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4, November 1996
An Adaptive Approach to Load Shedding and Spinning Reserve Control During Underfrequency Conditions
V. N. Chuvychinl
R. E. Brown**
*RigaTechnical University Riga, Latvia
Energy Group, Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of Washington, Seattle, WA,
Abstrect-Emergency conditions arising due to generating power deficiency and the consequent drop in power system frequency can lead to system collapse and a large scale loss of load. Underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) is a globally accepted practice to handle this situation. Most UFLS schemes use pre-specified step sizes based upon frequency measurements. This paper presents an adaptive scheme which uses both frequency and rate-ofchange of frequency measurements to dynamically set UFLS relays if more than one generation outage is experienced. It then proposes a technique for coordinating UFLS and the activation of spinning reserves through localized governor control. Recent developments in computer based frequency and rate-of-change of frequency relays makes this scheme both feasible and attractive.
A sudden loss of generation, causing a mismatch between energy supplied and energy demanded, will result in a system frequency drop. If governor action cannot activate spinning reserve quickly enough to restore the system to its normal operating frequency, underfrequency load shedding (UnS) serves as a last-resort tool to prevent the system from collapse.
96 205-5 PWRS A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Power system Engineering Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering society for presentation at the 1996 IEEEJPES Winter Meeting, JanUWY 2125, 1996, Baltimore, MD. Manuscript submitted July 31, 1995; made available for printing January 15, 1996.
UFLS is common practice for electric utilities around the world [l-51. WL!I uses under-frequency relays (sometimes equipped with time delays) to drop loads as the frequency drops. Depending on the philosophy and the needs of the power company, the: number of frequ,encysteps varies from two to f&een . Tlzis basic technique has not appreciably changed since its inception more that 50 years ago. For an UFLS system to be most effeclive, the location and magnitude of all generation and loads is needed. Unfortunately, there is not enough time to obtain this information in an underfrequency emergency 271. Both generation and load profiles are constantly changing (due io load shedding, changing generator set points, and generator outages) yet underfrequency relays have a single set point for all scenarios. A need exists to develop an adaptive UFLS system which can customize underfrequency relay set points in response to any system condition. Recent efforts to improve UFLS use the rate of change of frequency, dydt, as an additional control variable [6-91. These methods shed load when dydt is greater than a pre-set value. Anderson et. al. [SI1 presents a more sophisticated approach which determines the amount of load to be shed based on frequency, df/ddt, and ihe inertia constant system. These methods are a more advanced approach to UFLS but do not account for the constantly changing generatiodload characteristics of the system. For example, the inertia constant is perpetually changing as the amount of load connected to each UFLS relay varies from hour to hour. A recent paper  suggested an adaptive load slhdding qProach for cogeneration plants using power flow results. This paper and others [loll] show that UFLS can be improved by incorporating selftuning, adaptive features. During an emergency underfrequency condition of a power system, localized underfrequency governor control (UFGC) should override controls based om economic dispatch. This will help prevent the system From collapse by activating spinning reserves more quickly. lJFGC and UFLS, as can be seen, occur concomitantly. IJnfortunately, no
0885-8950/96/$05.000 1996 IEEE
This paper is divided into five sections.10.0 48. If a subsequent drop [9.m 3 ary curve given by (4).0 47.5 3 1." 1.f . it can incorporate phase plane analysis into its function .From this assumption it follows that (3) is valid whenf =fn and dydt = 0.5 48. load shedding should T L . $ + f p ( f ) (2) power system. 121 is shown in (1). move as a trajectory on the phase plane.5 50.0 m 8 3 'e) 0 -0. ADAPTIVE UFLS unity. HL.T G . to be compared with the bound2 f . This is done by identzBing j?equency drops dynamic process in terms of a phase plane (dydt VS f l subsequent to the initialj?equency drop. in Watts. and load inertia. MATHEMATICAL MODEL The governing dynamic equation for an equivalent machine connected to an infinite bus [l l . f n . This allows the status of a P G =PL TL f . o angular frequency in radsecond. the power system status at any time can be determined.5 -1.5 49. by measuring frequency and the rate-ofchange of frequency and substituting these values in equation The authors propose an adaptive UFLS method that (3). 