action at Wilson”s Creek was small compared to that at Gettysburg or Chickamauga, it remains significant and useful to students of military history. Within the context of the military and political campaign within Missouri in the spring and summer of 1861, the battle had the effect of securing the state for the Union. The Union defeat in battle and the death of General Nathaniel -Lyon, so closely following the disaster at First Bull Run, caused the North to adopt a more serious attitude about the war and to realize that victory would come only with detailed planning and proper resourcing. Thus, the Union reinforced Missouri with soldiers and weapons during the fall and winter of 186162, while the Confederacy applied its scanty resources elsewhere. Although the exiled pro-Confederate state government voted to secede and sent delegates to Richmond, Virginia, Missouri effectively remained in the Union.. Any questions about Missouri’s fate were settled at the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, when Union forces turned back the last significant Confederate threat to Missouri. Wilson’s Creek was a “first battle” for most of the soldiers who fought there. First battles often provide armies with special insights into the application of military art and science, and Wilson’s Creek was no exception. The Mexican War model of organization and combined arms battle was generally confirmed, but some key observations relating to technology and command and control emerged as well. For example, Regular soldiers, who were expected to outclass volunteers in both discipline and expertise, found the volunteers at Wilson’s Creek standing up manfully to the task of battle, as they had earlier in Mexico. In addition, artillery proved decisive at several key moments during the fighting. Cavalry, on its part, proved to be much less valuable, and this fact hinted at lessons to be learned later in the Civil War. Ultimately, the infantry ofboth sides played out the drama, and many of the most useful insights came from that branch. Casualty percentages in the fighting were among the highest recorded for any battles of the Civil War. Although the men lost on both sides were almost equal in number, losses were not proportional;

ix

nearly one of every four Federals was either killed, wounded, captured, or missing in the battle, but only one of every eight Confederates. These figures exceeded those of the Mexican-American War and foreshadowed the stupendous totals that emerged as the Civil War evolved. While casualty figures do not always serve well as a measure of valor or expertise, clearly at Wilson’s Creek, generally inexperienced soldiers led by equally inexperienced afficers fought determinedly for six bloody hours, Mea~w~I~, the numbers of dead and wounded overwhelmed the capaci%yof the local aviation to care ar ba%%~e~eld~ How those men were for them-as it did at every Civil ministered to offers additiona opportunities for study and insight. Many of the par%icipants in the conflict went on to become important leaders and generals in the Civil War and af%erward. In some respeds, their experiences at Wilson’s Creek gave some indication of how well or poorly they would perform later in the war. ColonsI Sigel; Majors Schofield, Osterhaus, and Sturgis; and Captains Granger, Gilbert, Kerron, Stanley, and Steele went on to command armies and corps for the Union. Other officers on both sides at Wilson’s Creek eventually commanded divisions and brigades in some of the great battles of the war. The effects of the interaction of these personalities in war provide useful teaching opportunities at Wilson’s Creek because the battle was small enough that individual actions had decisive results. The Union and Confederate battle plans were especially innovative and bold. General Lyon, like General Lee at Chaacellorsville two years later, found himself outnumbered more than two to one with his enemy preparing to attack. He faced the unpleasant prospect of being too weak to defend, so he had to either attack or withdraw. In choosing to attack, Lyon employed a difEcu& tactic, dividing his available forces into two attack columns, one led by himself, the other by Colonel Sigel. Sigel moved to attack the Confederate rear, while Lyon attacked its front. Making their approach marches at night, Lyon and Sigel completely surprised the Confederates and in a remarkably well-coordinated at%ack seized key positions on the field. After recovering from their initial surprise, the Confederates countered with a particularly innovative battle plan of their own, mixing militia and “regular’” troops armed with a bewildering array of weapons. Ultimately, the fortunes of war turned against the Federals. Sigel’s force was routed, Lyan was killed while leading a charge, and the Federal Army evacuated Springfield the next day and fell back on its base at Rolla.

X

Battlefield Tour
This book outlines the general usefulness of Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield for both battlefield tours and staff rides. A battlefield tour is defmed as . . . a vieit TVthe site of an actual campaign [or battle] but with littfe or no preliminary systematic study. Kf led by an expert, the bistical battIefield tow can stimulate thought and eneaurage student discussion but within kite Bet by the lack of systematic preparation and involvement. A historical battlefield tour usee both terrain and a historical situation but does not have a preliminary study phase.1 A suc-cessfuibattlefield tour of Wilson’s Creek can achieve many objectives. It can (1) expose students to the “face of battle” and the timeless dimensions of warfare; (2) provide case studies in combined arms operations as’well BS-the operations of the separate arms; (3) furnish case studies in the relationship between technology and doctrine, particularly as they relate to untrained and untied armies; (4) supply case studies in leadership from company through army level; (51provide case studies in the effects of Eogistical considerations on military operations; (6) show the effeds of terrain on militm plans and battles; (72 furnish a framework for studying battles and an introduction to studying campaigns; (61 encourage the use of military history to develop expertise in the profession of arms; and (9) kindle or reinforce interest in the history ef the U.S. Army, the American Civil War, and the evolution of modern warfare. A battlefield tour of Wilson’s Creek requires about twenty hours of instructor preparation time, including a preparatory visit to the battlefield to conduct reconnaissance. If possible, students should read a campaign and battle overview prior to arrival at the battlefield. The walking taur included in this book should take less than eight hours, assuming arrival at 0900 and departure at 1700 (with a thirty-minute break for lunch on the field). The tour takes place entirely on foot within the confines of the national battlefield. If time is short, students can be bused between selected groups of stands, which reduces the required time to about six hours. The battle is suf’ficiently dynamic to allow several groups to tour the field simultaneously. Although the sequence of stands is not critical, some groups of stands should be taken in sequencefor the sake of simplicity, clarity, and continuity.

lThis quote and the list of objectives that follow it come from William G. Robetin, The StaffRide (Washington, DC: Center of Military I-&tory, U.S. Army, 1987). 5-6.

xi

A staffride goes beyond the scope of a battlefield tour and consists ofa
. . . systematic preliminary study of a selected campaign, and extensive visit to the actual sites sssociated with that campaign [and battle], and an opportunity to integrate the lesmm derived from each. It envisions magimum student involvement before arrival at the site to guarantee thought, anaiysk, ad discussion. A staff ride thus links a b.ietorical event, terrerin t4% p?duce battle analpis eysbmatic preliminary study, and a ia three dimensions. It wnsi& of tkree distiwt phases: preliminary study, field study, and MegrationS 2

A staff ride has the potential to accomplish all the objectives of a batt1efiek.l tour, plus it provides case studies in the application of the operational art by focusing on the theater campaign, supplies an introduction to the study of strategy, and furnishes 8 f~~mewark for a systematic study of campaigns in general. The preliminary study phase for a staff ride to Wilson’s Creek should take about ten hours of student preparation and small-coup seminar time. In this period, students will famiIiarize themselves with the campaign and battle and prepare to represent a particular character or event in the battle as their personal tesponsibili group’s discussion in the field (see appendix A). As part of the and battlefield tour package for Wilson’s Creek, vignettes are provided in chapter 3 that may be read at the various stands ta enhance student involvement. These vignettes will give students an insight into the emotional disposition and attitudes of the battle participants. During the field-study phase, instructors must show greater flexibility in the time spent at each stand, because student discussions will tend to cause each stop to be longer than in a battlefield tour. The integration phase-+~ meeting of the staff ride group aRer the tour of the battlefield-should take about one hour and accur as soon as possible after the field-study phase to allow synthesis of observations and insights At this time, instructors should encourage students to evaluate the staff ride experience and make suggestions far its improvement.

%bid., 4-6. The distinction between ti rides, b&lefieEd tam, and other &we of field study is important because of the n&we of small-group instruction, so popular aow in mi&ary training. A battlefield tour is similar to a cIassroam lecture, while a s ride is akin to a seminar where all participanta have prepared in depth,

xii
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The Wilson’s Creek Nation&I Battlefield is about ten miles southwest of Springfield, Missouri, and encompasses 811 8rea five kilometers by three kilometers. Maintained by the National Park Service, it has a modern Visitor’s Center with 8 good terrain map, slide show, period exhibits, bookstore, and library. The park staff is helpful and can assist instructors in arranging visits. In many respects, the battlefield is in nearly the s8me condition 8s it w8s in 1861. A fivemiIe-long blacktop road encircles the major portion of the park and is 8 gre8t aid to navigation and movema~t* The park is open every day except Cbristmss and New Year’s Day. Any queries should be addressed to Wilson’s Creek National Rattlefield P.0. Box 403 Republic, Missouri 65738 Phone: (4lT) 732-2662 There 8re no latrine facilities or pot8ble water sources on the field except at the Visitor’s Center. Visitors should carry canteens and we8r hiking shoes or boots and long trousers. Groups may visit Wilson”s Creek in any season, but the best times are l&e f&11,winter, and early spring. At other times, the foliage makes terrain associations and visibility more difficult. In addition, chiggers, ticks, and snakes abound in the warmer seasons. Groups should consider carrying rain gear, as no shelters, except at the Visitor’s Center, a-re located on the field. There 8re several fast-food restaurants along EEighway 68 in Republic, Missouri, less tha five miles from the battlefield, and the Springfield 8rea has many hotels that may easily accommodate groups staying overnight.

The Confederacy lost the important border state of Missouri in the summer of 1861 in a campaign that stretched from St. Louis to Springfield. The c ’ rovides examples of some of the best leadership, decision fighting in the war. It was a decisive campaign that resu uri remaining in the Union through the crucial winter of 1861, during which time the North became more organized and started executing strategy. (For a map of Missouri and a chronology of the s he state, see map 1.) According to the 1860 census, Missouri was the most populous and wealthy tans-Mississippi state, Nationally, Missouri ranked third in the production of corn; fourteenth in wheat and oats; second in livestock and oxen; sixth in horses, mules, and cat&; and second in the production of hemp. It also produced over 2 million pounds of wool annually. Moreover, the state produced five tons of copper in 1860 and ranked twelfth in the value of its products=-including boots, shoes, clothing, wagons, saddlery, harnesses, tin, and sheet iron; first in the mining of Iead; and eighth in the production of iron ore. Not the least of Missouri’s resources was its white population of 1.2 million and slave population of 115,000. I& through the fortune of war, Missouri had been added to the Confederacy, the resource imbalance favoring the North over the South would have beea lessened. In 1861, Missouri was a slave state with strong Southern sympathies and a border te second only to Kentucky in importance. Once secured by the North, Missouri would anchor the Union effort in the western theater of operations by controlling the Mississippi River north of New Madrid, Missouri. The state was edged by two Confederate states, Arkansas and Tennessee, as well as the border state, Kentucky, and pro-Southern Indian Territory. On the other hand, if the Confederacy won Missouri quickly, it would strengthen the South’s military and political osition. Missouri was critical ground, since control of the Essissi and Missouri Rivers would give the South a sign&ant ~zaaeuver ntage in the west. Missouri was a great political prize. Winning this border state into the Southern fold would si the South’s ability to spread the rebellion into new territory encourage it8 sy~pat~~e~ everywhere. AdZer President Abraham Lincoln’s election in November 1860, the Southern states seceded,and in February 1861, representatives of the seven Confederate states met in Montgomery, Alabama, and

B
--___.-_____---- .__-

IOWA

*Harrironville

Lebanon.

l Bentonville . 0 Huntsville * Yellvilte . Po<ahontas .

ARKANSAS
l

Clarkruille

a Liff Ic Rock

. Tulip

Map

1.

The campargn for Missouri, summer

1861

Legend
Confederate forces * Union forces

4 bife, Governor Glaiborne F. ted to get ~is~~~~ to join the

Missouri State 9. These actions

skefs, powder, an

other i~po~~t

event occ

bermerk sEthe he success of the conda Plan was . The Federals work web became av

6

indiscriminately, kiIling twenty-eight people. With this bloodshed, Missouri began four years of violence and cruel intersectional warfare. The state legislature reacted to the bloodshed by passing a biE the pro-C% State Guard. Governor Jackson immediately nd it. At this time, ide of St. Louis, and some of these mea, in irregular bands, drave Union errilla activities.
boating

ouis and did his best to

Lincoln yieIded to presswe and sent Frank Blair an order for I-hrzxy’s removal in the event of an extreme emergency. On 31 May, Blair dismissed W ey and appointed Lyon a brigadier general in charge of Union troops in Missouri. on naw took steps to disrupt the ith Price (by which the state n PEdune, Blair and Lyon n St. Lauis. Both sides made on closed the meeting by s lines. They Ieft ity, while Price went River to

held a ~o~e~e~ce demands t&at co

Meanwhife, Lyon moved west alon the Missouri about 2,OQOmea on ve~me~t evacua on’s small f~rca to Boo June, the first of nearly l,lGO CiviI
place.

By putting the governor and the ~~o-So~tba~ portio legislature to fl i ht, Lyon forced the sa~assio~s~ to aperate base, motley, OPIegal focPting. At the Unionists time to set up a new state state ~0~v~~t~Q~ elected pro-Union Ham1 amble as governor. On of compromise and the other hand, Lyon destroyed forced everyone to take sides. Tha Jackson, who was

?

equally stubborn, bloody and bitter civil war ruled in next four gears.

issouri for the

After the battle at Boonville, state troops under Colonel John S. Marmaduke and Governor Jackson retreated southward toward Cow&ii Prairie in the southwest corn f the state where General Price gathered other Missouri State Gu forces. ~e~w~~e, before leaving St. Louis, elected Missouri B column of troops to south by Missouri volunteer infantry regiments fro led the coIuxrm and in Springfield with 1,500 more troops on 1 July, or’s retreat from When Sigel received news af .the gov vent Jackson fr Boonville, he was determined to in forming a juncture with Price, Ta along the Mt. Vernon Road to Carthage, sixty-five miles to the west of Springfield, with the 3d and 5th Missouri ~~f&~t~~ Regiments (Missouri Volunteers), a company of Rehears, and the eight pieces of BackoE”s light artillery. Meanwhile, on 3 Jdy, Lyon left pursuit of Governor Jackson. Before Lyon could catch up with Jackson, however, the gav~~oy and the Missouri State Guard defeated Si him to fall back to Mt. Vernon a inforced Lyon with Samuel II. Sturgis arrived from Et a 1,600-man brigade consistin Kansas volunteers. ch and arrived ia moved south and joined At Sprir&ieId, Lyon asaum southwest Missouri and reorganized his li he requested reinforcements,and supplies he sent Sweeny with a &ZOO-mantask force af infantry, artillery, and cavalry to break up a secessionist camp report sharp skirmish on 22 July, Sweeny scattered Guard troops stationed in Farsyth and occup fore returning to S~~~~e~d I The secessionists now made plans t Springfield. At about the same time, the ordered Brigadier General Ben ~~~~~~~~

8

small a.r Iloch, 8 brigade of

viIEe and their

eneral John 6.

e sent mare the new adiag the eastern

Home Guards to Ckswille on the miles southwest of Springfield where the battle would be fough The next day, Lyon continued hia march southward down

m

neral James S. Rains. Both

all secessionist patrol at Curran and scattered the rebeIs with a few artillery rounds. By this time, Lyon realized that the Southern forces had united and decided to

9 ta sprin ret of5 August. the a~e~oo~

both sides o~~i~aa~‘s Creek. er two days of fsuitle m two Warnen d to begin at ~~~~~ the city with faur caf ordered t

while others act tion from reaehi

Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon

Celonel Franz Sigel

Brigadrer General Ben McCull~~h

Major General SterYingPrice

Same af the major commanders at the Baffle of Wilson’s Creek

11 the Confederates at daylight on IQ August, hoping that surprise would offset the Southerners’ superior numbers, Sigel also persuaded Lyon to let him take his brigade on a flanking march to attack the south end of the Confederate camp. About 1800, 9 August, while Sigel’s cuhnnn prepared to march toward the Confederate rear, Lyon moved westward along the Little York Road to a point opposite the north end of the rebel camp, where he turned south over the prairie. About 0100, when the Union advance guard approached within sight of the enemy campfires, Lyon ordered the cohmsn to halt and rest until daybreak. While the men rested, Lyon’s scouts penetrated to within a short distance of the enemy camps and discovered that the Southern pickets had withdrawn. Lyon’s calumn..noF pressed forward, and his advance guard contacted Confederate pickets at dawn. The battle began at about 0500, when the Federals drove off the Missourians outposting the ridge to the north of what came to be known as Bloody Hill. As the Southerners retreated south to BIoody Hill, Lyon ordered Captain Joseph B. Plummer and his 1st U.S. Infantry Battalion to cross Wilson’s Creek to guard the Union’s left flank. The 1st Kansas and 1st Missouri composedLyon’s first attack wave, and they charged up the north slope of Bloody Hill, forcing the Confederates to retreat once again. The two regiments seized the hill about 0600 with the rest of Lyon’s column following closely behind. The sound from these attacks and the retreating Missourians alerted Price and McCulloch, who were breakfasting together. McCuIioch immediately went off to get his troops, while Price moved his Missourians up Bloody Hill to meet Lyon’s attack. By 0500, Sigel had his artillery battery placed on a plateau in a position to shell the Southerners’ cavalry camp located in Sharp’s cornfield at the south end of the rebel camp. The Union’s 3d and 5th Missouri Volunteer Infantry Regiments waited for Sigel’s signal to attack. When Sigel heard the musket fwe on Bloody Hill, he ordered his battery to open fue and began his advance, sweeping through the cavalry camp as the Southerners fled from his bombardment. By 0700, Sigel’s brigade crossed Wilson’s and Tenefl Creeks and deployed in Sharp”s cornfield. Meanwhile, shortly after the battle opened, Captain James ff Jr.% T&ten’s 2d U.S. Artillery Battery and Captain W. E. Wo Battery exchanged shom on Bloody Hill. Woodruff’s fire caused the Union attacks to stall. Early in the engagement, Lyon had ordered

12 PlummeJs Wan battalion to cross Wilson’s Creek to ard the s Plummer advanced, he sought to siIen PI~mrne~~s command was i sha ansas 3d Louisiana and 2d

retreat. Qsition near s

and sporadic fiiing followed each attack. About 0900, Price launched his whole force in attacks all along Lyon’s front. The Federal line wavered, and Lyon was slightly wounded twice while rallying his troops. As some of his units retired to regroup, Lyon ordered the 1st Iowa and 2d Kansas to attack a led the 1st Iowa himself. killing him. The Iowa an 0930, a bullet hit Lyon in the he troops, nonetheless, continued to press their assault line, and the M~so~a~ ba d down the hill to commander’s body meantime, Lyon’s aide carried About 1000, Greer’s Sout launched an attack against t cavalry attack was companies of the 26 from part of Totten’s death and added c battle, all the Union ansas-Texas Mo and rear. But Greer’s et volleys From severa the rear and by artillery fire

While Price reorganized his troops for aRotb~p attack, Pearce taok his 3d and 5th Arkansas Infantry egiments to reinforce the Missourians. With these additional troops, Price launched his most

13 determined attack of the retreat back tQ

saw the last of the

called it, was the first first battle can the battle were e the d~tio~ of

nt Civil War battle after Bull Run.

unded, and 186 casuatties out of 24 percent oftheir men, Ha. Mea~w~le the

returned with their troops to Arkansas. Price soon marched his Missouri State Guard north and, on 12 September, began the g-day e 3,000-man Union garrison at Lexington, which on 2QSeptember.

recaptured Sprm el R. Curtis, who ge in March 1862, which f’tarther ensured

October 1861, it passed an act that soon delivered Missouri into the C~~~@de~cyas its twelfth member. It was a hollow act, however, as Jackson’s government in exile had neither troops nor tioney. Although

14 Missouri wf’fered guerrilla warfare and periodic Conf’ederate raids, it henceforth remained securely in the Union fold and soon became a backwater theater as the war moved deeper into the South.

