AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR - MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 Chapter I

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Ir. Abu Zaid Bakar

Door. Airframe Symmetry 5. Fuselage. Structure Assembly Technique & Protection 4. Engine Mount. Wings & Stabilizer 7. Inspection of Aircraft Structures 2 . Nacelle & Landing Gear Attachment UniKL MIAT 6. Window & Windscreen 8.MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Overview 1. General Structures 2. Construction Method 3.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 AIRCRAFT UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY LIGHTER THAN AIR HEAVIER THAN AIR AIRSHIPS BALLONS POWER DRIVEN NON-POWER DRIVEN AEROPLANE HELICOPTER GLIDER (SAIL PLANES) LANDPLANE SEAPLANE AMPHIBIAN UniKL MIAT 3 .

T-beam. – Examples: Landing gear strut. F/A UniKL MIAT 4 . where carry load at right angle to their length. Wing strut.MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY • Beam General Structures – A member subject to bending. where it is called cantilever. A beam may be simply supported at the end. The support may be a little way from the ends or it may be supported at one end only. Floorboard Structures • Strut – Member taking a compression load.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR . I-beam. Z-beam – Application: Spar. • Tie – Member taking a tensile load – Examples: Landing gear beam • Strain – ∆x / x • Stress – Force per unit area. – Examples.

Bending – A cantilever beam having a downward force at the end. Examples: torque tube. The beam is deflected downward. upper section of the beam is having tension and lower section of the beam is under compression Compression – Any structure when under compression is when the forces in that structure are pointed towards the centre of the structure Tension – Any structure when under compression is when the forces in that structure are pointed outwards from the centre of the structure Fatigue – The tiredness of the structure after had undergone cyclic loading UniKL MIAT 5 .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY General Structures • • • • • Torsion – Member or circular cross section subject to twisting couples or torques.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY General Structures • Stress Riser • Hoop Stress – Different in pressure between inside and outside of the pressurised area of the aircraft. (Circumferential stress) Shear • UniKL MIAT 6 .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .

but which for various reasons cannot be omitted from the aircraft.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR . UniKL MIAT 7 . It also include structure which if damage would not impair the safety of the aircraft. Secondary Structures Includes all portions of the aircraft which would normally be regarded as primary structure but which unavoidably have such reserve strength over design requirements that appreciably weakening may be permitted without risk of failure. Tertiary Structures Include all portions of the structure in which stresses are low.MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Primary Structures All major components of the aircraft. The failure of which in flight or ground manoeuvres would likely to cause catastrophic structural collapse or loss of control of the aircraft.

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Wing Box Ribs Longerons Aft Spar Forward Spar Bulkhead UniKL MIAT 8 .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .

crack propagation and fail-safe design.MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Damage Tolerance Damage tolerance is related to fatigue. The structural engineer’s primary responsibility to ensure the design to have adequate strength and rigidity at minimum weight. 3 components to determine the fatigue life of a given structure are: i) material selection ii) stress level iii) number of cycle to be tolerated at various stress level UniKL MIAT 9 .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .

Yield strength requirement) Fatigue life of the structure (crack initiation) Fatigue life of the damaged structure (inspection interval) Static residual strength of the damage structure Essential consideration to the development of the damage tolerance design ¾ Material Selection ¾ Fastener Load Distribution ¾ Ultimate Design Cut-off Stress UniKL MIAT 10 .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Damage Tolerance ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ To ensure aircraft will perform satisfactory.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR . the structure is designed for the main four failure modes: Static ultimate strength (incld.

proper stress levels. and multiple load path structural arrangements which maintain high strength in the presence of a crack or damage UniKL MIAT 11 . that is able to carry the loads. • Is achieved through material selection.MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Fail Safe • A structure in which failure of a particular part is compensated for by another part.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR . for a limit period of time.

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Example of Fail Safe Criteria UniKL MIAT 12 .

Load Spectrum • A collection of data of the load exposure of a structure. etc.MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Damage Tolerance Stress Cycle • The stress cycle is the stress-time function which is repeated periodically and identically. landing impact. maneuvers. Examples are gust. climb.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR . cruise. decent. UniKL MIAT 13 . ground roll.

Fmin)/2 Fm – Mean Stress = (Fmax + Fmin)/2 R = stress ratio = Fmin/Fmax UniKL MIAT 14 .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Stress (F) Stress Cycle Fa Stress Range Fm Cycle (N) Fmin Fmax • • • • • Fmax – Maximum Stress Fmin – Minimum Stress Fa – Alternating Stress = (Fmax .

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Load Spectrum Gross Weight Altitude Range Speed UniKL MIAT 15 .

5 ( if a part has a working load of 100 pounds. it must be designed to carry 100 x 1. • FAA ? UniKL MIAT 16 .5 = 150 pounds of load.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY Requirements • BCAR has specify the safety factor for the structural parts in aircraft to be 1.

MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF AVI ATION TECHNO LOGY THANK YOU UniKL MIAT 17 .AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES REPAIR AAB 31003 UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR .