Modernist Journals Project

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"There must be great audiences too"—Poetry: A Magazine of Verse by Ben-Merre, David This object is available for public use. Individuals interested in reproducing this object in a publication or website, or for any commercial purpose, must first receive written permission from the Modernist Journals Project. For further information, please contact: Modernist Journals Project Box 1957, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912

Introduction I. Harriet Monroe and the Beginnings of Poetry II. The "Foreign Correspondent" and "A. C. H.": Ezra Pound — Alice Corbin Henderson III. Literary Debates and Controversies: Imagism — Vers Libre — The Jepson Attack — Poetry Prizes — Poems of War and Peace IV. Poetry's Poets: T. S. Eliot — Robert Frost — Vachel Lindsay — Amy Lowell — Carl Sandburg — Wallace Stevens — William Carlos Williams — W. B. Yeats V. Even More of Poetry's Poets: Conrad Aiken — Maxwell Bodenheim — Joseph Campbell — Skipwith Cannell — Emanuel Carnevali — Padraic Colum — Grace Hazard Conkling — Hilda Conkling — Babette Deutsch — Arthur Davison Ficke — John Gould Fletcher — F. S. Flint — Florence Kiper Frank — Jun Fujita — Wilfrid Wilson Gibson — Ben Hecht — Helen Hoyt [Lyman] — James Joyce — [Alfred] Joyce Kilmer — Alfred Kreymborg — Harold Monro — Ernest Rhys — Lola Ridge — Isaac Rosenberg — James Stephens — Ajan Syrian — Sara Teasdale — Eunice Tietjens — Allen Upward — Arthur Waley — John Hall Wheelock — (Arthur) Yvor Winters — Edith Wyatt — Elinor Wylie VI. Closing — Endnotes — Works Cited

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"POETRY may not be a grand enough portal, and the lamps that light it may burn dim in drifting winds; but until a nobler one is built it should stand, and its little lights should show the way as they can."—Harriet Monroe, Poetry 11.1, p. 41 For fifteen cents in 1912, Chicago, you could have purchased one pound of New Evaporated Crawford Peaches or Stollwerck's Premium Chocolate 1/2 pound cake, some of Madame Ise'bell's Face Powder or an oak-framed picture of Cupid (awake or asleep), 1/4 lb box of “Effervescing Sodium Phosphate” (used to make granular salt) or, granted you were willing to put up with “slight defects, never noticeable,” some infants' cashmere stockings.1 If, however, you were a bit more culturally adventurous and wanted to take a look at a small periodical boasting “the best poems now written in English,” your fifteen cents could have bought you Harriet Monroe's Poetry: A Magazine of Verse (Poetry 1.2 L; hereafter abbreviated as P). In addition to Poetry's original poems and fresh reviews, in addition to its sharp, witty editorials and the prospect of participating in transatlantic cultural conversations, you would have received the satisfaction that you were helping to “promote in every possible way the interests of the art.” An endeavor of so wide a scope, however, depended upon the promise that a poetic culture, complementing the magazine, could find its place amid the French plumed hats, personal player-pianos, and electric motorcars of the day. Monroe understood, as many of her contemporaries—poets and editors included—failed to understand, that she needed to find the right balance between promoting what was new, strange, and outside the mainstream and maintaining a reading public, especially for one of the first American journals devoted entirely to poetry. This meant, in effect, creating a poetic marketplace, one that would be curious, openminded, and patient with new work. To have great poets there must be great audiences too—this quotation from Whitman appeared in each issue of Poetry. It promised readers who might otherwise be wary of modernist verse that there was a continuous lineage from the poetic past even in work that seemed to dismiss it. It also assured readers not only that they were important, but, moreover, that they, too, were part of this very new and very thrilling literary adventure. While hundreds of such "little magazines" appeared in major cities across the country during the first two decades of the twentieth century, the likelihood that such a venture would survive was bleak. The magazine would need a top-notch editorial staff, a constant stream of new poetic offerings, an innovative editorial policy, and, above all, a marketplace to fund its product—whether through philanthropic contributions, a readership that would subscribe to its pages, or, and this was quickly becoming a new phenomenon, its own advertising pages. Harriet Monroe's Poetry, published out of Cass Street in Chicago, seemed to have all of the above. Its outstanding editorial staff included the in-house poets Alice Corbin Henderson and Eunice Tietjens (another poet-contributor, Edith Wyatt, served on the advisory board), and the impeccably frustrating, intellectually luminous, one-of-a-kind advocate of everything modernist—the “foreign correspondent,” Ezra Pound. “Fears have been expressed by a number of friendly critics that POETRY may become a house of refuge for minor poets,” Harriet Monroe wrote in the second issue of her journal (P 1.2 62). She wanted to make it clear that being "minor" was acceptable. Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Burns, Poe and Whitman were all minor poets (in their day), she reminded her critics, as were “Drayton, Lovelace, Herrick, and many another delicate lyrist of the anthologies . . . [who] created little masterpieces, not great ones” (P 1.2 63-64). Poetry—or what Monroe called “a Cinderella corner in the ashes” of popular magazines (P 1.1 27)—would be a home for poets big and small, for poets who sought to change the heavens and those who just wanted to provide glimpses into modern life. Monroe's famous "Open Door" policy, which applied equally to poets and critics, outlined this view: may the great poet we are looking for never find it shut, or half-shut, against his ample genius! To this end the editors hope to keep free of entangling alliances with any single class or school. They desire to print the best English verse which is being written today, regardless of where, by whom, or under what theory of art it is written. Nor will the magazine promise to limit its editorial comments to one set of opinions. (P 1.2 64) Monroe's editorial policies attracted modernist poets considered both major and minor. She published T. S. Eliot's “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” Wallace Stevens's “Sunday Morning,” Carl Sandburg's “Chicago,” H. D.'s “Hermes of the Ways,” and Ezra Pound's first Cantos. She published W. B. Yeats, Amy Lowell, Robert Frost, William Carlos Williams, Richard Aldington, D. H. Lawrence, Rupert Brooke, and Marianne Moore. She published important, canonical poets slowly being forgotten and wonderfully innovative poets quickly being remembered: Vachel Lindsay, John Gould Fletcher, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Maxwell Bodenheim, Sara Teasdale, and the young Elinor Wylie. Monroe devoted issues to the American Indian and the African American, to the Southern bard and the Western cowboy; she even made room in her pages for poetry by children. The high quality of Poetry's verse was not the only factor defining its relationship to modernist culture. Many of the aesthetic debates of the time—those surrounding vers libre, imagism, the role of a national poetics, the scope and function of a poetic audience—happened in the pages of Poetry. The book reviews and critical essays, often written by the magazine's own staff—including Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Edith Wyatt, and others—vigorously defended modernist experimentation as it argued for a greater role of Página 2 de 36

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poetry in the art world and beyond. The March 1919 issue of Poetry (13.6) shows us how all of these elements—poetry, essays, reviews, advertisements, national and international concerns—come together to form an undivided whole. The installment had an assortment of verse sounds: Ezra Pound, who was on his way out of Cass Street, alongside William Carlos Williams, who was on his way back in, beside Morris Bishop and Robert M. McAlmon who were fighting overseas with the American Expeditionary Force. Pound's (mis)translation, “Poems from the Propertius Series,” begins with his typically allusive and elusive “Shades of Callimachus, Coan Ghosts of Philetas, / It is in your grove I would walk—” (291). William Carlos Williams's “Complete Destruction” provides an altogether different phrasal rhythm. It is tragic but more whimsical, and its minutiae leads to a metaphysical speculation on mortality: It was an icy day. We buried the cat, Then took her box And set match to it In the back yard. Those fleas that escaped Earth and fire Died by the cold. Morris Bishop's “With the A.E.F,” written in France, and Robert M. McAlmon's “Volplanetor,” written upon his return from the war, supply entirely different senses of transient being. “In the clairvoyance of a midnight waking / I took an inventory of myself . . . / Scraps of old songs, fragments of childish fears, / And blowing memories of unlit years,” begins Bishop's intriguingly heartfelt verse (308). McAlmon's sounds are jarring, his language off-kilter: “Insoluble in high air's quiescency / My plane, on earth a sophist, naively / Reconnoitres promiscuously” (320). Following these selections is “Comment: A Radical-Conservative,” Harriet Monroe's reply to Max Eastman's preface “American Ideals of Poetry” published in his collection Colors of Life (Knopf). Ads for Eastman's The Enjoyment of Poetry had appeared in earlier issues of Poetry. Now, with Eastman's “indictment of free verse as necessarily unrespectful of the line and therefore unstructural and formless” (323), Monroe felt the need to respond. “Would Hamlet's soliloquy or Antony's death-speech,” she posed, “be any the less poetry if written out as prose, or if scrambled into irregular lines? Is Lincoln's Gettysburg speech any the less essentially poetry, in rhythm, structure, and spiritual motive, because it happens to be printed with linedivisions?” (324-25). The whole back-and-forth seems ironic given that Eastman was a social reformer, editor of socialist journals, and a friend and translator of Leon Trotsky. Avant-garde modernist literature, unfortunately, just never made it onto his program. The book reviews in this issue include the poet Vachel Lindsay's assessment of Yanks: A Book of A. E. F. Verse, “written in the American language” and published by The Stars and Stripes, “the doughboy paper published in France”: “full of . . . the sense of Tomorrow. . . . [Yanks] records the moods of the private soldier, and absolutely refuses to be heroic, though some of the amateur versifiers are now dead on the field” (329). Alfred Kreymborg, the important modernist editor, provides a review of Lola Ridge's The Ghetto and Other Poems. Ridge, a Marxist and feminist, was born in Ireland and then spent time in Australia before moving to the United States. Kreymborg called her “a revolutionist . . . [who] will be charged with lunacy, incendiarism, nihilism,” and he insisted that her collection about the New York Jewish community would subject the average American gentlefolk “to the most uncompromising excoriation I've ever seen between two American bookboards” (336). Following Alice Corbin Henderson's review of John Gould Fletcher—“Masks that only imitate other masks eventually become lifeless,” because they “do not move us, either as art or life” (340)—Helen Birch's review of Maxwell Bodenheim—“not a negligible book” (342)—and Monroe's review of a posthumously published A. C. Swinburne collection, appears “a letter from one of the contributors, a First Lieutenant in the 330th Infantry,” Morris Bishop, who wrote that he was “reveling in your bunch of back numbers as in a first taste of chocolate after months deprived of luxuries” (346). By providing glimpses of very real war experiences alongside aesthetic debates, the March 1919 issue of Poetry seems almost violently to be showing how social relations are no longer part of one integrated whole. I would argue that Monroe's journal illustrates the reverse—that the whole is no longer anything but an expression of its integrated parts. Monroe was wary of aestheticizing war, but she also knew that its rhetoric, like the rhetoric of poetry, was something that was to be bought and sold. The closing pages of the March 1919 issue, containing the advertising pages, show how all of these parts come together. An ad for Horlick's Original Malted Milk—to be used “FOR SAFETY and CONVENIENCE”—is squeezed in between ads for Monroe's and Henderson's verse anthology The New Poetry, bound volumes of Poetry, and The Morality of Women and Love and Ethics by the Swedish feminist writer Ellen Key. Another ad for Monroe's journal at the end of the issue reminds readers that “A subscription to POETRY is the best way of paying interest on your huge debt to the great poets of the past.” Poetry not only links together war and verse, the milk and morality of the present, but also ties everything back to the shared speculations of a cultural past. What follows here are five sections devoted to various aspects of Poetry magazine. 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brown. O'Brien & Son. Williams seems to subordinate Monroe's work to that of others: “This seems the most important contribution of Harriet Monroe as editor of Poetry: she made Pound available. Other advertisements in the coming months and years would promote modernist anthologies and other periodicals (such as Blast and The Egoist). the journal Art—“All the twaddle that through the centuries has twined itself about that simple three-letter word has not sufficed to strangle it”— published by M. Dalloway—despite what our syllabi may claim. to which my introduction owes a great deal. each with an essential hand in the journal's development and each with a differing idea as to what constituted a modernist journal: Ezra Pound and the often-overlooked Alice Corbin Henderson. and even dogs for poets. and she sold Chicago—all were part of the same project of advertising modernism."2 Modernism was never just “The Waste Land. promotes The Enjoyment of Poetry by Max Eastman. Berg Esenwein and Mary Eleanor Roberts—“Clear and progressive in arrangement. The assumption that modernist poets stood free from their immediate cultural influences led critics and readers for a time to see modernism as just an assemblage of anthologized names. for example. poetics. “Miss Monroe led us to suppose she was building a cathedral—it now appears that it was a Woolworth Building. when so many painters and architects. and it will soon publish a group of translations from the Chinese by Allen Upward”). a little of her metaphoric gift. Adam McKible.php?id=mjp. and each was a part of a complicated network of politics. Indispensable to every writer of verse” (see Scholes 220-21 for a reading of this text).” Sean Latham and Robert Scholes write. http://dl. rejected. The cultural institution of the little magazine—not the authors who can be picked out of it—defined modernism. spread his influence abroad. we may begin to see how everything was coming together. big and small. they were published next to other poets. It was dynamic. Modernism was more than just its names.” says one critic. . . the ads show the disparity of a commercial literary culture as well as its burgeoning global reach. offers of engagements for lectures. who claimed a purity of intention and achievement for modern literature that is belied by the actual relationship between commerce and culture that made modernism what it was and is revealed so powerfully in the magazines. Recent critical work by Suzanne W. it was something that was traded. The third section details some of the controversies that found their way into the pages of this journal. Most importantly. “was created from a still-obscure alchemy of commercial and aesthetic impulses and processes” (521). Rabindra Nath Tagore. Robert Scholes.2005. I would rather build a first-rate sky-scraper! But not the Woolworth Building—the Monadnock perhaps. modernism was something that was bought and sold—which is one of the biggest paradoxes for an artistic movement that (at least initially. Sean Latham and others. Periodical studies attempts to recover the little magazine not just as the container of important modernist work. scholars and scientists. Both the marketing and form of Poetry are important to how we have come to conceive of cultural production in the beginning of the twentieth century.” Ulysses. Harriet Monroe understood the new marketplace for poetry by accepting a notion that few practitioners and fewer readers wanted to believe—that art was indeed property. A cathedral. Even the modernist poets we consider "major" today were very much the cultural outgrowth of modernism. “admitted no inherent contradiction between the creation of poetry and the creation of a market for poetry” (102). Churchill. Looking at the advertisements printed in the back pages of Poetry. Monroe betrays a little of her panache. perhaps. She sold poetry. .Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 recounts the magazine's fascinating beginnings and the individual who made it all possible—Harriet Monroe. but as its specific medium.3 Their work is part of a project to “rescu[e] modernism from modernists like Ezra Pound. The second section follows two essential personalities. Despite her detailed description of Monroe's arduous labor and effectiveness as a poet and reader.” according to John Timberman Newcomb. her note on “The Question of Prizes” appears in the alchemic cauldron of Poetry (just before Carl Sandburg's review of Ezra Pound): Why should a poet be “utterly lacking in self-respect” if he accepts a fellowship. she sold advertising space. and a little of her Midwestern rewritten. next to advertisements. . and Mrs. Taken together. have stood up nobly under the infliction? . and re-sent.lib.3). They were mediated extensively: sent out (often to unknown readers).5 246-49) The best account of the first decade of Poetry is still Ellen Williams's Harriet Monroe and the Poetry Renaissance (hereafter referenced as EW). “Afterword” 225). An ad from the Ralph Fletcher Seymour Company—a publisher proposing to print limited editions of books—appeared next to a subscription offer from Poetry (which “has introduced to America the great Bengal poet. Defending her decision to give out poetry prizes against those claims that it would debase the art. and personalities.110&view=mjp_object Página 4 de 36 . Finally. it was a vortex without being Vorticism. in its critical context) has shied away from its own historical frameworks. where the relationship between art and advertising is inescapable” (Scholes. Poetic artworks were not to be dreamed up overnight and left on the kitchen counter for publication and posterity. Unfairly or not. scholars have critiqued Williams for her tendency to marginalize Monroe's enormous influence on modernism. The June 1913 issue (2. termed "periodical studies. and The Art of Versification by J. As luck would have it. . Her “idealistic yet pragmatic modernism." hopes to resituate modernism in its culture of "little magazines. did I? Modern cathedrals are second-rate— mere imitations. next to essays about what ought to constitute a modern poetics. the fourth and fifth sections consider some of the poems and poets—both major and minor—who appeared in the journal. “Modern culture. (P 7.00. And it was something that happened not in museums but atop editorial tables and among characters.

