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2.1 Review of literature modelling As described previously in a section on operation principles there are many components and processes of photovoltaic cells. Theoretical models and equations of these processes are discussed and presented. Modelling of Conventional Solar Cells Gerischer (1979) provides a thorough physical and theoretical description of the processes involved in photo electrolysis. Gerischer discusses most aspects of solar cells, including the semiconductor-electrolyte interface and associated electron transfer, the transfer of charge in the bulk semiconductor and solution, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects, the various materials that can make up a cell and general principles of cell operation such as illumination effects. Gerischer makes simplifying assumptions concerning the concentrations of the redox couple in solution, the electrons and holes in the conduction and valence bands and the electrons in the bulk of the semiconductor. Boudreaux, Williams & Nozik (1980) applied quantum mechanical approach to modelling electron transfer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, and investigate conditions for electron injection. The model gives rise to conditions for electron injection, but does not compare numerical results with experimental results. Orazem & Newman (1984) present a mathematical model for a gallium arsenide (GaAs) liquid-junction photovoltaic cell. Macroscopic transport equations for the semiconductor and the electrolyte bulk are coupled to a microscopic model of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Their interface model is based on the diffuse double-layer theory, This model differs from others in the literature in its completeness; it includes all possible reactions involving ionic species in the electrolyte and all reactions involving charge transport in the semiconductor. However, due to the difficulty in measuring kinetic parameters at the interface, the authors have made simplifying assumptions concerning the form and value of the rate constants involved in the model. In a second paper authors validate their model by comparing their numerical results with experimental results. These comparisons show that cell performance is influenced by the kinetics of the interfacial reactions, dopant concentration, semiconductor thickness and conditions of illumination. The model was also

used to calculate optimal thickness and dopant concentration for the GaAs system. In a third paper, Orazem & Newman use their previous one-dimensional model to discuss the optimal design for a solar cell , investigated changes in cell efficiency due to changes in the surface area of the semiconductor and the effects of varying the placement of the counter-electrode and current collectors. Bonham & Orazem (I992a) present a mathematical model to estimate the impedance response of a semiconductor. Their aim is to investigate the existence and distribution of interfacial and deep-level electronic states in semiconductors. They base their model on the previous model of Orazem & Newman (1984). The model is intended to play a predictive role, suggesting experimental designs that will be more sensitive to deep level states and that can significantly affect charge transfer, hence increasing the efficiency of a photovoltaic device. The authors also compare their model predictions with experimental results. Their model appears to be consistent with equivalent electrical circuits that have been proposed to model semiconductors with surface sites. In another paper by Bonham & Orazem they compare their model with the Mott-Schottky theory to identify deep-level electronic states. Smith & Nozik (1996) model electron transfer at a general semiconductor-liquid interface. They present molecular dynamic simulations of the interface, modelling the full electronic structure of the semiconductor and redox couple. The model addresses the adsorption of redox species and contaminants at the interface and the effects of these processes upon electron transfer. This work provides useful insight into the way in which a semiconductorliquid interface can be modelled. Smith, Halley & Nozik (1996) review models of electron transfer at liquid-liquid and liquidsemiconductor interfaces. They show that although the models under review are physically plausible. The authors further suggest and implement some enhancements for more important features of the interfaces like the potential structure of the interface; the coupling of reaction coordinates to the solvent, and the electron transfer through a bridge formed by chemisorbed species. Fantoni, Vieira & Rodrigo (1999) present models of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based photo devices .The physical model is described and a simulation of the electrical behaviour of such devices is presented. The authors implement a numerical simulation of a silicon pn-junction and discuss the results.