11.13]. I Description of the Concept in nature. PL load at w. When the system state falls below boundary onds. the system state will (3).1806 method exists to coordinated these two functions.0 47. all UFLS relays will be reset based on the differload power under nominal frequency are equal. When this trajectory moves above the boundary curve.f 2 . Modern microprocessor based relays can aid in implementing this method [14-171. usually due to a sequential loss of generation The limits of the system's state. load should be shed During the load shedding process.f 2 .Phase Plane Boundary Curve Equation (1) can be simplified to the'per unit form given If an UFLS relay is able to measure both frequency and and w by$ in equation ( 2 ) by replacing H by T . in Watts D(o) a frequency dependent coefficient to account for frequency dependent loads. it is convenient to visualize the relay settings. This basic technique of phase plane UFLS can be fur2 f .2D(f) = I (3) cease. An example of such a boundw curve is shown in Figure 1.and dydt = 0. Section v concludes the Paper and gives recommendations for future work. When (3) is invalid.T G . the system is transient 3. This paper proposes a method based on frequency and dfdt.It is equal to the sum of generator inertia.. Section I v presents the strategy and philosophy for coordinating adaptive U F L s with WGC. rived from (3) as seen in (4): limit (4) A boundw curve on the phase plane be conveniently represented using (4). as is commody done. o. rd f f ther improved by incorporating adaptive features where underfrequency relays automatically change their frequency Many difficulties arise when attempting to determine the settings based on frequency and dfdt measurements coefficients of a frequency dependent D#.0 Frequency (Hz) Figure 1. given by (3). is identified.0 49. do o H. When load is equal to generation. f . may be de.P / dydt. Hence.ence between the last frequency local maximum and the last . utilizes both frequency and dydt measurements to change For the purpose of analysis. when the generating and facilities. dt 0 n H total amount of inertia of the rotor masses in kg/m2. PG generator output at w.D(o)Pr. nominal angular frequency in radsecond. _. Section I1 develops a matliematical model for UFLS based on phase plane analysis. HG . f n .rf & +f.= Pc ( 2 ~ 0 a ) . Points above the curve represent a surplus of generation and points below the curve represent a deficiency in generation. No control is necessary when f = fn TGand TL are inertia constants of generators and load in sec. Adaptive UFLS and simulation results of a Latvian power System are described i n Section 111. (2) can be reduced to curve. f . This paper. assumes that D# is constant and equal to 111.
as defined in (5). with step size of 0.(new) ~ ~ e = f. The inertia constant of the system. This will lead to the new fre.807 mum (this type of c a s c a gene~tion ~~~ 3. indicated by curve 0.0 .5 Hz in less thzm1 second (point 2). As At this juncture. Each relay’s tripping frequency. the frequency D h g the transition from 0 to Curve 0. When the tripping ms time plane. Figure 3 illustrates the locus of dJdt versus frequency on a phase plane during an underfrequency condition. fmh. Dynamic behavior during UFLS simulation starts with a 150 M W loss of generation (point 1) where dydt drops below 4 IMs and the frequency drops from In F i w e 2. fx(newt. 5 48 rrequeney 48.quency devices not initiated during first underfrequency quency drop characterized by curve 0.dpjt becomes positive and the frquency begins to haease quency Will cease to drop and Will rise as shown i n m ~ 0.If sufficient load is shed. single ~ a~ o d ~with ~ l ~ the following system ~ ~ a ~ is assumed. Adaptive UFLS can handle this situation more effectively.1 Hz.p of the load shetiding is Settings fi to fm. assume that a . is then reset to its new value. the corresponding frequency value. It notices a change in sign of d td ’ at t2. It is at this point that adaptive UFLS has an effect. in case it is needed to drop below -5 Hds. all underfreis removed from the system. and adaptive functions 26.5 49 49. connected to the relays with settings from f. Aftc. Th. 50 Hz to 48. f. take Place b Y SteP load shedding at this stage (point 2).willbe faster. Figure 3. &at& processing.5 Hz. The corresponding power step is set . seen in curve @. f . For s i ~ ~ ~ ~ an t ie o n ivalent . H.3 E[z (49. The relay will record of 150 MW generating poi~er takes place. f. +( f m m -fwin 1 As a result. me first stc. In this study.37 seconds). The Figure 2.l are The first step of adaptive load shedding is initiated at point 5. t = 1. At this point. mmvE is adopted (this is a common scheme in Latxia). is recorded. The conThe Latvian power s y s t e ~ cept can be better ~ d e ~ o by o d examining Fi wing se of p o ~ e n ~ large ~ l y generat~onde?e& load is connected to UELS n and hydro power stations in this region and the total inertia con a wide range.y. ~ t ~ The r ssystem’s base generating power is 500 MW. there has risen to a 49 Hz (point 4 ) .2 ~ i ~ u ~ ofthe ~ tLatv. In addition. which is important for any UFLS scheme. then