brown. My hope is that one poem or poet will catch hold of your interest. bracketing the name and contents. Seymour hiding in the corner. above the month and Romanized year. The goal of my introduction is to recast literary modernism so we see it not just as a conglomeration of poems that can be pulled out of a magazine. Jayne Marek. Such pronouncements unfortunately echo those rather unforgiving assertions of Humphrey Carpenter in his usually excellent biography of Pound. you'll become as lost as I have been. Such projects not only recover the contributions of female editors of the small which encouraged only “those creations of art which proceed from sober and earnest males” (“Sobriety and Earnestness” P 3. Chicago. Consider his dismissive “Harriet Monroe was a fifty-two-year-old spinster. scholars such as Newcomb. but also in the http://dl. Monroe herself attacked the sexism of. In what follows.00.” Marek writes. For nearly a quarter of a century she had been writing bland. we would see that the smallest type on the cover was the words: “Copyright 1912 by Harriet Monroe. Above it. More recently.'” Newcomb argues. for one. it was undeniably important.php?id=mjp. the daughter of a lawyer. but also as a space of contrasting poetics. The very bottom broadcast what would become a famous office address and delivery terminal for all poems modern—543 Cass Street. the cost and volume number were listed. I spend most of my energy looking closely at some of the poems and essays that appear on its pages. . a white Pegasus was flying into the red P of Poetry. It acknowledged that poetry was indeed property—specifically that of the publisher—and that the poetic marketplace didn't exist only with the Pegasus in an imaginary world in the clouds. and Grace Hazard Conkling. “and to accept her instead as a pioneer of an American avantgarde modernism that needs to be seen . “The denigration and dismissal of Monroe throughout much of modern literary history. I am indebted to their work as well. While the recovery of the female voice within the male-dominated confines of a manufactured modernism is a recent project. with any bit of luck. I recount many of the remarkable controversies and anecdotes that shed light on the happenings of the era. but also elevate such editors to their rightful place in modernism. Ezra Pound. The cover advertised poems by Arthur Davison Ficke.2005.lib.” While the copyrighting of work wasn't new. William Vaughan Moody. Emilia Stuart Lorimer. and politics. personalities. reexamining her contributions to that history requires a change of perspective that allows her to be seen on her own terms” (Women 26). sending you along to that “first-rate sky-scraper”—the Modernist Journal Project's (MJP's) archive—where.110&view=mjp_object Página 5 de 36 . Red and black weavings adorned the side. and Ann Massa have re-discovered Monroe's pivotal presence at the center of modernist poetics. so she decided to start her own poetry magazine” (Carpenter 184-85). Because so many of Poetry's stories have been told already (in much better words than I can piece together). as strikingly different from its European contemporaries” (88). Below it. Helen Dudley. “constitutes a telling example of the fate of many women. All rights reserved.4 144). I. Looking closely. while also contesting the gender politics behind past critiques. Harriet Monroe and the Beginnings of Poetry The red and black cover of the first issue of Poetry featured a half-rolled parchment and quill sitting atop a bed of laurel branches.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 but was not swallowed up by him” (EW 288). . and it promised an Editorial Comment (or comments) and Notes and Announcements. the National Institute of Arts and Letters. “[I]t is long past time to discard the image of Harriet Monroe as a 'literary spinster. the artist and publisher's name Ralph F. mediocre verse which she was now having difficulty in getting published. the implicit gendering and sexism of modernist institutions is not a new discovery.

secessionists and other radicals in painting. . as well as poets from other countries and continents to audiences back home. And love shall be law supreme. futurists. sculpture and music. Court of Appeals. . she was the art critic (EW 9). Along her sacred shore One heart. Monroe had been commissioned to compose a poem that would be read at the dedicatory ceremony of the Chicago World's Fair of 1892. hereafter cited as APL. Years later. poetry. As Ann Massa writes. the World had no further recourse.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 very real. and the Chicago Tribune—where. when the Supreme Court refused to hear the case. Monroe knew all about the necessity of safeguarding her poets' efforts and her own. very dirty world of capitalist finance. what Ann Massa calls “a highly effective public relations exercise for Monroe” in which she “acquired an image and a role in the world of American poetry. . Monroe was “determined to use no classic images” in her celebration of the “splendors and triumphs of modern civilization and an era of universal peace” (Monroe A Poet's Life 121. but the entire prospects of a generation? “Gradually.'” How. The problem wasn't that there was no market for art. and it ensured that the publication rights of the laboring poet ought to be protected. French poetry might have died with Victor Hugo. and introducing British. Irish.lib. the Chicago Evening Post. The court case also helped set the grounds for what would become an essential principle of intellectual property. “The American metropolitan newspaper prints cable dispatches about postimpressionists. “The Columbian Ode. with the arts which it officially represented and encouraged. The ruling was affirmed by the U. and she won punitive damages “sufficient to punish the trespasser and prevent a repetition of the offense” (APL 142). and theaters. Monroe's Poets & Their Art and “The Free-Verse Movement in America” will be referenced as P&TA and FVMA. The success of Poetry depended upon Monroe being able to figure a national culture both internationally and locally. Clasp hands as brothers on Columbia's shield. The embattled nations gather to be one. Her long list of grievances concluded this way: “In short. to un-silence not just individual voices. The whole episode. patrons. and she soon learned how. Poetry became a national magazine. Their efficient and excellent work was inspired by” was a paean to Chicago. And this is where the story of Poetrygoes back a few years. manifestly. she insisted that the rights to it remain with her. galleries. . and criticism in the New York Sun. when it was. More importantly. recollecting the situation in her autobiography. . one song.brown. In what would become a rather important court case. “I became convinced that something must be done. There appeared to be a scant supply of good new poetry and less demand” (Columbian 51). . Monroe. “[W]hat was Chicago then as an inspiration to the muse?” Edgar Lee Masters wrote to Monroe (EW 9). and universal brotherhood. by faith in the value of the arts in the nation's culture. for there were numerous art societies. Louis Sullivan. and French poets. Monroe had a natural gift for all things literary (EW 8). was backed by a group of the most powerful and wealthy men and women in the city. introducing American poets to audiences abroad. but so far as its editors and readers are concerned. she was fifty-two years old. one dream— Men shall be free forevermore. Monroe successfully argued that her copyright had been infringed. was that a poem cannot be exhibited and bought and possessed by some private or public collector in a manner or a painting or statue.S. respectively). seeking verse from America's differing geographical spaces and various ethnic groups. Upraise her banner to the shining sun. the New York World had reprinted this poem without permission. it was misunderstood.2005. but that there was no market for poetry. Born in 1860 to Henry S. music halls. the Atlantic.00. Another reason was the common desecration of the art by prosy teachers in colleges. . then. (APL 241-42) Poetry wasn't much talked about and. in EW 10). and John Root (Monroe's brother-in-law) made a home there.” Monroe wrote in her 1912 grievance list. But . Monroe had sued and successfully won $5000. “has no powerful friends” (qtd. for a time.110&view=mjp_object Página 6 de 36 . clan on clan. “Poetry alone. and since nobody else was doing anything it might be 'up on me' to try to stir up the sluggish situation” (APL 242). Monroe explained: The Art Institute. In order to fill the cultural void of the masses. She frequently published essays. and English with http://dl. and. When she started Poetry.” provided the future editor with the funds and the institutional backing necessary to promote poetry domestically (Columbian 61). Her poem. why was there nothing done for poets. Lo. (121-22) Monroe was paid $1000 for the contribution. Add that to the $1000 she already received for her poem from the World's Fair dedication committee and this was not a bad deal for a poem in 1892. the vast English-speaking world says to its poets: 'Silence. “a lawyer prominent in the affairs of the very new and rapidly growing city” of Chicago. It became an international magazine. Monroe believed that poetry would have to become more democratic. Covering the World's Fair. “Chicago had a reputation as the graveyard of little magazines. . Masters was not entirely correct to imply that Chicago lacked culture.” Monroe writes. architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright. America. the most unappreciated and ill-paid artists in the world? One reason.php?id=mjp.

Monroe wrote. etc. The inaugural issue contained the equally significant essay “The Motive of the Magazine. in Newcomb 92). C. Poets and friends . William Butler Yeats. were continually dropping by to read manuscripts.” In it. Lively. but also all the verse in American and English magazines of the previous five years” (APL 251). the two endowed theaters. Advertising the manufacturing center of the Midwest meant advertising its culture. She recounts that. the Chicago Grand opera co.. from both poets and critics. a problem demanding space and shelving” (APL 317-19). over the wilderness. require her ever-living voice to give them glory and glamour.” and “[p]oets came from far and near as to a kind of headquarters of the art. a process as http://dl. but to examine their own foundations and standards.110&view=mjp_object Página 7 de 36 . Emanuel Carnevali. of all the fine arts.” connected to its people and culture. (694-95) Poetry's advisory board.” writes Joseph Parisi. included Henry Blake Fuller. “modern poetry should be able to listen with an open mind to Ezra Pound and H. Subsequent assistant editors included Helen Hoyt. as poetry travels more easily than any other art” (draft of a letter to Howard Elting.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Tennyson. . Alice Corbin Henderson screened submissions and Eunice Tietjens. Monroe published the experimental verse of Ezra Pound.lib. always violently rejecting the lifeless. putting many Chicago poets—such as Carl Sandburg and his "Chicago" poem—on the map. was born a great teacher. Poetry has been left to herself and blamed for inefficiency. listen to chief assistant Alice Corbin Henderson's witty remarks. “We feel that the magazine is the most important aesthetic advertisement Chicago ever had. Chatfield-Taylor (later on the advisory board of Poetry). argue. the over-ornate. . “If modern music could make room for Debussy and Stravinsky and even Jazz. the stilted.” Monroe argued (P 1. Rabindranath Tagore (the year before he was given the Nobel Prize). and her own antique French colored-marble clock which sat on the white marble mantel under a gilt-framed mirror. . and to eat Miss Monroe's candy and the impromptu meals she whipped up over a bonfire out back” (Parisi 220). has been left to shift for herself in a world unaware of its immediate and desperate need of her. According to Joseph Parisi.00. (236) For Monroe. . some comfortable wicker chairs and a Wilton carpet loaned by her sister. never content with the conventionally accepted thing. With a patience and boldness indispensable for her upcoming career. over racial enmities and distances. a world whose great deeds. “At the head of this group” of modernist experimental poets. the space was “lively”.” Monroe wrote. Monroe describes the early years of her journal in the essay “These Five Years” (P 11.1 32). it developed an “atmosphere. Indeed. who wrote The Cliff Dwellers. Ezra Pound was the “foreign correspondent. The second issue of Poetry contained the famous Monroe doctrine—the "Open Door" statement. Joseph Campbell. was Ezra Pound. she sought 100 patrons to commit $50 a year for five years to fund the first critical years of the magazine. Chatfield-Taylor.brown. was part of the office staff. she meant. and Monroe wanted poetry to receive its due as an important part of that culture. or at most Swinburne. Vachel Lindsay.” Monroe reasoned. “[A]lready a figure of some note in the city. And.php?id=mjp. Penelope Niven describes the mood of the Poetry office as “emblematic of Harriet Monroe's gentility and enterprise”: The spacious front room of a renovated mansion on Chicago's Near North Side accommodated two desks borrowed from her landlord and patron James Whedon. In the first four months alone. qtd. During the summer of 1912. . just as significantly. whose triumphs over matter. She then wrote to many of them. the place rapidly filled up with books. the Orchestral Association. Monroe “was able to sell her sponsors two products: poetry and herself” (Columbian 52). Indeed our work is of more far-reaching influence. later an assistant editor. Massa notes. Edith Wyatt. Monroe “spent many hours at the public library reading not only recent books by the better poets. “[t]he atmosphere at Cass and Erie streets was more like that of a club than an editorial. even though they should ride roughshod over long-accepted precepts and prejudices” (FVMA 694). let alone business. the merely formal.2005. which importantly set the quality of work ahead of everything The responses and encouragement she received. until the Poetry library became. Monroe offered not just her intentions but also a general defense of what had become a long-forgotten genre: Poetry alone.” a position briefly assumed by Richard Aldington when Pound resigned. and Hilda Doolittle. whatever one may think of his poetry. . Poetry became a local magazine. at the suggestion of Hobart C. were overwhelming. Richard Aldington. Monroe thrust her way into the homes of some of the most important artistic benefactors of her city. born to be the leader of a school. . and Marion Strobel. whose sole duty was pretty much voting on prizes. sending along her plans for a journal and the “poets' circular” she had written the spring before (APL 251). An inspiring influence this poet has been.1 33-41). unfailing in the courage of his convictions. as it still is. always searching beneath surfaces and appearances. office. and H. . and whomever might try still more adventurous experiments. “We are doing the same kind of work for the city which is done by the Art Institute. not in the overwhelmingly busy sense of a newspaper office but rather in terms of an intellectual energy. D. leading others. Her journal would rectify this. a man who. the associate editor of Poetry since 1976 (218). An inquiring and provocative mind is his. She got 108 pledges. not necessarily to agree with him. and Richard Aldington. “Her list of guarantors reads like a social register of Chicago in the teens of this century.

and.” Wyatt maintained.1 26-27) To do her part in irrigating this wasteland. all forms.lib. Schulze maintains. The openness Monroe admired in the varied American landscape helps explain her "Open Door" policy toward poets. and Truth. as Robin G. Her “The New Beauty” attacks those who are “pathetically ingenuous in their intellectual attitude” of living in “an Elizabethan manor-house or a vine-clad Victorian cottage. Like Whitman. Monroe frequently published poets and essays that she knew would bring controversy. masterful verse out of their confrontations with the land” (Schulze 59-60). “On the Reading of Poetry. arguing that it “ceases to be of use the moment its walls are strong enough to break the butterfly's wing” (P 2. Ezra Pound. According to Schulze. large. To borrow a metaphor from Wyatt. and Carl Sandburg who composed like “the educated sons of pioneers” (P 12. Her essays put poetry in the news. dramatic or lyric. To many. To such readers the word 'form' means usually only a repeated literary effect: and they do not understand that every 'form' was in its first and best use an originality” (24).edu/mjp/render. to realize it. in Schulze 60).2 67). When these comments angered some critics. for example. upon some social or political problem of the day” (P 2. a green isle in the sea. the most thrilling experience of life is to make enemies” (P 4. to live in the vivid dream it evokes. “The hospitality of this hall. An essay in May. Monroe felt that America was a parataxis of its many diverse sounds.6 321). her love of Vachel Lindsay. where Beauty may plant her gardens. they must cultivate and irrigate the soil if the desert is to blossom as the rose. (P 1. either while they are here. whether narrative. This art. Schulze turns to “To the Wilderness”—where Monroe wants American poets to “bring the art 'back to nature'” (P 10. S. something nothing else can say—something which is life itself sung in free sympathy beyond the bars of time and space. qtd.2 61). Monroe proposed a test which was “to be quality alone. This is true even of certain ones who assert their modernism by rhyming of slums and strikes.5 263)—and “The Great Renewal”—where Monroe argues that artists “need the great renewal from Mother Earth who bore them” (P 12. Monroe was often caught between the modern sounds of her city and the call of the American wild. as Newcomb argues. and create some new. is not a miracle of direct creation.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 unreasonable as blaming the desert for barrenness.110&view=mjp_object Página 8 de 36 .” Edith Wyatt's essay in the same issue. Edgar Lee Masters.” went a little further.'” Monroe wrote—“subscribe. to listen to the special magic grace of its own style and composition. and her aversion to the verse of T. “poetry may concern herself only with a limited number of subjects to be presented in a predetermined and conventional manner and form. “Monroe's notions of modernist verse were rooted in her imaginative confrontation with the American land” (50). While she certainly had her own preferences. austere revealer of joy and sorrow.1 22). Monroe liked passionate intensity (perhaps not as much as Pound). what a delight it is to enjoy a poem. “Monroe's magazine challenged the prevailing notion that poetry had no business in urbanindustrial modernity” (86). such articles do a lot to explain Monroe's poetic tendencies. shall I find? and shall I know? My feet are bound upon the Quest— Over the Great Divide I go. yet.brown.6 322. (P 6. (25) A poet in her own right. Newcomb and Schulze stress different aspects of Monroe's modernity.2005. Monroe then got Walt Whitman (metaphorically speaking) to help promote the part of the people. and she reveled in being the center of the new American renaissance. she was open to the opinions of others. was also one of her most persistent enemies. 1914 began: “Next to making friends. or in choppier prose mistaken for vers libre. “If you believe with Whitman that 'the topmost proof of a race is its own born poetry. may follow her brave quest unafraid” (28). Monroe needed to balance the rapidly-developing urban landscapes with an American mythological heritage that was decidedly outdoors. but a reciprocal relation between the artist and his public. will have been a genuine source of happiness if somehow it tells the visitors. Eliot. which “seemed to her the hyper-urbane musings of one who had never in his life been outside” (Schulze 60-61). she argued. As Schulze puts it. defending both the art and its new manifestations. Indeed. Her “Mountain Song” shows such an affinity: Wide flaming pinions veil the West— Ah. “[h]ow might the American poet retain a defining relationship with American nature while reimagining nature as a viable subject of modernity?” (49-50).00. the walls that Poetry would build around literary art would not be so exclusive.” She offered “a place of refuge. http://dl. whom she evokes in each issue of her magazine. or after they have gone to other places. but at the center of each stands a common question. and to know that this special grace will say as deeply as some revealing hour with a friend one loves. but that did not stop her own pen from defending her methods. she attacked tradition itself. one of Monroe's most thrilling acquaintances.5 220) In locating a particularly American aesthetic.php?id=mjp. The people must do their part if the poet is to tell their story to the future. of hidden delights and despairs. go back to nature. to hark to its music. like every other. Many of Monroe's own articles in Poetry “are filled with calls for poets to throw off their bondage to European forms. or by moralizing in choppy odes.

as editor of the New Age. Jayne Marek's important recovery of women's modernism takes Pound to task for his expectation that “editors (and women) . B.2005. could not be selected merely on the basis of its immediate earning capacity. Hulme and F. and a crowd of editors.110&view=mjp_object Página 9 de 36 . a progressive idealism about the social benefits of poetry. one of them. She meant to provide a place where unknown poets could be printed. . confused for too long with modernism itself. contributors. The "Foreign Correspondent" and "A. Nevertheless. It is good to see that recent critics have embraced Monroe's role in The best foreign stuff. had just offered Pound a regular column. "Ezra" 5). Similarly. turning into insistences and then into demands.00. Henry James). despite the lack of public credit Monroe gave her. By contrast. . at his worst. specifically that of women and editors—two identities Monroe embodied. He sought a “universal” or a “Weltlitteratur standard” (Paige 62. was enthusiastic. in Sutton 138). Monroe is ignored for what she was—the cultural pulse at the center of modernism who had a sense not only of the scope and possibilities of modernist verse but also of all dimensions of American culture. In his letter of response. in Carpenter 214). situating the ideal little magazine into heroic male opposition against the forces of rank commercialism and closet conventionality embodied by women such as Monroe who presumed to claim a key role in American intellectual life” (Newcomb 87). Orage who. “[M]ore than any American poet of her generation. . H. Hoping to secure early submissions for her new magazine.brown. she has done so. letter dated 9/24/12. or the experiments that seem serious. Monroe liked Pound because he “stood with his back to the wall. G. E. While it is important to consider Monroe and Pound together. Flint). and Elkin Mathews (who ended up publishing some of Pound's earliest verse). H. Pound had already acquainted himself with the Poet's Club (T. Monroe wrote to Ezra Pound. Too often. Even though most critics like to stress their differences.lib. and even though Pound. R. (691-92) Monroe helped poets when she could. but it was not at that moment functioning vigorously in other editorial offices. Pound. especially given that Ezra Pound's masculine ideology. Monroe had a good. as Newcomb argues. and a pragmatic understanding of poets' work as intellectual property with economic as well as aesthetic functions” (103). we should note that they don't fit neatly into any binaries of modernism. C. Pound “simultaneously demonized and feminized genteel culture. and readers to claim that the early years of Poetry were made possible by three figures. Miss Monroe has occasionally mutilated a work by excisions and has occasionally failed to see the unity of a longer work and given it in fragments. then in London. and seriously and sanely directed towards the broadening and development of the Art of Poetry” (Paige 45. 11/7/12). she has done so. various other club-less writers (such as Ford Madox Hueffer. the Rhymers' Club (W. act according to certain roles helpful to literary men. This idea was not new. and according to his biographer Humphrey http://dl. “They were two strong people who were devoted to the cause of poetry but saw poetry in very different ways” (Scholes. Where new ideas and forms could be tried. it was still considerable. to be of any intellectual value. Whether Pound's part in the process was greater or less than he believed. but. she has done valuable service by reason of the purity of her intentions. . Ezra Pound. appreciation for men's critical and creative activity. especially so in its underhanded compliments: In 1911 Miss Monroe and her backers recognized that verse. II. albeit somewhat uneasy relationship with Henderson. if one had to point them out. in fact." It is unfair to its various editors. in Monroe's words. she and Henderson “made a strong team” (APL 318). “never quite brought us to blows or bloodshed”. and struck out blindly with clenched fists in a fierce impulse to fight” (APL 290). Their arguments. Arthur Symons). an integral part of Cass Street. the two would agree more often than not. Monroe had sent out a circular expressing her aims to various poets on the international scene.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 His essay “Small Magazines. would refer to Poetry as “Harriet's miserable rag” (qtd. Ernest Rhys. Yeats. would dismiss the work of others. Ezra Pound Before launching her magazine. aggressively targets Monroe. We import only such stuff as is better than that produced at home. It was Mathews. who introduced Monroe to the poetry of Ezra Pound. Monroe had to balance Pound's unmatched enthusiasm with his ever forceful carping about everything. . and labor for the tasks of publication” (Women 168). she “combined an interest in experimental verse forms. roles in which either editors or women would provide money and encouragement for male writers. But she wasn't a “meal ticket” and wasn't a cook.” according to Newcomb. S.” a belittling soubriquet for the "little magazine" of modernism. they would be Monroe. Wells. She has provided a meal ticket when the meal ticket was badly needed. Pound's suggestions would eventually get louder. I don't know of any other constructive idea that is directly traceable to the Chicago office. qtd. he offered his own suggestions for an editorial policy: “We support American poets—preferably the young ones who have a serious determination to produce master-work. the stuff well above mediocrity. and Alice Corbin Henderson. namely A.php?id=mjp.

.1 7) The coup de grace comes at the end: You and Abe Lincoln from that mass of dolts Show us there's chance at least of winning through. . in Carpenter 185). who saw the demand of poetry everywhere because it was always part of the general culture. resolved to carry out his “American Risorgimento. Pound responded. qtd. perhaps. William Carlos Williams. As a timorous wench from a centaur (or a centurian).edu/mjp/render. Pound was a firebrand. and the “VURRY Amur'k'n” Robert Frost (Letters 49). . in EW 36). “You may announce. and shrewdly inviting sympathy for him as a young poet who had suffered neglect” (215). Compared to Monroe.00. Rabindranath Tagore (Pound's “sensation of the winter” [Carpenter 186]). John Gould Fletcher. Pound sent poets and poems along. His own verse wasn't too shabby either.” he wrote. ultra-effete tenuity of Contemporania.1 1) While Monroe wouldn't flee. it was titled “To Whistler. Readers will be familiar with the final poem in the collection.”4 There. As David A. W. . adding that he would keep “the magazine in touch with whatever is most dynamic in artistic thought.5 168). was Pound's offer. “Morte de Christo! . Moody 215). Her confidence in him would soon pay off. of his editorial eye and literary connections. protesting some of his more contentious phrases. http://dl.” Within no time at all. Monroe believed that Pound “was the best critic living . Who bear the brunt of our America And try to wrench her impulse into art. Pound became the self-appointed foreign correspondent of Poetry magazine. He introduced Skipwith Cannell. later in the same letter.” he made sure to mention. while both keeping her distance from his braggadocio. in Carpenter 189). it appears a good deal below Pound's previous poem.” he wrote about his collection published in Poetry in April. (P 2. she “found a way of defending her foreign correspondent from the indignant critics. 1913 (Paige 11.” The first poem Pound published in Monroe's magazine was in the inaugural issue. Yeats.e. “I do see nearly everyone that matters. B. At heart. qtd. “I don't know that America is ready to be diverted by the ultramodern.110&view=mjp_object Página 10 de 36 . it was always fresh. More significantly than his own verse. howling in terror . It began: Will people accept them? (i. I mean. Hilda Doolittle. American. however. You can't expect modern work to even look in the direction of Greek drama until we can again treat actual things in a simple and direct manner” (Paige 18.php?id=mjp. . and perhaps some few will get mad enough to tell the truth in plain passionate language” (qtd. these songs).Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Carpenter. often doing so with his own "improvements.” The original version printed in Poetry. . almost as if it were its own island. Already they flee. he “decided on the spot that Poetry would be the wagon on which American poets would roll across the plains into their Renaissance” (184). “Print me on asbestos. will appear exclusively in your magazine” (Paige 9f. That was part of his point. either here or in Paris. for us. she would often howl back at Pound. always inimitable. . (P 1.2005.brown.” Pound wrote to Monroe. “let them revile me. Pound believed that people had to be hauled in to its cause. The broken phrases mimic breaths—those taken by the poet or those taken by the speaker unhurried by the rush of the crowd." He sent Monroe poems by Richard Aldington. but Pound wasn't known for tact.lib. Lawrence and Charles Vildrac. The title is pushed across the page and the words are separated by typographical indentations. and always controversial. is not the one often found in anthologies. H. Moody writes.” Monroe called Pound's words “bitter medicine which possibly we need” (P 1. the aesthetic differences between Pound and Monroe quickly became apparent. and that his acid touch on weak spots was as fearsomely enlightening as a clinic” (APL 266. Calling the American public a “mass of dolts” might not have been the most tactful move. He writes. and shortly thereafter D. Seeing the poem differently makes us hear it differently. Carpenter 190). Even through the phrase provoked “emphatic resentment. “that for the present such of my work as appears in America . . Here. “In a Station of the Metro.

Pound aired his grievances in public. Ezra Pound's six-year process of resignation began. Hueffer told Monroe of Pound's plans and asked her to ask him to reconsider the resignation. and from it grows the tree of the arts. “The artist is not dependent on the multitude of his listeners. Too often.” both based upon his travels in the south of France.110&view=mjp_object Página 11 de 36 . 8. .00. barely a year after giving himself the title and position of foreign correspondent. . Pound sending in his “Exile's Letter” “from the Chinese of Rihaku (Li Po).6 258-61). after discovering it in one of Ernest Fenollosa's notebooks. In May.php?id=mjp. Have him sit on his knees to write and seal this. While the growing gap between Monroe and Pound couldn't be ignored. about Joyce. And I send it a thousand miles. . Pound. and the decipherings of the Professors Mori and Araga” (P 5. thinking. Moody finds Pound “assum[ing] the new role of sardonic critic of his society's way of life” (206). According to Pound. Swinburne (3. Poetry published parts of Pound's Lustra. Pound took a stab at the heart of Monroe's project—the value of a readership. Poetry also issued Pound's “Provincia Deserta.2005. talents. Knowing that this replacement would cause more trouble than it was worth. 9. in Carpenter 199). and her public: “Good god! Isn't there one of them that can write natural speech without copying clichés out of every Eighteenth Century poet still in the public libraries?” (Paige 15). 11. as encapsulated by the Whitman quotation.6 261) That spring. At the end of 1913. 1914.1 29-30). the Noh drama Nishikigi (by Zeami Motokiyo). this multitude—does not create the great artist. C. They are aimless and drifting without him. about Yeats. and temperaments. They dare not inspect their own souls” (P 5. His aesthetic fascism was beginning to become apparent in his refutation of any sense of a popular ethos: “we artists who have been so long the despised are about to take over control” (qtd.” and the following winter it printed his Sordelloesque “Near Périgord. In return. he asked Ford Madox Hueffer to take over (Carpenter 211. .”“the notes of the late Ernest Fenollosa.” as Moody declares. where David A. Upset with the direction of Poetry. In his essay “The Audience” in the October 1914 issue of or at least Pound's making a war of it. .1.brown. [T]his rabble.1.3. It has many of the same rhythms of Pound's more famous rendering of a Li Po poem. Moody 216-17). Their collaboration in Poetry and their quarreling. her poets. it is the waste and the manure and the soil. I call in the boy. could never meet anyone halfway. The translations continued. however.6). rather. but two people with such very different tastes. uncredited. In November of that year. in turn. was “willing to reconsider . Pound castigated Monroe.” as he would “not have [his] name associated with it unless it does improve” (Paige 27). Pound wrote often about the contemporary poetry scene or. (P 5. it ought to have been understood for what it was—“a kind of lovers' quarrel. would continue for several years” (217). Monroe sent Pound $100 every now and then (Carpenter 195). and about A. “a quarrel of two people in love with poetry and committed to putting it at the heart of things. He wrote about Parisian poets. “The RiverMerchant's Wife: A Letter. Pound. what he wanted it to be.” The “Exile's Letter” ends with the soft: And there is no end of talking— There is no end of things in the heart. Humanity is the rich effluvium.lib.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 In November. pending a general improvement of the magazine. Pound published. http://dl.

but his attention to the experience of reading material texts cannot be ignored. unnamed and later moved to Canto 2. . notwithstanding his many pronouncements to the contrary. which would eventually make up Canto 1. perhaps. because its editor had “the good sense to divide all of the poets . While 1917. not only upon Poetry editorially.110&view=mjp_object Página 12 de 36 . ." (P 10." and. opens the meditation as it first appears in Poetry. It was through Divus that Pound's encounter with Homer.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 The exclusivity promised to Monroe was soon forgotten.” she wrote.brown. Eliot. conjuring Divus just as Homer was conjuring Odysseus. that he would air his grievances in public. Forth on the godly sea. -ombra. to continue mad.php?id=mjp. Poetry's June. Eight. . . July. In the opening pages of its May 1917 issue. Pound was. he has helped criticism and has made for less sentimentality and softness” (qtd.' Poetry has shown an unflagging courtesy to a lot of old fools and fogies whom I should have told to go to hell tout pleinement and bonnement” (qtd. . “At first I was simply furious. Like Elpenor. Divus. Caught up in his cadence. the rest uncertain. a part of Pound's initial reception . just as Odysseus was conjuring the dead. put it best: “Isn't he a great idiot?” (qtd. word and syllable: "Down to the ships we went. Gave him in Latin. and everybody else in the other” (Carpenter 207). Weeping we went. The Cantos are worth much consideration in their original form. “but I am honestly too sorry for E. and August issues of 1917 saw in print what would become the first three of Pound's fifty-plus-year epic adventure—the Cantos. http://dl. besides. it wasn't until a few years later that things became official. Yet she was also grateful for both his personal help over the years and his service to the cause. set mast and sail. that he must meander so among dead and foreign poets? has he nothing more of his own to say?” (Nadel 194n). who translated an edition of the Odyssey—the edition that Pound had on his shelf. three X's. marked the “effective end of Pound's foreign correspondence” (214). Joyce)—Pound quickly became the foreign editor of the Little Review. Mencken became editor after 1914). Harriet Monroe wrote to Henderson. they provide the first glimpses of how Pound would treat literary history as a series of epic fragments. . now. It was Alice Corbin Henderson who. set keel to breakers. but I am very sensible of the many benefits conferred by E. in EW 205). Pound's Divus could be sent to the underworld but could not be erased. In Officina Wechli. claiming that the Little Review was now “under the dictatorship of Ezra Pound” (qtd. . in Carpenter 312). . The "Nekyia" episode of the Odyssey.P. Robert Browning. Such is the case (pace Pound) of reading these Cantos for the first time in Poetry. This cyclic patterning of history. . with literary history itself. with Aldus on the Frogs. according to Ellen Williams. here closes Canto 3: Justinopolitan Uncatalogued Andreas Divus. The Cantos follow Mary Carolyn Davies's “A Girl's Songs” and precede Alice Corbin Henderson's note on “Cowboy Songs and Ballads”— each a part of its immediate materialist culture.5 Bankrolled personally by John Quinn—attorney and benefactor of many modernist causes (Conrad.lib. Monroe's criticism would become an honest question for Pound and his contemporaries—how to refigure a literary tradition when one is always walking among the dead. She was rightfully angry that Pound ever believed Poetry was his "organ. Paris. Pound explained himself: “Poetry has done numerous things to which I could never have given my personal sanction. Canto 3 already contains the reference to Andreas Divus. Why Divus makes his way into Pound's loose translation becomes very important for understanding Pound's poetic method. Black keel and beasts for bloody sacrifice. . and which could not have occurred in any magazine which had constituted itself my 'instrument. Taken but moreover that the cycles of literary culture were themselves material: Lie quiet. Monroe took things in stride. Lie quiet. It wasn't only that the specific translation (which itself contained an interesting error) mattered. and –ensa And cracked my wit on delicate canzoni— Here's but rough meaning: "And then went down to the ship. . . founded by William d'Alton Mann (H.P. wondering if Pound was “petering out. was mediated. we get the sense early on that the momentary experience of the verse depends on more than the verse itself. mixing old and new would soon become Pound's modernist poetic. as Pound began sending poems to Smart Set." I've Strained my ear for –ensa. 1538 in my edition.5 250-1) Very significantly. despite some ghostly echoes of protestation. M. Although he would revise them. L. in effect. into two classes: Yeats and I in one class. but upon poetry at large .00. . in EW 208). in EW 208).2005. He ruins his own case continually and perpetually. . We wouldn't call Pound a reader-response theorist. and each. (254) The published page—with its date of 1538 written out as MDXXXVIII (or as Pound's doctor xxx 8) beside an insignia containing an image of the Venetian publisher Aldus Manutius (who printed Aristophanes' Frogs and invented italic type among other things)—was suddenly part of the long story of Odysseus trying to get home. . D. As Humphrey Carpenter reminds us.

. And. she still contributed poetry and essays for the next decade. . making no bones about it: “Your sentence added to the Rupert Brooke item takes all the point out of the pointed brevity.” Hale wrote. and reader of the highest she was “proof . the "Pegasus" (Poetry's logo) which has been im-Pound-ed. . and that poems finer than you have ever written—which is saying a great deal—may be yours next year and the years after” (qtd. between Monroe and Pound. Coiled inside the graphite of my pencil also is a disquisition on your poetry and your personal urge for the brief and poignant. Alice Corbin Henderson Another figure at the center of Poetry's poetry was Alice Corbin Henderson. narrower in its scope and less epochmaking in its effect” (Fletcher 197. “I do not counsel this. there would be nothing left for him but suicide. that an American poet could incorporate an international aesthetic” (Nadel xviii). She was involved in the local arts culture of the Southwest. [later of Harcourt and Brace] He wrote me on your suggestion. and from material in the Poetry collection at the University of Chicago just how important Henderson was to her contemporaries. he immediately wrote to Henderson. . will have your laugh” (Mitgang 177). She joined the magazine as an Associate Editor early on and remained with it after she moved to Santa Fe in the spring of 1916 because of tuberculosis. Ellen Williams claims. And challenge Monroe Henderson did. “sometimes I think how in the afterworld you and Wallace Stevens. and. 258-59). None of the other associate editors. perhaps. which Pound had sent her. But I beg him to lay aside the mask of erudition” (P 14. EW 254. though. John Gould Fletcher noted that “without her influence Miss Monroe's paper might have been .6 To Pound. and the evocator of that title” (January 8. When Sandburg finished his review of Pound (P 7.brown. In March of that year. the collection had tested her.110&view=mjp_object Página 13 de 36 . critic. And can't you get something better than Massive above the Robert Frost item. 1916. and none of them could challenge and debate Harriet Monroe as a peer” (265). she often found herself playing the arbiter when things got rough. careless ones—which called into question the accuracy of Pound's translations and pretty much belied the poet's knowledge of Latin. oh. . It was Henderson—not Pound and not Monroe—who first realized the talents of Carl Sandburg.” (qtd. And. and co-edited Monroe's anthology The New Poetry (Macmillan. Encourage him to keep on trying all you want to. . Monroe published “Pegasus Impounded. would have tested her censors' good will. the generally hearty Pound wrote to Monroe: “Cat–piss and porcupines! The thing is no more a translation than my 'Altaforte' is a translation. and one that presumably takes issue not only with Pound but with Monroe's journal as well. (Mitgang 104. expressing gratitude to her and calling her and Monroe “Modern Forces”: I hope you enjoyed my Pound stuff if you've seen it. Left without much public recourse. and deep regret that we have had to come to a parting of the ways. Some words. Monroe took this “final commiseration” as a resignation. He did feel indebted to her for publishing his poetry. poet. Monroe wrote to Pound on the first of November with “unfailing gratitude for all that you did to help the magazine during those difficult first years. 1917). Sherwood Anderson. I am slaving now to get a boo into shape to send to Harcourt of Henry Holt and Co. whatever you do—don't speak of 'boosting the art. . Although Monroe called Henderson “the one fit person available to assist in my project” (APL 286). had Henderson's “critical trenchancy.” a devastating storm leveled at Pound by Professor William Gardner Hale of the University of Chicago. Even after resigning as an editor in 1922. Monroe published four of the twelve translations of the set Homage to Sextus Propertius. . .php?id=mjp. Always the diplomat and sincerely grateful for his efforts over the years.1 55). as Modern Forces. The letter was signed “In final commiseration. I cordially hope that you will continue to contribute to Poetry. Moody 354). Harriet has it. as Jayne Marek writes. but he was also a fan—of her and her work. As he wrote to her in 1920. Because Henderson didn't want to abandon Monroe's "Open Door" policy. .lib. Henderson would insist to Monroe that there was “absolutely no use in encouraging the poet who has one passable poem in a lot of bad ones. . in EW.” After six months of no further correspondence from Pound. . supporting various artists and writers. or than Fitzgerald's Omar is a translation” (letter dated 4/14/1919. she often downplayed Henderson's influence in the office and her impact on modernist production. in Marek Women 32). . Sandburg respectfully accredited her as “the original 'discoverer' of the 'Chicago Poems'. Harriet. As far as we know. and Edgar Lee Masters. as she claimed. Mitgang 106-07).” one which “would be both technically firm and variegated with the many colors of this country's ethnic heritages” ("Alice" 16). Hale wrote that he had found sixty errors—humorous ones.00. The title is a double pun. in Nadel xvi).5). http://dl. printing and performing poetry. were due from Pound in return for his editor who took “the Art of Poetry seriously” (Paige 43). But let him try outside the magazine” (Marek Women 33). . adding. “If Pound were a professor of Latin. A month later. . . “[i]n those crucial early years of Poetry. It is clear from Ezra Pound's letters. I told her I have the notes for a similar treatise or public love letter on you and Harriet M. qtd. it was often Henderson who set down distinct guidelines for an intrinsically American sensibility in poetry and criticism. say. but also wanted to maintain the journal's higher standards.' It is dreadful. writing better poetry than the mass of the listed.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 The final straw for Pound in his relationship with Monroe and Poetry Magazine came in the spring of 1919. . . he didn't respond. The centrality of Henderson to Monroe's project cannot be overstated.

and. seemingly without an extraneous word. long[ing] for more to come. Stevens's "I" which (as above) is always mediated by its phonetic alter ego—the "eye. calling them “very beautiful and .” she wrote him. New poetic forms. While certainly funny. the Imagists unwilling to provide more than a "gist" of anything.” might be read as a response to both the vociferous Pound and the Emerald City of Monroe. / He was a priest of mystery. . like an Imagist poem. and it's a pleasure to follow” (February 17. old woman who mumbles her beads And crumbles to stone. Blinking and blind in the sun— An old. rhythms. She was an important figure in the debate on vers libre. what survives is an old. / Because he never talked” (P 11. demanding that Poetry return his already-accepted poems: “The cheaply satirical article . . Her May 1916 review of Alfred Kreymborg's Others anthology shows off a bit of her wit: “Replacing the outworn conventions of the I-am-bic school. after the fierce modern music Of rivets and hammers and trams. .3). Literary Debates and Controversies Today. . The gendering is important: “the cities of men” are contrasted with the woman in the “desert of silence. defending it and her magazine's editorial choices to her colleagues. on to Harriet though I hated to give it up.2005. Ezra Pound read." The final wink comes at the expense of Wallace Stevens's “Six Significant Landscapes. After the roar.” he wrote to Monroe. and “Lazy Criticism” (P 9. in which the work of these poets is deliberately misquoted. in which a group of poets is ridiculed. The beautiful opening verse. She admired Pound's early experiment with the Cantos. . Henderson's essays are sharp. Yet they weren't so at the time. “New Mexico Songs. in EW 193. qtd. I find that I am much taller For I reach right up to the sun. 195-96). commented on.2). (P 11. and schools of thought (such as vers libre and http://dl. in Nadel 190). and published Henderson's poetry. was incensed. After the shout of the giant Youthful and brawling and strong Building the cities of men. Her cowboy ballad collection in November of 1917 ironically offers as much of the open silences of the land as its wondrous variety. Here is the desert of silence. old woman falling back to the dry earth.” attacks American audiences who didn't like Poe and Whitman until they became fashionable in Europe.” Will this distinction also remain after the rivets and hammers are gone? III. more attuned to the sound that hadn't yet been spoken and the phrase that hadn't yet been thought. say. which stressed the importance of line divisions." Maxwell Bodenheim. . she poked fun at the metric formalists unwilling to change. adding later that Kreymborg was “worth ten timid editors like you” (5/16/1916. In return. and the poetic ego of what couldn't even be called an early brand of confessional verse—Kreymborg's Others and all of its uses of "I. Her December 1912 piece. competitors. we have now the I-am-it school of poetry . . and of myself.php?id=mjp.2 82) We might also read it as a response to Shelley's colossal wreck “Ozymandias”—“After the roar” of the city. Take “Old Timer. the cut-and-paste review did little to explore Kreymborg's collection—a rival to Monroe and Henderson's own anthology—just as it did little to explain. Henderson was often a better reader than Monroe.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 12/15/1915) And it wasn't just Sandburg.”“I've sent the mss. And I Henderson's final word: “We regret to say that the printer announces that there are no more I's in the font” (105).110&view=mjp_object Página 14 de 36 .00.” which Henderson quotes in her review: I measure myself Against a tall tree. With one stab. What isn't said—the mystery—and what isn't hurried—speech—become parts of the landscape. Two such articles—one early in the debate. 1917.brown. “A Perfect Return.lib. qtd.” for instance: “He had an air of open space / About him as he walked. after the roar of modernism.2 103). which responded to The New Republic's continual condemnation of vers libre. a contributor to both Kreymborg and Monroe. not to be confused with Les I'm-a'gists who are already out-classed and démodé” (“A New School of Poetry” P 8. With my eye. and adding that he “explored worlds beyond worlds. one a little later—include “Poetic Prose and Vers Libre” (P 2. . and their names twisted and mutilated . the many aesthetic debates surrounding the early years of Poetry seem trivial and relatively benign.2 85). Ira Nadel makes the significant point that she offered Pound “possibly the earliest direct criticism of the poem” (190). Henderson's publications in Poetry are noteworthy for their attention to the Southwest. will probably deprive you of the good will and friendship of the poets unjustly libeled. funny.

personal and illogical. Eliot's The Waste Land a decade later. Not even Pound really knew what that meant. It may be evidence of that "poetic renaissance" which some of us profess already to be living in. by the Chicago editor of a Lithuanian newspaper Kleofas Jurgelionis (who translated Macbeth into Lithuanian). in Nadel 19). it can be found “in all the best poetry of the past” (qtd. E. Is it possible that less than four years ago poetry was “the Cinderella of the arts”? Already a great wind is blowing her ashes away. Imagism The origins of Imagism are usually traced to the lectures of T. in each returned msss." especially in its opening lines: The ancient songs http://dl. These tenets—direct treatment of the thing. Many of the earliest attacks on Monroe's editorial choices came from The Dial: “We would not say a word in depreciation of any earnest effort to provoke the poetic spirit into activity. in Nadel 4). . in that stone wall of public apathy which tended to silence the singer ere he began. now menaced by an ultramodern lunatic fringe that Poetry was misguidedly sponsoring” (96). and.3 140) By 1916. critic.” which the author insisted Poetry print 50000000000 copies of and “insert . we may hope. The movement's tenets are well-known. The issue began with Vachel Lindsay's verse memorial to Booker T. conflicts. or at least it may initiate that "great audience" which will be ready for the renaissance when it comes. 478. But that was fine by him. for some. S. and musical phrasing—are traced back to an F. qtd.00. no doubt. These contributions shed the stiff iambic meter—say. Pound defines an "Image" as “that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time” (P 1. that of Charles Hanson Towne's poem which appears before the Aldington poems—adopting instead a phrasal rhythm attuned more to the sounds of a modern ear. and on the horizon are rolling dust-clouds which may conceal a coach and four—or is it an automobile? For there must be some gift of the gods in the large and many-colored cloud of words which fills our eyes and ears. but they do little to explain the varying sounds and visions of the practitioners.2005. The arguments waged in and around the pages of Poetry were bitter and funny.6 200). Newcomb writes. as it left each Imagiste free to explore the possibilities of the new movement. Poetry can lay claim to the first Imagist poems published in America—“ΧΟΡΙΚΟΣ” (or “Choricos”). titled “A Few Don'ts by an Imagiste.7 Following this short note is a message from Pound himself. Oftentimes. (P 8.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 imagism). Toward the end of that issue. as if calling him by name could stave off “the illimitable quietude [which] / Comes gently upon us. in Newcomb 96). A glance at the contents of the June 1916 issue of Poetry reveals some of the potential for the next decade” (Letter to ACH.4 126). and bizarre aesthetic juxtapositions set forth by the magazine during this time. blowing the fog out of his face. or so much precious print devoted to its schools and schisms. and famous anthologizer Louis Untermeyer. Now and then I feel like that goblin.110&view=mjp_object Página 15 de 36 . 1913. for Ezra Pound. A breach has been made. Harriet Monroe wrote of a quaint old myth of a goblin who. if indeed such "outside" forces mattered at all to poetry. Washington and contained work by the Kentucky poet Madison Cawein (whose “Waste Land” appeared in Poetry in January 1913). but as one of the finest of this century” (FVMA 695). started a tempest which went careering around the world. “The Dial and its ilk saw the genre as an instrument of moral uplift. and by the poet.” The poem plays upon the notion of "passing. This is as it should be. economy of language. while poetic adversaries would find themselves caught in odd moments of agreement. In this now famous treatise. . Flint article in the March 1913 issue of Poetry. and the scope and function of a poetic audience—these were all points of contention in the new cultural economy. that was almost certainly written by Ezra Pound.php?id=mjp. We should note that such condemnations came before The Dial was taken over by Scofield Thayer and James Sibley Watson—this was certainly not the same magazine that would print T.” and “Au Vieux Jardin” by Richard Aldington—which all appeared in the second issue. Sometimes longtime friends would find themselves quarrelling. . many of the initial dust clouds had settled. not only as one of the finest poems of the group. although the fruits of such an effort are likely to prove for the most part innutritive and insipid” (“The Case of Poetry” Dial 53 [1912]. the role of a national poetics. qtd. As Pound had written earlier. Never before was there so much talk about poetry in this western world. There was a lot at stake in determining what type of poem would or should emerge alongside the scientific and technological wonders of the twentieth century. the speaker calls out with various apostrophes to Death. And yet.brown. Monroe asserted that the first of Aldington's poems “holds its own . Hulme and the meetings of the "Poet's Club" in London. It is ever so mournful.lib. that wouldn't stop Monroe from looking back upon one of the more controversial first breaths of her poetic goblin—the movement known as Imagism. S. January 20. . “To a Greek Marble. what was sought was not so much any sort of poetic "answer" but the publicity of the question itself. it goes back further to Arthur Symons and the Symbolists. “To belong to a school does not in the least mean that one writes poetry to a theory” (P 1.

but ever attentive to the necessity of copyright protection for poets and editors. The “pitch” of a spear turns into the notes of a musical tone. Ezra Pound published his anthology Des Imagistes soon after. Bows turn into lyres. never even in a tent.D. The critical debates surrounding Imagism across the various literary journals were complicated. and withered wreaths. Monroe. Besides discovering “a gleam of hope in the work of Richard Aldington” (P 1. trying to attain in English certain subtleties of cadence of the kind which Mallarmé and his followers have studied in French.brown. “Hermes of the Ways” is a good title. Or is there a different currency secretly running through the speaker's words. but never from the walled in atmosphere of rooms” (P&TA 92). “Now: a word about Imagism. generous. who had been a childhood friend and love interest of Pound. I'll send this to Harriet Monroe of Poetry. Before Pound's official clearing of the air.1).2005.'s “Hermes of the Ways” (P 1. Monroe published a series of new poems by Richard Aldington's soon-to-be wife Hilda Doolittle. we measure her by the pine-trees. Hellenism & vers libre have nothing to do with it. withdrawing only on condition that printed stickers of acknowledgement were added” (Carpenter 211). 'Cut this out. (P 1. mean the inevitable passing away or the hopeful passing by the threat of death? Are the ancient songs to go by the wayside or are they passed along. but that didn't mean the movement didn't cause a stir on both sides of the Atlantic. asking whether tradition will pass away or whether the new art will continue to pass the ancient songs along. Aldington has published little as yet. D. Imagism is concerned solely with language and presentation. “threatened legal action. this January 1913 issue of Poetry has Pound famously taking the "ilda oolittle" out of Hilda Doolittle.00.2 39) Does “[p]ass deathward. I seem to do nothing but object. bring her swiftly to our song.6 268) Are the notes of love played by instruments of war or music? Glints of the sea come onto the shore. (P 5. In a December 1912 letter to Alice Corbin Henderson. where bank notes seem to measure it all? Such was the "wildness" Monroe admired in H. . shorten this line. I refrained from defining Imagism because I think it bad for a school to put out a lot of formulae before there is any large body of work whereon to apply them. Imagiste' at the bottom of the page” (Doolittle 18). (65) It turns out that the Hellenic nature hadn't so much to do with a previously agreed upon aesthetic of Imagism. Cold lips that sing no more. taking most of its selections from the pages of Poetry. or I'll type it when we get back. As she remembers the affair. in Nadel 4). She is great. Pound “slashed with a pencil. and nothing in America. . In her collection in March 1915.'s “Hymen” (P 15. Her breath is drawn from bright breezes and bold winds. Have you a copy? Yes? Then we can send this. and drooping breasts and wings— Symbols of ancient song Mournfully passing. D.110&view=mjp_object Página 16 de 36 . Readers will be familiar with the loose translation of H.4 126). for example. on the bank we share our arrows— the loosed string tells our note: O flight. D. “[a] reader of poetry might well have judged from this that London was swarming with Imagistes” (197). their loosed string flighting the lovers' arrow. .php?id=mjp. we see the imagistic transformations of a poet fascinated by movement in all its forms." a group of ardent Hellenists who are pursuing interesting experiments in vers libre. Aldington is a young English poet. It wasn't. It is not a matter of subject” (qtd. however.” the poem asks. one of the "Imagistes. As Humphrey Carpenter humorously writes. In introducing both Aldington and Imagism.3) and the “Hesperides” fragments (P 19.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Pass deathward mournfully. Consider. as it was useful in describing some of Aldington's poems. Individual projects were at stake where questions of poetics were always balanced by politics http://dl. The note in Poetry is very incorrect. Will this do?' And he scrawled 'H. Regretful eyes. a poem like “Moonrise”: Will you glimmer on the sea? Will you fling your spear-head on the shore? What note shall we pitch? We have a song.'s poetry: “She is never indoors. Pound writes. revitalizing themselves with each passing age? The poem is almost a metaphor for Imagism itself.lib. the issue's editorial note tried to have it both ways: Mr. Pound wanted to make sure Harriet Monroe and her American reading public knew of this error—hence the reason for his and Flint's clarifications the following spring in Poetry. Amy Lowell's Imagist (minus the "e") anthologies came next.4)—Monroe called it a “haunting beauty”—as well as H.

and a word that needs to be uttered” (P 6.” called “Rhythms of English Verse” and published at the end of 1913. But no movement is a mere fashion if it produces work of enduring beauty and value” http://dl. in music. If we followed that old adage stating that my enemy's enemy is my friend.' 'super-refinement.' 'expatriate sensationalists. interestingly enough. critical of Braithwaite's policies.' . The debates over vers libre continued for the remainder of the decade and. Aiken found himself attacking both Braithwaite and Monroe: “November is a deadly month for poets: simultaneously. and that it will exist when English is a dead language. or Chaucer. . Ellen Williams notes.4 212).” she wrote. 1913. It called on a natural order to break what she saw as the dead end of accentual-syllabic verse. And yet. in some pockets. . Everyone had an opinion. and its laws are unchangeable. Monroe dismissed the claim that Poetry was “the organ of Ezra Pound's radicalism. we would assume (incorrectly) that Conrad Aiken.” because it was “a demand for greater freedom of movement within the bar and the line” (P 3.” She stressed the need to “go back to first principles.' They are 'absurdly artificial.” a verse sequence which begins: “All that was once so Beautiful is dead” (P 6.6 287). or the still more minute waves of molecular action” (P 3.' though a wee small voice. . Your poems in the April Poetry are so mockingly. and remind ourselves that the art of poetry existed before ever Shakespeare. Alice Corbin Henderson detected Amy Lowell's hand behind the attack (EW 202). Pound seemed amused. prosers instead of poets” who needed to be “put firmly in their place” (302).' 'over-civilization. it is a good word. in the motion of tides and stars. but it is at least snobisme in its most dynamic form. . in EW 171).” he wrote to Monroe (April or May.2005. appear two annual phenomena against which I am sure the fastidious must rage: Mr. pretentious images they sometimes projected. writer for the Tribune.2 61). in his defining manifesto. Conrad Aiken . light-waves. with a poetic eye watching not only the past but also the future. He paid little attention to Poetry during its first few years but then suddenly attacked and dismissed it in 1916. “Certain metric forms and rhyme tunes.110&view=mjp_object Página 17 de 36 . wrote to Monroe about her “wretched drivel”: “Will you and an impudent young man wipe out a tremendous past that has produced us?” (EW 51).6 304). In the January 1917 issue of Poetry. then. had written. so delicately. For what it was worth. but in so far as it is a protest against narrow-mindedness and provincialism .' 'insufferable snobs. was ecstatic: “Ezra Pound we salute you! You are the most enchanting poet alive. poetry meant technique. would find himself sitting alongside Monroe. . claiming that “the radical influence of Poetry itself has waned” (EW 201). in an essay published a year before Braithwaite's criticism.' and of nameless crimes like 'myopia.' 'synaethesia. Wallace Rice. was very upsetting to those who heard it. “'Imagism. Monroe writes: “Mr. Miss Monroe's prize-giving and list of honorable mentions” (qtd. adding that even “Poetry's own readers wrote in sputtering letters about 'esoteric writhings.php?id=mjp. in poetry.6 200).” and responded: “this is the first time the Boston dictator in these annual reviews has even mentioned Poetry or its influence. William Stanley Braithwaite—an interesting figure in his own right—was an African-American poet and influential literary critic who wrote an annual review in the Boston Evening Transcript surveying the poems of the past year. with a great deal of sound sense and energy behind it” (P 1. Some were thrilled with the new poetic rhythms. accuses [the Imagists] of a dark and piratical conspiracy to 'revolutionize poetry. continue to this day. she defended “vers libre. Braithwaite's selection of the year's best poem. “Rhythm is rhythm. whose rhythmic subtleties may be only at the beginning of their development. called Poetry magazine “a thing for laughter. It was not as if the Imagists were not aware of the effete. but thought the whole debate outdated: “It's like quarreling over impressionism or Manet. or even Homer was born. . adding that “[m]any were the 'Is-this-poetry?' protests received by the editors during that first exciting year” (P&TA 317). In a letter printed in the Dial. in EW 50).” (P 9. as Williams notes.brown.”8 For Rice.3 110). she reasoned that “Imagism is by no means the last word . some were “Other newspapers parodied or attacked” the new verse.” And. Harriet Monroe's two-part “Confessional. Flint. Vers Libre The controversies surrounding Imagism morphed into the larger debates surrounding vers libre or free verse. Having some fun with Aiken's name-calling. defended the practice to the hilt. so unblushingly beautiful” (APL 310). in which she published his poems “Discordants I-V. Monroe's more modest personal response of 1924 perhaps best captures her position: “Of late a small but loud group of sonneteers have been trying to persuade us that 'the free-verse movement' was a passing fashion. The following month.lib. Even many of Monroe's own poets were dismayed. and “both Pound and Poetry [were] violators of everything sacred in the past” (49). technique meant tradition. speaking for the younger generation in the Friday Review of the Evening Post.' 'singularly inhuman. qtd. in the vibration of sound-waves. “have been followed by so many generations of English poets that the modern world has come to think of them fundamental instead of incidental. . .' and 'plain blackguardism'” (48).00. whose verse-drama The Death of Agrippina constituted the entire May 1913 issue. Floyd Dell.” writes Monroe. Monroe's defense was attuned more to poetic tradition than to a revolutionary proclamation. . Neihardt. John G. We should be duly grateful that he has finally discovered us . . “It is true that snobisme may be urged against them. Monroe responded to Aiken in an essay titled “Its Inner Meaning” in the same issue. William Rose Benét of the Century joined the Dial's criticism.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 and personalities.

ought to “get acquainted with our boys in the trenches. according to Williams.3. (P 208). Mr. Eliot—the one American poet admired by Jepson: “Can it be that Mr. English mystery writer and one-time editor of Vanity Fair who had just published his address “Words and the Poet” in Poetry (10. two courses were open: it could have become. what The Little Review is now. that “there will be a special niche for you on Parnassus. Elizabeth Madox Roberts (18. according to many critics. Jepson. S.” The Jepson Attack It wasn't only the experimental verse at Poetry that became controversial." Poetry continued to publish remarkable poets and new voices. Although Monroe would continue to defend her journal and the democratic values of American poetry throughout the run of the magazine. Poetry. and Frost.” was because Monroe and her “small paper showed how.” he wrote to Monroe. believing they “only create a false market. abandoned Poetry. generally there wasn't much controversy over Poetry's prizes—poets were happy to be recognized and fortunate to have received further financial backing. qtd. would get £1000 for work of equivalent caliber” (EW 211). and many. The Jepson attack genuinely paralyzed Harriet Monroe. did not have the bite of the earlier selections. . From 1921 through 1922. For Monroe. sending first a poem by Ford Madox Hueffer (“On Heaven”) and then one by himself (“Thames Morasses”). for example. among others. Poetry Prizes Monroe felt that offering prizes was “a most valuable service to the art” (see “The Question of Prizes” P 7. they would be fed. were attacks on America itself. Masters. Scofield Thayer's The Dial (1920-29) would soon become the focal point of modernist experimentation. Henderson and Miss Monroe . others such as Richard Aldington. B. His article in the May. If we might lightheartedly paraphrase some words from Dr. Poetry offered two prizes during its early years: the first was the "Guarantor's Prize" and the second the "Helen Haire Levinson Prize. attracting imitative and opportunistic poets” (EW 218).php?id=mjp. launched a malicious attack upon Poetry and American verse. Meanwhile. but not necessarily the result of it. Louise Bogan (20. particularly during a time of war. . With the departure of Pound after 1917. the organ of a choice little London group of superintellectualized ultimates and expatriates. or the Heaven of Good Poets. Jepson is unconsciously prejudiced in Mr. and the editors Alfred Kreymborg and Jane Heap (of the Little Review) offered support. Monroe's reply also attacked T. or. [and he further] speculated that American writers in general lacked all sense of beauty in words because of the ugliness of American speech” (233-34). Free verse did not last. Monroe's response was swift and across the board. while also guaranteeing that. 20. concentrated and independent imaginative life in this country.2 92. 1918 issue of the English Review put into words many of Pound's not-so-secret frustrations (Pound ended up reprinting the article in the opening pages of the Little Review. like John Gould Fletcher. ." funded by Salmon O.6). Ezra Pound. Pound eventually made up with Monroe. recognizing and rewarding talented writers for their important work. in EW 272). and he assailed Poetry as “the seat of a western school in a pastiche of the recent prose of Mrs. 20.” expresses these beliefs: When Poetry began. Monroe believed that prizes promoted the literary arts (as they did for music and the visual arts). Jepson berated Lindsay. at the very least. Hueffer chimed in with his own sentiment that the little peak of American periodical literature. They are not afraid of life—or death” (212). Amy Lowell and Pound http://dl.brown. as I hope it has become. Her November 1913 essay. W. As Ellen Williams writes. factory. In contrast to critics who argued that prizes represented a debasement of art by bringing it down to the level of rank commercialism. editorially and economically. Much of what Monroe published. “nothing odd will do long. . “I am sure. the attacks on the magazine and American poetry. September. Wallace Stevens became a rejuvenating voice. They are of all kinds—from farm and university. who will publish it unless he feels sorry for Mr.4. she did so with heightened attention during the war. she suggested. 1918). Johnson's comment about Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy. wherever it be” (qtd. Many poets. In spite of its "paralysis.1). Poetry lost over a third of its subscribers. Jepson. 17. like William Carlos Williams. “no longer had any real chance of capturing the best work of the new movement. always ready with an objection. Still. Jepson off the map in an article recently sent to the editor of the English Review. and Yvor Winters (14.2005. Yeats.5). Edgar Jepson. and gone into what seems to be —alas!—permanent exile in a country truly civilized?” (210). criticized it. the organ of a higher and more conscious.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 (FVMA 704). office and forest range. Eliot's favor by the fact that he has left this barbaric land of plop-eyed bungaroos. Aside from these objections. thought the awards were too little: “the offer of thirty-five dollars for Yeats's 'Dying lady'” was “a gratuitous insult” when “any sculptor or painter of any standing . in EW 241) Despite the positive front. it published.” she wrote (P 12.110&view=mjp_object Página 18 de 36 .00.lib.6. Elinor Wylie (18.5). “raising it to the level of the best of European cosmopolitanism. “A Century in Illinois.5 246-49). Levinson.5). it could be done” (P 19.2). Curiously. William Carlos Williams thought they were too much. and rendered her old balancing act between the schools unworkable” (252-53). “The editor of POETRY has wiped Mr.