IL THE ARMIES

AT WfLSON’S

CREEK

Both the Federals and Confederates employed men from a variety of units at Wilson’s Creek. Like Bull Run only three weeks before, Wilson’s Creek was a “‘first battle” for most of these combatants. Because of this, their actions and reactions give modern military sfxdents the opportunity to acquire special insights into the timeless human dimensions of warfare (sometimes called “the face of battle”). The battle also provides splendid examples for the study of leadership, unit cohesion, technology, doctrine, and other factors that interact to produce victory and defeat. For the most part, both armies at Wi.lson*s Creek fought well-Regulars, Volunteers, and militia. Certainly, many of the men fought better than they were led. And in this reIatively small battle,the. actions of individuals often made the critical difference. Unit

Organization

General Lyon’s army consisted of small Regular Army, infantry, artillery, and cavah-y units, as well as larger Volunteer infantry formations organized much like the U.S. Army units in the MexicanAmerican War. Notable among the Regular units were Plummer’s battalion of faur companies from the 1st U.S. Infantry; Totten’s Battery F, 2d U.S. Artillery; and Captain Eugene A. Carr’s and Lieutenant Charles E. Farrand’s companies of the 1st U.S. Cavalry and 2d U.S. Dragoons. Commanders on both sides feIt that these Regular troops brought an additional measure of discipline and reliability to the battle. Confederates who engaged the Regulars in battle were quick to note that fact in their after-action reports, as if fighting against the U.S. Regulars was a significant mark of the severity of the battle. Most of Lyon’s army, however, consisted of ninety-day volunteer Missouri, Kansas, and Iowa. In fad, soldiera in at least one regiment, Colonel John F. Bates’ 1st Iowa, vahnteered to remain beyond their three-month en.listment date to participate in the fight. Because these regiments were recently raised, most numbered from 600 to 860 men, nearly as large as some brigades in 1864 and 1865. The men of these regiments were generally well-armed with riflemuskets and rifled conversion muskets. Volunteers made up two of the artillery batteries, Du Bois’ and Major Frank Backoff ‘s. Most of the cavalry was from the Regular Army. Lyon organized his army into four brigades, but with the exception of Colonel Sigel’s brigade, he employed his formations

15

16 re~ment. During the aw fit, and it was a that he could do so. In

measure 0

aced units into e re&ively small sea

derates, on their p Creek-at least nat in the sa exas were mcze reliable an

during the war. usual formation at WiEsan”s Cree te Guard (MSG) commands by ajor General Sterlie ifitia orga~izatia~ for than one-balf of the Confederate host and consisted of infantry, artillery, and cavalry. gh weld-orgs~~~edand adequately

ullach organized his

from unit to unit attempting to personally i~~e~ce the action. In this regard, they bad good success.

CZpCHE3
There was a great variety of indivi in muskets and weapons used by soldiers the Federals enjoyed erates bad the

ed were smoothbore muskets, e Federal ~o~~nt~r regiments ~~~-~~~be~ball ammunition. tPriioSt.common

~o~fede~~tes Eelded a bewildering array of weapons, including conversion muskets, hunting rifles, carbines, shotguns, mnd, in one company of Greer’s South Kansas-Texas Mounted egiment, the very modem Colt revolving rifle. Creek, otb sides employed field artillery effectively at fielding a total of th one smoothbore OFtwa ho-wikzers, see table 1). Most of pound &uns arid Upo were of ~ex~can-A~er~ca~ obsolete at the tine but foun during the Civil War. Neither side fielded any ri famous new-model 1%pound gun-howitzer, commonly called the Napoleon. Bledsoe’s Battery of the Miss0 t nicknamed Old Sacramento, that was original1 from the Mexicans in munition. ~u~~osed~y, it soldiers could bear and these annoys fired solid balls, hollo hollow balls filled with smaller balk an Arnm~it~o~ was of the fixed type, that projectile were connected ts each other ized their cannons in The caps. The cavalry used a carbine carzverted to use percussion erate cavalry employed a variety of weapons rangiing

1, 8 from carbines, swords, and pistols to hunting rifles, shotguns, and knives. Much of the Confederate cavalry, particularly that of the Missouri State Guard, was unarmed, which may explain, in part, their generally poor performance in the battle. Table 1. Artillery at WiIson’s Creek
12-lb. howitzer, .~~ell841

&lb. gun, Model 2841

Confederate Federal Bore diameter (incbea) Tube weight (Ibs.) Tube length (inches) Carriage weight (Ib8.) Range at 5 degrees eiavation (yda.) Projtilea (lba.) Splxxical awe Ctislter Powder charge (Ibe.) Muzzle velocity (ft./se4 Spherical case Canieter Pettefxatian of oak timber at l,QW p.rd~ Gncbesl;

12 11 3.67 %a4 60 900 1,523 Shot 6.15 5.5 6.8 1-2 Shot 1,439-1,741 1,357 1330 6-a

3* 5 4.62 ma 53 96x3 1,072 Shell 8.9 11 9.64 l-l.25 Shell 1$X4-1,178 953 1,015 4

*One of the Confederate gum was Old Sacramento, a Spound gun eap%med fram the Mexicans in California and rebored to K&pound size.

Tactics
The armies that fought at Wilson’s%reek employed tactics proven effective in the Mexican-American War. The basic maneuver units were irrfantry regiments, infantry and cavalry companies, and artilIery batteries and sections. By later Civil War standards, Wilson’s Creek was a small battle. But one should remember that about 16,000

19 men fought at Wilson’s Creek, making it the second largest battle ever fought by Americans up to that time. First Bull Run, fought only twenty days before Wilson’s Creek, was the largest American battle up to its time. The tactical situation in the week before the battle suggested that the most likely course of action for hfcCu.lloch’s army was to attack Lyon’s army, then defending Springfield. The Confederates outnumbered the Federals by more than two to one and had a particularly strong advantage in cavalry. Lyon’s greatest fear was that the Confederates would use their great cavalry advantsge to prevent his withdrawal to the Federal base at Rolla. Lyon was in a quandary: he could not remain on the defensive at Springfield, and yet he feared withdrawing without striking a blow. Thus, when McCulloch moved his Confederate army to Wilson’s Creek, less than fifteen miles from Springfield, Lyon knew that he bad to act. Like Lee two years later at Chancellorsville, he was too weak to defend; he had to attack. Emulating Winfield Scott’s attack at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, Lyon divided his already outnumbered army into two parts, sending Colonel Franz Sigel’s brigade of Volunteers on a night march to flank the south end of the Confederate camps, while Lyon himself led the main force on a night march to attack the north end of the Confederate camp. Like Lee at Chancellorsville, Lyon’s outnumbered attackers gained the element of surprise and tactical initiative that temporarily made up for their lack in numbers. In fact, Lyon came close to winning the battle. Once the battle began, the tactics on both sides devolved into a series of regimental and company advances and retreats across the southern slopes of Bloody Hill. But the battle at Wilson’s Creek was not devoid of tactical initiative and adroitness. Sigel’s initial attack of the Confederate cavalry camps in Sharp’s cornfield was a model of combined arms maneuver. He bombarded the Southern camp while simultaneously maneuvering infantry against it. Meanwhile, his cavalry secured his flanks. Moreover, once in possession of the field, Sigek moved rapidly to a position from which he could block an expected Confederate retreat and, hopefully, cooperate with Lyon’s attack. Plummer’s subsequent crossing of Wilson’s Creek and attempt to attack Woodruff’s Battery was, in effect, a flanking maneuver, another example of tactical aggressiveness. Later in the battle, Lyon heId a tactical reserve on the northern slope of Bloody Hill until the critical time and then skillfully led it forward into battle. Finally, the

20 Federal withdrawal, while not assailed by the Confederates (due to their exhaustion), was a small model of control and precision. After the ~o~ede~a~es were initially s rised, several units, lost their effe~tive~ess for the remainder of er, ~c~~l~o~h and

of the Missouri State ed quickly to Lyon’s presence on Bloody HilL o regments of Confederates led by Colonel ’ “vely against PEummer’s flanki was commonplace

What tactical lessons did the armies learn at Wilson% Creek? Since it was a first battle for most of the soldiers and officers, they got the experience of p~i~~pat~g in a live confli& for the frst time. They also learned the value of surprise, security, and the d~~~u~ty of controlling the separate parts of large armies. In addition, they learned that personal leade p and the initiative of s~~ord~~ates the supposed ermore, astute the clearest lesson was the one that was the le ting this sort of battle leads to heavy casualties were 23.5 percent of those engaged, while the Confederates lost percent, The lss on both sides were nearly equal in raw numbers, and this proved t both sides could and would fight. Although Civil War comma~de~ ter devised some brilliant ~~eratio~ and tactics

LOgkEiW

L Battle it did because of logistics. Earlier in 1861 most of ~~ssou~ a

and hen

e Federals had driven to the southwest corner of the state near

21 Springfield. From there, Governor Ja pr~~uthem 1egisIature found it very %x$-eGuard, recruit additional men, a they seriously threaten: the St. Louis Iike spokes from a Rivers a9d the railroads to railhead at RaIla was of principal i

Mthough Lyon had seized

not remain in t weak to attack. In addition, th prepared to withd however, he decid before giving up Spr logistic situation was the most s~~~~a~t attack.

factor ia his decision to

ile Lyon dismissed a poss tes, Generals ~~C~Ilo~~ and could recruit concerning an abck. Price felt that the plenty of soldiers and sustain a recapturing Misssuri. McCulloch the r into the state, from C~wski~ er.

Ori the evening of 9 Au camp, it began to rain would become soaked,

22

order and

si

tions in the campai

ssissippi

Rivers

and the

Ralla to ~F~~~~~~~ld. General Lyon t. Louis along this line, and any supplies reached him would most likely came that way. mmunications

~o~~~i~s and the i easingly ~~irniti~~ to make cornrn~~~at~~ line that ran from derates could use. ications center house was the local post office. Also, as Jackson’s Cow&in Prairie, it drew cIoser to the Arkknsas

23 border and ~ote~~~a~ he1 extended his communi

together when the a

to falter; since Lyon a communicate with each initially, they could not coo battle. What is more, at a critical determine if approaching troops avermn. Later, Lyon and his successor, Major Sturgis, continued to hope for Sigel’s arrival but remained ignorant of Personal leadership by commanders cornrn~~~t~~ directly with their troops and units played a central part in the outcome at Wilson’s Creek. ‘The battle was small enough that personal direction was possible. Lyon, MeCullsch, and Price each placed units into line, led charges, directed movements, and rallied formation. En fact, Lyon died doing so. Their s~bordi~ate6, for the most part, instructions, demonstrated ~~~t~at~ve~and fa~~~~tated the information. All tried to coor results. Finally, the survivors actian rep&23 that are ret
Records

of the

Union

and

ccmmunicats with u8 today did. By doing so, they allow connections to rni~it~ eve

Medical Care
The Battle of Wilson’s Creek produced 2,361 dead and wounded soldiers in an area whose civilian population at that time was leas than

24 50. Both sides were shocked and ove~be~med by the number of casualties. This battle, like Bull Run before it and so many others edical needs far beyond the s became a common theme of all the North and South ies. At Wilson’s Creek, t we know of medical care at Wilson’s Creek comes to us from

the Federals had only two ambulances with their army, each of which was designed to carry only four to six waunded. In the eventual retreat from Wilson’s CreektoSpringfIeld the afternoon of the battle, every wagon, caisson, and buggy carried wounded. One of the reasons that General Lyon’s body was accidentally abandoned on the field was that a sergeant had his remains removed from 8; wagon so that wounded men could be carried away. Neither Lyon nor McCulloch had identified a medical director for his army. Consequently, care and evacuation of the wounded was poorly coordinated. Most of the Federal wounded were taken to SpringfieEd, where the army had established a field hospital prior to the battle, but this facility soon overflowed, and men were taken to churches, hotels, and private homes around Springfield’s main square. Confederate surgeons at the Wilson’s Creek campsite had prepared to move with their army toward Springfieid on the night before the battle and had had to reestablish their facilities hastiIy during the morning of the battle. After the Federals withdrew, most of the wounded were ch became the field hospital, brought to the Because the Confederates held the field of battle, they inherited the difficult task of tending to the wounded and burying the dead of both sides. Although the Federals evacuated most of their wounded, many fell into Confederate hands and were sent to Springfield under flags of truce along with Lyon’s body on the afternoon of the battle. The Confederates buried some of their dead on the field and evacuated others to their homes in the South. The Federal dead received less charity. Many were thrown into the sinkhole on Bloody Hill and others into wells and minor depressions. Ultimately, alI the dead were removed from the field, and many of them found their final rest in the military cemetery at Spring%eld.

25

most of their WQ supplies under the August, the Confed

The Battle of Wiison”s Cree , as one of the “frrst As with tactics and ~~~$t~~ many areas in which the Federab and learn. The time it tucik tci le same of these less0 later with the lives d limbs of soldie Creek, Missouri.

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III. STAFF RIDE AND BATTLEFIELD TOUR STANDS
Stand 1
(Visitor’s Center [inside], grid 627076)

SE&&ion: The Wilson’s Creek Visit&s Center is a logical place to begin a staff ride or battlefield tour because a clear, concise overview of the campaign and battle can be obtained there. A short slide program at the center provides a good campaign overview, and a good terrain model demonstrates the battle with colored lights and audio narration. Unlike most presentations of this kind, this one is quite effective and helps clarify tactical movements and the battle’s flow. Preferably, this presentation should be experienced before and after walking the battlefield. (For a sequence of the stands and their grids, see table 2; for a map of the Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield and the location of the various staff ride stands, see map 2.1 In addition, the park historian may be available for a short demonstration of Civil War artillery and infantry tactics.
Teaching Paints: The Union plan and principles offensive, and surprise.

of the objective,

Vignettes: General Lyon wrote this message to General Fremont on 21 July 1861 from SpringEeld:
Memorandum for Col. Phelps (the bearer). See General Fremont about troops and stores for this place. Our men have not been paid and sre rather dispirited, they are badly off for clothing and the want of shoes unfits them for marching. Some st& officers are badly needed, and the interests of the government suffer for the want of them. The time of the three months vcludeera is nearly out, and on their returning home my command will be reduced too low for effective operations. Troops must at once be forwarded to supply their place. The safety of the State is hazarded. Grdera from Gen. Scott strip the entire West of regular forces and increase the chances of sacrificing it. The public press is full of reports that troopa from other States are moving toward the northern border of Arkansas for the purpose of invading Mkaouri. Springfield, July 27. (Adams and Return Ira Holcombe, An .-&aunt of the &rttle af Wilmn’e Creek [Springtield, MO: The Springfield Public Library and Greene County Historical Society, 19611,18J

General Lyon, in his last message to General Fremont on 9 August 1861 (the day before the battle), reports:
I retired to this pIace lSpringfIeld1 . . . reaching here an the 5th [of August 1861J.The enemy followed to within 10 miles of here. He has taken a strong position, and is recruiting bie supplies of horsee, mules, and provisions by foraging into the surrounding country, his large force of mounted men enabling him to do this without much annoyance from me. I find my

27

Map 2. Tour stands for the staff ride or battlefield tour at Wrlsm’s Creek NationaJ Battlefield

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--

30
position ex+zemeIy embarraming, and am at present unable te determine whether I aMI be able to maintain my ground or be forced to retire. I can resist any attack from the front, but if the enemy move to surround me, I must retire. I shall hotd my ground a~ long 88 possible, though 1 may endanger the safety of my entire force. U. . The enemy yesterday made B show of force about five miles dietant, and haa doubff ees a full purpose of making an attack upon me. (The War of fhe .Rebe&?iun: A Compilation ofthe C@?cidRecords af the Urxion and Confederate ilrmies, ser. 1, val. 3 [Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1881; reprint, Wi.lmhgbn, NC: Broadfoot F’ubiishing Co., 19851,57. Here&r referred to a5 0.R.)

Table 2. Stands and Grid Numbers for the Staff Ride or Battlefield Taur*
Stand I Stand 2 Stand 3 Stand 4 Stand 5 Stand 6 Stand 7 Stand 8 Stand 9 Stand 10 Stand11 Stand 12 Stand 13 Stand 14 Stand 15 Stand 16 Stand 17 The Visitor’s Center (in&de), grid 627016. The Visitor’sCenter (outside), grid 627076. First contact, grid 631073. Bloody EIiJl, grid 632066. Flummer’s croesing, grid 637069. Plummer’s repulse, grid 642066. Wodruff’e Battery, grid G%M3. Ray’s house, grid 646066. SigeI’s uoseing, grid 644037. SigeI’e attack, grid 635047. SigeYe defeat, grid 635054. Price’s headquertere, grid 638058. Guibm’s Battery (Confederate line extends to the west), grid 633059. S&&ski% e&on (Totten’a battery), grid 631066. The sinkhole, grid 633065. Lyon”e death marker, grid 635064. FederaI withdrawal, grid 632066.

‘Suggested routes for movement between the stands e.re given at the end of each stand Flau-Fative.

What intent does this message convey to Frhmont? Is it possible that this message was a ruse? Contrast byan’s message with the report of Major John M. Schofield, Lyon’s adjutant general, written 20 August 1861:
During the forenoon of [the 9th of August], General Lyon and Colonel SigeI held a conaukation, the result of which wes the plan of attack upan the enemp’a position at WiIeon’a Creek. . . , General Lyon informed me of his determination to make the attack the next mornirrg and gave me the genera1 features of th plan but owing to the press of time did not go intc~ much detail. Colonel Sigel was to move with his brigade. . . to the left [east] of the main Caesville &ad leading to the right [south] of the enemy position, while General Lyon with the remainder of the farce , ~ . wee to

31
move down the road toward Little York. . . and attack bis left [north] flank. Colonel Sigei wee to make hie attack &B soon as he heard that of General Lyon. (O.R., 60.)

Roate to Stand 2: Stand 2 is at the picnic area just outside the Visitor’s Center. This is a good place to remind the group that there are no latrines or fresh water facilities on the field. Remind the group also of regulations governing removal of items found on the battlefield and of the seasonal danger of snakes, ticks, chiggers, poison oak, and cactus. Stand 2 S&&on: General Lyon’s column left Springfield at about 1709 on 9 August and reached a point about one and one-half miles north of this stand at about 0100, il-0August. About twenty local residents served as his guides and rade with the Union column. Lyon expected to encounter Confederate pickets but did not do so because the Confederate commanders had recalled their pickets in preparation for their own planned advance. When the Confederate advance was canceIed because of light rain about 2100 on 9 August, they had failed to repost their pickets. Therefore, the Confederate camps were unprotected by outpost pickets as Lyon approached them and mounted his attack. (For a map of the battlefield area in 1861, see map 3.) When the Union column halted at about 8100, the men laid down on their arms. Meanwhile, Lyon sent the cavalry forward to determine the Confederate positions. At dawn, the Union march resumed, with Captain Plummer’s battalion of Regular infantry leading, followed by Major Peter J. Osterhaus’ battalion of Missouri Volunteers and Captain Totten’s battery of six guns.
Teaching Points: Navigation to this point, use of local guides, organization for combat, order of march, intelligence, principles of security, and surprise.

vignette: set. Priva

t, it was hot, but it became cooler when the sun , Ware of the 1st Iowa describes the march:

. . I life became more endurable and the marching was anything but a funeral proceseion. The boys gave each other elaborate instructions as to the materials out of which they wentid their coff5na made, and how they wanted them decorated. . . . We moved short distances from 20 to 100 yards at a time, and kept halting and closing up,and making very alow progress . . . . There were aome little light clouds, but it was light enough to see a abort distance around us, by a&light. . . I Finaliy, word wan paseed atong the line that we were in&de the enemy’s picket line but were two or three miles Erom their camp. Rumors magnGd the number of the foe to 25,000. We

32

Map 3. The W~lson’s Creek battlefieid, 1861

Thin growth of timber, iiffle or no t&&rush -.wm..m‘s ._....l*/l ._“/.“.. Park baundary Fields Farmhouses Elevated areas

34
could see the sheen in the sky ofvast campfzes beyond the hills.. . . We also beard, at times, the choruses of braying mules * . . I About this time [ff lOtI . . . the line stopped at a place where our company &od on a broad Iedge of rock We ail laid down on this rock to get rested. The cool dewy night air made me feel chilly . . . but the radiating beat which the rock . . . had absorbed, was peculiarly comfortable. (Eugene F. Ware, The Lyan Campaign in Missowi [Topeka, KS Crane $ Co., l.9OQ 310-13.)