Krueger, lung & Gajewski (1994) model a gallium arsenide-electrolyte junction to analyse excitation intensity under flat band and depletion layer conditions. Their two-dimensional model of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface identifies the effects of excitation intensity and surface recombination on the produced current. An interesting result is that the reaction rate for surface recombination may be a function of time rather than a constant. Modelling of Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells Gerischer & Willig (1976) discuss the physical processes and theoretical equations of redox reactions of excited dye molecules at electrodes, and compare these with rate equations for the same reactions of the molecule at ground state. They provide details of these reactions at both semiconductor and insulator surfaces. This work provides a very good background to the processes involved in electron transfer via excited dye molecules, and the model equations that may form the basis of models for describing these processes. Soedergren, Hagfeldt, Olsson & Lindquist (1994) develop a steady state theoretical model for the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of micro porous semiconductor films in photovoltaic cells. Their model incorporates the assumption that charge transfer in the bulk semiconductor occurs via diffusion, and results are compared with experimental data. Gerischer (1995) in his model for the kinetics of photo-induced processes on spherical TiO2 particles examined only Titania particles and is not specific to DSSC. However the processes that are modelled do occur in the Titania particles in Titania DSSC. The photo-induced processes include the excitation of an electron in a TiO2 particle due to photon adsorption, as well as recombination reactions that occur between TiO2 particles and redox couples. Electron-hole recombination reactions of the conduction and valence bands of a TiO2 particle are also modelled. Cao, Oskam, Meyer & Searson (1996) model electron transfer in the porous TiO 2 in photochemical cells, by extending the work of Soedergren et al. (1994) to include the transient response of the cell. The paper presents photocurrent transient measurements, and includes the transient response of the cell by modelling the diffusion coefficient of electrons the diffusion length of the electrons remains constant which implies that recombination processes are important. Relevant experimental theoretically obtained I-V characteristic curves for a colloidal TiO2 film electrode and a dye-sensitised TiO2 film . Their modelling results agree well with

as a function of the light intensity .The predictions of this model are physically consistent with an electron transport process controlled by thermal excitation. However, the model does not take into account all the complex processes involved with charge transfer in the semiconductor, but instead includes only a Beer-Lambert Law to account for the production of electrons under illumination. Matthews, Infelta & Gratzel (1996) present a detailed model of the steady state photocurrent produced by sensitised semiconductor electrodes. Many of the charge transfer reactions at the semiconductor-dye-electrolyte interface are considered. The model represents the concentration of electrons via thermodynamics, and the steady state concentration of dye species are considered to be dependent on the injection and recombination rate constants. They observe a reasonable qualitative comparison to DSSC operation in terms of potential distribution and I vs. V distributions. Papageorgiou, Gratzel & Infelta (1996) discuss mass transport in photoelectrochemical solar cells, specifically within the electrolyte. A model is presented for the electrolyte in thin layer nanocrystalline solar cells, to investigate the effects various electrolyte parameters on the overall cell current. This model predicts concentrations of redox couples in solution as a function of current density, location and direction of illumination, but does not provide a complete model of the solar cell since interfacial loss mechanisms and transport within the semiconductor are not explicitly included. Papageorgiou et al. (1998) also developed a theoretical model for experimental studies to determine diffusion coefficients of in porous

TiO2 films. They investigate the effect film porosity has on the limiting currents of the DSSC. Ferber et al. (1998) present an electrical model of the DSSC that relates material parameters to cell performance. Their model is a simplified, one-dimensional, complete electrical model which accounts for charge transport in both bulk solid and solution, as well as the redox processes at the counter electrode and the semiconductor-dye-electrolyte interface. The transport of charge within the TiO2 conduction band and the electrolyte system is described with typical continuity and mass transport equations. Only one loss mechanism is considered in this model: relaxation from the TiO2 conduction band to the redox electrolyte. Generation of electrons via the injection from excited dye molecules is accounted for using BeerLamberts law and the ratio of rates of reactions involving these electrons give a modified Boltzmann's approximation (Bard & Faulkner 2001) for the electron density .The electric

