Sunrise

Although the Sun appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the Earth's motion that causes the Sun to appear. The illusion of a moving Sun results from Earth observers being in a rotating reference frame; this apparent motion is so convincing that most cultures had mythologies and religions built around the geocentric model, which prevailed until astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated the heliocentric model in the 16th century.[3] Architect Buckminster Fuller proposed the terms "sunsight" and "sunclipse" to better represent the heliocentric model, though the terms have not entered into common language. Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the eastern horizon in the morning.[1] The term can also refer to the entire process of the Sun crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric effects. Beginning and end Astronomically, sunrise occurs for only an instant: the moment at which the upper limb of the Sun appears tangent to the horizon.[1] However, the term sunrisecommonly refers to periods of time both before and after this point:  Twilight, the period during which the sky is light but the Sun is not yet visible (morning), or has just passed out of visibility (evening). The beginning of morning twilight is called dawn.  The period after the Sun rises during which striking colors and atmospheric effects are still seen.[2] Measurement[edit]

A diagram of the Sun at sunrise, showing the effects of atmospheric refraction. The sunrise equation as follows can be used to derive the time of sunrise and sunset for any solar declination and latitude in terms of local solar time when sunrise andsunset actually occur: where: is the hour angle at either sunrise (when negative value is taken) or sunset (when positive value is taken); Angle is the latitude of the observer on the Earth; is the sun declination.

Sunrise occurs before the Sun actually reaches the horizon because the Sun's image isrefracted by the Earth's atmosphere. The average amount of refraction is 34 arcminutes, though this amount varies based on atmospheric conditions.[1] Also, unlike most other solar measurements, sunrise occurs when the Sun's upper limb, rather than its center, appears to cross the horizon. The apparent radius of the Sun at the horizon is 16 arcminutes.[1] These two angles combine to define sunrise to occur when the Sun's center is 50 arcminutes below the horizon, or 90.83° from the zenith.[1] Time of day[edit] The timing of sunrise varies throughout the year and is also affected by the viewer's longitude and latitude, altitude, and time zone. These changes are driven by the axial tilt of Earth, daily rotation of the Earth, the planet's movement in its annual elliptical orbit around the Sun, and the Earth and Moon's paired revolutions around each other. The analemmacan be used to make approximate predictions of the time of sunrise.

Sunrise vs. Sunset colors
Sunset colors are sometimes more brilliant than sunrise colors because evening air typically contains more large particles, such as clouds and smog, than morning air. These particles glow orange and red due to Mie scattering during sunsets and sunrises because they are illuminated with the longer [6][10][9][13] wavelengths that remain after Rayleigh scattering. If the concentration of large particles is too high (such as during heavy smog), the color intensity and contrast is diminished and the lighting becomes more homogenous. When very few particles are present, the reddish light is more concentrated around the Sun and is not spread across and away from the [11] horizon.

Optical illusions and other phenomena

This is a False Sunrise, a very particular kind of Parhelion  Atmospheric refraction causes the Sun to be seen while it is still below the horizon.  The Sun appears larger at sunrise than it does while higher in the sky, in a manner similar to the moon illusion.  The Sun appears to rise above the horizon and circle the Earth, but it is actually the Earth that is rotating, with the Sun remaining fixed. This effect results from the fact that an observer on Earth is in a rotating reference frame.

 

Occasionally a false sunrise occurs, demonstrating a very particular kind of Parhelion belonging to the optical phenomenon family of halos. Sometimes just before sunrise or after sunset a green flash can be seen. This is an optical phenomenon in which a green spot is visible above the sun, usually for no more than a second or two.[14]