Meteorological data from the Farmer’s Almanac, 1861, indicates the following:
August 9,1861. Sunrise 501 AM, sunset ?rO9 PM, 14 houra and 8 minutes of daylight. Moonrise 10:27 PM, moonset 2~40AM. August 10,186L. Sunrise 502 A.?$ sunset 7:0& PM, 14 hours and 6 minutes of daylight. Moonrise 1055 PM, moonset 3:31 AM. BuIl moon on August 20, new moon on August 6th, let qua~W on August 13th, last quarter & Ati-gu’kt 28th.

Route to Stand 3: If moving by foot, Ieave the Visitor’s Center picnic

area and follow the western Ring Road to the National Park Service’s stop number 8, historic overlook. Follow the gravel path eastward for about 125 meters until you come out into the open. From this vantage point, you can take several bearings. The Ray house is almost due east at a range of 1,750 meters. Far to the northeast, you can see the red and white chimneys of a power plant. Bloody Hill is almost due south about 700 meters. From this position, move cross-country to the northeast about seventy meters to the vicinity of grid 631073. If moving by vehicles, go completely around Ring Road and park at National Park Service stop number 8, historic overlook; then, follow the instructions above. You are now standing in the field where Confederate Colonel B. A. Rives’ cavalry first encountered General Lyon’s column. Lyon deployed along the wood line to your north. Stand 3
(First contact, grid 631073) Situation: The Union advance took the Confederates by surprise. At dawn on I,0 August 1861, a patrol from Colonel Cawthorn’s mounted brigade (attached to General Rains” division of Missouri State Guards) worked the west bank of Wilson’s Creek and discovered Federals in the area (see map 4). Another force of about 300 mounted Missouri Confederates under Colonel Rives moved northward to this point and discovered Lyon’s main force. Confronted by this large force, the Missourians fell back to the north face of Bloody Hill where Colonel Cawthorn established a line of about 600 dismounted men.

Lyon now deployed with Plummer on the left (east), Major Osterhaus on the right (west), and Lieutenant Colonel Gearge L. Andrews (the 1st Missouri) in the center. Totten unlimbered one section (two guns) under First Lieutenant George 0. Sokalski and began firing. After driving off the 300 mounted Confederates from this area, Lyon continued his advance to the south and discovered Cadhorn’s dismounted brigade in the law ground just north of Bloody Hill. Lyon then deployed the 1st Kansas (under Colonel George W. Deitzler) to the left (east) of the 1st Missouri, The Union line advanced so rapidly, however, that Totten could not get the remainder of his force organized into a supporting battery. A brief skirmish foIlowed, and the Confederates withdrew in disarray, leaving Lyon in control of Bloody Hill. Lyon now brought the remainder of his force forward to the shelter of the north slope.
Teaching Points: Security, surprise, and the experience of real battle. Compare the reactions of Lyon’s and Cawthorn’s troops. What was the effect of Sokalski’s section? Discuss deployment from the line of march. Vignettes: In his official report, Andrews of the 1st Missouri claims that his unit had the honor of firing the first shot of the battle:
Soon aRer the column WBBagain in motion, I received an order to bring the regiment forward . s . I received order8 ti deploy one company forward a8 skim&here, and thb wa8 the last order that reached me during the entire day. Company B, Captain Yates, ~88 at mce thrown out ae skirmiahere, cloeely followed by the regiment in. column af companies, and advancing up the hill, the action wa8 commenced by e shot Erom my skirmishers at IO minutes past 5 o’clock. Immediately advancing in pereon, I ws8 informed by Capt8ii Yates. , . that the enemy were in force immediately in our front, and reinforcing our line of skirmishers with Captain Mauric& company (B), I ordered the regiment forward into line. . I . The action ncnv became general and for a short time the fire was very hot e . . the regiment continued to advance under a galling fire until the enemy again gave way. Km., 75-76.)

Confederate General Rains, Colonel Cawthorn’s reported this portion of the battle as follows:

commander,

By sum-&e on the I.Oth, the pickets which I had cent out at daybreak reported the enemy advancing in force on the we& side of Wilaon’a Creek and within 3 miles of camp. . . . L reported their advance to Major General Price and General McCulloch. As they approached the position occupied by my second brigade [Cawthom’81 they extended their linea, placing their artillery in battery, and opening a heavy fhe on my encampment. For an hour this brigade resisted the fire of the enemy’8 artillery and infantry before being euatained, and under their gallant leader, Colonel Cawthorn, they maintained their poeition, throughout the day. (O.R., 127.)

36

Map 4. The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 0500-5600

Legend .” _ ...:?;“l*:

Thin growth of timber, IiWe or na underbrush Park boundary : Fields Farmhouses Elevatad araas Federal forces

L

v****,“**.I

0 r) x A

Confederate forces Federal axas of advance Atitlw Confederate camps

38 Route to Stand 4: Your next move simulates Lyon’s advance to seize

Bloody Hill. Imagine two large regiments facing south, each formed into two lines, with another regiment following closely in support, all advancing shoulder to shoulder across this open field, down the slope to your south, and up the slopes of Bloody Hill Cwbich you can clearly see to your south). Move southward about 750 meters to the open ground on the northern slope of Bloody Hill, near grid 632066. Note the swampy pond that you pass en route near grid 632070. This area was the Union rear during the battle. Supply wagons, wounded, and straggIers filled this area. Company D, 1st US. Cavalry, and about 200 Springfield Home Guards formed a line across here to halt stragglers and to guard the army’s wagons. Later, somewhere in this area, the retreating Union troops abandoned General Lyon% body. This place was safely out of artillery and small arms fire from the Confederate positions farther south. Stand 4 (Bloody Will, grid 632066) Sitwztion: Cawthorn’s Cavalry Brigade /Rains’ 2d Division, Missouri State Guard) camped near here and was the first Confederate unit to discover Lyon’s approach. The attack by the Union’s 1st Missouri and 1st Kansas (infantry) subsequently drove off Cawthorn’s men. As a result, Lyon’s surprise attack had seized this critical terrain feature at little cost to his force. Now, he held this position and waited for Sigel to attack the southern end of the Confederate camps. The rest of the battle in this area consisted of a seesaw fight up and down the slopes of Bloody Hill as the Confederates fed more and more troops into the line and Union commanders committed their meager reserves, At the height of the battle, the Union line consisted of (from left to right, east to west) the 1st Iowa, Du Bois’ Battery (four guns), 1st Kansas, Captain Frederick Steele’s battalion of Regulars, Totten’s battery (Ebur guns), 1st Missouri, 2d Missouri, and Sokalski’s section of Totten’s battery (two guns). Meanwhile, Lyon held the 2d Kansas (infantry) as a reserve on the north slope of Bloody Hill. It is likely that Lyon intended to continue his attack to into the main Confederate camps. This course of action is consistent with Lyon’s personality and explains why Sigel expected Lyon to drive the enemy into his position, At any rate, arti1Ier-y fire from Woodruff’s (Pulaski County, Arkansas) Battery checked Lyon’s advance. Woodruffs position was near the Guinn farm on the east side of Wilson’s Creek. Brigadier General William Y. Slack’s Brigade of

3% Missouri State Guards quickly got into line and helped stop Lyon’s advance. Slack’s portion of the main Confederate camp on the west side of Wilson’s Creek was ctosest to Lyon’s force. Slack did not wait for orders but sent his two regiments into battle immediately. This action combined with the fire of Woodruff’s guns slowed the Union advance long enough to stabilize the situation on Bloody Hill.
At the same time, Woodruff’s fire partially enfiladed Lyon’s advance. For a time, Totten dueled with Woodruff, but the Confederate position was in a slight defilade, and Totten’s fue was ineffective. In response, Lyon brought up Du Bois’ Battery and put it into action against Woodruff’s. After making his dispositions, Lyon resumed his advance, but he no longer had the advantage of complete surprise, and his renewed attack met increasingly stiff resistance.

As Lyon advanced; he posted Captain Plummer’s battalion of Regulars on the extreme left (east) flank of the Union line with orders for him to keep pace with the main attack. Plummer decided* possibly on b.is own initiative, to cross to the east side of Wilson’s Creek and attack Woodruff’s Battery. Teaching Points: Subordinates acting without detailed instructions, loss of momentum effect of arti1Ier-y fire on unit morale, advantages of position, and principle of the offensive. Vignette: Major Sturgis” official report describes this point in the action:
DuBoia’ battery, supported by Steele’s battalion was placed Borne 80 yards ta the left [east] and rear [north] af ‘Fotten’t~ guns, so as ta bear upon er powerful batLery of the enemy [Wo&ruff’el, posti to our left [east] and front [south], on the oppeite [eaetern] side of Wileon’a Creek, to aweep the entire plateau upon which our troope were formed. The enemy now rallied in large farce near the foot of the elope. . I , During this time, Captain Pfummer, with kie faur comptiee ef in&u&y, had moved down a ridge about 500 yards to our lef%[east], and separated from ua by e deep ravine [Wilson’8 Creek] I _. where he found hie farther prqpess arrested by a large force of infantry occupying a corn Aeld [Ray’s1 in the valley in kis &ant [aautkJ. Our whole line now advanced with much energy upon the enemy’s position. The fii, which had been spirited for the last half hour, wss nm increasing to a continuous h5ar. After a fierce engagement, Iaeting perhaps halfan how, and in which our tmopa retied two or threetimes,in moreot less disorder, but never more than a few yarde, again ta rally and press farward with increased vigor, the enemy gave way in the utmoet confusion, and left ue in posaeesionof the poaitioe [Bloody Hill]. (O.R., 66.)

RotiLte to Stand 5: If moving by foot, go approximately 600 meters eastnortheast to Wilson’s Creek. A good way to get there is to move north about 150 meters to the power lines that you crossed under earlier.

40

Then, follow the power lines northeast about 350 meters to an unnamed stream bed that flows east into Wilson’s Creek. Next, follow the unnamed creek bed to the place where it intersects Wilson’s Creek in the vicinity of grid 637069. You are now at the position of Plummer’s crossing. Gibson’s mill and homestead were here on the east side of Wilson’s Creek. They no longer stand, but archaeologists marked and excavated the sites in the earIy 1980s. The site made a good camp for Rains’ Confederate troops. Normally, the creek is shallow enough to ford at this point, but do so carefully. Do not drink the water, and watch out for snakes. If moving by vehicles, assemble at the Bloody Hill parking area and follow the Ring Road to National Park Service stop number 1, Gibson’s mill, From-this point, move on foot along the National Park Service trail that follows the east bank of Wilson’s Creek southward to the vicinity of grid 637069. Stop at the site of Gibson’s mill, and try to visualize the scene as it was in 1861. Stand 5
(Plummer’s
flank

crossing, grid 637069)

Situstiort: Captain Plummer’s mission was to guard the Union left and keep pace with the main attack. Plummer’s task seemed simple enough. He could keep Wilson’s Creek on his Ieft while keeping pace with the rest of the army, which was on his right (his command may have been detached for this mission). Whether Plummer decided to cross W&on’s Creek on his own initiative or was ordered to cross is not clear. At any rate, he crossed at this site, moved into the Ray cornfield, and attacked to the south. His objective was to silence Woodruff’s Battery (see map 5). Teaching Points: Initiative of subordinates who understand their commander’s intent, compartments, and support.

Vignette: PIummer describes his actions resumed its movement at daybreak:

from the time the column

Immediately befare eetting out, Captain Gilbrt’a company bB) we8 thrown forward to feel for the enemy, whose camp was knewa to be in the valley of Wileon’e Creek. As soon aa hia poeition was ascertained, which WBBehortiy after eunriee, the general directed me to follow Captain Gilbert with the balance of the battalian, and uniting with him, k, carry forward the ie!% flank the attack. I aver-took Captain Gilbert with hia akin&hers in a deep jungle, where he had been checked by an impassable lagoon. Much time was consumed in effecting the pamage af this obtde. The battalion,

af

41
however, Enally emerged in good order, and all present, into the corn field to the Ieff ofthe attack, which by this time was in fi& progress. (O.R., 72.)

Route to Sand 6: Move by foot we&ward to the fence (about 100 meters); then, proceed cross-country to the southeast to grid 642066. An easier way to this position exists along the trail that folollows Wilson’s Creek to the south. If you take that trail, you have to leave it at some point and move east to come out into Ray’s cornfield near grid 642066. As you move, discuss the difficulty of moving 300 men through a cornfield that is not planted in rows. At this point in the action, Plummer led his men in the general direction of WoodruE’s Battery, intending to put it out of action. Plummer, however, met and fought a superior force and escapedwith heavy casualties and a personal wound that put him out of action for the rest of the battle.

Stand 6
(Plrrmmer’s repulse, grid 642066)

Plummer had difficulty getting across Wilson”s Creek, and Situatiw: by the time he was in position on the east side of the meek, the battle on Bioody Hill was in progress. Plummer’s objective now was to storm the hill from which Woodruff’s guns were stalling the Union’s main attack. To accompfish this objective, he deployed skirmishers and moved through the western portion of the Ray cornfield, which was broadcast with corn rather than planted in rows. Therefore, the going was difficult and navigation a problem. Before Plummer’s men reached the southern edge of the cornfield, the 2d Arkansas Mounted Rifies QurrderColonel McIntosh) and the 3d Louisiana (under Colonel Louis Bbert), with a total strength of 1,100, arrived and counterattacked. PIummeis men sought cover behind the rail fence at the southern end of the field, but greatly superior numbers of Confederates drove them ba to their fording site. Plummer’s battalion of 300 Regulars lost 19 killed, 52 wounded, and 9 missing in this fight, aqd their losses doubtless would have been greater if Du Bois” Battery had not intervened to break up the Confederate counterattack. This ended the fighting on the eastern side of Wilson% Creek. Plummer”s men got back across the creek and remained in the Union rear for the rest of the battle. Meanwhile, the 2d Arkansas Mounted Rifles withdrew into few ground out of the hue of Du Bois’ fire, The Louisiana infantrymen withdrew to the Ray house where they continued to, be bombarded by cannon fire until they

42

Map 5. The Baffle of Wilson’s Creek, 06004800

Chronology

of Events

Sigel clears Sharp’s field, blocks Telegraph Road, and waits for Lyon. l o Price stops Lyon’s attack and begins to build a line of battle. * Plummer crosses Wilson’s Creek and tries to silence Woodruffs guns. f Mcintosh attacks and defeats Plummer. Confederate and Federal Forces
Confederate w w0odruff

R B G 1 2 T D %O 9 10 11 12

Reid Bledsoe Guitm Zd Arkansas Mounted Rifles 3d Louisiana infantry Fed&-al Totten DUB& Back0ff PhIflwllef o1st Mlssaarti IstKartsas

3 4 5 6 7 8 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Cawthom Weightman Slack ckfk 1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles McBride lstlowa 2d lcansas steek3 3d Missouri 5th Missouri Can Farrand

Not shown: McCulloch’s Brigade, organizing east of Wilson’s Creek near the ford on Telegraph Road.
Pearce’s Brigade, cxganizing just west of Manley’s house. Company 0, 1st U.S. Cavalry and Home Guards, which were deployed near tfw wagons. Cavalry from the Confederate camps, which wandered in confi~sion within the Confederate lines.
Legend

Thin growth af timber, linfe or no underbrush Park boundary Fields Farmhouses Elevated areas Federal forces Confederate forces Confederate axis of advance

44

showed a yellow hospital flag, at which time Du Bois turned his guns elsewhere. Teachirag Paints: Initiative, support, and combined arms, Vignettes: In his official account (the briefest one submitted), Captain Plummer reports:
The battalion wes pushed forward rapidly, and soon the enemy opened an us from the let%,but bie tire was light and easily quelled. Our edvsnce was in the direction af the euemje battery, on the hill opposite Lieutenant lh Bois” battery, with the intention of storming it, shotid the opportunity offer. This wae observed by the enemy, and a large force wes accumulated in our front end on our left flank, and our fvrwerd progress was checked. Nevertheless, the men stood stead.iIy and squarely up to their work, until I deemed OUTpoeition no longer tenable, and I then drew off my command, steadily and without con&ion. . . . In this field, I had many men killed and wounded. x . . We .were- materially aided in extricating ourselves by the timely aid of Du Boie” battery, which beat back the advance of the enemy with much slaughter. (O.Rti 72.)

Second Lieutenant Du Bois’ report gives credit to another officer:
h.fter assisting Captain Totten to silence the enemy’s batteries . . . I received orders from General Lyon to move my battery to the right [west]. Captain &anger wes to place me in position. While limbering, our left Rank E’lummer’s battelion1. . . was driven back by an overwhelming force of the enemy (five regiments, X think), [actually only two]. . . . Captain Granger now countermanded my order to move and by B change of front to the let%,I e&laded their line and drove them back with great slaughter, Captain Granger directing one of my guns. Their broken troops rallied behind e house [Ray’s] on the right of their line. E struck this house twine with B 1%pounder shot, when they showed a hospital flag. I ceased firing, and their troope retired. (O.R., 80.)

Colonel Hebert of the 3d Louisiana reporta:
At the moment of deploying in line of battle . “. the enemy opened their fire on our front, within fiReen paces at the most. . . an advance was ordered, led gallantly and bravely by Captain McIntosh, to whom X owe all thanks for assistence. The enemy was posted behind a fence and in the corn field. The companies moved up bravely, broke the enemy, pursued them into the corn field, and routed them completely. On emerging from the corn field, the regiment found themselves in a naked oat field, where a battery on the left [Du Bois’l opened upon us a severe fire. The order was given to fall back to a wooded ground higher up to the right. (O.R., 113.)

Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin T. Embry, second in command of Colonel James McIntosh’s 2d Arkansas Mounted Rifles, reports:
While at breakfast on the morning of the 10th instant, the regiment was surprised by the opening of the enemy% batteries on the western heights of Oak I-Ells [Bloody Hill), but at the call of the bugle, the regiment rallied immediately, mounted, and formed in line of battle in good order, you at the time being at General McCulloch’s headquarters. I marched the regiment

45
to the timber north of Captain Woodruff’s battery, to shield them from the tire of the enemy’s batteries on the west, and dismounted them, at which time you made your appearance and took charge of the regiment, and in person led them in a charge upon a division of the: regular Federal troops etationed upon 0~3 north. In the charge many of the enemy were slain and the rest repulsed. From some misunderstanding in regard to orders, only about halfthe regiment participated in the action at this point. About this time, your service being needed or required upon other portions of the Eeld, General McCullcch ordered me to move the regiment to the hills to the west,whereacIoseand bioodycontestwas going on. (O.R., 111.1

Finally, General McCulloch in his official Confederate War Department states:

report

to the

Hebert’s regiment of Louisiana adunkers and McIntosh’s regiment of Arhanaas Mounted Riflemen were ordered to the front, and after passing [WoodruE’s battery turned to the left and soon engaged the enemy wjth regiments deployed .Calone.el~McI.ntosh dismounted his regiment, and the two marched up abreast to a fence araund a large corn field, when they met the left of the enemy already posted. A terrible conflict of smalkrms fin! took place here. The opposing force was a body of regular United Statea in&dry, commended by Captains Plummer and Gilbert. Notwithstanding the galling fire poured upon these two regiments, they leaped over the fence, snd, galkntly led by their colonels, drove the enemy before them back upon the main body. (OR., 105.1

The 3d Louisiana last nine killed, forty-eight wounded, and three missing. The 2d Arkansas Mounted Rifles lost ten killed and forty-four wounded. Plummeis battalion lost nineteen killed, fifty-two wounded, and nine missing. Route CQ Stand 7: The route to WoodruB’s Battery position is abaut 600 meters away. Initially, move downhill southwest toward Wilson’s Creek until you reach the level field along the creek at grid 638066. Imagine the Confederates camped in this field and reacting to the sounds of battle developing around them. Plummer wanted to sillence Woodruff’s Battery, positioned on the hilltop about 406 meters southeast ofhere. Move across the field in that direction. Note that you must cross a considerable ditch (which was known as Ray’s Branch) to get there. The Confederates had no infantry deployed here to protect Woodruff’s guns. Climb to Woodruff’s position at 639063. Under what conditions could Plummer’s Regular battalion of 300 infantrymen have succeededin their attack? Stand 7
~FFroodm#‘s Battery, grid 639063)

SitMztion: Near here, Captain Woodruff’s Battery began the night and awaited orders for the move on Springfield. The battery was slated to be in the vanguard of the movement, but General McCulloch canceled

46

the movement order because of the rain, and the battery spent the rest of the night in the open. Woodruff worried about a possible surprise attack and reconnoitered this position for his battery. Then, he got approval from his superiors to occupy it. When Woodruff sighted the Federals moving onto Bloody Hill, he opened up enfxlading fire on them, which caused Lyon’s attack to stall. This delay the main Confederate camp from being overrun by Lyon’s zain attack. Woodruff’s Battery had two g-pounder and two 12-pounder smoothbore cannons, Woodruff detailed his offircers to act as gun commanders, and Woodruff was with his number two gun when it fired the fist shot. Lieutenant Weaver, at number one gun, was killed in the ensuing fight along with two of his men. The battery’s total casualties at Wilson’s Creek were three men.
Teaching Points: Initiative the front, and security.

of subordinates, reconnaissance, leaders at

Vignettes: Woodruff went on to command eleven field artillery units, serving the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865. Forty-three years later, he writes this of Wilson’s Creek:
About 6 a.m. on the lOth, just as my men bad fished break&et, a great commotion was observed on the Springfield road. . . . Men, horaea, and other animal8 . . . were seen rushing hurriedly and confusedly in great numbers down the roads and to the for& ti the west and sauth. It eeemed to be a repetition of the affair at Crane Creek a few days ago, and we were nat greatly disturbed. Nevertheless, I ordered of&era and men ta posts and mounted drivers while awaiting orders. A minute or two later, on the bill five OF six hundred yarde northwest a rush. of teame was obse&, which rapidly developed into a light battery, that quickly unlimbered and commenced firing, seemingly in the direction of General McCulloch’e headquarters.. . . Almost simultaneously a second battery or eection rushed forward to the right and in front of the fret, about 200 yards, unlimbered and commenced firing. . . I passed my caissona to the rear and ordered “in battery”. . . 1The second battery.. . observed my movement and opened fire on u. . . . Feeling the importance of staying the assault until our infantry lines were established, the cannonade with the hostile battery was With the continued half an hour or mqre. . . . (William Edward Wo4n8, Light Guns in ‘61-‘65. . , . [Little Rock, AR: Eagle Press, 19Q3, 19&7l, 3942.)

Once the rebel line farmed, Woodruff shifted his fne as targets presented themselves. Woodruff explains his practice of having officers command the gun crews:
It had been arranged by the company officera long before, that in our first engagement each should take the poet of gunner at designated pieces . . . the tendency ie b overahoot the mark. * . . Only experience can quali& a

47
gunner to determine what elevation to give hi8 piece. . . . I fired the first shot and t;he others foIlowed. (Woodruff 44.)

Rode to Stand 8: The Ray house is about 800 meters northeast of here

near grid 646066. Leave the battery position and move toward the southeast along a trail that takes you downhill to Telegraph Road. Move along Telegraph Road toward the northeast. As you proceed, talk about the considerable change time produces on battlefields. For instanee, after the war, this area became a quarry. Students might be tempted to think that this route is unchanged since Civil War days. That is not the case. Also, note the denseness of the underbrush. This was not so dense at the time of the battle. In 1861, rural people fenced their land to protect their crops from their roaming farm animals. This was also a wood-burning society, When the National Park Service began in the late 1&O&+, it decided to allow most parts of this battlefield to grow wild. One can hope that the Park Service wiIl be able to restore the battlefield someday to nearly its original ground cover. In doing so, the Park Service will more closely satisfy its original mandate from Congress to preserve these battlefields in order for military offrcers to study them.

Stand 8
(Ray’s house, grid 646066.l

S&&ion: Some of the Ray children were herding horses in the valley south of the springhouse when a Confederate soldier warned them that a fight was about to happen. They ran home and told everyone else. In response, everyone hid in the cellar except John Ray, who watched the battle from his front porch. Ultimately, the house and yard became a hospital. At one point, a cannon shot from Bois’ Battery on Bloody Hill struck the Ray chicken house. After that, the soldiers displayed a yellow hospital flag, and the firers shifted to other targets. Colonel Richard Weightman of the Missouri State Guard died in the west bedroom near the end of the battle. Confederates also brought General Lyon”s body here on the afternoon of the battle to be examined and prepared for return to the Union lines near SprirngEeld, The Confederates buried some of their dead in the yard south of the house. Teaching Points: Effect of battle on civilians, using civilian facilities to support military operations, and care of the dead and wounded. V&n&e: John Ray came to Missouri from Tennessee in the late 1840s. He was a widower with one daughter, Elizabeth. He courted and married Roxanna Gizzard Steele in 1849. She had been married to

48 William Steele, who owned this property and had died in 1848, The Ray family was composed of eleven children. The Rays also owned two slaves, Wiley and his wife Rhoda, who had four children. This group worked the 420-acre Ray farm in the 1850s and 1860s. The Rays built their house in 1851, constructing the two rear rooms first, occuping them, and then finishing the front rooms later. The Rays built the fireplaces of native stone quarried in the area. The original cellar under the house was much smaller than the house and was entered by a trap door in the middle room. William Steele or Jo.hn Ray built the springhouse in the valley opposite the house. The springhouse was later enlarged in the 1930s. Other outbuildings existed at the time of the battle, including a large stock and hay barn southeast of the house; slave quarters for Wiley, Rhoda, and their children; a chicken house-west of the house; and a smokehouse in the southwest corner of the yard. The Rays were grain farmers who produced corn and wheat for the market, but they also kept bees and fruit trees and bred and raised horses, cows, hogs, and sheep.
Arkansas,

The Telegraph Road between Springfield and Fort Smith, ran in front of the Ray% house. Telegraph wire ran through the trees along the road and was strung in April 1860. The U.S. Mail established the Wilson’s Creek Post Uffrce at the Ray% place in 1858, y as postmaster. Julius Short, a postman who worked for Ray in the venture, was present on the day of the battle. The Rays continued to live on their farm after the war, John dying in 1875 and Roxanna in 18’76. Since that time, the house has had several owners and remained occupied until the late 196Os, when the Park Service took over maintenance of the house and grounds. Restoration of the house began in 1984. (Information on the Rays is from August K. Klapp, The Ray Howe [Springfield, MO: Wilson’s Creek Battlefield Foundation, 198’71.)

Route to Stand % If moving by foot or vehicles, follow the Ring Road south to the vicinity of the bridge crossing over Wilson’s Creek. Then, move by foot, following a Park Service bridle path along the eastern bank of the creek for about 1,450 meters to the vicinity of grid 645036. Along the way, you will notice the steep rock ledge on your left aad Wilson’s Creek on your right. The Missouri Pacific Railroad once had a line that ran along here. You will see the concrete pylons where it crossed Wilson’s Creek near grid 640041. You will find Sigel’s crossing site to be a modern concrete-based ford over which automobiles now carefully cross Wilson’s Creek. If you wish, try to find the place where Sigel placed Backoff’s Battery in

49 position to support his attack on the Confederate camps in Sharp’s cornfield (at grid 646042). It is hard to find, but you will be rewarded if you try. Climb the hill east of the ford. When you get to the top, turn north cross-country until you come out into a field. Look to the northwest toward Bloody Hill. T&s view is difficult when the trees are green with leaves, but you might catch a glimpse of the large field where most of the Confederate cavalry camped. This is one of those views of the whole enemy camp that commanders hope for but rarely get in battle. Stand 9 C3igel’scrossing, grid 644037)
Sitzmtian: Sigel’s 2d.-Brigade left Springfield at 1836 on the 9th. He had 2 regiments of Missour volunteer infantry, a battery of 6 guns (Baokoff’s), and 2 companies of cavalry for a total of about 1,200 soldiers, plus 5 civilian guides. It rained briefly on the brigade at about 2166 At 2300, the column halted and rested until daybreak, At about 0500, Sigel reached the high ground east of the crossing site. From there, he had a commanding view of the Confederate camps in Sharp’s field. Sigel remained there with four of his guns, while the rest of his force continued. This force crossed Wilson”s Creek, either at the current ford or farther downstream, and continued past the farm to cross Terre11Creek.

Teaching Points: Row to conduct detached operations in coordination with another force; navigation and the use of guides; and resting, security, and surprise.
VigmCtes: Sigel’s report details the action at this point:
Tt was now 530 e.m. kt this moment some musket-firing was heard from the north-west, a~ouncing the approach of General Lyon’s troops; E therefore ordered the four pi~eeto opea fire agtinst the camp, which had e %tirrbf effect on the enemy, who were preparing breakfast. The surprise we8 complete, except thrrt one of the enemy’s cavalrymen made good his escape . . . end took the new& of our advance to . . . General Pearce’s headquarters. , . believing that no time should be lost to lend aesistance to our friends, we crowed Wileon’s Creek, t5ok down the fences at Dixoa’s farm, passed through it end croeeed‘Fenell Creek. (O.R., 304.)

&gel’s cavalrymen were busy. Captain Eugene A. Car-r, in his account, writes:
C!olonel Sigel directed me ‘to take the right flank, and then proceeded into the valley below the camp and opened fire of cannon upon it. I, in the meantime, moved ti the edge of the bluff and opened fiie with my carbines, for the purpose of distracting the attention of the enemy, being at ti great

50
a dihance to do much execution. A few minutes before Colonel Sigel opened fire, I heard firing at the oppoeite end of the camp and sent word to him that General Lyon wee engaged. This wee 8 Iittle after 6 a.m. The enemy ran out of their camp, which wee of cavalry. . . . (O.R., 89.)

Second Lieutenant Charles E. Farrand writes:
Nothing of impart.ance occurred on the march until about 4:30 in the morning, when eeveral prisoners were turned over to the grrard. One of theee stated to me that their army wee expecting reinforcements from Lotiiana, and that they had mistaken UB for their reinforcements. We were now wry near the enemy’s camp, end continued TVtake prieonera in amell numbers, most of whom e&d they were out in search of something to eat. (OX, 91.1

Dr. Samuel H. Melcher was assistant Salomon’s 5th Missouri. Me reports:

surgeon in Colonel

General [CoIone11Sigel soon gave the order TVfiie, which wee reepanded to with rapidity, but our gums being on an elevation, and the Confederates being in a field which sloped toward the creek, the shots passed over their heads, creating a stampede but doing little, if any, damage tu life or limb. In vain I and othera urged the artillerymen Codepress the guns. Either from inability Counder&and English, or, in the excitement, thinking it wes anly necessary to load end fire, they kept banging away till the whole camp wes deserted.. . . (Wolcombe end Adams, 46.1

Route to Stand 10: If moving by vehicles, begin by walking back aIong the eastern bank of Wilson’s Creek to the bridge. Then, cross the

bridge, and move by vehicle southwest cross-country about 500 meters to the vicinity of grid 635046. If moving by foot, either cross Wilson’s Creek here and follow Sigel’s advance across Terre11 Creek at the vicinity of grid 638041 or retrace your steps to the current bridge over Wilson’s Creek and then proceed to grid 635046. If you are prepared to ford both Wilson’s and Terre11 Creeks, you can gain valuable insights by following Sigel’s exact route. This, however, requires coordination with Mr. Hancock, who lives on the farm at grid 637037. Beware of his dogs. Ask if yau may cross the field just east of the Hale Cemetery (grid 638037). Then, cross the field due north to Terre11Creek. Sigel’s coEumn crossed Terre11 Creek where a huge sycamore tree stands (in 1999). This tree is considerably larger than any other trees along this stretch of Terre1 Creek and makes a good landmark to guide your movements. Cross the creek at the huge sycamore tree, and continue across the old railroad grade northward until you come out at the south end of a huge field. This, in 1861, was Sharp’s cornfield. The Park Service has marked the western edge of the cornfield with a snake rail fence. In 1861, a road followed the western edge of the field all the way to the

51 Sharp house near the Telegraph Road. Sigel used this route to move his infantry and artillery. Stztnd 10
C&gel $ attack, grid 635047) Situ&ton: The Confederates camped much of their cavalry in this field-about 2,4QOmen. Sigel’s bombardment took them by surprise, and for the most part, they fled. Sigel followed his advantage and continued his movement up from Terre11 Creek and onto the southern end of this huge cornfield. He now moved along a road that bounded the western edge of this field and discovered a force of Southern cavalry attempting to form near Sharp’s house. En response, he ordered the four guns and crews that had been left across Wilson’s Creek to rejoin the brigade. Then, .he depIoyed his infantry and artillery into the field. After briefly shelling the Confederate cavalry, they withdrew. Sigel re-formed his brigade, returned to the road along the edge of the fieId, and moved to his final position blocking the Telegraph Road.

Teaching Points: Exploitation, surprise, and principle of the objective. Imagine the elation and high spirits of Sigel’s men, especially in light of what soon happened to them.
Vignettes: SigeYs report states:
[We] continued our march until we reached the south side of the valley, which extenda northward to Sharp’s house, about 30610paces, and from west to east about 1QCM. We took the road on the west side of the valley* along the margin of the woods, and within a fence rtuming nearly parallel with the open fields During this time a large body of the enemy’s cavalry, about 2500 strong, was forming across the valley, not far diatant from its northern extremity; I therefore halted the column on the road, eent for the four pieces l& on the other side of the creek, and, as soon as their approach was reported to me, I directed the head of our column to the right, left the road, and formed the troopa in Iine of battle, between the road and the enemy% deserted camp-the infantry on the Ieft, the artiHery on the right, and the cavalry on the extrcime right, toward Wiison’e Creek. A IiveEy cannonade was opened against the dense masses of the hostile cavalry, which lasted about twenty minutes, and forced the enemy to retire in disorder toward the north and into the woods. We now turned back into the road, and advancing, made our way through a number of cattle near Shrtrp’e house, and suddenly struck the Fayetteville Road [Telegraph Road1 leading north to that part of the battlefield which General Lyon’a troops were engaged. . . .(Franz Sigel, “The Flanking Column at Wilson’s Creek,” Battles and Leaders of the Cioil War, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Euel, vol. 1 [New York: The Century Co., 18821,304.)

52

Lieutenant F campsite:
. ..~EW~p&&3dt

and, who led part of SigeYs cavalry, describes the

~~it~8~wrn~y ae~~bodieaaodq~titieaoEarm6 on the grourid. Many of the latter I caused my men ere were in their camp a wagon had of Maynard riflee, one of regular rifled muskets, and several boxes of United Statea regulation Babers, all new. (Q.R., 91.)

where I found a Most of the tenta iukt the ground, butt caught iB the flint bck.

karrsas Mounted , Jr. ~h~~~r co Mes. In his report, written later that same day, be writes:
General: I have the honor to report that about breast the enemy opened one of their batteries upon my camp. Being in an open field and exposed to raking fire of grape and shelf, and not aupported by any of our own batteries, E fell back ti the woo&, and there formed my regiment. I then moved down the road in the direction of Springfield , , I _(O.R., LO%--10.1

unted Regiment Greer commanded the South Kansas-Te the most time to camped at the ~o~be~ end of the field. His urn react and was out of the line of fire initially. He reports:
The different companies of the regiment formed aa rapidly aa possible. I immediately determined ta c-rosathe ford . . . and cbsrge the batter-y of the enemy on the hill [Backoff or Totten]. About Half of the comptiee had marched out of the Field . . . when I found that the other companies did not move aut. I sent the adjutant back TVwhere they were, with ardera to have on af the commmd. By this time the enemy had them join the other ared in the field, had planted several pieces of artillery, and had a opened fire on my re~~g companies. They were tornred under commmd Of~~j~[~.~.~~~~~~. . I. (OJ?.,II8.)

Route to Stand fl: Now, disappears over the Ml
636054). It gives

long the western edge of Sharp’s er. Prom here, move west about 100
close to the place where the road

reinforce the fact were shortly to be

to the southwest. This is stand 11 (grid Sigel’s situation. Along the way, R were s~ccessfu1 to this point and

53

Stand 11 (Sigds defeat, grid 635054
Situatim: Sigek captured about 100 prisoners at Sharp’s farm and concluded that Lyon was attacking successfulIy and that his force was in the perfect position to block the Confederates’ escape route and bag several thousand rebels. The Union 3d Missouri formed on the right (east), the 5th Missouri on the left (west), and Backoffs artillery unlimbered in the center, with two guns in reserve. Captain Eugene A. Car-r’s troopers watched the left flank and Second Lieutenant Charles E. Farrand’s troopers the right. This was a cIassic blocking position.

For the next thirty minutes, Sigel’s guns lobbed shells to the north across Skeggs Branch into the Confederates opposing’ Lyon’s advance. At about 0830,._the firing on Bloody Hill stopped. There was a lull, in the battle there as both sides made adjustments, Through the smoke, Sigel could see large numbers of men moving on the northern side of Skegg’s Branch. He concluded that the Confederates were withdrawing. He was ready to capture them. The Confederates began to get things sorted out by this time, although their troop movements continued to be disrupted by bands of horsemen roaming around the battlefield. McCulloch personally took charge of 300 men from the 3d Louisiana (the regiment that helped defeat Plummer in’Ray’s cornfield and then displayed the yellow hospital fiag near Ray’s house). He led them south across the Wilson’s Creek ford to Skegg’s Branch and deployed into line of battle across the Telegraph Road. Reid’s Battery (four guns) deployed on the high ground just east of the junction of Skegg’s Branch and Wilson’s Creek. Bledsoe’s Battery (three guns, including Qld Sacramento) supported the attack from north of Skeggs Branch. The Louisianans advanced. This confused Sigel’s men, who expected to see fleeing rebels, not formed troops. At first, they mistook the gray-clad Louisianans for the 1st Iowa-also dressed in gray. McCulloch’s men closed to forty yards before Sigel realized his mistake and ordered his men and guas to fire. But it was too late; Reid’s and Bledsoe’s Batteries opened fire, and the Confederate infantry raked the Union position. Other Confederates who had been hiding in the adjacent woods joined in the attack. Sigel’s infantry did not even fire in response; they ran. Within minutes, Sigel’s command had disintegrated. Some retreated back the way they had come; others took the Telegraph Road south (see map 6).