field within the DSSC is modelled via Poissons equation, and an equivalent circuit model is used to account for TCO resistances and any shunt resistances. This model does not account for either electron trapping/detrapping in the solid, optical loss mechanisms in the electrolyte or side-reactions. The model appears to compare well with experimental data. Ferber & Luther (1998) discuss the importance of light scattering in TiO 2 particles to increase current, and how to optimise light scattering. This optimisation is important for cell efficiency; due to the effect particle size has on current flow. Too large particles will increase scattering but decrease the surface area of the electrode, and hence decrease efficiency Ferber & Luther present computer simulations showing how absorption can be increased by optimising the size of TiO2 particles, and predict an optimal size to maximise efficiency However, the proposed model and resulting predictions have not been validated against experimental results. Papageorgiou, Liska, Kay & Gratzel (1999) develop a model of electrolyte mass transport in thin layer nanocrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells. The governing equations in their model describe the mass transport of electrolyte species between the electrodes in a porous medium. Interfacial reactions are described via a Butler Volmer expression to represent the oxidation-reduction reaction. The electron production from illumination is described by Beer-Lamberts law. The model takes into account geometrical and structural properties of the porous counter electrode. Ferber & Luther (2001) propose a two-dimensional mathematical model of the DSSC based on the model developed by Ferber et al. (1998). The porous semiconductor is represented by a laminar structure, where each column consists of TiO 2 particles sintered together. Similar to Ferber et al. (1998), Poisson's equation is used to describe the electric field within the DSC and Beer-Lambert's law is used to describe the production of electrons. Loss of electrons is modelled via one reaction equation, dependent on the concentration of and the electron concentration. Helmholtz models are used to describe the TiO 2-TCO and electrolyte-platinum contacts. The model is used to investigate the potential distribution within the DSSC. Although this is a detailed model of the DSC, important loss mechanisms have still not been included; for example, interfacial side reactions and electron trapping and detrapping in the solid.

Usami & Ozaki (2001) present a model of charge transport in a DSSC. This model considers two processes of charge transfer from the semiconductor: transport of electrons to the current collecting electrode and the loss mechanism of transport of electrons into the electrolyte. Their results show that thermal release of electrons trapped in shallow traps is important for effective electron transport. The authors also propose methods to improve the recombination processes involved at the TCO. Nelson, Eppler & Ballard (2002) measure and investigate photoconductivity and the trapping of charge within the porous film of a DSSC. Additionally a model is proposed to explain the observed charge movement. They model electrons within the conduction band of the semiconductor. The rate of change in electron concentration with respect to time is described by the rate of reactions that involve the electrons, namely reactions with the dye and production due to photon absorption. Their model, composed of differential equations, is fit to experimental data to analyse the conductivity of electrons in the film under illumination. Kern, Sastrawan, Ferrere, Stangl & Luther (2002) use a theoretical model of a DSSC to analyse experimental results from electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), studying the influence that TiO2 thickness, cell thickness, charge transfer at the platinum electrode and the lifetime of injected electrons has on overall cell efficiency They show that EIS is a suitable characterisation tool to monitor changes in cell parameters and design. Fabregat-Santiago et al. (2003) present a model of the semiconductor porous electrode within a DSC to examine characteristics of charge accumulation, charge transport, and interfacial charge transfer. They use an equivalent circuit to model these characteristics, and thermodynamic equations are used to describe electron density Capacitance, potential distribution and electronic surface states are investigated by comparing the model with experimental data. Asbury et al. (2003) propose a two state model to capture the effect of the relation- ships between the injection and relaxation of the excited dye molecules. Additionally, their model describes the concentration of excited dye molecules, singlet and triplet, by the use of rate equations. For example, the rate of change in the concentration of the singlet dye state is given by the rate equation .A similar rate equation exists for the triplet state. The solutions of the coupled differential equations are investigated by varying the rate constants of injection and relaxation. Authors find the magnitude of the injection rates from both singlet and triplet state increases with the ratio of the rate constants . The rate of the injection component from