. who “will see us on parade . And if it is aesthetically inadequate the most illuminating social wisdom will not save it. at least in Pound's currency of exclamation points. Robert Scholes and I wrote about these poems in the October 2009 issue of PMLA (“War Poetry from 1914”). It is a difficult poem. Incensed at not yet being recognized. The following years. was partially cribbed from Paul Fortier Jones's With Serbia into Exile) (EW 249). . but beauty endures.6). qtd. !!!!!!!!” he wrote Monroe (Paige 64). (P 13. whether this vision be minute or cosmic.2005. . is in his degree a seer. the Levinson Prize went to Edgar Lee Masters's “All Life in a Life. as the poem makes clear. That month. / And serenade. S. “I know that it [“The Allies”] has no chance whatever of getting a prize. This wasn't really the case. Pound won out but was soon angered by Monroe's letter to Yeats. In 1913. and it may be that he sees deeper than the critic who is obsessed by “the movements of the time. . William Carlos Williams won the Guarantor's Award that same year as Lowell and would go on to receive the Levinson Prize in 1954. . Between H. Monroe printed a gracious thank you letter from Yeats announcing that he wanted to return most of the prize money so that “some young American” could receive it (P 3.” . But. L. she wrote. and John Curtis Underwood's “Song of the Cheechas” (which.6 237).” his first major publication. T. would continue to have her say.4 149). “If you think what the magazine would have been without the foreign contributions. Monroe announced a prize for the best “poem in the interest of peace” (P 4.brown. . would come to call it “the American citizen prize” (EW 124). or Lindsay. big or little. the award went to Wallace Stevens for his “Pecksniffiana” Part of the challenge was Monroe's aestheticism. EW 77-78). Wallace Stevens's “Phases. possibly. The decision to make it exclusively eligible to American poets freed Monroe somewhat from Pound's dictates on the matter. it turned out.!!!!!!!” Pound wrote her (10/13/1919. As Philip Gerber writes. Frost. Pound was finished with Lindsay. Vachel Lindsay (Carpenter 214. in Williams 77).” Cloyd Head's drama Grotesques. As a matter of fact. The phases of “Phases” continually echo. at last. Monroe was aware not only of the importance of poets in keeping civilization in peace (as most poets seem to be aware). still nursing the hurt. it was that the journal didn't have enough serious social commitment—that Monroe didn't believe it was the artist's job to fix what was wrong with the world.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 seem (once again) to be the two exceptions. but not through lack of social criticism.1 41) While she would not hitch Poetry to any social movement. but I do want to take a moment to look at one of them again.00. she believed that it could and ought to appeal to the compassion of the public. Lindsay won for his “Chinese Nightingale. “If your committee don't make the [annual Poetry] award to Eliot. and war will not cease until they remove its glamour from the imaginations of men” (P 4. because it is how poetic refrains work. has by now one-upped even Yeats). especially if the poetry itself shared part of the blame for social ills. Robert Frost won in 1922. so I won't describe them all in detail again here. a personal preference for Lindsay. a few weeks after the war had started. for what it was worth. .” By then. The following year brought the announcement of the new Levinson prize. Sandburg's “Chicago Poems” won in 1914 over Pound's choices of Hueffer. Yeats suggested. Poems of War and Peace If there was one ethical critique leveled at Poetry. . however. Davis and Lew Sarett. but couldn't free her from his always polite recommendations. The repetition is important.php?id=mjp. “Why not give the £40 to Ezra Pound?” (149-50). she reminded Harriet of this withdrawal from the prize (“that was the reason I did not receive it”) and wondered why Poetry had not had the grace to mention the fact in its pages” (238). though. Movements pass. it might often seem that way. “Years afterward. In September of 1914. Fletcher. The artist. . Pound. having moved on to his next discovery.110&view=mjp_object Página 19 de 36 . if [our living poets] fail it will be through lack of power to feel or to express. Monroe. Lowell suspected the worst. in which she mentioned the prize but also. In 1915. was one of the poems Monroe chose for the War Poems issue.lib. her belief that artistic commitment was a long-term mission that operated on its own terms instead of the terms of fashionable social movements. or both. Amy Lowell. Pound insisted that the first annual Poetry prize go to Yeats over Monroe's choice. the serenading of the war parade is hollowed out as the mythology http://dl.” Lowell wrote to Monroe. “your vaunted Democracy is not so democratic as to give me a prize if you thought I did not need it” (qtd. We see this in the parrot of the first phase. God only knows what slough of infamy they will fall into . . . followed by Edwin Arlington Robinson and. In January of 1914. “[p]oets have made more war than kings. Eliot. looking back from today. because we're never quite sure how to understand its rhetoric. (We might note that Eliot.” Later in the poem. Was the award “a local high school prize for the encouragement of mediocrity?” he wondered. such repetition is also how we get mindless and dangerous political rhetoric —empty words and insincere songs. Poetry published fourteen of these poems (from among 738 submissions). Two months later. . in Gerber 238). but. but of the very same poets' culpability in begetting millennia of war. Her “Aesthetic and Social Criticism” of October 1918 effectively outlines her position: The poem or picture will stand by its aesthetic adequacy in the triumphant expression of the vision in the artist's soul.

and it will be placed in the hands of our soldiers or sailors. “[I]f the world is to be made. and interrupt his proper modern business—the business of making a more habitable world. “A society of poets. . . Her “New Banners” began: What are we to do with war—all these wars and rumors of war which absorb man's interests and energies. Richard Aldington and others. Colum's and Campbell's letters were tributes to their fallen companions. Pound wrote again about the poem the American had sent him: http://dl. War . revolutionary poets included. S. Eliot “An American .00. Constitution. however well written. “Give them dreams more beautiful and heroic than their long-cherished vision of the glory of war. In total. Joseph Campbell. she had no trouble going against the crowd when she thought it was the right thing to do. . sooner or later it will become a scrap of paper unless it is fulfilled by the spiritual fervor of those who swear allegiance to it from generation to generation” (265). for the advance toward justice and beauty in the brotherhood of nations” (253). in the hearts and souls of the people. and Joseph Mary Plunkett—who were killed by a British firing squad following their participation in the Easter 1916 Rising.” The journals were popular. the poems show us the terrors of war as well as the possibilities of hope. Colum took care to inform the public that the hopes of the Irish poets were part of a larger quest for liberty—one that everyone. safeguarding national. and more beautiful and noble men and women to live in it? . such as the poets who published in the March 1919 issue (13. . political. She even offered a piece of advice couched within a novel understanding of the U. on the other hand. there had to be a continuous “spiritual war for freedom of thought. freedom of the press. ought to share. .brown. The war poems make visible the central paradox of aesthetic ideology: on the one hand. safe for democracy. Poetry's Poets T. is in no detail so disgusting as in its monstrous presence of heroism .” Pound wrote to Monroe in September of 1914 (qtd. does not fulfill itself.110&view=mjp_object Página 20 de 36 . New York” (P 8.” How then can we read: “Fallen Winkle felt the pride / Of Agamemnon / When he died”? Is this epigram a “short. and many of these soldiers wrote back. “were the clan of Byron and Shelley and Walt Whitman—they committed themselves to liberty even unto death” (268). “The three poets. in EW 123). I think he has some sense tho' he has not yet sent me any verse.” because “a constitution.” she wrote. even when it turned out to be an unpopular position. namely the work of Amy Lowell. Carl Sandburg. . .” she contended. and unite for conquests really glorious." from Postmaster-General A. S. Many American periodicals during wartime were stamped with the following "Notice to Readers. Colum wrote to Monroe “[a]s a friend of each of the three poets who were executed in Dublin . Monroe was not only active in supporting the war effort. most rhetorically elegant. the poets of America for the demonstration of sympathy and protest they made in Central Park. which the world needed to hear then as much as it does now. She also supported the peace effort. through you.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 of the soldier is lost. Something that often gets lost in the anthologies is the strong commitment of periodicals to the servicemen who were fighting abroad. triumphant sting” or merely the parrot in the window repeating someone else's words? In addition to these selections from Stevens. We see this in Padraic Colum's and Joseph Campbell's correspondence on “The Dead Irish Poets”— Thomas MacDonagh.5 251) Monroe understood the discursive importance of poetry. “should be the freest body in the yet they were also testaments that poetry crossed national borders—that was what made it so powerful and so threatening.” one which was “destructive of liberty and provocative of violence” (P 13. . S.lib. Monroe offered some of the most hopeful. .” she wrote.5 266-67). (P 8. IV. to thank.” he wrote. There is always the danger that the rhetoric of hope will become the call for action.php?id=mjp. The whole tragi-comic incident is but a detail of a menacing public mood.6) of Poetry. And it wasn't just the journals' contents that expressed this support.m.5 268). “and they will put away war like a worn-out garment. heroism which should have been preserved for the slow struggles of peace.2005. called this p. . To this end. poetry might be the only instrument with the fortitude to revise such cultural practices. an eyeball in the mud. Her defense of George Sylvester Viereck. rather. showed that Monroe was there to defend those who otherwise wouldn't be defended. she understood that “the war to end all wars” would not be fought in the fields but. the most tolerant of individual idiosyncrasy of thought and word. Padraic Pearse. waste his treasure. who had been thrown out of the Poetry Society of America for being a conscientious objector to the war. the special issue includes poems from both sides of the Atlantic. For all of Monroe's populist leanings. . most important words you will ever hear uttered about poetry and ethical commitment. . A week later. . freedom of speech. the modern warrior is “[o]nly. poetry is ideological. Contrasted with Agamemnon. and kept. place a one-cent stamp on this notice. In presenting his case. mail the magazine. and social consciousnesses. As the horrifically brutal stretch of trench warfare was beginning on the continent. Burleson: “When you finish reading this magazine.

Eliot. When the evening is spread out against the sky Like a patient etherized upon a table. He called Frost “that dull beast. In a May 1913 review of Frost's A Boy’s Will.3 130) Even though Monroe would later endorse this “masterpiece of agonized irony. 1915 number of Poetry. .4).6). It is still a wonder to see how Eliot had presumed to begin: Let us go then. . . Even though Pound speaks of “realism of one sort or another” (267). and that the poems were refused by .” her initial response was not too generous (FVMA 703). Pound praised Eliot's verse for “its fine tone. with Monroe seemingly wondering whether it would have been worth while after all— something that doesn't pop up in the modernist anthologies. . . The modernized poet was T.” Vachel Lindsay Vachel Lindsay's song-poems. As Poetry magazine made clear.” “as dull as ditch water.110&view=mjp_object Página 21 de 36 . or at least those particular poems did. .” he continued. you and I.2). [which gave voice to] the malaise of our time. He is without sham and without affectation” (P 2. the fellow can write—we may as well sit up and take notice” (P 10. its humanity. and remember the date (1914) on the calendar. http://dl. . Eliot's depiction of our contemporary condition. its bitter suffering. and “The Witch of Coös” (19. as dull as Wordsworth. . “[t]he reader will find nothing better and he will be extremely fortunate if he finds much half as good. . which began: “I want to see dawn spilled across the blackness / Like scrambled egg on the skillet” (P 10. S.5 74). I think. He has actually trained himself AND modernized himself ON HIS OWN. Eunice Tietjens reviewed Arthur Davison Ficke's “Prufrock” parody “Cafe Sketches” (published in The Little Review. It is such a comfort to meet a man and not have to tell him to wash his face. (EW 123. . 1915). EW 67). A letter from Monroe to Pound states: “Alice says mea culpa about Frost. It was significant that “Prufrock” was tucked away at the very end of the issue.5). “[H]ow complete is Mr. . “and I think I've about the only copy of the book that has left the shop.) A few years later.” Ezra Pound wrote to the Poetry office in 1913 (Letters 15). September. wipe his feet. . . specifically the very icy dialogue-poems: “The Code—Heroics” (3. .brown. The men are the pensive poets looking out onto the world. . He was talking about Robert Frost. while the women are merely gossiping about and consuming what social culture put forth. . “Snow” (9. . Robert Frost “Have just discovered another Amur'kn. She wasn't too impressed with the “very European world-weariness of Eliot's Laforgue-derived voice”—a tedious argument. perhaps (Carpenter 260). Frost sent more along. . But he is trying almost the hardest job of all and he is set to be 'literchure' some day” (letter to Alice Corbin Henderson. I think we should print this notice at once as we ought to be first . a horror story-in verse. its wild dance on an ashheap before a clouded and distorted mirror. Pound could be both pleased and displeased with a poet's work. submitted poems to Harriet Monroe . Pound was frequently more generous in print. and say if it was returned it deserved it. and its realism” (Carpenter 267). especially his popular “General William Booth Enters into Heaven” (P 1. it could be both a blessing and a curse to be “Vurry Amur'k'n. Alfred Prufrock. Both Pound and Eliot deserve the criticism. who has published nothing hitherto in this country” (P 6. His 'lonely men in shirt-sleeves leaning out of windows' are as real as his ladies who 'come and go / Talking of Michelangelo'” (265). it should not be the only context for understanding their contributions.5 264-71). PRAY GOD IT BE NOT A SINGLE AND UNIQUE SUCCESS. For we find him among our returns. .Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 the best poem I have yet had or seen from an American. “Prufrock” was unlike anything that had come before it—what Pound called “a portrait of failure” (Paige 44f). Let us go. gaining more of a reputation.” “Mr. “I only found the man by accident.” because Eliot “has not confined himself to genre nor to society portraiture. (Kenner makes the point in Invisible Poet that even the unknown Ajan Syrian was given more face time.2005. and the poem was called “The Love Song of J.6 324).4). its conviction of futility. his term is problematic. Confound it. with. the seeds of grace. Eliot. As Pound wrote of Eliot.lib. . Carpenter 258) What is it? Let us go and make our visit. as is much of Eliot's verse.” and “Morning at the Window” in Poetry (8. . You can apologize for us and say we are very contrite and would like some more some day” (qtd. in Thompson 588n). The "Notes" section introduced Eliot simply as “a young American poet resident in England. . but also because it carries significant gender implications. before meeting Pound. however. She has the grit to stand up.” Pound contended—“complete. Pound wrote that Frost “has now and then such a swift and bold expression.3 159). (P 6. . The muttering retreats Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells. of accusation .php?id=mjp. 10/14/13. through certain half-deserted streets. Apollinax.” “La Figlia Che Piange.00. Carpenter 200-01.” Published in the June. Pound's review of Prufrock and Other Observations came shortly after. . .” (Paige 16). VURRY Amur'k'n. Alice Corbin Henderson” (Thompson 588n).edu/mjp/render. . As usual. published his “Conversation Galante. not only because the term "realism" is unsettled. “There is evidence that Robert Frost. Still.