54 &gel’s command lost 5 of it-s 6 guns, and his 2 infantry regiments lost 35 killed, 132 wounded, and 126 missing out of 990 engaged. His cavalry reported 4 men missing out of 125 engaged. Teaching Points: E’og of battle, quickly changin situations, loss of initiative, units of command, simp%zity of plan, cognition of friend and foe, and holding a reserve. Vignettes: Sigel describes his defeat:
AlI of these circumstances-the cessation of the trring in Lyon’s front, the appearance of the enemy’s deserters, and the rnovernent of. I . artillery and cavalry toward tbe south--led us into the belief that the enemy’s forces of the were retreating. . . So uncertain was I in regard to the &ma&r approaching troops . . . that I . . . cent Corporaf Tad, of the 3d Missouri, forward to challenge them. IIe chahenged as ordered but was immediately shot and killed. I instan$ly ordered the artillery and infantry to Ere. But it was too late--th~ artillery fired one or two shots but the infantry, ae though paralyxed, did not fire.. . the horses and drivers aftbree guns suddenly left their position and, in their tumultuous flight carrying panic into the ranks of the infantry, which turned back in disorder. . . . @gel, 305.)

Lieutenant Colonel S. M. Kyams Jr. was the officer in command of the 300 soldiers from the 3d Louisiana. He reports:
We were conducted by the gallant Colonel McIntosh across the ford to the valley in front of Sigel’s battery, when, having deployed in hne, the charge was ordered.. I and arriving an the brow af the hill, Lieutenant Lacey, of the Shreveport Rangers, sprang on a log, waved his sword, and called, “Come on, Caddo!” [the parish from which they were re-cruitedl. The whole command rushed forward, carried the guns, rushed to the fence, and drove the enemy off, (O.R., 115.1

Captain John P. Vigilini of the 3d Louisiana was at the point of the attack. He states:
We eterted with about 300 rnea . . . Tke Pelican Rifles and the Iberviife Greya, under my command, were on the right and thus marched until we were within thirty or forty yarda of the battery, wkich was on a steep hill. . . a mm [Corpora1 Todl appeared on the edge of the hill. The general then ordered us to kalt and asked the man whose forces those were. He replied, “Sigel’s regiment,” at the aarne time raising a rifle t-0 shoot, but ere be had tiroe to execute his deaign the sharp crack of a Mississippi rifie carried a messenger of death to him, and thus to Corporal Henry Gentles, of my company, behmga the honor of having aaved the general% life. The general then turned to me and said, “Captain, take your ccpmpanp upandgive them hell.” (O.R., 117.1

The ever-present

I Melcher describes the scene:

It wae amokey and obje&s at a distance could not be seen very distinctly. Being at sorae distance in front of the command, I saw a body of men moving down the vahey toward ua [3d Louisiana], from the direction we

55
lest heard General Lyon’s guna. I rode back, and reported to Colonel Sigel that troop were coming. . . . Nat seeing their colors, f auggeeted ta SigeI, that he had better show hia. . . . A battery we could not see opened with grape, making a great deal of noise ae the shot struck the fence and trees, but wt daing much damage . . . except to scare the men, who hunted for cover like a flock af young pextridges. , I . The impression seemed ta be that T&ten WSB iirhg into us. 1 . . Cohmel Sigel now evidently thought of retreat, as the or&y word.9 I beard from him were, “Where’s my guides?” ~. . (Hoksmbe and Adams, 46-47.)

Not afl of the 3d Louisiana got into the battle against Sigel. W. F. Tunnard commanded the group that taken refuge m2ar Ray% house and had displayed the yellow hospit er to discourage I)u Bois’ Battery. His report is somewhat s
In marching to join the right wing near the ford In the road, we were a fired on, wounhgaevera! and shooting my horse, and h tbea accompan the regiment on foot. Nothing more occur-red . . 1worthy of notice excep wounding of ‘&ree of our men by the accidental discharge of ZI musket by one of the Korehowe Fencibles. (Q.R., 117.)

Route fo Stan4 12: Follow the Telegraph Road northward about 600 meters to the site of Edwards’ cabin (grid 638058). As you proceed, notice the elevation change at Skegg ‘s Branch. Try to get a feehng for the distance from here to Bloody Hill. Visualize hundreds of men, horses, muIes, and wagons running around in a panic. At some point, turn around and view Sigel’s position from the Confederate perspective. Stand 12
(Price”s headquarters, grid 638058) Situation: More than 3,000 men of General Price’s Missouri State Guard camped in this meadow. Many of these men were unarmed, and most of the others carried shotguns, pistols, squirrel rifles, and other private weapons. Most of General MeCulloch’s Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana troops camped on the eastern side of Wilson’s Cree this site. This is the center of Confederate command and con beginning of the battle.

The Cunfederate command was bitterly divided between Generals Price and McCulloch. Price was a major general; and ~~rnrn~~der af the hifiEsouri State Guard (militia). He had fought with distinction in the Mexican War, had been governor of Missouri, and was intimately familiar with the campaign to this date. ~~C~l~o~b was a brigadier general commissioned by the Confederacy and acting under orders tough, able from General Leonidas Polk in Memphis. McCulloch w erate force. commander. His men represented the quality of this C

56

Map 6. The Battle at Wilson’s Creek, OSOO-1000

-.

-.-

-----

___-

58 He had a distinctly Eowregard for Price’s militiamen, politically adroit. and he was not

Teaching Points: Unity of command, objective, and campsite selection. Vignettes: Qne week before, when the army had camped farther south, Price confronted McCulloch over the issue of command:
Iamanoidermanthangou.. . and I am not only your senior in rank now, but I was a brigadier general in the Mexican War. . . when yau were only a captaia; I have fought and won more bat&s than you have ever witnessed; my force is twice as great as yours; some of my officers rank you and have men more service than yorr; and we are also upon the soil of our own state; but if you will consent to help us whip Lyon and to repossese Missouri, I will: put myself and all my forces under your command and we wiii obey you as faithfully as the humblest of your own men. . . . ME we want is to regain our homes and to establ@~ the independence of Missouri and the South. If you refuse to accept this offer, I will move with the Missourians alone, against Lyon. . . . You must either Eight beside us, or look on at a safe distance, and see us fight all alone the army which you dare not attack even with our aid. . (Edwin C. Beams, The &tile of W&on’s Creek, 2d edition [Boseman, GT: Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield Foundation, 1985],31.)

McCulloch agreed to these conditions, and the army moved to its campsite at Wilson’s Creek, where it sat for several days. Price again challenged McCulloch to attack, and on the 9th, McCulloch issued orders for a night march on Springfield and an attack on the 10th. This order threw the Confederate camps into turmoil. Brigadier General N. B. Pearce recalls:
The question of ammunition was one of the most important and serious . . . and the men scattered about in groups, ta improvise . . . ammunition for bullets ~ . I dividing percussion caps . . . fitting new flints in their old muskets. They had little thought then of the inequalities between the diacipEine, arms, and accoukementa of the regular United States troops they were scan to engage in battle. . . (N. B. Pearce, “Arkamaa Troops in the Battle of Wilson’s Creek,” Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, edited by R&rt UndercPood Johnson and Clarence CIough Buel, val. I [New York: The Century Co., 18841,299.)

About 2100, just as the Confederate army was ready to move, it began to rain. Xt was not a downpour but significant enough to cause McCulloch to cancel the movement order. AI1 agreed that this was the best course of action. The Confederates’ greatest cancem was for their limited supply of ammunition and their belief that their supply of powder would be ruined by a march in the rain. This brings us to one of the great questions concerning this campaign. What if the Confederates had moved as planned? Would the armies have met in the dark somewhere between Wilson’s Creek and

59 Springfield? Would Lyon have found an empty camp* while Price and McCulloch seized Springfield? About dawn, General McCulloch came to have breakfast with General Price, and they were here when General Lyon attacked. Ahut 0530, messengers began arriving from Cawthorn, who was then under attack. McCulloch did not believe the reports, but he saw panicstricken soldiers moving south across Bloody Hi&-fugitives from Cawthorn’s command. Then, in quick succession, came the sound of artillery to the north (probably Totten’s] and from the south (Back&f’s>. The Federals were attacking from two directions. There is no record of what Price and MeCulloch said to each other or if they had a cogent plan from this point. A11we really know is that Price gave instructions for his men to move up Bloody Hill to fight Lyon, and McCuBodh’r&Ie off to his headquarters to get his force into action. From here, the tour can go to several points of interest. The Wilson’s Creek ford, which was used so extensively in the battle, is adjacent to the small bridge just north of the Edwards’ cabin site. Discuss the characteristics that made a usable ford in Civil War days. Discuss also the effects of several thousand men using this creek as a water supply. Next, Price went galloping off to rally Cawthorn’s troops and take charge of the battle. He directed his counterattack, which developed slowly, almost due north from the Edwards’ cabin. As troops became available, they followed him, but because of the restricted space, they were forced to shift westward in order to find a place in the battle line. This gradual extension of the Confederate line to the west is a fundamental element in understanding how the battle for Bloody Hill developed. Eventually, the Confederates began to overlap Lyon’s force OIIthe western slope of Bloody Will.
Route to Stand 13: To get an accurate feeling for how most of the

Confederate troops made their way into this battle, the group should follow the northern bank of Skegg ‘s Branch to a point about 200 meters south of stand 13 and then move north. This route gave some protection for the Confederates from artillery and small-arms fire from the Union positions on Bloody Hill. Visualize bodies of men moving farther and farther westward until they could find a place in the line to fight and using this route to get there. As an alternative, the group can move due west about 700 meters from the Edwards’ cabin site to the vicinity of grid 6336359, the position

60 of Guibor’s Battery. The site is marked with a cannon. This route is diff?eult and may expose the group to chiggers, ticks, and snakes. A third alternative is to go back south along the Telegraph Road to the paved Ring Road, then along it to National Park Service stop number 6. You are at the position of Guibor’s Battery, whieh is aIso stand 13. Stand 13
(Guibor’s Battery, grid 633059)
(NOTE Tddeallg, the group should uee the d&lade of Skegg ‘B Branch to nave fr~rn stand 12 to stand 13. This raute was safely out of the line t&fire from Bloody Hill. Students can get an idea of the distance involved and the command and control required to conduct such a movement. Another route takes the grcrup directlyweet from the Edwarda” cabin acrom the prairie to atan& 13.-Thia route has the advantage of exposing studenta to ED ever-changing view of Bloody Hi11ta the north, Sigel’a fbai position to the south, and the Confederate positions on the east side of Wilson’s Creek Depending an the weather, this route could expae the group to chiggers, p&on ivy, ticks, and snakes.)

Situutzhn: The Confederates established their battle lines by 0630, and Captain H. Guibor’s Battery (four guns) was here. To his left (west) was Brigadier General J. H. McBride’s infantry. To his right (east) were Brigadier Genera1 Monroe M. Parson’s infantry, Brigadier General John B. Clark’s mixed force, Brigadier General William Y. Slack’s mixed force, Colonel Richard I-I. Weightman’s infantry, and Cawthom’s cavalry (now rallied and positioned closest to the creek).

The battle for Bloody Hill was one of charge and countercharge. For the Confederates, the problem was one of topography and technology. While they greatly outnumbered Lyon’s force, they were positioned down the hill and held inferior weapons. As they proceeded, they moved forward trying to get within range to shoot their shotguns and muskets. In response, the FederaIs would drive them back with artillery, small-arms fire, and short counterattacks. As the Confederate line extended to the west, Lyon adjusted his line correspondingly, Eventually, all of Lyon’s foree was engaged except his reserve, the 2d Kansas Infantry. About 0830, the fighting died out all along the line as both sides repositioned and recuperated. During the lull, McCulloch routed Sigel and then redirected his available forces to come to the aid of Price’s Missourians. Consequently, the 3d Arkansas, parts of the 3d Louisiana, the 1st Arkansas Mounted Rifles, and the South KansasTexas Mounted Regiment converged here. This fresh force brought great pressure onto the western end of Lyon’s battle line.

61

V&&&z Churchill and his I,& Arkansas Mounted Rifles had been routed out of Sharp’s cornfield during Sigel’s attack. Later, Churchill recovered control of most of his force and moved to this position to continue the fight against Lyon’s main line on Bloody WiI1. Churchill describes the scene:
I w8s met by 8n tide dGmer8l Price, aagirvg for a reenforcement to come to the support of General Sack. I instantly moved up my regime&. to his aid amid & ehower of grape and mu&etry, and took my pot&ion on bimj, left, and ordered my men ti commence fling. We dieputed the ground the&with the enemy inch by inch, for about three or four hours, amidst a most terrific fire from their battery [Totten’& poeted on the bill, and continued volleye of musketry. E there encountered the faces commanded by General Lyon in person, mostly all regulars, with a regiment of Iowa ttoopa. The battle raged fierceIy, and the firing acarcelp ceased for a moment. The contest seemed doubtful. At timee we would drive them up the hill, and in turn they would r&y tid catmexe to fall back. At length we shouted and made a gallent charge and drove them over the hill. 110.)

(O.R.,

Teaching Points: Maneuver, offensive, technology, and the reaction of green troops in their first battle. Discuss the actions of General McCulloch, whose men defeated Plummer, then Sigel, then came here to fight Lyon. Route to Stand 14: Use the Ring Road in walking north about 608 meters to the Bloody Hill parking area. Stand 14 is adjacent to the parking area and marked with a cannon. At some point along the way, your group will leave the Confederate battle line and enter the Union line. Note that the route is uphill practically the entire way.

Stand 14
CM&ski5 section, grid 631066)
close to the (NOTE: The position of SokaMi’e section is marked by a singlegun lo&4 parking area for Bloody Hill.)

Sitzuztin: Totten’s battery fire dominated the battle here. Almoat all accounts credit his guns with anchoring this part of the Union line. As the Confederates extended their line westward, Totten dispatched Sokalski’s two-gun section to this point. The Federals’ 1st Missouri and two companies of the 2d Missouri formed this part of the line and were as far west as the Union line extended. In the meantime, Major Steele’s battalion of Regulars supported Totten’s artillery. The battle renewed about 0900, and by 1000, the Confederates were having some success. About that time, Greer’s South KansasTexas Mounted Regiment made its attack from the west into the rear

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of Lyon’s battle line. Fire from Sokalski’s guns drove them off, but they diverted Lyon’s attention from the main battle. Teaching Points: Maneuver, position, deep battle, and cambined arms. V&z&es: Greer’s command numbered $00, but not all of them were present when the South Kansas-Texas Mounted Regiment attacked. Greer writes:
orders from General McCulloch to flank the enemy on their right [west]. . . . When I thought the five companies I had with me of my command had moved su&iently far, I ordered a charge upon the enemy. This was done, with a shout for Texae. The enemy wa8 tbrovrn into considerable confusion, Some of them left without firing their guna, others etood &ill until we had nearly rode upon them, then fired and fled, others concealed themselves in the bushes and ahot at ua as we paaeed. Several of my men ware Wed‘andwounded in thie charge. I would have attempted to charge the main body of the enemy’s forcea stilt farther to our right, but for the fact that we would have been exposed to the fire not only of the enemy, At tbie time the firing seemed considerably to butofourownguna.... abate cm both eidea. Here [where?1 I remained for some time watching the movements of the enemy. Being entirely separated &am the reat of our army, I then moved my companies back, 90 as to eupport our infantry. (O.R., 118-19.)
I . . 1 received

After its attack, Greer’s force chased Sigel’s fugitives, finding them to be easier targets than Lyon’s main line. Several of the Union reports mention this attack. Captain Totten’s report is one of the least complimentary:
General Lyon eent me an order to support the. . . regimenta on the extreme right [weat] who were then being closely pressed by the enemy. I ordered Lieutenant Sokalski to move forward with his section immediately, which he did . . . relieving and saving the . . . regiments from being overthrown and driven back. After this the enemy tried to overwhelm us by an attack of some 800 cavahy, which, unobserved, had formed below the cresb of the hi& to our right and rear. Fortunately, some of our infantry companies and 8 few pieces of artillery from my battery were in position to meet this demon&ration, and drove off their cavalry with ease. Thie wae the only demonstration made by their cavalry, and it was sa effete and ineffectual in its force and character ae to deserve only the appellation of child’s play. Their cavalry ia utterly worthless an the battlefield. (O.R., 74.1

Rortte to Stand 15: The National Park Service maintains a walking route that circles Bloody Hill. Follow it in reverse. En route to the sinkhole, the group will pass a cannon marking Totten”s battery position. Along the way, try to keep bearings on Ray’s house, Sigel’s position, and the main Confederate camp near Edwards” cabin.

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!The sinkhole, grid 6330651

Situath: This position is one of historical interest because of what happened here after the battle. The Confederates were in possession of the battlefield with most of the dead and many of the wounded to tend. The weather was hot. Putrefaction soon set in, and there was a scarcity of coffins and coffin makers. Burials, therefore, were imperfect. Teaching Points: Dealing with the dead and wounded and cultural and psychological issues. Later in this tour, we will talk about what happened to General Lyon’s body. Vignette: In 1867, when the National Cemetery at Springfield was established, the contractor for the removal of the dead bodies of the Union soldiers on the battleground took 183 bodies off the field: 34 came from the sinkhole, 14 from an old well, and 135 from other parta of the battlefield. What became of the the Confederate dead?
Route to Stand 16: Continue along the Bloody Hill trail in reverse. At its southernmost point, the trail overlooks the prairie stretching southward toward Skegg ‘s Branch. Pause here; this point provides a good view toward the south, including Sigel’s final position and the main Confederate campsite at Edwards* cabin. Prom this point, the group can visualize what the battlefield may have looked like on IQ August 1861. At that time, Confederates advanced uphill in charge after charge. The prairie grass was tall enough to hide the soldiers, and scattered trees and bushes helped the advancing men gauge distances.

As you continue to follow the Bloody Hill trail in reverse, remember that the foliage was not so dense at the time of the battle. Bloody Hill’s real name is Oak Hill, and oak trees at the time of the battle were in abundance. The underbrush, however, was not so thick, and there was sufficient room to maneuver troops and artillery between the trees.
Route to Stand 16: Continue along the Bloody Hill trail in reverse.

Move along the trail to stand 16, where a granite monument marks the site of General Lyon’s death. Stand 16
&on’s death marker, grid 635ll64)

Situation: Confused fighting took place at this point, and clearly, neither side held a marked advantage. The Confederates outnumbered

64 the Federals, but Union troops held a better position and had superior weapons. About 1000, the Confederates killed General Lyon’s horse and wounded the general in the head and leg. Lyon then walked a short distance to the rear and had his head wound bound. The general was depressed and considered that the battle was lost, but his subordinates encouraged him to keep up the fight. He got another horse, rallied some troops, and was leading them forward when he was shot through the heart and died immediately. He was the first Union general officer killed in battle in the war (for the disposition of the battlefield, see map 7’1. That Lyon’s death had so littIe effect on the battle may demonstrate how little control he had over the whole line. The command now devolved upon Major Sturgis, who consulted with the other commanders. Singe-the commanders had last hope for a linkup with SigeI’s command, they decided. to withdraw. It was about 1130.
Teaching PO&~: Effect on morale of leader’s death, chain of command, and lack of maneuver options.