the triplet states also depends on the relative energies of the dye, compared with to the energy of the conduction band edge. Bisquert, Zaban, Greenshtein & Mora-Sero (2004) present a model to determine electron lifetime, rate constants for charge transfer and energy levels within the DSSC. Their model is based on Marcus-Gerischer transition rates and models of redox potentials. Bisquert, Zaban & Salvador (2002) present a model for the recombination process for nanoporous semiconductor electrodes in contact with a redox electrolyte within a DSSC. The governing equations are based on non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamics for interfacial electron transfer via surface states. Their analysis investigates the influence of the distribution of electrolyte levels and surface states on the electron recombination kinetics under open circuit conditions. Bisquert (2004) also presents a theoretical study of charge transfer and transport within the DSC. The modelling and experimental Work focuses on identifying components of the diffusion coefficient associated with electron density lifetime, and trap states. They observed that diffusion coefficients depend on electron density, and can be attributed to diffusion through traps, that is the coefficients depend on average hopping distances and rates. Construction of theoretical models and performance simulations are necessary to improve the properties of DSSC. As with the modelling of conventional pn-junction solar cells, a number of approaches based on the continuity equation, the transport equation, and Poissons equation have been attempted [717] However, because the relation between the models and devices has not been clear, none of these efforts led to an instructive and effective way of improving the efficiency of DSSC. The mechanism of conventional solar cells is well understood by way of equivalent circuits which are considered to be useful tools to analyze cell devices and improve cell performance [6]. It is necessary to obtain DSSC equivalent circuits to accelerate the development of practical DSSC based photovoltaic modules. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been widely used to correlate device structure with a suitable model for the study of the kinetics of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical processes occurring in DSSC [1830]. EIS is a well-known technique used for the study of electrochemical systems and its results are usually discussed in terms of equivalent circuits [18]. Boddy has proposed a number of equivalent circuits for the semiconductorelectrolyte interface consisting of combinations of resistors and capacitors [19]. It has also been found that the electrochemical properties of electrodes are strongly

affected by their morphology [2022]. These studies discuss the electrochemical impedance of the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface under static conditions. 2.2 Review of literature of equivalent circuit and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) Liyuan Han (2004), (2006) in their publication on modelling of an equivalent circuit for dyesensitized solar cell investigated internal resistance in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Four resistance elements were observed in the impedance spectra, and their dependencies on the applied bias voltage were characterized. It is found that the resistance element related to charge transport at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface displays behaviour like that of a diode, and the series resistance elements largely correspond to the sum of the other resistance elements. To minimize the internal resistance in DSSC, the influence of cell parameters such as sheet resistance of TCO glass substrate, roughness factor of platinum counter electrode and cell thickness, on the impedance spectra were studied An equivalent circuit for DSCs is proposed based on these results. Equivalent circuit of DSSC is similar to that of Si solar cells when working in DC condition.

Han 2004

FIG. 1. Electrochemical impedance spectrum of a DSC. The three semicircular shapes are assigned to impedances related to charge transport at the Pt counter electrode (Z1) in the high-frequency region, at the TiO2 /dye/electrolyte interface (Z2) in the middle-frequency region, and in Nernstian diffusion within the electrolyte (Z3) in the low-frequency region,respectively. R1 , R2 , and R3 are described as the real parts of Z1 , Z2, and Z3 , respectively. Rh is defined as a resistance in the high-frequency range over 106 Hz.

FIG. 4. Equivalent circuit obtained from EIS and I V characteristics of DSCs. R2 is equated with the resistance of a diode. The sum of R1 , R3~Warburg impedance!, and Rh largely corresponds to the series resistance of DSCs. A constant-current source is parallel with Rsh . C1 and C2 are capacitance elements of Z1 and Z2 ~see Fig. 1!, respectively

Koide (2006) used DSSC with high energy conversion efficiency of over 8% to characterize the dependence of each internal resistance element on applied bias voltage. Three semicircles were observed in the measured frequency range of 0.1 Hz1 MHz In their analysis , the three semicircles were attributed to the redox reaction at the platinum counter electrode ( Z1), the electron transfer at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface (Z2), and carrier transport by ions within the electrolyte (Z3). The resistance elements R1, R2, and R3 are described as the real part of Z1, Z2 and Z3, respectively. It was found that the resistance element Rh in the high frequency range over 1MHz is influenced by the sheet resistance of TCO and the contact resistance between the TCO and TiO2. The former is the main factor in Rh, as the value of Rh increases in direct proportion to the sheet resistance of TCO.