Whether or not such responses were appropriate is just one of the complicated problems that arise when culture.” Monroe wrote. (P 4. politics. making Lowell the consummate punch line had more to do with Pound's masculine political ideology than with any aesthetic matter. Lowell famously exclaimed “Why. The verse shows how horrors might be vilified and made light of at the same time. as of fire-engines pumping”: With a red and royal Intoxication. such as Hugh Kenner.4. and 11.4. who ended up “patrolling the boundaries of masculine modernism against Lowell's incursion by air and sea”.5. he would critique the poem for reinforcing the belief that the African exhibited a violent. B. . and racial identity intersect. Gerber calls “a decade of professional sparring”: “Harriet thought Amy's manner officious. I. Lowell found the movement dead and Pound onto the next big thing—Vorticism. Lowell returned home and brought many of the Imagist poets originally printed in Pound's collection together in a few new anthologies. who seemed capable of shaping the American idiom in verse for the modern age” (233). the collection Whimseys in 14. Scott's critique is not leveled at Pound so much as his later advocates.” Lowell's biographer S.” where he “share[s] the throne / . Lindsay's “Booker T. As Bonnie Kime Scott notes. With a peacock pride. This stanza from. matching pennies and shooting craps / . . Monroe was grateful to Lowell both for Lowell's personal sponsorship of the magazine—Amy “had. Master of dreams. Du Bois was a defender and fan of much of Lindsay's work.3 109.” from July 1914. respecting those. Unfortunately. issue 4. in effect. . for example. Monroe and Henderson had http://dl. and sell it to the masses.00. complete with marginal-note instructions on how they ought to be chanted. Lindsay's verse often ended up perpetuating many of the grotesque stereotypes his efforts were meant to undo. for example. Sent by Monroe to meet Pound in London to find out more about the Imagist movement. his popular “The Chinese Nightingale” in 5. . for. Lindsay was a supporter of many causes. castigating Amy Lowell for ignoring him (P A tangle of sounds And a syncopation. .php?id=mjp. “Miss Monroe had seen and admired Miss Lowell's sonnets in the Atlantic Monthly. too.1. Washington Trilogy” sends Simon Legree (the brutal slave owner who kills Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin) “down to the Devil. E. as John Chapman Ward writes. her poetry less than first-rate. . or whether she is remembered as pivotal in introducing modern poetics to American audiences through her clever deployment and marketing of the term depends on who is telling the story” (xiii). and the mastery traditionally granted to the male makers of modernism” (136). despite what she and Alice Corbin Henderson frequently thought about her personally.” for instance.5.lib. Not giving up just yet on the possibilities of Imagism. Lowell will always be “remembered more as a person than as a poet” (P&TA 80). This admiration notwithstanding. Pound notoriously ruined the banquet Lowell was holding for the Imagists. particularly. which contains a paean to the Russian revolutionary Alexander Kerensky). by putting a mock bathtub over his head and calling for a new movement of "Les Nagistes" (See Fletcher 148-49). Foster Damon writes (186). Amy sensed the editor's reservations and resented them deeply” (233). . shows the inner workings of Lindsay's verse-songs. Lindsay's “roots run deep into the past of American literature. from “The Fireman's Ball” is “[t]o be read or sung in a heavy buzzing bass. shows what Ward calls Lindsay's “(racist.9 Shifting the biographical anecdote to where it belongs—on the lap of the critic conveying the tale—Adrienne Munich and Melissa Bradshaw write: “Whether she is remembered as the interloper who used money and family connections to wrest the term [Imagism] away from Pound.4 126) Amy Lowell Amy Lowell's relationship with Harriet Monroe and Poetry is best described by what Philip L. of African Americans. .) attempt to value an Afro-American culture” (238). . His poem “Congo.2005.110&view=mjp_object Página 22 de 36 ." Monroe unwittingly became a sounding board for what quickly became the Lowell-Pound controversy. . 111-12). water it down.00 contribution for Harriet's assurance of early publication” (Gerber 233)—and for the publicity she often brought it. Sweeping and bending From side to side. For Monroe. he was “once considered a giant of 'The New Poetry' . There was a lot at stake in this hullabaloo aside from simply determining the rightful progenitor and implementer of Imagism. Lindsay's poems appeared frequently in Poetry (see. But Monroe was also indebted to Lowell for contributing some very good verse. anti-rational primitivism. and invited her to contribute. the poems in 19. Scott writes. exchanged a $200. “Poems to Be Chanted.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 were favorites of Monroe. am an Imagiste!” (Damon 196). It is odd that Lindsay has fallen out of favor today. Even though W. After reading the January 1913 issue of Poetry. playing poker and taking naps” (P 8. Pound dismissively called this poetic reincarnation "Amygism.3 153). “Lowell's 'feud' with Ezra Pound provides a precedent for resisting his version of modernism. titled Some Imagist Poets. .brown.

' 'A Gift'. Lowell's poems in 2.10 Sometimes. it is true I have seen the gunman kill and go free to kill again. was a big fan of Lowell's “Appuldurcombe Park” (P 12. And from the pen of Monroe herself comes the following: “[Lowell] has used free-verse in certain fine lyrics—'Night Clouds.6 191) Eunice Tietjens. her views about literary history. “to claim that Lowell was modern poetry to the majority of readers: her opinions about other poets. . Whitman-esque in their own way. Sandburg was a poet of the crowd. Stacker of Wheat. Funny. “[e]ven Harriet Monroe found the opening lines of Sandburg's 'Chicago' 'a shock at first. husky. Stems of roses do not bleed. yet also unfair for a poet who. and in keeping with Monroe's vision.1.3). . “The Bombardment.6). you'll discover why Lowell has become a major modernist figure. didn't get the attention she felt she deserved. why she didn't have an issue dedicated solely to her. Stormy. In fact.1. and 16. her Chalks series (6. City of the Big Shoulders: They tell me you are wicked and I believe them. and obsessions. as did Sandburg and” (240). and the haiku collection.” offers yet another possibility for contemporary sound. was Lowell's fear of persecution—“Why is it that you alone conspire to keep me in the back seat. They hold the weight of years in such a tight space. perhaps. might slip.00. this white rose. brawling. saw the outrage and confusion first-hand. for I have seen your painted women under the gas lamps luring the farm boys. And they tell me you are brutal and my reply is: On the faces of women and children I have seen the marks of wanton hunger. rightfully or not. Scanning the Poetry collection. why she wasn't being paid more for her poems.3 124-25) Carl Sandburg “In 1914. Even more maddening. “Twenty-Four Hokku on a Modern Theme” (18.” writes Monroe. nearly a quarter of a century earlier. ordinarily the soul of tact. She writes that the poems “roused a veritable storm of protest over what was then called their brutality. Unlike Pound. They tell me you are crooked and I answer: Yes.lib.' but she 'took a long breath and swallowed it'” even though she was “also 'laughed at scornfully by critics and columnists'” for publishing the poem (Niven 242. But these are my tears. “even Harriet. celebrating it at every turn. suspicions. 1921. are all worthy of second looks. These two hokku are from June. Lowell's prose-poetry. “It would not be overstatement. Beyond all the controversies. it was difficult not to be friends with the always affable Chicagoan.110&view=mjp_object Página 23 de 36 . Your fingers are safe.4.2) issue on Lowell's insistence. why she wasn't listed on Poetry's advertisements as one of the outstanding new writers (Gerber 235-36). Gerber writes. courageous magazine” (525). when neither my own talents nor the public appreciation of them keep me there?” (Gerber 240). in brocaded monologues and narratives like 'Patterns'.6.php?id=mjp.” Munich and Bradshaw assert. and shared them in the pages of her small. when she read 'Chicago Poems. the Lacquer Prints (9. And yet.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 good enough reason to be put off by Amy's constant complaints: why she didn't appear first in a given issue. How have I hurt you? You look at me with pale eyes. her popular and wellattended lectures reading her own poems and those of her contemporaries definitively reshaped conceptions of the literary scene” (xii). and with delightful gaiety in grotesques like 'Red Slippers' or the Stravinsky pieces” (FVMA 700). iterates the sounds of war through the sudden shocks of “Boom!” William Carlos Williams.5). astonish to this day: Hog Butcher for the World Tool Maker.brown.' 'Ombre. pushed into the "War Poems" (P 5.2005. (P 18. or what she called “polyphonic prose. Sandburg and Masters became friends. for one. . The opening lines. Lowell left an extraordinary legacy behind in her verse contributions to Monroe's journal. . 6. why she wasn't an editor. Penelope Niven acknowledges that “[i]n large measure it had been Harriet Monroe who helped Sandburg find himself and his home in Chicago. 4. as when she requested that rather than taking cash payment for her poems Amy should deduct the amount from her next contribution . “two powerful middle-western names added to the noise of controversy which the Imagists had stirred up: Carl Sandburg and Edgar Lee Masters were champions whom no protagonist of exact metrics could afford to ignore” (FVMA 701). Take it. then working in the Poetry office. Many Chicagoans http://dl. APL 322). .” one such poem. (P 3. Player with Railroads and the Nation's Freight Handler.6). in her New England narratives—character sketches couched in a harsh dialect. Chinoise.' and heard the music and the message in them.

She wrote. the men it breeds. became “a self-defining editorial statement for this proudly Chicagoan magazine” (97). behind it all. Stevens's verse drama “Three Travelers Watch a Sunrise. very different poetic styles.6 316). .” and “Ploughing on Sunday. usually intensely local and personal. . According to Lensing.” writes Stevens scholar George Lensing (245). “It is possible that we have ventured rashly in 'discovering' Mr. Stevens always sent along “what I like most” (qtd. 1916 reflection on Ezra Pound. of course.” which had been published in the rival journal Others: “Mr.' eliminating three stanzas and encouraging rearrangement of four of the remaining five. 257). wants to put the thing [eight poems from “Pecksniffiana”] in this year's Others anthology.” which began “Next to making friends. Pecksniffiana (15. Later on. . She had praised Stevens's “Peter Quince at the Clavier. While in the case of “Sunday Morning” Monroe's suggestions might have been a little off the mark (Stevens was later able to print the poem as he wanted it in Harmonium). to them. it will be surprising for some readers that Pound found such an admirer in Sandburg. Unlike Pound and others who often didn't ask permission to reprint poems originally published in Poetry. and better still.” “Cool Thumbs.brown.1). in Niven 243). The Dial responded: “The typographical arrangement for this jargon .2). “The flair of great loneliness is there” (P 7. from . even after 1920 when many of the poets she discovered and promoted began to abandon her. The bond between Stevens and Monroe seems never to have frayed. Kreymborg .5). .2005. take on the spaciousness of all adequate art.” he writes. . Fernando.” It won the Levinson Prize. Sandburg spoke in a very heartwarming manner at Monroe's funeral (“In appreciation of Harriet Monroe” The Courier 10 May 1938). Stevens was a friend and supporter of Monroe. grotesquely disguised prose .110&view=mjp_object Página 24 de 36 . “Jan Kubelik. “Monroe's loyalty to Stevens . .2 61).” Sandburg writes of his contemporary. qtd. unflattering light” (The World at My Shoulder (1938) 38-42.1). “the best man writing poetry today.” Newcomb writes.” published by Poetry in 1916. and the collections: Days (7.” and certain other songs which should rank among the most beautiful in the language.” but he was one of its. “I am grateful to you for your notes. . “He stains darkly and touches softly. the most thrilling experience of life is to make enemies” (P 4. Sandburg also wrote reviews for the journal. the present to the past—what chances has The Dial ever taken?” (63-64).php?id=mjp. In fact. Then it was that that monstered moth http://dl. .” “The Paltry Nude Starts on a Spring Voyage. and Smoke Nights (15.1)—the name was based on the character in Charles Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit—and Sur Ma Guzzla Gracile (19. [as] he had belonged to no school and taken orders from his muse alone” (FVMA 703). . of rhythm and color. (FVMA 701) Always going out of his way to be generous. [w]e have taken chances. that on that day The mind roamed as a moth roams. always an appropriate beating-out of his subject. Sur ma Guzzla Gracile included the popular “The Snow Man. her keen understanding of his art single her out as the poet's first important reader” (245). frank. collected as Letters d'un Soldat (12.6) came later.” “Homunculus et la Belle Etoile. Redhaw Winds (13. including a February. to the magical delicacy of “The Great Hunt. His subjects. . . her advocacy of his work.” “Of the Surface of Things. He might not have been the “best man writing poetry. shall we say. defended her poet in essays such as “The Enemies We Have Made.” “The Harbor.lib. she called him “intensely individual.1). My People (10. . Among the blooms beyond the open sand . won the magazine's prize.” and the tantalizing “Hibiscus on the Sleeping Shores”: I say now. in turn. her pleas for him to go on as a poet. Stevens was generally patient and appreciative with her critiques. . and his work as a whole gives us the very feeling and quality of the prairie.” and “Lost” joined his “Chicago” poem (3. Stevens has a sense of words. Stevens paid careful attention to respect Monroe's earlier efforts and rights as a publisher: “A.1). in Niven 243). made room for the young and the new. . [in] a futile little periodical described as a 'magazine of verse'” (qtd. Stevens sent in more poems thereafter. and he would go on to publish there extensively. Monroe.” “Tea at the Palaz of Hoon. . in Lensing 245-46). Monroe wrote that Sandburg's free-verse rhythms are as personal as his slow speech and massive gait.00. Sandburg and the others.5 250.” “Gone. but . “and.6). Pecksniffiana included “Anecdote of the Jar. creates suspicion that it is intended to be taken as some form of poetry . . Unsurprisingly. In return. of things underneath which these reveal” (P 6. tried to break the chains which enslave Chicago to New York. it was Stevens who “allowed [her] to reduce 'Sunday Morning' from eight to five stanzas and to reorder four of the five for Poetry” (Lensing 92). America to Europe. and the great city it has built. Sandburg's “Chicago.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 were furious at seeing the city presented in this.” Given their very. He wasn't wrong.” Wallace Stevens “Most readers of [Wallace] Stevens remember Monroe's editorial liberties with 'Sunday Morning. “Big Shoulders. for the check” (Stevens 182). I said that he might as he liked but thought he should first procure your consent” (Stevens 215). as well as the set of poems in March of 1922 (19.

He patched up the relationship between Monroe and Kreymborg for a time and tried.4) speaks of the laws of poetry and science. “The poet goes up and down continually empty-handed. Accompanying his first publications in Poetry magazine was interestingly enough his verse-review about Ferdinand Earle's poetry collection Lyric Year. We never know where we stand or. He also didn't care for many of the magazine's editorial policies. Williams had hoped to be included in this collection. he was still a little bitter at being left out (Mariani 101). Frankly. Rose up besprent and sought the flaming red Dabbed with yellow pollen—red as red As the flag above the old café— And roamed there all the stupid afternoon. (P 19. .lib. Williams didn't like [her] interference with his poems and he didn't mind telling her that Poetry was already “closed to rugged beginnings. unlike the mind conjuring moths in the stupid afternoon. So different. And the fact that Poetry insisted on paying its contributors (unlike Others) could only hurt.” he told her.” the speaker concludes that. and he let Monroe know as much. he was 'sick of standing at the Paying Teller's window'” (qtd. According to Mariani. and not for money. he wanted to get paid now for his poems. that Kreymborg had given his manuscripts back so that he might turn them over to Poetry. in Mariani 154-55). It was Pound after all who insisted Monroe publish Williams. in this case.” Williams's “Notes from a Talk on Poetry” (P 14. perhaps. (“Marriage. Williams added. His twelve-line poem in couplets compares being immortalized in an anthology to being mortalized in a cemetery: “how good it must be to spend / Some thousand years there from beginning to end. this man And this woman: A stream flowing In a field. Williams the moth in the mind is enlivened.” P 9. closer to Pound's own advanced metrical experiments. Williams was sensitive about his own work and confident enough with it once he became a more prominent poet. while his "review" was enthusiastic.” he concludes “to write modern poetry today in the old forms .” “Naked. Paul Mariani notes the similarity between “Postlude” and Pound's own verse: “If Pound had a special liking for one poem of Williams' other than 'Hic Jacet. “On First Opening The Lyric Year” (P 2. it was better in the end to be left out of both. flutter. Originally conjured as a mere simile. (127.” a poem that was much admired by Pound.”Poetry would have to get tougher or stop publishing. after Williams had a falling out with Kreymborg. later gives way in the same issue to the rhythmically beautiful “Postlude.brown.” The poet attacks. and. The discordant character of these works.00. like that monster of Frankenstein. nothing is safe” (216). to restore the one with Maxwell Bodenheim: “should I be able to get him to reconsider his withdrawal of the verse and play you had accepted would you print them for him?” (qtd. . She called his contribution for the March 1919 issue: “Broken Windows.” the flaming red. “It is impossible.” One wrote because one had something to say. . as Mariani notes.” The moth worked all day unlike the sea. not the blue and the purple of the “lazy sea.2005. but failed.1 9) Stevens at his best. and Pound sent it on to Harriet Monroe in February with directions to be sure to print it” (105).' it was for his 'Postlude.” William Carlos Williams wrote in his Autobiography (174). Williams's other poems in this issue are in keeping with this unusual critique. A few years later. “and no boosting by Poetry will ever make it pay.” as can be seen in its title. “he wrote to Monroe to tell her . They range from weird (“Peace on Earth”) to weirder (“Sicilian Emigrant's Song: In New York Harbor”).” and “Summer Song” show just how unfair a poet's footing may be. however. Williams's empty-handed “Love Song. . punning that it “is his job. It “rose” up into the red.' a poem studded with classical allusions and bearing the mark of a new rhythm.3 114-15). in Mariani 127). .” “Marriage.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Which had lain folded against the blue And the colored purple of the lazy sea . . though. This paying teller's window became a sort of a private joke in the poems Monroe next published of Williams. in lieu of getting into the game on a fair footing” (211). “Verse don't pay. Unlike Monroe's relationship with Stevens. William Carlos Williams “Our poems constantly. such as paying its contributors.” “Apology.” Upon realizing “That I too would have to be like all the other dead.110&view=mjp_object Página 25 de 36 . continuously and stupidly were rejected by all the pay magazines except Poetry and The Dial.2 84) http://dl. 1916) Throughout the years. Williams would continue both successfully and unsuccessfully to play mediator for Monroe. April 11. the one with Williams quickly became unsteady. Williams's review poem is a parody of John Keats's famous sonnet “On First Looking into Chapman's Homer. the “red as red.php?id=mjp.