Vignetbe: The story of what happened to General Lyon’s body is one of those interesting sidelights in history. His aide carried his body to the rear and placed it in the shade of a tree, Major Sturgis, Major Schofield, Surgeon Cornyll, Captain Granger, and some other officers examined the body. Thereupon, Sturgis ordered the body carried to the field hospital and evacuated to Springfield. Soldiers put the body in an army wagon being used as an ambulance belonging to B Company, 1st U.S. Cavalry. As the wagon was about to leave for the hospital, however, a sergeant came along and ordered the body removed from the wagon (to be placed in an ambulance once it arrived). The ambulance never came, and Lyon’s body was left unattended. About an hour later, some Arkansas soldiers came upon the body and spread the word about Lyon’s death. Placing the body in a small covered wagan, they took it to General Price’s headquarters, where Price and other officers viewed the corpse. Dr. Mehcher (the same one who was with Sigel’s command) had remained on the field to help with the wounded, and he volunteered to take charge of the body. Melcher then took the body to Bay’s house and did a detailed examination Melcher describes the body:
There was a wound on the right side of the head, another in the right leg below the knee, and an&her, which caused hia death, was by a small rifle ball, which entered about the fourth rib on the 1eR side, passing entirely through the body, making ita exit from the right side, evidently passing

65
through both lungs and heart. . . . At this time he bad on a dark blue, sin&e breasted captain’s coat, with the buttons used by the regular army of the Unit& St&w. It was the same unifkm coat Ehad frequently seen him weax in the araenal at St. Louis, and was considerably worn and faded. @Mcombe and Adama, 99.)

Five soldiers volunteered to escort the body to Springfield. Carrying a note endorsed by General Rains, Melcher and the soldiers arrived in Springfield later that evening, and the body was placed in Lyon’s former headquarters, The Unionists determined to take the body with the retreating army to Rolla, and since there was no metal coffin available, the body had to be embalmed. Chief Surgeon Dr. E. C. Franklin was summoned and ordered to embalm the body. He prepared the fluid and began injecting the body, but the chest wound prevented thorough circulation. Dr. Franklin was then told to dispose of the body in the best possible manner. Franklin ordered a coffin and arranged for the body to be washed and prepared for burial. Lyon had been dead twenty-four hours, and in the very hot weather, the body was rapidly deteriorating. Franklin sprinkled the body with bay rum and alcohol, and it was taken to the farmhouse of Congressman John S. Phelps, whose wife, Mary, had helped prepare the body. But it was not buried immediately. The understanding was that it would be sent for soon. Meanwhile, a local tin shop was ordered to make a zinc case for the coffin to assist in the preservation of the body, which was kept in an outdoor cellar until the 14th when George Phelps” slave dug a grave in the garden and buried Lyon. On 22 August, a 300-pound metal coffin arrived from Rolla with a note from General Fremont requesting Lyon% body. The grave was opened and the body disinterred and loaded into the metal coffm. It arrived in St. Louis on the 26th. From there, it made its way east to the family home in Eastford, Connecticut, where it was finally buried on 5 September. Lyon was born on 14 July 1818, He graduated from West Point in 1841, eleventh in a class of fifty. Ne later served in Florida, Mexico (under Taylor and Scott), California, and on the frontier from 1850 to 1861. Route to Stand 27: Follow the Bloody Hill trail northward, and then move to the vicinity of grid 632066. The exact spot is hard to find, but the intent is to place the group in a position to see the Union withdrawal routes to the north.

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Map 7. The Baffle of Wilson’s Creek, 1000-l 130

67

Legend

_. “,

Thin growth of Park boundary Fields Farmhwses Elevated areas Federal forces

timber,

lie

of na

underbnrsh

Confederate forces

I

Corrfederate axis of advarw

s

Artillery

68 Stand 17 (Federal zuithdrawal, grid 6320661
(NOTE: This stand is located near stand 4. From here, studeenta can see the route by which Lyon”8 army advanced ad retreati

Situation: After Lyon’s death, it took about thirty minutes to determine who was in charge since all of the regimental commanders had been wounded. Finally, Major Sturgis was found to be the senior officer fit for duty. At the time, the battIefield was calm, similar to the earlier lull at 0830. Taking advantage of the respite, Sturgis called for a council of war. Some troops thought to be Sigel”s were seen in the distance. On arriving at the scene, they were encouraged and decided to fight on with Sturgis’ force. Sturgis reorganized his line before the next rebef attack, which he described in his report as ‘“the fiercest and most bloody engagement of the day.” Again, however, the Confederate attack waned, and at about 1130, Stlirgis met with his commanders again. Since they were short of ammunition and had Iost hope of a linkup with SigeI, Sturgis gave the order to withdraw. Du Bois” Battery moved to the next hiB north and deployed to cover the army’s withdrawal. First, the wounded were evacuated, and then, the rest of the units marched away in good order. The Confederates did not pursue. The Union army halted about two miles north, and the men were allowed to eat and rest. Even at this late juncture, Sturgis was hoping that Sigel would intervene. FinalIy, a messenger brought the news of Sigel’s disaster. The march to Springfield continued, and the army arrived at 1706 in good order. The Confederates probably did not pursue because they had just about all the fight they wanted for one day. But what if the rebels had made good their great advantage in mounted men and pressed the Union withdrawal? Speculate on this posibility. Teaching Points: The conduct of a withdrawal, pursuit, and the problems in dealing with a battlefield when it is Ieft in one’s possession* Vignettes: Three days after the battIe, General Fremont, in St. Louis, sent this dispatch to Washington:
General Lyon, in three columns, hbnderhimself, Sigel, ancl Sturgis, attacked the enemy at 6~30 o’claek on the morning of the I&h, 9 miiee southeast of eld. Engagement severe. Our Eossabout 80 killed a&d wounded. General Lyon killed in charge at head of his calumn. Our force 8,000, irduding 2,000 Home Guards. Muster roll reported taken from the enemjl 23,ooO, inciluding regimenta ftom Louisiana, Tennessee, Miasisaippi, with Texan Rangers and Cherokee half-breech. This sta~ment corroborated by

69
prisoners. Their loss reported heavy, including Generals McCuUoch and Price. Their tenta and wagons destroyed in the action. Sigel let%one gun in the field and returned to SpringGeld, whence, aC3 o’clock in the morning of the Ilth, continued his retreat upon Rolla, bringing off his baggage traina and $ZSO,O#Q in specie Erom Springfield Bank. I am doing what ia poseibEe to euppart him, but need aid of some organized farce to repel the enemy, reported advancing on other points in considerable strength. (O.R., 54.)

Pearce, whose Arkansas haps had contributed greatly in the defeat of Sigel and the later attacks on Bloody Hill, sums it up:
General McC!ulIoch, myself, and our et& officers now grouped ourselves together upon the center of [Bloody Hill]. Woodruff% battery was again placed in position and, Tot&n [aU Bois], who was covering the retreat of sturgis . . . received the benefit of his parting shot& We watched the retreating enemy through our field-glasses, and were glad ta see him go. Our ammunition waa exbauated, ou1”men undisciplined, and we feared to risk pursuit.. * . (P&uar, 303;)

The losses at Wilson’s Creek were:
l U7&m--5,400 engaged: 258 killed (5 percent), 873 wounded (16 percent), and 186 missing (3 percent). Total casualties were 1,317 (24 percent).

o ConfederaEe-10,200 engaged: 279 killed (3 percent) and 951 wounded (9 percent}. Total casualties were 1,230 (12 percent). Route fmm Stand 1 T: YQU cm return to the Bloody Hill parking lot’ or follow the Union withdrawal route northward and rejoin the Ring Road in the vicinity of grid 627071.
This

concludes the walking tour of the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.

APPENDIX A Characters for Role Playing
To implement a successful st& ride that addresees the important events of the battle and their significance, participants of the st& ride can he assigned characters to play (important commanders in the conflict). Assuming the roie ofthese characters at a s&n&ant point in the battle, the staff ride participant will explain why his or her character acted the way he did and the impact of those actions on the outcome of the battle. These preaentatians can occur at a stand that i&xninates the action that took place there more than a century ago. The Battle of Wilson*a Creek haa a sufficient number and diversity of charactars imdved in ita action to satisfy almost any at& ride requirement. The following are some of the characters that most easily lend themselves to role playing because of the parts they piayed in the battle and the availability of their recorded actions.

Union
Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. Blair, commander, 2d Kansas Infantry, was born in Ohio. After joining the Army, be transferred to the 2d Kansas Cavalry and later to the 14th Haneae I&&q. He was promoted ta colonel in November 1863 and brevetted a brigadier general, U.S.Volunteers GJSVl, in February f&Xi. He died in 1899. Captain Eugene A. Can, commander, Company I, lat US. Cavah-y, was born in New York in 1830. He attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1850 and later served on the frontier (where he was nicknamed “War Eagle”). Carr was commiaeioned a colonel of the 3d Illinois Cavairy on 16 August 1861 and fought at Pea Ridge, where he wae wounded three times and received the Medal of Honor. He was promoted to brigadier general in March 1862 and commanded a division in the second Vicksburg campaign and the Mobile campaign in 1865. Later, Carr fought Indians on the &ntier. He once said that he “would rather be a colonel of cavalry than Czar of Russia” He retired a brigadier general in February 1893, died in Wssbington, DC., in December 1910, and is buried at we& Point. Captain PoweD. Claytom commander, Company E, 1st Kansas Snfantry, was born in 1333 and educated at a Pennsylvania military academy and Delaware engineering school, He was a professional civil engineer. Carr w8s commissioned a captain on 29 May 1361, then a colonel of the 5th Kansas Cavalry, and promoted to brigadier general, USV, on I August 1864. He commanded the 2d Brigade, Cavalry Division of East Arkansas. Clayton commanded at Pine Bluff, Arkansas, where Marmaduke’s force was reputed. Aftar mustming out on 24 August 1365, be settled on a cotton plantation near Pine Bluff. Cbqton was Bepubhcan governor of Arkansas in 1368 and a lifelong Republican boss in that state. He was impeaehed by the House of Representatives in 1371, but charges were dropped. Clayton was next elected a US. Senator in l371. He was subsequently indicted for faulty election procedures, but charges were dropped. Clayton was active in buikiing the town of Eureka Springs, Arkansas, and in railrod.~ He served a~ ambassador to Mexico from 1897 to 1906. He died in 1914 and ie buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

71

72
Lieutenant Joseph 9. Conrad, an aide to General Lyon, attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1657. He was wounded earig in the Battle of Wilson’s Creek and later commanded Regulars at Beam’s Station near Petersburg, Viigi.nia. Colonel George W. Deitxler, commander, let &ureas Infantry, was born in Pennsylvania in 1826. A Kansae farmer and real estate agent when that territory was hewming a state, he was active as a Free Sailer, involved in the “Beecber’s BibIee” incident, and fought in the Kansas wars. He was once arrested for treason but was releamd. After hoMing several public of&es, he was commissioned a colonel of the let Kansas Infantry on 5 June 1861. Wounded at Wilson’s Creek, he later commanded the 1st Brigade, 6th Division. Army of the Tennessee. Deitaler was promoed to brigadier general, USV, in November 1862. He resigned for bad health in August 1663 but came back to command the Eanaas State Militia during Price’s Miaaouri expedition in the fa.B of 1664. After the war, he promoted the town site of Emporia, Ransae. In 1872, he moved to San Francisco with his family and died in 1864 in ‘Puscon, Arizona, in a buggy accident. He is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery, Lawrence, Kansas. Second LieutenantJob ‘I. w Bois, Regiment Mounted B.&s, was commander of the Du Bois Battery at Wilson’s Creek. Before the war, be had attended the U.S. Military Academy (in 1655X After the Battle of %%leon”aCreek, he commanded a brigade at Corinth, Mississippi. Second Lieutenant Charles E. Farrand, let U.S. Infantry, was commander, Company C, 26 US. Dragoons. He attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1855 and remained a captain throughout the Civil War. He later commanded cavalry at Fort Donefson. Major General John C. Ftimont, commander, Western Department, was born in Georgia in 1813. One of the S.rst four major generals appointed by Abraham Lincoln in May 1861. he was given command of the Weetern Department with headquarters in St. Louis. After the battles of the summer of 1661 and the Emancipation Proclamation, he was relieved. Later, Fremont unsuccessfully participated in the Valley campaigns. After the war, he served aa territorial governor of Arizona and died in New York in July 1890, Captain Charles C. Gilbert, commander, Company B, let U.S. Infantry (Phnnmer’s battalion), WBBborn in Ohio in March 1822. He attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1646 and served in the Mexican War and an the frontier. He was wounded at Wihon'a Creek, fought at Shiioh and Richmond, Kentucky, and commanded a corps at Perryvilla. Gilbert was brevetted a brigadier general in September 1862 but never confirmed. At Perryville, he was charged with mishandling troops Later, he wrote portions of B&lea Md Leaders of the Civil: War (see bibliography). Giihert finished the war as a major in the 19th infantry and retired in March 1866. He died in Maryland in January 1903. Captain Gordon Granger, Regiment Mounted Rifles, was acting aseiatant adjutant general to Genera1 Lyon He was born in New York in November 1822 and attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1646. He later served in the Mexican War and on the frontier. Granger fought at Bug Springs and Wilson’s Creek. Promoted to brigadier general in March 1662, he commanded a brigade at New Madrid, llaIand Number 10, and Co&&h, Mississippi. He was promoted to major genera1 in September 1362 and fought in tke Battle of Cbickamauga, commanding the Reserve Corps. Later, Granger commanded W Corps at Chattaaoaga, helped raise the siege of Knoxville, and captured the forta at the entrance to Mobile Bay. He was in poor health after the war and died in New Mexico

53
in January 1876. Granger believed that “r)le race is neither to the swift nor ta the strang but to bim that holds on to the end.” Brigadier General William S. Harney, commander, Department of the West, was born on 27 August 1800 in Haysboro, Tennessee (not far f%omNashviRe). He attended a local academy and was comraissicmed in 1816 as a second lieutenant in the i&&y. Afterward, he distinguished himselfin campaigns against the Creeks and Seminoles. In 1836, Harney was a lieutenant coEoael of the 2d Rragrxms and became colonel in 1646. Earlier, he had been a senior cavalry officer under General Wiafield scoot in the advance on Mexico City in the Mexican War. Captain Francis (“Frank”) J. Herron, 1st Iowa Infantry, was born in Pennsylvania ia Febrxmry 1837. l& bis later life, be operated a b business in Pit&burgh, Pennsylvania, and Dubuque. Iowa. the Civil War, be raised a militia company and fcmgbt at WiImn’a Creek, Frtie Grove, Pea Ridge (where be received a Medal of Honor), and Vicksburg. Hen-on wes captured at the Battle of Pea Ridge. ABenvard, be became a brigadier general (in July 1662) and subsequent& led one of the greet& marches in the war--from W&on’s Creek to Prairie Grova (150 miIes) in 4 da)*e. He became a major general in November 1862 and finished the war as a corps commander and Indian treaty commissioner in Brownsville, Texas. Later, he sen& &B an attorney, U.S. marshal, and acting secre&y of state in Louisiana Herron died a pauper in New York in January 1902. Captain Daniel Hustun Jr., let U.S. Infantry, attended the U.S. Militaxy Academy in 1846. Later, he helped organize the Home Guards of Kamm City, Missouri, and commanded cavalry at Prairie Grove, Arkansas. Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon, commander, Army of the West, was born in Connecticut in July 1618. After attending the U.S. Military Academy in 1641, he participated in the Seminole and Mexican Ware and aermd on the frontier. Lyon became a RepubIiean during the “SIeeding Kansas” period. Promoted fKIm captain to brigadier general in May 1861, he led the &-my af the West in the Wilson’s Creek campaign, Lyon was killed in battle at Wilson’s Creek. Lieutenant CoIoaeI William EL Merritt, 1st Iowa Infantry, regiment at Wilson’s Creek (as Colonel Bates was sick in SpringfieldE. commanded a

Colonel Robert B. Mitchell, commander, 2d Kansas Infantry, was born in Mansfield, Ohio, on 4 April 1823. He graduated from Kenyon College in Ohio (or Washington College in Pemq~vania~ and studied law in Mount Vernon. Later, he practiced law in Mansfield, served in the Mexican War 88 a lieutenant in the 2d Ohio Infantry, and was elected mayor of Mount G&ad, Ohio (in 1655f. Mitchell moved to Kamxas in 1856, espousing the Free State cause (a&bough be was a DemocratE. He served in the territorial iegiahture, wes treesurer of the territory, and later a deEegateto the National Democratic Comention in 1660. Mitchell was commiesioned a cobmel of the 26 Kansas I&z&y and wea badly wounded at Wilson’s Creek. Appointed a brigadier general in April 1862, he commanded a mixed brigade at Fort Riley, the !3tb Divisian of Gilbert’r Corps at Perryville, and was chief of Cavalry OFthe Army of the Cumberland at Gha+hmoga. In the fall of 1663, be was ordered to Washington for court-martial duty. In 1664 and 1865, be commanded the District of Nebraska (then north Kansas), mustering out in January 1866. Mitchell waB appointed govemox of New Mexico Territory in Juna 1666 but failed to t&e the job seriously and resigned in 1869 to return to Kansas. He lost

74
a bid for Congress in 1872 and- then moved to Washington, where he died in January 18$2 and w-asburied in Arlington National Cemetery. Major Peter 3. Osterhaus, commander, 2d Missouri Infantry Battalion, was born in Cobfenx, Prm&a, in January 1823. He received hie military schooling in Berlin and emigrated to the United States during the Revaiution of 1848. He organ&d the 12th Wiouri, trderred to the 2d MiBsouri, and wae promoted to major in April 1861. Csterhaus fought at Pea Ridge and was promoted to brigadier general in June 1862, commanding a divisicm. Later, he fought at Champion’s Hill and wak wounded at Big Black River. Af%mrard, Osterhaua led the attack from Lookout Mountain to Missionary Bidge. Next, he commanded the XV Corps in the Atlanta campaign and became a major general in July 1864. Subsequently, he was with, Sherman in the Carolinas and later wan tnmsferred to the weat and received the surrender of Kirby Smith’s command. After the war, he was appointed U.S. cons111 to France for eleven yeara and then deputy consul to Germany. He WBBappointed a brigadier general in the Beg&r Army in March 1965. osterhaue died in January 1917 in Ruisburg, Germany, and WBBburied in Coblenx. CoIoneE John S. Phelpa, commander, Home Guard Regiment, was nd preeent at the Battle of Wilson% Creek A member of Congress from Springfield, he organ&d the Home Guard Regiment. He carried a dispatch from Lyon to Premont on 27 July while en route to Washington. Lyon’s body wiras temporarily buried in Phelpe’ garden. Captain Joseph B. Flummer, commander, 1st U.S. Lni%ntry, was born in Barre, Maaachusetts, in November 1816. He attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1841 and later served on garrison duty. He missed the fugt year of the Mexican War due to sickneea and did quartermaster duty on the Texas frontier from 1848 to 1861. He WBB promoted captain in the 1st U.S. Infantry in 1852 and major of the 8th U.S. In&r&y in April 1862. Phnumer was wounded at Wilson’s Creek while commanding a battalion of Regulara. Commissioned a colonel of the 11th Missouri Vohnteers in September 1361, he commanded the post at Cape Girardeau, Missouri, until March 1862. He was then appointedbrigadier general, USV. Later, he command& the 5th Division of Pop& army at New Madrid and the Ldand Number 10 campaign. He aubaequently commanded a brigade of Stanley% division at Corinth and died in camp at Corinth on 9 August 1862 (366 days after Wion’a Creek1 of wounds and exposure in the field. He was buried in A~Iiugian National Cemetery. Colonel CharIee E. Salomon, commander, 5th Miaaouri Infantry, wan bora in Pm&a (one of three SaIomon brother8 who eerved in the CiviE War). Solomon fled Germany after serving in the Revolution of 184% Appointed a colonel of the 5th Missouri in May 1861, be commanded a regiment at Wileon’e Creek While his regiment behaved well at the out& of the action, it waa routed from the field at a critical moment in the battle. Salomon was mu&red out in Augmrt 1861. In September 1861, he was appointed colonel of the 9th Wiaconain. Thereafter, he comrnanded brigades in the 1st and 3d Divisiona of the U.S. VII Corps. He we.s appointed a brevet brigadier general and mustered out of the Union Army in December 1864. Major John M ScbofieEd, adjutant to General Lyon, attended the U.S. Military hcademy in 1863. Hia &remake included Sheridan and Hood, and bia roommate WBB McFhemn. Whiie at the academy, Schofield taught philosophy. Later, he helped organixe the let Niaeouri Vo&nteere. Before the Battle of Wiieon”e Creek, Schofield counseled Lyon to retreat. Made a brigadier general in November 1861, Schofield remained on the frontier and in the district of Southwest Missouri, where he directed operationa again& guerrillas. Appointed a major general in May 1863, he commanded

.. 75
the Army of the Ohio in Sherman’a Atlanta campaign. Afterwards, he defeated John Sell Had at Franklin, Tennessee, and cooperated with Sherman in his f-1 campaigns in the Carolinaa. After the war, he negotiated the withdrawal of French troopa from Mexico. Brie@ secretary of war in Andrew Jahueon’a administration (1%33-69), he later became superintendent of West Point /1876-81L Ultimately, he aweeded Sheridan aa general in chief, U.S. Army, in 1888. Schofield retired as a lieutenant general in 1895 and died in Florida in 1966. In 1861, be had earned the Medal of HOXXOF Ear leading the charge in which Lyon was killed. Major Isaac F. Shepard, aide to General Lyon, was born in Natick, Massachusetts, in July 1816. He was a graduate of the Harvard class of 1842 and principal of Boat Grammar School fsom I844 to 1857. Shepsrd was an editor of the Boston Dn2y Bee in UM6-48 and a member of the Massachusetts legislature in t859-66. He moved to St. Louis in 1861 and was an abolitionist and Unionist. Shepard became a principal aide to General Lyon and assistant adjutant general of the Missouri State Militia. He became a lieutenant colonel of the 1% Missouri Infantry and calonel of the 3d Missouri Infantry when those regiments were consolidated in January 1862. Shepard was commended for his c2iiiduct in the captnre of Arkansas Post. He was zealous in the cause of Negro rights and appointed colonel of the 51st U.S. Colored Infantry in May 1863 (used primarily for garrison and fortrification duty). Shepard waa promoted to brigadier general, USV, in November 1863; however, the nomination failed to secure Senate approval. Sbepard subsequently became adjutant general of Missouri; U.S. c.orw.d in Swatow and Hankow, China; chairman of the Republican State Commit&q department commander of the Grand Army of the Republic; and editor of the Missouri Democmt and bfissouri Stcrte Atlas. He moved to Bellingham, Massachusetts, in 1886 and died there in August 1889. He ia buried in Ashland Cemetery, MiddIesex County, Maeaachuaetts. Colonel Franz Sigel, commander, 2d Brigade, was born in Badan, Germany, in November 1824. Graduated from Karlaruhe Military Academy, he retired from the German Army in 1847. He was minister of war during an unsuccessful revolution again& Prussia in 1847, whereupon he fled Germany to the United States, settled in St. Louis, and taught aehool there until 1861. He was commissioned a brigadier general in August I861 and a major general in March 1862. Sigel commanded a flanking column at Wilson’s Creek. Later, he fought well at Pea Ridge, Arkansas. Subsequently, he served in the Shenandoah Valley against Jack.son and commanded the I Corps in the Army of Virginia at the Second Manaaeas. He briefly commanded the XI Corps in the Army of the Potomac. Sigel was defeated at New Market, Virginia &be VMI cadets’ attack). ralieved of command, and resigned in May 1865. He died in New York in 1902. Lieutenant George 0: Slokalski, section leader of Totten’a battery, graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in,l861. Later, he was aboard the U.S.S. Cincirmuti when it waa sunk near Vicksburg. Captain David S, Stanley, 1st Cavalry, was born in Ohio in June 1828. Ninth in his class at West Point in 1862, he later served on the frontier, refused a commimion in the C&&rata Army, and fought at Wilson’s Creek. He subsequently served under Premontandwas cammiasioned a brigadier general in September 1861. Later, he fought at New Madrid, Miaaoui; Island Number 10; and Corinth, Mississippi. A chief of Cadry in the Army of the Cur&&and in November 1862, be did much to improve that arm. He later left the cavalry to command a division in IV Corps and, subsquently, the corps itself during the Atlanta campaign Stanley also fought at Spring Hill and was wounded at Franklin, After the war, he commanded the 22d Fbfantry, led the

76
Yellowstone campaign in 1873, and retired in June 1892. Be was governor of the eoldiers’home in Washington and died there in March 1962. Captain Frederick Steele, commander of Steele’s battalion, attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1843. Ulysses S. Grant was his classmate and close companion. Steele fought in five battles in Mexico and was brevetted twice for gallantry. In 1861, he wm stationed at Fort Leavenworth. At Wilson’s Creek, three of Steeleye companies were commanded by sergeants. Appointed a brigadier general in January 1862, be commanded the district of Southweat Missouri and participated in the Helena, Arkansas, campaign. Later, be commanded a division in Sherman’s corps during the Vicksburg campaign and fought at Chickasaw Bluffs and Arkansas Post. Appointed a major general in March 1863, he commanded the Department of Arkansas and the W Corps. In April 1864, he was defeated at Jenkins’ Ferry. From February 1865, he led a division in the Mobile campaign. Aher the war, he commanded the Department of Cohmbia. In January 1888, he died tiom accidental causes in California. Major Samuel II. Sturgis, commander, 1st Brigade, Army ofthe West, was born in Permsy~vania in June 1822. He&banded the US. Military Academy in 1846 and had Thomas J. (“Stonewall”l Jackson, McClellan, and Pickett for classmates. Sturgis fought in Mexico with the 2d Dragoons and was promoted to major in the 1st Cavalry (commanded by Robert E. Lee). He was in command at Fort Smith when the war began., and many of hia officers left him to join the Confederacy. Sturgia assumed command after Lyon’s death at Wilson’s Creek. Appointed a brigadier general in March 1862, his promotion dated from the Battle of Wilson’s Creek. Sturgie later commanded a division in the Second Manassas campaign. He once said, “I don’t care for John Pope one pinch of owl dung? He fought at South Mountain and later at Antietam, where he led two regiments of his division to capture Burnside’a bridge. Afterward, he fought at Fredericksburg, was transferred with LX Corps to the west, and made chief of cavalry in July 1863. He was badly beaten by Nathan Bedford Forrest at Brice’e Croesroada and spent the rest of the war awaiting new orders. Ai& Erghting Indians on the frontier, he commanded the 7th Cavalry, was reassigned in 1886, and died in St. Paul, Minnesota, in September 1889. Brigadier General Themes W. Sweeny was born in Cork, Ireland, in December 1820. He emigrated to the United Statea in 1832, settling in New York, where he worked for a law publisher. Later, Sweeny fought in Mexico as a lieutenant in the New York 2d Volunteers and was wounded at Churubusco, where he lost his right arm. Sweeny fought the Indians until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he accepted a brigadier general’s commission in the Missouri Volunteers. Sweeny expressed his motto as: ‘T&t us eat the last bit of muie flesh and fire the last cartridge before we think of retreating.” Sweeny was wounded about the time Lyon was kilbxl. Later, he Ied the 52d Blinois at Fort Donelson, commanded a brigade at Shiloh (where he was wounded again), and fought at Corinth. Appointed a brigadier general in March 1863, he led a division of the XVI Corps in the Atlanta campaign. After feuding with his commander, Grenville Dodge, and another division commander, John Fuller, Sweeny was court-ma&&xl and acquitted in January tB65. He stayed on active duty until May 1870. Hs was subsequently involved in the controversial Fe&n movement, and in the summer ofl866, he led a force of LrishAmericans in au effort to capture Canada from the British A&r being arrested, he was later released. Sweeney died at Long L&and, New York, in 1892. Captain James Totten, commander, Company F, 2d U.S. Artillery, graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1841. In command of the LittIe Bock Arsenal at the start of the war, he bad drilled WoodruE and his gunners. Later, be became chief of

artillery and ordnance, Army of West Miasiasippi, and commanded the eiege train during the Mobile campaign. Lieutenant William M. Wherry, aide to General. Lyon, was appointed a lieutenant in the 8d Missouri I&&&y in May 1861 ami Eieutenant in the 18th U.S. Infantrp in October 1861. Wbeq served as an assistant to General Lyon and then General Schofield until September 1862. He was promoted to majar in May 1864 and later brevetted a brigadier general, USV. He was later the bearer of the muS and terms of surrender of Johnston’s army to Wash-n in 1865. Wherry was a St. L&s merchant before the war and joined the Regular Army afterward. After the war, be served aa a lieutenant colonel and military secretary to General Schofield (in 1895). He was promoted to brigadier general, USV, during the Spar&h-American War and retired in 1899. Wherry wrote”Wileon’a Creek and the Death of Lyon” in B&t&s and hadem ofthe Ci:ivil War (see bibliography).

Confederate
Gobnel Thomas S:Chnrehill, commander, 1st Arkansas- Mounted Riflea, was barn in Kentucky in March 1824, He studied baw at Trfmayl~ania College and served as a lieutemnt in the Mexican War, during which he was captured. He later set&xl in LittIe Rock, Arkansas, and timed. EEected a colonel at the start of the war and a brigadier general in March 1862, he fought at the Battle of Pea Ridge and later at Richmond, Kentucky. He commanded tbe Arkansas Past and was taken ptioner in January 1863. After being exchanged, Churchill commanded a division in the Bed River campaign and at Blair% Landing and Jenkins’ Ferry. Made a major general in March 1865, be went to Mexico with Kirby Smith but soon returned to Artiae. A state treasurer after the war, be died in Little Rock in May 1905.
Majar John B. Clark Jr,, subunit commander in hie father’s divieion of the Missouri State Guard, was born in Fayette, Missouri, on 14 January 1831. After attending the Fayette Academy and the University of Missouri, he spent two yeare in California. In 1654, he graduated from Harvard Law School and aubeequently practiced hw in Fayette until 1861. Aa the war developed, he entered the Missouri State Guard a~ a lieutenant and waa pram&d to captain in the 6th Missouri ‘@an%. He WBBa major at the Battles of Carthage and Wilson’s Creek. He was later promoted to colonel and commanded a brigade at the Battle of Pea Ridge. Afterward, he served under General Hindman until he wan commiseioned a brigadier general, ranking from Mer& 1864. He then served with Mannaduke and SheIbp in the trane-Missiaeippi. A.fter the war, he resumed a law practice in Fayette, waa elected to Congreaa in 1873 (serving until 18831, and then elected clerk of the House of Representatives. Clark practiced law in Wa~hingtonfrom 1339 u&i1 his death in September 1903. He is buried in Washington.

Colonel Tom P. Dockery, commander, 5th Arkanssa Inf&xtry, Pearce% Brigade, wge barn in North Carolina in December 1833. He commanded Arkansas trq~ in the trans-Mississippi throughout the war, fightiug at Corinth and leading a brigade in Bowen’s Divieion during the Vicksburg campaign. Afterward, he was captured, paroled, and promoted ta brigadier general in August 1863. Do~kery suhequentlp led a brigade in the Camden expedition and fought at Marka’ Mills and Jenkins’ Ferry. A civil engineer a&er the war in Houston, Texas, he died in New York in February 1898. Colonel Elkanah Greer, commander, South Kaneas-Texas Mounted Regiment, wan ban in Tennessee in October 1825. He fought in the 1st Missiiaeippi Rifles under Jeffereon Davis in the Mexican War. He was elected a grand commander of the secret

78
proslavery Hnighta of the Golden Circfe. Greer was wounded at Pea Ridge and made a brigadier generat in October 1862. Afterward, he was appointed Cans&ption Bureau chief for the Trane-Mississippi Department and commanded the reseE*cTe forces in the trams-Mississippi. Greer lived in Marshali,Texaa, until he died in March 1817. Colonel Louis R&e&, cammander, 3d Louieiana E&r&y, was born in akin in 1820. Third in his class at the U.S. Military Academy, cIass of 1845, ka resi 1846 to become a militia officer, atate senator, and chief engineer of Louisiana. R&h& was captured at Pea Ridge but later promotad ta brigadier general in Map 1862. Me aubsequentiy com.manded a brigade in Little’s Division of J?rice”e 41! e We&; fought at IUga and Corintk and was captured d Vicksburg. A&s hein &and transferred east, he commanded heavy artililery around Fort R amlina ARer tke war, he edited a newspaper in LouiEaiana and taught at a te school. Ii&& died in Louisiana in January 1901. Lieutenant Colonel J. P. Major, commander, .Eajor”s Cavalry, 3d Division, Missouri State Guard, was born in Fayette, Missouri, in May 1836. Twenty-third in the U.S. Military Academy crass-of-1852, he later joined the 2d Cavalry on the Texae frontier. At the outset of the Civil War, he joined tke Confederacy and became chief of artillery to Earl Van Darn at Vicka‘trurg in 1862. He subsequently fought with tke Texas cavalry along the Tecke River. Promoted to brigadier general in July 1863, he fought in the Red River campaign and the Battles of Mansfield and Plemant HiH cmd commanded a cavaIry brigade in Major General PRsrton’a command. Major was paroled in June 1865 and lived for a time in France, later becoming a planter in Louisiana and Texas. He died in May 1877 in Au&in, Texas. Brigadier General Ben McCulloeh, cammander of the Southern army at Wileon’B Creek, waa born in Tennessee in November 1811. His younger brother was Confederate Brigadier General Hem-y E. McCullocb Ben M&ulIoch fought at tke Battle of San Jacinto and waB a leader in the Texas Rangem. Appointed a brigadier general in May 1861 and piaeed in command of the Indian Territory, he obtained the Cherakees’ promise to fight for tke Confederacy. McCulfoch authorized Stand Watie to organize the Cherokees into Confederate unita. McCuIlack Eed part of the Confederate force at Pea Ridge and was kiled by rifle tie leading a charge in that battle. Colonel James McIntosh, commander, 2d Arkan5st~ Mounted Rifles, was born in Florida in 1828. Tke eon of a career eoldier killed in Ike hilexican War, Be aleo had a brather who wae a brigadier general in the Unian Army, Although He was karrt in hia class at tke U.S. Military Academy in 1845, he became B brigadier genera1 in the Confderate Provisional Army in January 1862. McIntosh &ok over when McCuIIock was killed at Pea Ridge and WBB shot through the heart while Iedinga cavalry charge. Lieutenant Colonel Dandtidge McRae, commander, ArkaneaEu Infantry (MeCulloek’s Brigade), WBBborn in Alabama in October 1829. He graduated from South Carolina College and eettled in Searcy, Arkaneas. Later, he was a lawyer and clerk of the courta. I&Rae entered the Confederate service ae a major in the 3d Battalion, Arkansas mantry, and fought at Pea Ridge. He had little regard for military protocal, and kia troops described him 88 *a crude ma88 of u&ieciglined material.” McRae WBB charged with miabebav-ior in front of the enemy during the attack on Helena, Arkanrrcae, during the a&m@ to relieve Vicksburg and subeequently served in the Red River campaign and fought at Marka’ Mill and Jenkins’ Ferry. McRae resigned bia commi~&on in 1864, returned to law practice in Sea.rcy, and waB elected deputy secretary of Arkanaaa in 1881. He died in April 1899.

79
Brigadier General Moeby M. Pansons, camslander, 6th Division, Missouri State Guard, was born in Charlottesville, Virginia, on 21 May 1822. Later, he moved to Cole County, Missoti, stu&ed law, and WEBadmitted to tbe bar. Afterward, be commanded a company of mounted volunteers in the Mexican War. From 1853 to 1857, Parsons was attomey general of Missouri end later was e&-ted to the state senale. Immediately before the Civil War, he actively allied himself with Governor Claibome Jaclrson in an effort to get Missouri into the Confederacy. At the outbreak of war, he commanded the 6th Division oftbe Missouri State Guard until he ws.s commissioned B brigadier general in the army of the ConFederate St&es of America in November 1862. In the Civil War, be fought at Carthsge, Wiion’s Creek, Pea Eiidge, and in the Arkanaas campaigns of 1862 and 1863. He &o reinforced Richard Taylor during the Red River campaign and was present at the Battlea of PIeasant Hill and Marks’ Mills and at Jenkine’ Ferry wainst Steele. Parsons was assigned duty as a major general in April 1864 by Kirby Smith but was never ofEicially appointed by President Jefferson Davis OF confirmed by the Confederate Senate. Parsons accompanied Price in the Missouri expedition in X864 and after the war went to Mexico. His death is a mystery, but be may have attached himself to the forces ofMaximi&xn +sndbeen killed byrepublican irregulars in Auguet 1865 near China on the San Juan River m the Mexican state of Nuevo Leon. He is supposedly buried near that site. Brigadier General N, Bar% Pearce, commander, Pearce’s Brigade of McCulloch’s command, was born about 1816 in Kentucky. Twenty-sixth of forty-four cadets in the U.S. Military Academy class of 1850, he wss later commissioned in the Infantry, serving on the frontier and in the Utah expedition before he resigned in 1658 Dobe a farmer and merchxnt. hn May 1861, he raised troopa for the Arkamse State Militia and fought at Wilson’s Creek. Pearce was named chief commissary of the Indian Territory in December 1861 with the rank of major gene&, Confederate Statea sf America, and chief commissary of Texas in June 1863. At the time, he was accused of improper deeding with speculators. Pearce ser9ed out the war with Kirby Smith. Major General Sterling Price, commander, Missouri St&e Guard, was second in command of the Southern army at Wilson’s Creek. Born 20 September 1809 in Prince Edward County, Virginia, he was educated at Hampden-Sydney College and later studied law. He moved to Miseouri about 1831.with his parents and purchased a farm in Chsriton County. He later served six years in the legislature and was speaker of the state house. Price was elected to Congress ham 1844 to 1846 but resigned to take part in the Mexican Wsr as a colonel of the 2d Missouri Infantry and, later, brigadier general of Volunteers. He was subsequently military governor of New Mexico, governor of Missouri from 1853 to 1857, and president of the state convention in 1861. Price opposed aeceesion but accepted E c ’ -on in the Missouri State Militia in May 1861 end combined his force with Gener utloch prior to Wilw5"a Creek. Afbrward, he retook Springf%eId and czqkxwed Ltrx~n, Missouri, but retreated to A.&aPisas in the late fs.II of 1861. Price c.~mm8.&ed of the Confederat-e force at Pea Ridge and was Eater commissioned .s major general, Confederate States of America, on 6 Mm& 1862. He commanded at &.&a and Corinth, Missieaippi, in October 1862 and ELM Helena, Arkansas, in 1863. He aided Kirby Smith in repulsing Steele’s Camden expedition in early 1864. AEerward, he commanded an expeditian into Misaowi in the fall of 1864, Zn Texas at the end of the war, he faedto Mexico with many of his folIowere, returning to Missouri in 1866. He died in St. Louis in September 1867 and is buried in the Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis. Brigadier General William Y. Slack, commander, 4th Division, Missouri State Guard, was barn in Maeon County, Kentucky, on 1 August 1816. He moved to Boone County, Missouri, in I.819 and settled neer Columbia. A.&T studying Iaw, be moved to

Cbillicotbe, Missouri, and began his practice. Slack served as captain of the 2d Missouri Volunteers under Sterling Price in the Mexican War, then returned to law practice. He was appointed brigadier general in the Missouri State Guard in 1861 and fought at Cai-thage and Wihon’s Creek, where be was wounded in the hip. After recovering, be fought at Pea Ridge, where he was again wounded in the hip. Siack ‘tingered until 21 March 1862 then died and was buried in the yard at bis home in Moore’s Mill, A&msas. He was later reinterred in the Confederate Cemetery, Fayetteville, Arkansas, in 1880.