Han 2006

Fig. 7. Equivalent circuits obtained from EIS and IV characteristics of DSCs. Z1, Z2, Z3 are the impedances in DSCs. Z2 is the impedance of a diode. The sum of R1, R3 and Rh largely corresponds to the series resistance of DSCs.A constant-current source is in parallel with Rsh

Koide 2006

Fig. 1. Simple equivalent circuit model for conventional pn-junction solar cells.This model consists of a constant current source (Iph), a diode, series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh).

Ref important

As described previously the initial steps of charge separation in a DSSC are the injection of an electron from a photo excited dye to the conduction band of the TiO2 and subsequently, the transfer of an electron from the hole transport molecule to the dye .The first process is usually completed within 200 ps, and the latter, the regeneration of the oxidized dye, is completed within the nanosecond time scale for liquid electrolyte DSSC containing an redox couple (Bisquert & Quiones, 2006). It is very important to study this phenomenon with an appropriate analytical technique. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an experimental method of analyzing electrochemical systems; this method can be used to measure the internal impedances for the electrochemical system over a range of frequencies between mHz-MHz (Wang et al, 2005); additionally EIS allows obtaining equivalent circuits for the different electrochemical systems studied. Figure 6(a) shows a typical equivalent circuit for DSSC; this model has four internal impedances. The first impedance signal (Z1) related to the charge transfer at the platinum counter electrode in the high-frequency peak (in kHz range) and the sheet resistance (R h) of the TCO in the high frequency range (over 1 MHz); the second signal (Z 2) related to the electron transport in the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface in the middle-frequency peak (in the 1100 Hz), and the third signal (Z 3) related to the Nernstian diffusion within the electrolyte in the low-frequency peak (in the mHz range) In figure 6(b) is shown Nyquist diagram of a DSSC from the result of a typical EIS analysis. Finally, the total internal impedance of the DSSCs is expressed as the sum of the resistance components (R1, R2, R3, and Rh). High performance of the DSSC is achieved when this total internal resistance is small (Shing et al, 2010).

Fig.

Fig. 6. Scheme of: (a) Equivalent circuit model for DSSCs and (b) Nyquist plot of the DSSCs from EIS analysis (adapted from Shin, 2010).

Additionally Rs can be described as (Islam & Han, 2006): Rs = Rh + R1 + R3 The proposed equivalent circuit of a DSC is thus similar to that of a conventional solar cell except for its having large capacitances C1 (in 10F/Cm2 range) and C3 (in 1F/Cm2 range). However, the capacitances can be omitted since the solar cells work under direct current (DC) conditions. Therefore the equivalent electrical circuit of DSSC is composed of a diode (D), a series resistance (Rs), a shunt resistance (Rsh) and a constant-current source (Iph) similar to that of a conventional solar cell. Hence the abundance of experience gained through the development of high-efficiency conventional solar cells