Dawn
Dawn (from an Old English verb dagian "to become day") is the time that marks the beginning of the twilight before sunrise. It is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight, while the Sun itself is still below the horizon. Dawn should not be confused with sunrise, which is the moment when the leading edge of the Sun itself appears above the horizon. The duration of the twilight period between dawn and sunrise varies greatly depending on the observer's latitude, from a little over twenty minutes in equatorial regions, to many hours in polar regions, to several weeks at the poles. Astronomical dawn the moment after which the sky is no longer completely dark; formally defined as the time at which the Sun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the morning.[1] Nautical dawn the time at which there is enough sunlight for the horizon and some objects to be distinguishable; formally, when the Sun is 12 degrees below the horizon in the morning.[1] Civil dawn that time at which there is enough light for objects to be distinguishable, so that outdoor activities can commence; formally, when the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the morning.[1] During dawn (and dusk) it is usually possible (provided that the sky is cloud-free) to see approximately in which direction the Sun is (though it's below the horizon). Though it is possible to localize the direction of the Sun during astronomical dawn and dusk, people in general experience astronomical dawn and dusk as night, even without clouds. Zenith is dark and more than just the brightest shining stars can be seen (except low above the horizon in the direction of the sun). At civil dawn there is no darkness in any direction, nor at zenith. The sky is bright, even when cloudy. In mid and northern Scandinavia, summer nights never get any further than to civil dusk or dawn. This period of "bright nights" is longer at higher latitudes (further north). North of the polar circle (at 66°30′ N) the Sun does not set at all at the summer solstice. The period of no sunset is longer closer to the North Pole. The angular radius of the polar circle is equal to the angle between the plane of Earth's equator and that of the ecliptic. At true solar noon at London (latitude

51°30′ N), the Sun is at an angle of (90 − 51.5 =) 38.5 degrees above the horizon at the equinoxes. At winter solstice the "Sun height" (solar elevation angle) is (38.5 − 23.5 =) 15.0 degrees above horizon. At summer solstice the "Sun height" is instead (38.5 + 23.5 =) 62 degrees above horizon. Nautical dawn is more difficult to describe. Near the summer solstice, latitudes higher than 54°30′ get no darker than nautical dawn/dusk; the "darkness of the night" varies greatly in these latitudes. But while, for instance, Glasgow, Scotland at 55°51′ N and Copenhagen, Denmark at 55°40′ N get a few hours of "night feeling", Oslo, Norway at 59°56′ N and Stockholm, Sweden at 59°19′ N seems very bright all the time the Sun is below the horizon. This may call for a different classification of dawn and dusk terminology for more practical use than astronomy. When the sun gets 9.0 to 9.5 degrees below the horizon (at summer solstice this is at latitudes 57°30′–57°00′), zenith gets dark even on cloud-free nights (if there is no full moon); more than just the brightest shining stars are clearly visible in a large majority of the sky. All phases of dawn and dusk are shortest at the equator; where the Sun at equinox rises and sets at a right angle to the horizon. Civil, nautical, and astronomical dawn and dusk last only 24 minutes each. Dawn and dusk times are fastest at the times around the equinoxes and slowest at summer and winter solstices on all places on the earth. At the poles, the Sun rises at the spring equinox and sets at the autumn equinox, with a long period of dawn/dusk, lasting for a few weeks .

Sunset
Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the western half of the horizon, i.e. at an azimuth greater than 180 degrees, as a result of Earth's rotation. The time of sunset is defined in astronomy as the moment when the trailing edge of the Sun's disk disappears below the horizon. The ray path of light from the setting Sun is highly distorted near the horizon because of atmospheric refraction, making the sunset appear to occur when the Sun’s disk is already about one diameter below the horizon. Sunset is distinct from dusk, which is the time at which the sky becomes completely dark, which occurs when the Sun is approximately eighteen degrees below the horizon. The period between sunset and dusk is called twilight. Locations north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle experience no sunset or sunrise at least one day of the year, when the polar day or the polar night persists continuously for 24 hours. Sunset creates unique atmospheric conditions such as the often intense orange and red colors of the Sun and the surrounding sky. Sunset is the point at which the Sun is first completely below the horizon marking the start of twilight. It should not be confused with dusk, which occurs at the end of twilight. The time of sunset varies throughout the year, and is determined by the viewer's position on Earth, specified by longitude and latitude, and elevation. Small daily changes and noticeable semi-annual