the fre. the frequency will drop without any UFLS As seen from the Figure 4.5 50 (UZ)--> well w i t h i n the time required for successful UFLS. When this change in sign is noticed. Twenly steps of load shedding between 48.. Adaptive UFLS Phase Plane Analysis . all relays are assumed to be without time delays. will raise their settings by 1. After 22 seconds.at 16 MW. It is important to note that all UFLS adaptive functions can be implemented indqendently in each relay.47.. to f.5 47 4 7 .k results in a generation deficiency and a in system Figue 4 illustrates the Same process on a frequency verthe frequency. is fixed at a n average value of 5 seconds and DQI is assumed to be unit. advances in microprocessor based relays allow for data gathering (frequency and d f I d t ) ) . a genemtion facility has been tripped out. later.7). not lower the system frequmcy below 48 Hz.5 and 46. e (point 3. an additional loss will be a change in sign of dWt at ti.r nine steps of the load shedding. the frequency drop will not be as low as in the classical case and the frequency recovery process.second generation facility the frequency begins to drop a second time. This causes dydt the corresponding frequency value. the second frequency decline does action until frequency drops below f . tripped already. Because all loads condition. .ian i o ~ Power ~ y ~ t ~ loss o c c m more than 50% of the cases in Latvia).
the load reference When the frequency in the power qxtem reaches setting set point. dfdt is negative and reaches an unacceptable level. This will force generation output to increase at the fastest possible rate. 3 . the second loss In an severe underfrequency situation. generators can be gradually transferred back to AGC. The frequency of the system will not change its value instantly. UNDERFREQUENCY GOVERNOR CONflROL point N. I Strategy o f Under@equency Governor Control but there will be a jump in the ratesf-change of frequency. The frequency of a generator is maintained by its gover. in a 50 Hz system. The amount of spinning reserve (the total amount of operating point. this spinning reserve should be activated as quickly as possible in an attempt to prevent the system from colapse. UFLS causes discrete positive jumps in dfdf generation available from all synchronized units minus the and UFGC causes a smooth increase in dfdt . the authors propose a specialized control scheme termed underfrequency governor control (UFGC). when the frWenCY further decreases to f m s @ O h t not determine governor action and supplementary local con. To do this. economics should values.2 Hz lower than in the adaptive case. Assume that the system has lost a generator. For maximum effectiveness. Dynamic Response without Adaptive UFLS After recognizing the need UFGC. UFGC should begin at the very beginning of a frequency decline in a power system and should be localized control-independent of emergency management system (EMS) communication. these two mechanisms. Importing of power’should only take place at the frequency restoration stage.. The authors propose the following UFGC initiation criteria: 1. When the underfrequency condition begins to improve. the authors propose a method based on the Hz-2. is normally obtained from an automatic generation ~ U F G C(Point A). In this case. This represents a power system which will normally operate at IV. To illustrate. In the case of islanding. frequency settings are usually from 48. A sudden abnormal tripping of a large generating unit or a sudden abnormal tripping of a transmission line connecting two parts of the power system is detected. If Micient spinning reserve generation is not available.1808 Frea. The dashed line of Figure 3 shows the system phase 4. priority should be given to the island with the largest load. power should be imported from a neighboring system [191.7 Hz). Dynamic Response with Adaptive UFLS Figure 5. 2. In zone 0 both UFLS and UFGC are at work attempting to bring the system frequency to its normal trol should be initiated.2 uFLs and uFGc Coordination plane response to non-adaptive UFLS. If a severe underfrequency condition occurs.This corresponds to a move from point N to point N’. Time in seconds Figure 4. Since UFGC is ubiquitous with UFLS. it is desirable if their functions are coordinated with each other. system phase plane. UFLS is initiated. 4.B).4 UFGC Will be O C d g s i m ~ ~ e o ~TlOY C~Ordhite . Figure 5 shows the non-adaptive dynamic response. UFGC will be initiated and all generators control (AGC) system based on economic &spatch. both UFLS and of generation causes the system fi-equency to fall to 46.18-201. consider Figure 6. nor The control variable for the governor. vs lime present load) of a system is chosen so that the loss of one or more generating units does not cause too far a drop in system frequency [13. the load reference set points of all governors should be set to their maximum value. The system frequency drops below a preset level (e.g. During Will inCre2Ee their load reference Set points to their maximum an emergency underfrequency situation.8 to 49.