11,12

considered that this equivalent circuit may facilitate the realization of high-performance DSSC. 2.3 Review of literature of Parameter analysis [The photovoltaic (PV) industry has achieved a durative development at an annual average rate of 40% since 2000 [1]. In 2009, the consolidated gure of world solar cell production had increased up to 9.34 gigawatt (GW). The market installations reached a record of 7.3 GW [2]. For the mass production of solar cells, it has become a crucial issue to have access to the detailed information of the solar cell parameters. These parameters are us e d not o n l y t o evaluate solar cells p er fo rm an ce and quality control, but also for fabrication process optimization and scientic research [3]. ] { r e f 1 1 } The accurate values of these parameters could provide the precise quantitative relationship between DSSC performance and DSSC physical structure, chemical composition or manufacture processing. Wolf and Rauschenbach 1963 extracted the lumped series resistance in []. Agarwal et al 1982 [] determined series resistance of solar cell using the non-linearity in the plot of short circuit current versus light intensity, same was observed by Singh and Singh in 1983[] at moderate light intensity. Rajkanan et al 1979[] determined series resistance using experimental data in dark and illuminated condition. Araujo and Sanchez [] studied area under (-V) curve and determined low series resistance under high illuminations. Fill Factor (FF) which is another important parameter of solar cell have been studied by various researchers. Pulfery in 1978[] studied the dependence of FF on dark saturation current and diode ideality factor. Mitchell et al. (1977) calculated the FF for a solar cell using a parametric approach. Green (1981, 1982-83)[] made two significant contributions to techniques for evaluating solar cell FFs. First was a graphical technique and secondly an empirical expression was provided to determine FFs. In 1983 [] an attempt was made to determine FF using open circuit voltage. Schechter et al. in 1982 [] proposed an analytical method to determine solar cell array parameters. Another analytical expression was derived by Singal et al in 1981 [] to determine the series resistance dependent photocurrent and voltage at the maximum power point and consequently the equations of the maximum power and curve factor for solar cells. Charles et al. in 1981 [] proposed a numerical method (also known as the exact five-point parameter method) based on fitting a theoretical curve to the experimental curve at open

circuit voltage, short circuit current, maximum power point and slopes at open circuit and short circuit points. Single diode equivalent circuit of solar cell was used by Phang et al. (1984) to analytically determine solar cell parameters and compared them with those of Newton-Raphson (iterative) method proposed by Kennerud (1969) and Charles et al. (1981). Phang et al. (1984) also provided error contours to show the significance of the method. Chan and Phang (1984) determined shunt resistance of solar cell by measuring the open circuit voltage and short circuit current at very low illumination. Chan and Phang (1987) also described two analytical methods for the extraction of solar cell single- and doublediode model parameters from (-V) characteristics. It has a wide range of validity provided the series resistance and illuminations are not both high. Temperature dependence of solar cell parameters for materials with different energy gaps was presented by Fan 1986[]. Deb et al 1985 [] determined maximum power point based on geometrical consideration. This enabled the measurement of FF, (Iph+I0), Rs and n from a single set of connected observations around the maximum power point for a fixed intensity of illumination. Junction ideality factor which amounts due to various physical phenomenon occurring in diode is another crucial parameter for study of solar cell. An extensive investigation has been carried out in past to estimate its value []. Datta et al. 1992 [] proposed a computer aided fitting technique for the simultaneous determination of different solar cell parameters. Enebish et. al 1993[] provided a numerical technique based on Newton-Raphson method to estimate parameters of solar cell using double diode equivalent circuit model. Girardini and Jacobsen 1990 propose a numerically intensive model of a silicon cell with an optimization algorithm. A technique for simultaneous optimization of various input parameters leading to maximization of solar cell efficiency and open circuit voltage technique was established by Pelanchon and Mialhe in 1990. Conde et al.presented a generalized model for a two terminal device including the effects of a series resistance. This model was used for the particular case of diode and it can be extended for solar cells also. Sanchez et al. (1996) evaluated semiconductor devices intrinsic model parameters from its experimental extrinsic forward (-V) characteristics, independently of the parasitic resistance