APPENDIX B Medal of Honor Recipients at WiIson’s Creek, 10 August 1861
Nicholas Bouquet, private, Company D, 1st Iowa Infantry, was born on 14 November 1642 in Germany and entered tbe service in Burlington, Iowa. His medal was issued 16 February 189’7. Citatton: Bouquet voluntariIy left tbe line of battle and exposed himself to imminent danger horn a heavy fire of the enemy in assisting in the capture of a riderless horse, at large between the lines, and bitching him to a disabled gun, thw saving the gun fmm capture. In 1862, Bouquet joined the 25th Iowa lizfantzy and served with this unit through the rest of the war. Promoted to sergeant in Company E, Sergeant Bouquet fought in the siege of Vicksburg; the Battles of Chattanooga, Lookout Mountain, and Missionary Ridge; the Atlanta cam@@; Kennesaw Mountaim the “March to the Sea”; and the Carolinas campaign. Lorenzo D. ImmeB, corporal, Company F, 2d U.S. Artillery, Ohio. His medal was issued on 19 July 1890. C&z&n: ImmeII was cited for bravery in action. Immeli was discharged from the 2d U.S. Artillery in 1862 and accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in Battery G, 1st Missouri Light ArtSIery. Promoted to first lieutenant during the war, ImmeIl commanded Battery G, 1st Missouri Light; the 12th Wisconsin Battery; and the 6th Ohio Battery (which were part of the lV Corps, Army of the Cumberland). At various times, Lieutenant Immell also served as the acting assistant adjutant general of the artillery brigade, RI Corps, and as acting impector of artillery for the IV Corps. He is buried in the Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery near St. Louis, Missouri. John M. Schofield, major, 1st Missouri Infantry, was born on 29 September 1831 in Gerry, New York He entered the service at St. Louis, Missouri. and was issued his medal on 2 July 1892. Citcrtion: Schofield was conspicuously gallant in leading a regiment charge against the enemy. in a euccessful was born in Ross,

A career Army officer, Schofield graduated from West Point in 1853 and served as General Nathaniel Lyon’s chief of&&fat the Battle of WiIson”a Creek. He later served in the Western theater as a major gene& and was the commander oftbe Federal army that defeated John Bell Hood at Franklin, ‘Tennessee. After the war, Schofield served brie.Sy aa secretary of war and superintendent of West Point (l&76-811. In Fehrusry 1888, be became commanding general of the U.S. Army and was promoted to lieutenant general in February 1895. He retired on 29 September 1895 at the age of sixty-faur afk fortysix years in the Army. Schofield died in 1966 and is buried in tbe Arlington National Cemetery. William M. Wherry, first lieutenant, Company D, 3d U.S. Reserve Miesouri Infantry, was born on I.3 September 1836 in St. Louis, Missouri. He entered the service at St. Louis, Missouri, and his medal was issued on 30 October 1896.

82
Citation: Wherry displayed conspicuous coolnese and heroism in rallying were recoiling under heavy tie.

troops that

Wherry served an General iyon’s ata.E at the Battle af Wilson’e Creek. He served throughout the Civil Wax and participated in the Battles of Atlanta, Franklin, and Nashville. Ha continued in the Army after the wer and served as a brigadier genera1 of VoEtmtee~~during the SpaGh-American War. Wherry retired in 1899 after thirty-eight years of service and is buried in the Bellef&x&ne Cemetery in St. Lou&, Miseouri. Henry Clay Wood, fast lieutenant,
Maine. He entered the eetice in Winthrop and received his medal on 28 Oct.&r

11th U.S. Infantry, was born in Winthrop, 1893.

Citation: Waod was cited for dietinguiehed gallantly. Wood retired in 1904 with the rank. of brigadier general sfter Efty years of active duty. He was an 1854 graduate of Bowdoin CaHege CnAugusta, Maine. Wood ie buried in the Arlingtun National. Cemetery.

APPENDIX C Families on the Wilson’s Creek Battlefield
John M. Gibson was a farmer and miller by trade and operated a mill along the east bank of Wileon’s Creek During the battle, the Gibeona took refuge in the cellar of their house. Joseph Sharp was a farmer and owned the large cornfields in which moat of the Southern cavalry camped. The famiIy took refuge in its cellar during the battle. The Sharp’s farm and home suffered Borne damage during the battle. Later in the war, the houseburned, and the family abandoned the farm. E. B. Short operated a farm near the site of the presentday Visitor’s Center. Lyon’s Army of the West aurprieed the Short femily during break&t on the morning of the battle. General Lyon poeted his wagon park near the Short’s springhouse. Larkin D. Winn ovyned._thefarm near the Pulaski &tiBery After the battle, the Winns left l&s&our-i and moved to Arkaneae. Battery% position.

6. B. Manley owned a farm on the eaAem side of Wilson’s Creek in which elements of the Mieeouri State Guard and Arkanaaa troops camped. AfIer the battle, the family cemetery was a temporary resting place for the Confederate dead. T. B. Manley was C. B. Manley’s brother end farmed the south elope ofwhat is now called Bloody Hill. The Glidewell family, direct descendants of the Manleya, sold the farm to the statpr of Missouri in the 196Oaae part of the batttefield development. Susanna Edgar owned a small farm on the north edge of the battlefield. The park maintains the family cemetery. William Edwards was a Union men and accompanied Lyon’s Army of the West to Springfield after the akiiah at Dug Springe. After the bettIe, Edwards moved about five miles away and built another cabin, which baa been preserved and moved to Wilson’s Creek at the site of Confederate General Price’s headquartera.

APPENDIX D Order of BattEe, Wilson’s Creek, 10 August 1861
UNION ARMY (5,600) Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon
1st Brigade ES41

Maj. Samuel D. Sturgia 1st U.S. Infantry, Capt. Joseph B. Plummer (4 companies, 300 men) 2d Missouri Infantry Battalion,Maj. Peter J. Osterhaus (150) Company I, 2d Kanaae Maunkd Infantry, and Company D, 1stU.S. Cavalry (3501 Company F, 2d U.S,Arti!lery, Capt. James Totten (6 guns, 84 men)
2d Brigade (l&1

Col. Franz S&gel 36 Missouri Infantry, Lt. Cal. Anselm Albert, and 5th Missouri Infantry, Cal. Charles E. Salomon (9901 Company I, 1st U.S. Cavalry, Capt. Eugene A. Carr (6% Company C, 2d U.S. Dragoona, 2d Lt. Charles E. Farrand (60) Backoff’s Battery, Lieutenants Edward Schuetzenbach and Frederick Schaeffer (6 gum, 85 men1 3d Brigade (1,116) Lt. Cal. George L. Andrew8 1st Missouri Infantry, Lt. Coi. George L. Andrews (775) 2d U.S. Infantry, Capt. Frederick Steele (4 companies, 275 men) Du Bois’ Battery, 2d ht. John V. Du Boia (4 guns, 66 men)
4th Brigade C&4001

Cal. George W. Deitzler l8t Kanaae I&n*, Cd. George W. Deitzler (8001 2d Kansas Infantry, Lt. Cal. Charles W. Blair 1600) 1st Iowa Infantry, Cof. John F. Bates (8001 Home Guards, Capt. Clark Wright f2661

85

86
CONFEDERATE ARMY tlQ,1751 Brig. Gen. Ben McCullach
Pearce’s Brtgade (2,2341 Brig. Gen. N. Bart Pearce

1st Arkansas Cavalry, Cd. De Rosey Car&l (3501 Carroll’s Cavalry, Capt. Charlea A. CerroEl(40) 3d Arkansae Infantry, Cd. John R. Gratiat (500) 4th Arkansas Infantry, Cal. J. D. Walker (5501 5th AA.ansas I&u&q, Cot. Tom P. Dtxkery (650) Woodruff’s Battery, Capt. W. E. Waodr& Jr. (4 guns, 71 men] Reid’s Battery, Capt J. G. Reid (4 guns, 73 men)
McCulLock”s Brigade (2,7202

Brig. G-en Ben McCulbch 3d Iaisiana Infantry, Col. La;& H&ert (700) Arkansas Infantry, Lt. Cal. D. McR.ae (220) lat ArkansaaMounted Rifles, Cal. T. J. Churchill (6001 2d Arkansas Maunted Riffles, CoI. James McIntosh (4001 South Kansas-Texas Mounted Regiment, Cal. Elkanah Greer (800) MISSOURI STATE GUARD (5,221) Maj. Gen. Sterling Price
2d Diuisim (2,526)

Brig. Gen. James S. Rains

Infantry Srigude (I,2501
Co). Richard H. Weight-man 1st Missouri 2d Miseouri 3d Missouri 4th Mieequri State Guard InfLntq State Guard Infantry State Guard Infantq State Guard Infautz-y

Cavalry Btigade (1,210) Cal. Hawthorn Peyton*s Cavalry McCowan'e Cavalry Hunter’s Cavalry
Bledsoe’s Battery (3 guns, 66 men)

3d Division (513) Brig. Gen. Charles Clark

Burbridge’s Ixfantq, Cal. J. Q. Burbridge (273) Major% Cavairy, Lt. Col. J. P. Major (300)
4thDivision (934)

Brig. C&n. William Y. Slack Hughea Infantry,Col. John T. Hughes end Thornton’s Infantry, Maj. C. C. Thornton (6501 Rives’ Cavalry, Cal. B. A. Rives (234)
6th Division (601)

Brig. Gen. Monroe M. Parsona Kelly’s infantry, Cal. Kelly (195) Brow& Cavahy, Cal. Brown (406) Guibor’s Battery, Capt. H. Guibor f4 guns, 61 men)

Brig. Gen. J. H. McBride

Wingo’s Infantry, Cal. Wing0 03001 Foster’s Infantry, Cal. Foster (305) Campbell’8 Cavalry, Capt. Campbell (40)

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Recommended Readings for StaffRide BattlejWd Participants and

Bearsa, Edwin C. The Battle of !Tikon’s Creek. 2d ed. Bozeman, MT: Wilson’s Creek Natimd Battlefield Foundation, 1986.
The Wur of tke Rebel&on.* A Compilation tif the Official Records of the Union and DC: U.S. Confederate Armies. Ser. 1. VoI. 3. (Pages 53-130.) Washington,

Government Printing Of&e, 1881. Reprint. Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 13%. Ser. 1. Voi. 53. (Pages 451-763.) Reports, Carrespondence, Etc. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1898.

,Library of Congress
Sturgie, S. D. Collection; W61-81. Library of Congreaa, Manuscript Miscallaneous Manuscripts Collection, Washington, DC. Division,

This coktion cantaim an account of the Battle of Wilson’s Creek that has been copied from the Franklin Repository and Transcript, 9 Oct&er 1861. Wood, Henry C. Papers, 1838-1907. Library washingtan, DC. of Congress, Manuscript Divisian,

These papers are composed of 300 items and are, in part, photocopies and tr&nscripta. Within this material are some items concerning the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.

Books
Bearq Edwin C. The Battle of W&on’s Creek. 2d ed. Bozeman, i+&E Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield Foundation, 1985. This book provides a campaign overview and battle narrative. Bra.& Randolph C. Campaign of&n. Lyon in Missouri. War Paper No. 3, Oregon . . . Military Order of the Loyal Legion. Portland, OR: Schwab Brothers Printing Co., 1895. Carter, D. G. As It Was: The Story ofDouglas
~attan,buce. ThisHallowed J. CateT’s Life. San Antonio,TX, 1981.

Gro&f.

Garden City, NT: Doubleday and Co., 1963.

T’hie is a campaign overview and battle narrative. Collier, Calvin L. “They’d Do to Tie To!“: Tke Story of the Third Regiment, Arkansas Infantry, CSA. Littie Rock, AR. Dacus, R&e& H. Reminiscences of Company “Zi.” First Dardmelle, AR: Post-Dispatch Print, 1897.
Arkansas Mounted Rifles.

89

90
Hammock, John C. With Honor Untarnished: 7% Story of the First Arkansas 1nfmb-y Regiment, Confederate Skates Army. Little Bock, AR: Pioneer Press, 1961. Holcombe and Return Ira Adams. An Account oftke Battle of Wilson’s Creek. SpringfieId, MO: The Springfield Public Library and Greene County Historical Society, 1961. This is a battle narrative that was originaBy published anniversary of the battle. Hulston, John Ii;. West Point and W&on’s Creek. Springfield, 1986. The work is a battle narrative. Ingenthron, Elmo. Borderland Rehllion. Branson, MO: The Ozarks Mountaineer, 1980. Kemp, Hardy A. A&out Nathaniel Lyon Brigadier Volunteers and Wilsds Creek.. 1979.
Leeper, Wesley T. Rebeki Vahnt: Second Arkansas

on the twenty-second

MO: Evangel College,

General, United

States Army

Rii(les (Dismounted).

Little Book,

AR: Pioneer Rese, 1964. McDonald, Arthur Y. Person& Civil Wcu Easy of Andrew Young McDonald, April 23, 1861 to September 12,186l. Dubuque, LA, 1956. @Zoneor, Henry. History ofthe First Regiment of Powa Volunteers. Muscatine, IA: Faust Print House, 1862. Bombauer, Robert J. The Union Cause of St. Louis in 1861. A Kistoricab Louia, MO: Press ofNixon-Jones printing Company, 1969.
Sketch. St.

Sanford, G. B. Fighting Rebels and Redskins. Experiences in Army Life of Colonel George B. Sanford, 1861-1866. Norman: University of Oklahoma Resa, 1969. Tunnard, William H. A Southern Recor& The Hlsfory of the Third Regiment, Loui&ana Infan@ Baton Bouge, LA (printed by the author), 1866.
The Far of the Rebellion: Confederate Armies. A Compilation uf the Official Records of the U&n and 1. Vol. 3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing

Ser.

Office, 18&l. Reprint. Wiimington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1985. These are primary sources of information correspondence and after-action reporte. containing Wnion and Confederate

Ware, Eugene F. The Lyon Campaign in bfissouti. Topeka, KS: Crane BE Co., 1907. Woodruff, William E. Wtik the Light Guns in ‘61-‘66: Reminiscences of Eleven Arkansas* Missouri, and Texas Light Bat&Ties in the Civil War. Little Fiock, AR: Eagle Press, lS63,1987. This is an excellent battle narrative.

91
Articles
Allbritton, OrvaI E. “The Third Arkansas Regiment From Formation to Fredricksburg.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 16 (19571:150-&Z. Austin, Robert A. “Battle of Wilson’s Creek.“ &f&souri Historical Reuiew 36 (193% 33k46-49. Bearss, Edwin C. ?%s Battle of Wilson’s Creek.” Annals of Iowa 36 (1!%1-62):81-109, 161-86. Berg, Richard “Wilson’s Creek to Pea Ridge.” Str&gy 8,14. and Tactics (MapJune 198@:4-

Berg’s article is a campaign overview and battle narrative. Blocker, Albert. ‘The Boy-Bugler of the 3dTexas CavaIry.” Military History of !lkws and the Southwest 14, pt. 1-3, nos. 2-4 (1978):71-92, 147-67, 215-21; 15. pt. 4, no. 1 (1979):21-34. Catton, Bruce. “A Mean-Fowt Fig&* and ‘?Ihe Hidden Intentions.” In Terrible SW@ Sword. The Centennial History of the Civil War. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1963. These chapters provide a campaign overview and battle narrative. Cheavens, H. M. “Journal of the Civil War in Miasouri, 1861.” &fissouri Hisrorlcol Review 56/October 1961):X%-25. Clark, James Samuel. “General Lyon and the Fight for ?&ssouri.” Mi&ory Q&r of he L.-q& Legion of the United States-Iowa. Vol. 2. Iowa Commander-y. Dee Moines, I.4, 274-92. Du Bois. “Account of the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.” Missouri Historical Rev&~ 60, pt. 1 (July 19f6):436-59; 61, pt. 2 (October 1966):22-50. “Flag Day Reunion of the First Iowa Infantry Veterans Association, August 10, PEE%.* Des Moines, L4,1894, DNW, Flournoy, George M. “An Unofficial Account of the Battle of W&on Creek.” AF~MSCZS Historical Quarterly 15 (Winter 1956~:36@-64. Fremont, John C. “In Command in Missouri.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buei. Vol. 1. New York The Century Co., 1887. This articEe provides a campaign overview. “In the Ranks Under General Lyon in Missouri.” Blue and Gray 4 (1894):142-47; 5 (1895):6640,141-47,199-203.

92
Lademann, C&to C. “I’he Battle of Carthage, MO, Friday July 5, 1861.” Captain, 3d Missouri. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States-Wisconsin. Vol. 4. Milwaukee, WE Burdick h Allen, 1914. _. “The Battle of Wilson% Creek, August 10,1861.” Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States-Wisconsin. Vol. 4. Milwaukee, WI: Bnrdick & Allen, 1914, 433-49. ?he Capture of Camp Jackson, St. Louis, Mo, May 10,186t.” MZitsry Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States-Wisconsin. Vol. 4. Milwaukee, WI: Burdick h Allen, 1914,69-35.

_.

Lobdell, Jared C. “Nathaniel Lyon and the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.” Bulletin, Missorrti Histotical SQcicty 17 /1961):3-15. McDonald, William N. “Battie of Wilson’s Creek” Southern Biuouac 3 (1884-85):49-54.
._

McGonigle,

James A. “First

Transactions

Kansas Historical

Kansas Infantry in the Battle Society 12 /1912):2X-95.

of Wilson’s

Creek.”

McNamara, J. “My Knapsack: General Sterling Price’s Report of the Battle of Oak Hills.” Southern .?ugazine 2 (1869):99-104. This account was fast published in the Springfield, Missouri, Mirror, 12 August 1861. Mudd, Joseph A. “What I Saw at W&son’s Creek.” Missouri
(1931):89-105. Historical

Quarterly

7

Pearce, N. B. “Arkansas l’roope in the Battle of Wileon’s Creek.” In B&&es and Leaders of the Ciuil War, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clongh Bael. Vol. 1. New York The Century Co., 1837,298-303. This is a battle narrative. Sigel, Franz. %e Flanking Column at Wilson’s Creek.” In Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel. Vol. 1. New York: The Century Co., 1887,304-6. Tbia is a battle narrative. Snead, Thomas L. “The First Year of the War in Missouri.” In Battles and Leaders oftPus Ciuil Wczr,edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and Clarence Clough Buel. Vol. 1. New York: The Century Co., 1887,X2-77. Thia is a campaign overview. Taylor, 0. W. “Joseph H. Haney, An Arkansas Engineer in the Civil War.” Arkansas Histoarical Quarterly 14 (Spring 1955):62-71. Trader, John W. “Brigadier Surgeon John W. Trader’s Recollections of the Civil War in Missouri.” Missouri Historical Quarterly 46 /1952):323-34.

93
Upton, Lucile. “Battle of Wilson’e Creek.” Reprinted from articles by Lucile Morris Upton in the Springfield News and Leader. Printed end distributed by the Wilson’s Creek Battlefield Foundation, 1950. Wherry, William M. “The Campaign in Missouri and the Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 1861.” A paper read before the Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, March 1866. _. “Wilson’s Creek and the Death of Lyon.” In &&tles and Le.adsrs of the Civil War, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson and CEarence Claugh Buel. Vol. 1. New York: The Century Co., 18&7,289-97.
This is a battle narrative.

Wilkie, Franc B. “The Battle of Wilson’s Creek.” The Palimpsest 9 (1928):291-310. This article was frost published in the Dubuque Her&don Williams, J. C. “The Fire of Hatred.” Civil War Times I&&rated 31.
21 August 1861. 17 (January 1879E:26-

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