WA. all governors being involve the use of fuzzy rules to rtpresent heuristic controlled be AGC. fn is the fie. values correspondVII. 776-783. The I C . it [41 M Mandozzi. lines LN ancl PN. "Frequency Actuated Load Shedding and Restoration."Recent Improvements o f Emergency has entered Stage 2. CClNCLUSIONS 1.Philosophy. Part I . important to note that this process is coordinated without the need for communication between generator sites. the govwhich can replace the AGC signal in underfrequency ernor associated with curve GINwill have been transferred to emergencies. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Curves LN. Factors involved in choosing K.f ) (6) the figures.N. In zone 0.Power Apparatus and Systems. 4.P s system frequency back to its normal operating point. Power Apparatus and Systems. G. Wilson. At point E. 1971. pp. can be cooirdinated with adaptive UFLS using AGC until none are receiving control input from UFGC. Dunlop.be transferred back to localized. D. system from collapsing When the frequency begins to rise. (in general K. to AGC and in which order this should occur. "Applicationo f Underfrequency Relays for In summary. R. vol PAS-87. and V. M. ]REFERENCES ing to each generator need to be determined by an engineer familiar with underfrequency conditions and the specific [11 R. I21 H."lEEE Trans. In Stage 1. This adaptive approach has been impleminimum and will now begin to rise. System Automation. L. this zone. in turn. It is phase plane analysis. values will include when it is safe to return governor control 1452-1459. E. 4. This method requires measuring both frequency v> and its rate-of-change (dfdf)to estimate the system state at any given time. May/June 1968. UFLS ceases and governor control gradually transferred back to AGC. The authors expanded the phase plane method of UFLS When Point C is reached. VI. system being considered. These efforts in zone @ (see point F). USA. This method of control.develop the paper while he was at the Uiv&ty of Washingquency and I S . point N. 3. The first author acknowledges the financial support from CIES for the opportunity to complete the work i d is the at the given moment. no. ( f. These meameiments can be implemented using microprocessor-based relays. Seattle. frequency has reached a local frequency when Of generation take place. For example. three stages when an underfrequency occurs. Moscow Energija. V. and PN can be described by the following equation: The authors would like to thank Tom Piukai for conducting the simulations reported in this paper and for developing df/dt=K. is a coefficient corresponding to generator x ton. sian). The system is now safe from collapse howledge in an attempt to automate the determination and should be allowed to regain its normal operating freofgeneratorKnvalues. Each governor will then. vol. Burtnuk. quency. In this stage. both B Barzam. V Menditto et al ." IEEE Trans. 2. The authors propose a n underfrequency governor control governors will be controlled by UFGC. GINthrough G. 1973 ( i n RwUFLS and UFGC work together in an attempt to prevent the f31 A. may be frequency dependent resulting in curves that are not straight lines). PAS-90. Maliszewslu. . The authors are presently researching subjects which When the state of the power system above curve PN it is expand on the ideas presented in this paper. before the loads tripped by UFLS are carefully restored. Lokay. at point-D all 3. between mented by several utilities in Latvia ancl Russia. UFLS is curtailed and each Automatic Control o f ENEL Power System in Interconnected and Iso- . though completely AGC. JulyJAug. The authors proposed a new underfrequency load shedding philosophy based on the system frequency phase plane. no. coordination of UFLS and UFGC results in Automatic Load Sheddmg. pp.