that might be present in series within the real device. The Lateral Optimization method proposed by Ranuarez et al. (2000) extracted diode parameters under the presence of parasitic series and shunt resistance. It is an accurate, efficient, and robust method for extracting semiconductor device parameters. Though they hadnt used it for solar cells but it can be. A quadratic two-dimensional fitting process which is robust but accurate, fast and applicable for parameter extraction of illuminated solar cells enabled the extraction of the intrinsic and extrinsic model parameters of solar cells containing parasitic series resistance and shunt conductance from the explicit analytic solutions of their illuminated (-V) characteristics [Conde et al., 2005, 2006]. It is based on the Co-content function CC which is applied to the exact explicit analytical solutions of the cells illuminated ( -V) characteristics in terms of Lambert W-function. Chegaar et al 2001 used nonlinear least-squares optimization algorithm based on Newton method to evaluate five solar cell parameters (series resistance, ideality factor, photocurrent, shunt conductance and diode saturation current). Auxiliary function and computer-fitting routine were used to extract parameters from current-voltage characteristics in 2006[]. Bouzidi (2007) , Chegaar(2008) and Kaminski et al ( ) used different techniques to evaluate solar cell parameters from (-V) characteristics. Optimum load, another important parameter of solar cell had been a challenge for researchers. Kothari et al. in 1982 use lagrange method of undetermined multipliers to determine optimum load for a given silicon solar cell. The technique was further used by Shvets et al. in 2009 to determine series and shunt resistance. All the methods discussed till now were approximate and not explicit due to transcendental nature of current-voltage relation of solar cell. Several attempts have been made to determine exact analytical solution for the same. Jain and Kapoor 2004 used Lambert W-function technique to solve transcendental (-V) relation of solar cell explicitly. They extended the use of W-function in studying different parameters of organic solar cells as well as solar cell array parameters[].Co-content function (CC) and Lambert W function to extract all the parameters needed for single-diode model was p r e s e n t e d by Ortiz-Conde et al. [11].

Lambert W function and special transfunction theory (STFT) were applied for the determination of the ideality factor by Kapoor et al [12,13]. The comparison between Lambert W function integral m eth o d a n d d i f f e r e n t i a l method was presented [14]. Habibe Bayhan et al 2007 proposed that the analytical method based on the dark current-voltage data and the Lambert W-function could be useful for carrying out highly accurate computations for the diode ideality factor of p-n junction devices modelled with relatively high series resistance values. Nchimunya Mwiinga et al 2008 his paper on the Dynamics of Solar Cell Optoelectronic Device concluded that the conventional approximations that are aimed at simplifying the analysis of solar cell parameters often lead to inconsistent expressions. Further problems involving the extraction of parameters based on the one-diode real solar cell model can be analyzed using Lambert W function with great ease. F.Ghani et al (2011) used Lambert W-function for Numerical determination of parasitic resistances of a solar cell and in (2012) they used the Lambert W function for extraction of solar cell modelling parameters. Requirement of pure and defect free semiconductor and high cost are the major drawback of conventional solar cell. Researchers across the globe were in search of a material or phenomenon that can provide an alternate to conventional solar cell. The Dye Sensitized solar cell (DSSC) developed by Gratzel [ref 20 Seo] proves to be a promising alternate because of its transparency, simple fabrication process, low cost and short energy payback time

Feber et al (1998) proposed an electric model of DSSC for calculations of internal steadystate characteristics. By applying continuity equation, transport equation , Poisson, s equation to all electroactive species and by assuming linear Boltzmann relaxation approximation for back reaction differential equations were derived. This numerical algorithm requires 10 input parameters of DSSC Berginc et al presented a simple model of DSSC based on diffusion and recombination processes. The model enables steady-state calculation of complete I-V characteristics, concentration of electroactive species and current densities in DSSC. Kern et al (2002) revolutionised DSSC research by conceptualizing EIS for determination of cell parameters and developed a model for interpretation and analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra. It was shown that EIS is a suitable characterization tool.