changes in the timing of sunsets are driven by the axial tilt of Earth, daily rotation of the Earth, the planet's movement in its annual elliptical orbit around the Sun, and the Earth and Moon's paired revolutions around each other. During winter and spring, the days get longer and sunsets occur later every day until the day of the latest sunset, which occurs after the summer solstice. In the Northern Hemisphere, the latest sunset occurs late in June or in early July, but not on the summer solstice of June 21. This date depends on the viewer's latitude (connected with the Earth's slower movement around the aphelion around July 4). Likewise, the earliest sunset does not occur on the winter solstice, but rather about two weeks earlier, again depending on the viewer's latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere, it occurs in early December or late November (influenced by the Earth's faster movement near its perihelion, which occurs around January 3). Likewise, the same phenomenon exists in the Southern Hemisphere, but with the respective dates reversed, with the earliest sunsets occurring some time before June 21 in winter, and latest sunsets occurring some time after December 21 in summer, again depending on one's southern latitude. For a few weeks surrounding both solstices, both sunrise and sunset get slightly later each day. Even on the equator, sunrise and sunset shift several minutes back and forth through the year, along with solar noon. These effects are plotted by an analemma.[2][3] Neglecting atmospheric refraction and the Sun's non-zero size, whenever and wherever sunset occurs, it is always in the northwest quadrant from the March equinox to the September equinox, and in the southwest quadrant from the September equinox to the March equinox. Sunsets occur almost exactly due west on the equinoxes for all viewers on Earth. Exact calculations of the azimuths of sunset on other dates are complex, but they can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by using theanalemma. As sunrise and sunset are calculated from the leading and trailing edges of the Sun, and not the center, the duration of a day time is slightly longer than night time (by about 10 minutes, as seen from temperate latitudes). Further, because the light from the Sun is refracted as it passes through the Earth's atmosphere, the Sun is still visible after it is geometrically below the horizon. Refraction also affects the apparent shape of the Sun when it is very close to the horizon. It makes things appear higher in the sky than they really are. Light from the bottom edge of the Sun's disk is refracted more than light from the top, since refraction increases as the angle of elevation decreases. This raises the apparent position of the bottom edge more than the top, reducing the apparent height of the solar disk. Its width is unaltered, so the disk appears wider than it is high. (In reality, the Sun is almost exactly spherical.) The Sun also appears larger on the horizon, an optical illusion, similar to the moon illusion. Locations north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle experience no sunset or sunrise at least one day of the year, when the polar day or the polar nightpersist continuously for 24 hours. As a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to an observer, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles, changing the final color of the beam the viewer sees. Because the shorter wavelength components, such as blue and green, scatter more strongly, these colors are preferentially removed from the beam.[4] At sunrise and sunset, when the path through the atmosphere is longer, the blue and green components are removed almost completely

leaving the longer wavelength orange and red hues we see at those times. The remaining reddened sunlight can then be scattered by cloud droplets and other relatively large particles to light up the horizon red and orange.[5] The removal of the shorter wavelengths of light is due to Rayleigh scattering by air molecules and particles much smaller than the wavelength of visible light (less than 50 nm in diameter).[6][7] The scattering by cloud droplets and other particles with diameters comparable to or larger than the sunlight's wavelengths (> 600 nm) is due toMie scattering and is not strongly wavelength-dependent. Mie scattering is responsible for the light scattered by clouds, and also for the daytime halo of white light around the Sun (forward scattering of white light). Without Mie scattering at sunset and sunrise, the sky along the horizon has only a dull-reddish appearance, while the rest of the sky remains mostly blue and sometimes green.[8][9][10] Sunset colors are typically more brilliant than sunrise colors, because the evening air contains more particles than morning air.[4][5][7][10] Ash from volcanic eruptions, trapped within the troposphere, tends to mute sunset and sunrise colors, while volcanic ejecta that is instead lofted into the stratosphere (as thin clouds of tiny sulfuric acid droplets), can yield beautiful post-sunset colors called afterglows and pre-sunrise glows. A number of eruptions, including those of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and Krakatoa in 1883, have produced sufficiently high stratospheric sulfuric acid clouds to yield remarkable sunset afterglows (and pre-sunrise glows) around the world. The high altitude clouds serve to reflect strongly reddened sunlight still striking the stratosphere after sunset, down to the surface. Sometimes just before sunrise or after sunset a green flash can be seen.[11]

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