and several IEEE committees and subcomnittees. J Haritonchlk. no. 236-239.1810 lated Operation”.“ U3SR PatentNo. Ghuvychm. a g i s and W. M. “Energy Method of Spinnkng Reserve Assessment in ~terconnection of Power Systems”. J.8. His research interests include protective reiaymg and power system a professor If) the aep-ent of Power and cal Engineermg. [I51 M. M. and V. N. S. fron the ~ i n i v e r s iof ~ south Carolina.Truns. July 1992. pp. 199 1. N. pp 865-872 !IAn ES v.S.I A Ait-Kheddache. Fouad.“ in Proceedings o f the Internationul Conference on Relay Protection and Local Autoinution in Elect& Power Syszerns. V N Chuvychin. New York. chuvychin rece. n0. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola. ‘Load Shedding on an Isolated System. Poulhkkas. Feb. Seattle in 1994. N Y .3. “ Preprints of the IFAC S y m p o ~ i ~on m Power Plant Conirol. “A Digital Frequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relay “. Fink. Power System Conirol and Stabilily. 1111 V.3. A.D. Korea.1993. 1-10. 7. A S Semenov.3. al. Mr. he returned to the UW and received his M. pp 43-50. 1989. 1991. pp. H. 191 M. Ne is presently at the University of Washington where he is a Professor of Electricai Engmeermg and Dvector of the Eledric Energy Industrial Consortium. E E E Traprsactionson Power Systems.EEE Trunsactiom on Power Delivery. 585-592 [(. Kezunovic. 20182024. [I41 M S Sachdev. J. Seoul. six-phase transmission.E E. 8-9 October. and G. X i s research interests include power system emergency control and automation. 1987) He is a registered professional engineer and his research interests include computer applications to power systems. Paper No. S. Riga. Exis research interests include intelligent systems applications to power systems and distributionsystem reliability. pp.?. Venikov. Electromechanical Transients in Electrical Power Systern. [ZO] N. 1302377. “Adaptive Estknation of Power System IS] A. 1995 Mirheydar’ Adaptive Method for derfrequency Load Sheddimg Relays. u~. no.. where be is currently an Associate Professor of Circuit TheoIy i n the Department of Power and Electrical Engineering.E in 1993. 464 pp.  M. “EEE Tramactions OnFOWQr~Q~iVe~. 1992 CIGRE General Session. and V. vol. C h o w ~ h RBillinton. vo1. Paper No. The Institute of Electncal and Electronic Engineers.D candidate.1987. vol5. &ga Technical IJniversity. “Method of Automatic Control of Reserve Generators During UnderErequency Emergency Condition. New York IEEE PRESS Power Systems Engineerkg Series.“ in Proceedings of the 1987 annual North American Power Sjvnposium. Eta Kappa Nu. protection. 6.Venkata is a member of Tau Beta Pi. “ New Digital Signal Processing Algorithms for Frequency Deviation Measurement. R. “ A Microprocessor Based Intelligent Relay. Peterson. A. 1992.17.E Transactions on Power Sysfern. Gurov. Brown is presently a Pb. pp 896-901 [I61 W. S . [lo] V. S. Ghowdhury.  C . IEEE. Venkata received h i B S and M. Latvia. vo1. J. Gumv. While worlung as a consulting engmeer. Priedite. o f the Canadian Ekstrical Associution. Arlington. 1987.2. vol. A~g. Chuvychin.ved hls Doctor of Science 111 Engineemg degree 1992 from the Riga Technical University. Dr. Ne holds two patents and has widely published in thjiasea. in Proceedings ofrhe 5th International Conference on Developments in Power Sysiem Protectian. 30 March-l April. i . ‘ ‘ ~ x p w ~ pof w Spinning ~ Reserves in 1191 ~ . He was a visiting Fulbright Scholar at the University of Texas. 1970 (in Russian)  P.” BEE Trans Power Delivey. 1994. He has published and presented more than 120 papers and is co-author of “Introductionto Electric Energy Devices” (Prentice-Hall. E.vol. 647-653. “Present Achievements and Potential Future Developments For Load Sheddmg Techniques. is a member of Eta Kappa Nn and is the current PES student chapter president. from the University of Washington m 1991. pp. 1993. and distribution automation. 1563-1573. 10 pages.4.-J Lee. Sigma Xi. London. Riga. Slovenija. no.39-302. Gurov. L Frequency Deviation and its Rate of Change for calculating Sudden Power System Overloads. May 1992. Latvia. 1181 N. N. M F. October 1989. “New Proposed Adaptive Frequency Load Shedding Scheme For Cogeneration Plants”. L. N.pp. “A Technique for Digital Relays to Measure Frequency and its Rate of Change.S. Sachdev.’ LEHYPES 1995 Winter Meeting.” EX23 Truns. 78-SP-145. Revised Printing. “New Methods and Means for Power System Control D u r i n g Emergency Conditions Caused by the Power Deficiency. A. Concordia. J -C Gu. W3E. 110. . 1978. QQ. Ljubljana. Ekateb. S. P Spasojevic et. Baritonchk ~ ‘ ~ e ~of h Automatic od Frequency A c t ~ ~ Load e d Shedding. “. V. A. UK. Anderson. Columbia in 1971.4.E. K t i m l z v S. vol. in 1990 and at the University of Washington. on Power Systems. Brown received his l3. April 1990. 2.“ USSR PutenfNo 1684859. ~ ~ ~ o ~ e Generation c t e d Systems”. no 1. I131 N.S degree from the Indian Institute of Techology He received Ph. Inc. part. Dim.