Bay, West et al (2004) proposed a transmission line model for IMVS,IMPS and EIS response of a photo electrode in DSSC. This model gives graphical description of the way reaction and transport processes are coupled. In analytical expressions influence of electrochemical impedance is separated from photo-response. Han L et al (2004) measured an efficient DSC sensitized with black dye .A short circuit photocurrent density of 20.1 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.71V, a fill factor of 0.71 and an overall conversion efficiency of 10.1% was obtained when measured under standard AM 1.5 sunlight.{6} Masaki Murayama et al (2006) Carboxylic acid treatment, especially using acetic acid, was effective in increasing the short-circuit current (Isc) of the cell. As a result of the equivalent circuit analysis, the shunt resistance (Rsh) value tended to increase due to carboxylic acid treatment. In contrast, the series resistance (Rs) value of the treated cell was smaller than that of the non treated cell. Carboxylic acid treatment was effective not only in improving the electrical contact between TiO2 particles but also in blocking the leakage current from the TiO2 surface to electrolyte. Thus, this analytical method using a one-diode equivalent circuit is useful for evaluating the effect of dye-sensitized solar cell treatment.{8} Ishibashi K et al (2008) proposed an extensively valid and stable method for derivation of all parameters of a solar cell from a single current-voltage characteristic which requires only the valid assumption for a general solar cell. The experimental data were approximated by a ninth-degree polynomial expression. {5} Murayama M, Mori T. Et al (2008) as a novel type of photovoltaic device, dye-sensitized solar cell using plastic substrate was fabricated at low-temperature by sol-gel method. The internal electrical characteristics of the cells were evaluated by an equivalent circuit analysis. Mixing Ti-precursor sol reduced the internal series resistance of cell. This improved cell efficiency when the cell is fabricated at low-temperature. {7} {Hanmin T et al (2009) found that there could be several different groups of equivalent circuit parameters fitting well to the same one experiment-measured IV curve,. In order to overcome the uncertainty of circuit parameters estimation, an improved method, based on extending the scanning voltage range and thus getting the IV linear function when V is applied between 0 and reverse stopping voltage, is introduced. The further experiment, by connecting resistance in the outside circuit, demonstrates that the improved method can confirm uniquely the values of DSSCs equivalent circuit parameters}1

{Sophie Wenger et al (2010) have developed an experimentally validated and accurate optical model for dye sensitized solar cells. This model allows us to correctly compute the dye absorption function for any incident spectrum, illumination direction, or stack assembly (e.g., including antireflective coatings or back reflectors). Hence, the internal quantum efficiency of test devicesan important cell characteristic that was difficult to assess so far can be accurately computed. By coupling the results of the optical model to an electrical model for charge generation, transport, and recombination, intrinsic parameters (such as the diffusion length and the injection efficiency) can be extracted from steady-state measurements. With the coupled model, the different optical and electric losses can be quantified. This comprehensive loss analysis paves the way for a systematic, model-assisted, optimization of dye-sensitized solar cells.}{4} {Ahmed. A. El Tayyan et al (2011) in their paper on dye sensitized solar cell: parameters calculation and model integration describe a method to calculate internal parameters of DSSC (L, , m, D, 0, ). Their approach provides estimation of the internal parameters and the effect of voltage loss at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface on the total voltage and the behaviour of the cell theoretically. Their approach is based on the electron diffusion differential model and the values of the short circuit current density Jsc, open circuit voltage Voc, and the current density and voltage at the maximum power point i.e. Jmp and Vmp, respectively. Parametric analyses were conducted to study the effect of temperature, and electrode thickness on various cell parameters}3 {Hafez HS et al (2012) paper on Extraction of the DSSC parameters under dark and illumination conditions, Current-voltage characteristics in dark and illumination were measured using a high internal impedance electrometer (Keithly 6517A). The electronic parameters such as saturation current, the ideality factor, barrier height and the mean value of the series resistance of DSSC were 3.892x10-5 and 4.037, 0.728 and 5.014 k }2 Otakwa R. V. M.*, et al (2012) Effects of air mass on the performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) have been investigated in a tropical area in Nairobi, Kenya. Outdoor measurements were performed at different times on different days and a series of currentvoltage (I-V) characterizations carried out at different air mass values and module tilt angles. The module performance parameters: Short circuit current density, ( Jsc), Open circuit voltage, (Voc), Fill factor, (FF) and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency, () were extracted from the I-V curves. The modules and FF increased with air mass while Voc and Jsc decreased with increase in AM. The module performed better in the afternoon hours than

in the morning hours. The results may be useful in tuning dye-sensitized solar cells for use in the tropics as well as in the design of Net Zero Energy buildings{9}

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