insolent sport. Or. had we walked within Those topless towers Where Helen walked with her boy. of course. That was from Pound's review of Responsibilities in the May. In subsequent versions of the poem. he often didn't shy away from speaking his mind.2 65).1). insisting that Yeats's “gifts to English art are mostly negative”—as in showing other poets what not to do (P 1.” “The Peacock” and “When Helen Lived”—another take on the mythologizing of Yeats's love interest. we have the men foolishly walking away from their brides. His selections in issues 4. 1914 issue of Poetry. Maud Gonne. he suggested Monroe give most of the money to Pound. I argued that Yeats's revisions—specifically of this poem—ironically show him to be more like the despised critic than the youthful poet. as the title of the collection begs us to answer." But none of these other versions end with an exclamation mark—the final line is always a question. For some trivial affair. or anyone else without a voice? It's not as clear as it would initially seem. the irony being that they are “deserting” by going to war.2005. Yeats is so assuredly an immortal that there is no need for him to recast his style to suit our winds of doctrine” (P 4.brown. I discovered another interesting twist. poking fun at the dry critics.5 226) The poem is a condemnation of literary critics who get so bogged down in the minutiae of their job that they forget the romantic essence of poetry.php?id=mjp. At first. While Pound was a defender of Yeats. This version makes us re-consider http://dl.2 and 7. what would they say Should their Catullus walk that way! We understand the final couplet rhetorically—the speaker. and is this the same "we" who had won beauty. as Helen of Troy: We have cried in our despair That men desert. could not help but reword ( Yeats was angry but forgiving. .1). . . Yeats gave poems to Pound. there. And finally. Old. Who is the "we" crying about the silly men. because of the exclamation. Granted.2 54) Here. Yeats's verse drama of split dialectical selves. and his much loved “A Prayer for My Daughter” was published two years after (15. we understand that the question is rhetorical. . When I wrote about this poem a few years ago. Yeats replaced "Should" with "Did. A year hence. But that might not even be the right question. Or noisy. 2. (P 4.110&view=mjp_object Página 26 de 36 .lib. 3. tossing on their beds. “[A]lthough [Yeats] is the greatest of living poets .11 Coming across this poem in Poetry. The final lines. which followed on the heels of a set of Yeats's poems. included “To a Shade. which Pound. there is no mistaking it. there. I found the version of “The Scholars” in the February 1916 issue most interesting: Bald heads forgetful of their sins. respectable bald heads Edit and annotate the lines That young men. read: Lord. Personally. at least that's what it would seem to be.5 provide initial samples of work that would be revised again and again. Pound—writing about “The Later Yeats” before he had become what we think of as "the later Yeats"—declared that “Mr. (P 7. we might wonder why the men didn't give Helen more than a word and a jest. Beauty we have won From bitterest hours.3. and the same "we" who. the men or the women. . A word and a jest.4 125). . .1.” Pound wrote. but as the rest Of the men and women of Troy. what is the responsibility here? Yeats published poems early and often in Poetry (1. Rhymed out in love's despair. to borrow a phrase from another poem. Yet we. The poems. his art has not broadened much in scope during the past decade. had uttered “polite meaningless words”? Is the "we" the Greeks or the Trojans.” appears at the end of 1917 (11. learned. asks (or seems rhetorically to imply) that they wouldn't be so enamored of Catullus if he treated poetry as they treated it.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Why do I write today? The beauty of The terrible faces Of our nonentities Stirs me to it. “Ego Dominus Tuus.2). When he won Poetry's first annual prize in 1913. Yeats One of Ezra Pound's first big scores as foreign correspondent was getting his friend William Butler Yeats to send along work. but here. The pun on “affair” brings the triviality of the whole business to light. Had given. . (“Apology”) W. 191-92). B.00.

in EW 35). deep world hereafter Of leaf on falling leaf.2 73) Joseph Campbell (1879-1944)—not the famous American mythologist who wrote the Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake. in the MJP's collection. had called him “pre-raphaelitish slush. Some words from his “Haunted Chambers”: The lamp-lit page is Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 the other versions and whether (as in Paul de Man's famous reading of the final lines of “Among School Children”) we might otherwise understand the line literally. It is not for me to say whether this poetry is good. His attack on free verse.5. remember Deep worlds you lived before. as the speaker honestly asking a question about whether literary critics ought to rethink their whole enterprise. 5. The music changes tone.6. H. such as Sherwood Anderson. . in turn.6) and the series Many Evenings (14. Pound. the poets tell the incredible stories of a generation in verse.5. Edna St. which I described earlier. that there is no new poetry in England at present . writing that Bodenheim's “irony is less bitter [than Eliot's]. but the Irish poet Seosamh Mac Cathmhaoil who participated in the Easter Rising and fought in the Irish Civil War.brown.2) to Moireen Fox a Cheavasa's “Silence” and “Disillusion” (17. 9. His and Padraic Colum's correspondence on “The Dead Irish Poets” (8. Lawrence. Who long was hid away In cave or twilight glen: Too shy. be read against Brooke's Nineteen Fourteen poems (6. like Walter de la Mare (10.5 239) Maxwell Bodenheim (1892-1954) was an inexhaustible writer in every sense of the term. . but. sometimes almost humorous. disgusting or very nearly so” and yet there was “no English poet under forty who can get within shot of him” (P 2. ?” (qtd. . where he was eventually murdered. 5.5) are worth looking at.2) to Marjorie Allen Seiffert's Gallery of Paintings (“Words curl like fragrant smoke-wreaths in the room” 18.110&view=mjp_object Página 27 de 36 . and Edgar Lee Masters (11. you wake.2 50) http://dl. as in his resistance to Imagism.6). He had no compunctions about making his exasperations known. here the shape-shifting fairy: The Puca's come again. novelist.5. music on music.5.5) put into words the horror of the British response to the Easter Rising of 1916. .4.C. in EW 146).6) makes a nice contrast to the seamless rhymes of Millay (10. and fit it like an arrowhead to the keen shaft. He moved to Massachusetts and attended Harvard University.3. (P 3. in a review of Lawrence. .3) and the perfectly chiseled verses of Lawrence (3. 12.6). You'll also come across some names that are slowly being forgotten.3).” was published in 1919 (P 14. D.1.3). as Aiken would remind us.php?id=mjp. Lawrence's “War Films” (14. and send the idea shooting into the heart of a stupid world.4). from Max Michelson's Masks (13.2005.. which were published years earlier in April 1915.” part of his series Sketches in Color: The morning lowers its fire-veined back And quivers beneath the edged feet of winds: So do you stoop to your agony. 6.” like much of his work. (P 8. In midlife. It amuses him to search for the neat word.H. Must we believe [Pound] when he says with lazy indifference . . He was a lifelong friend of Ben Hecht (see below) but had a rough relationship with Monroe. Orrick Johns (3. 13. bad or (even) ugly. passim) whose Spoon River Anthology was quite popular in his day.2). the influence worked both ways. Monroe was always more generous.4) might. (P 14. he moved from Chicago to New York City. . His poem “The Puca. and Marianne Moore. 21. Even More of Poetry's Poets In addition to the poets listed above. And then there are the scrupulous “Pouters and Fantails” of the incomparable Marianne Moore (6. Vincent Millay. He wrote to Monroe that she and Pound were “using Poetry too egotistically. and write a love-poem or a death-poem as though he beautifully meant it” (FVMA 703). Edwin Arlington Robinson (3. . The “Prelude” to the latter echoes Eliot's “Prufrock”: “ . “A Reply to A. / The muted city seems / Like one in a restless sleep who lies and dreams.1. He won the Pulitzer and Bollingen Prizes and the National Book Award. I want to introduce some of the less familiar poets and personalities you'll find in these pages and then leave you alone with their words. Rupert Brooke. 19. where he met and befriended T. V. as we ought to read them.” But. taken together. Eliot. . Sometimes it even pleases him to be serious. is based upon Irish legend. you'll discover. His “Discordants” (6. In a letter dated June 19. along black streets that glisten as if with rain. would you not be a trifle impatient?” (qtd.00. 1914 he wrote her: “If you had written poetry for six years without seeing a line of your work in print.4). the month he died on the Continent from sepsis. too proud to play Under the eye of day. Conrad Aiken (1889-1973)—poet.3. 14. The poetic-prose of Anderson's Mid-American Songs (10.4 149). in order to give expression and scope to their own personalities.lib. the dream forgotten. poems from canonical modernist authors. S. Rain and sorrow and wind and dust and laughter. from the academic Joseph Warren Beach's Drypoints (6. and vitriolic critic—was born in Savannah Georgia. Some words from “Suffering.12 There is so much to explore.2).1).

1. There are some hints of Wallace Stevens in Carnevali's “His Majesty the Letter-Carrier”: Ah. but hadn't yet published them before the hoax was revealed.5. . . B. As Ellen Williams notes.” from the collection A Little Girl's Songs: Snowflakes come in fleets Like ships over the sea. And sorrow is better to sing than cry On the way to Carricknabauna! (P 3. contains the varying cadences of a four-movement classical symphony. (P 11. “Ikons” provides a glimpse of his Imagistic technique: My thoughts Are little. His first submission was an epic elegy to A. Her Poetry Handbook (1957) was influential both inside and outside the classroom for decades.6). 14.brown.2 and 6. 9. Swinburne: http://dl.2.3).edu/mjp/render. . Little fishes leaping upon a black cloth. The stars make the sky sparkle like gold-fish in a glassy bowl. An important figure in the Irish Literary Revival.lib. studied under George Santayana at Harvard University. even if they seem always the same: And there is something difference understands That peace knows nothing of. and revive With other kisses.2005.6 299) Padraic Colum (1881-1972) was an Irish playwright and mythologist.6) and Neuriade (19." It wasn't until April 25. and Wallace Stevens. S. Yeats. With Bynner (then the editor of McClure's). and declared the joke rather pointless” (239). Both mother and daughter ended up teaching at Smith College. that the Dial uncovered their whole vers librist movement as a hoax (not unlike the Sokal Hoax many years later). or “always the same.4).php?id=mjp.” in the first issue of Poetry.110&view=mjp_object Página 28 de 36 . As Monroe explained it. Ficke developed a new poetic movement. The Day of Summer (14. He was close with Edgar Lee Masters and Edna St. like T. Witter Bynner. 1918. The letter-carrier.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Skipwith Cannell (1887-1957) was an Imagist poet and one-time favorite of Ezra Pound.5. silver fishes jumping in a row. Her daughter's poems vary similarly in sound. Her poem “Knowledge” from that collection shows how emotions might be more complicated than they seem. He eventually became an associate editor of Poetry in 1919-20. who initially published and promoted him. Here is an excerpt from the early contribution.” was the motto of Queen Elizabeth I. In addition to his literary endeavors. and translator of Russian poetry. Grace Hazard “transcribes her [daughter's] extraordinary improvisations. of course! (What do you think I got up so early for?) He is so proud Because he's got my happiness in that dirty bag: He's got a kiss from my sweetheart. . Vincent Millay. Eliot. critic. (P 14. Alice Corbin Henderson congratulated Poetry “on escaping the hoaxers. he was an attorney and a Judge Advocate. Gertrude Stein. and 18.4 232).00. . Semper Eadem. (P 4. he was on the board of the Abbey Theatre with Lady Gregory and W. For by our hurt we know we are alive.6 211) Grace Hazard Conkling (1878-1958) and Hilda Conkling (1910-1986) were mother and daughter poets.5). (P 18. 5. Grace Hazard Conkling's “Symphony of a Mexican Garden.4 207) Babette Deutsch (1895-1982) was a poet. His work in Poetry ranges from ballad renderings of Irish songs to more loosely constructed private meditations (3.3 and his Poems in Prose and Verse (2. .6. Fiske's poems appear in issues 1.4 193) Iowa poet Arthur Davison Ficke (1883-1945). called the "Spectric School. See his submissions in issues 4. . C. Here is a face of Hilda's “Snow-Flake Song. Monroe published his sequences Splendid Commonplace (11.2 50) The Italian poet Emanuel Carnevali (1897-1942) came to America at the beginning of the Great War in order to avoid conscription. He was a lifetime friend of James Joyce. There. he also met his lasting friend and eventual poetic co-conspirator. It is the pain in pleasure that we seek To kill with kisses. there he is! Who? . “Three Irish Spinning Songs”: An old woman sings: There was an oul' trooper went riding by On the road to Carricknabauna. without revealing how narrow the margin of escape.6. The moon shines down on the crusty snow. . The name of her collection.” which had been published every year in Poetry since Hilda was four years old (P 14. 8. Poetry had accepted some of the faux poems.

3 136) The versatile Jun Fujita (1888-1963) was a Japanese-American poet born near Hiroshima. Monroe reviewed her collection The Jew to Jesus and Other Poems. with thee may stand. was an interesting figure in the local culture of Chicago. I only know That he turned to go http://dl. even though he never saw action. although eventually he returned to his Southern roots. Consider. tamed animals move. Her poem “A Girl Strike-Leader” appeared in Upton Sinclair's The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest (1915).5 227) Florence Kiper Frank (1885-1976). She wrote often on the unspoken conditions of womanhood and ethnicity. “The Going. 7:6. He published in Poetry often (7:4. Moving as the dumb. the earth's enormous pageantry” (P&TA 87)—was born in Little Rock. for example. I hoped you would dance—but after twenty-six years.2 issue of Poetry. . which “Cones” is from: The blue mist of after-rain Fills all the (P 1. Burdened. ploddingly. S. He financially supported Pound's section in the New Freewoman. Flint (1885-1960) studied with Ezra Pound in T.5 137) John Gould Fletcher (1886-1950)—a “rebellious imagist” moved “to worship . . .2005. . Flint's essay on “Imagisme”—which many believe was written by Pound.lib. he was close to Pound.brown. wrote war verse. (P 3. and his autobiography reads like a modernist tell-all. far off. I am heavy now and patient.5 265).Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 The autumn dusk.5). 11. some of which appeared originally in Poetry (18. Initially. On your window the cobwebs are black. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1939 and committed suicide a decade later. It was good to see. One of his Battle poems. Hulme's Imagist group. stars clustered or solitary. He was a silent actor in many Chicago films and a famous photojournalist who captured photos of the St. and which was published in Poetry in March. “To Elizabeth”: Against the door dead leaves are falling. the tanka brings a boundless meditation into the bounds of a moment's thought. a friend of Rupert Brooke. Valentine's Day massacre in Chicago. not yearly but eternal.3. Is haunted by thy voice. Garrison has recently edited a collection of Fujita's tanka poems (Jun Fujita. calling it “largely juvenilia” (P 8. burdened . Who turns his way far from the valleys vernal And by dark choice Disturbs those heights which from the low-lying land Rise sheerly toward the heavens. (P 7. which eventually became The Egoist—the very same journal that printed chapters of Joyce's Portrait. Fletcher's own poetic adventures began with Imagism. .3 89) F. How shall I carry the burden of a soul! (P 11. all you stars up yonder . E. I linger alone.00.php?id=mjp. I do not understand.” (FVMA 699). . . passim). and including marine effects . I find you are determined to stay as you are So I make it known to you. a popular playwright. Tanka Pioneer. a weekly literary magazine edited by Dora Marsden and owned by Harriet Shaw Weaver.” demonstrates the subtlety and quickness of the war experience: He's gone. Short and dense. That I want you to fall into my lap tonight.4) are interesting pieces. but he eventually disputed the other's claim to have invented Imagism. His biography is long overdue. 1913 —provides a sort of manifesto for the movement.3). . The sunlight gilds the tops Of the poplar spires. like the haiku. Her verse-dialogue Women was published in the 21. . 2007).3 128) Wilfrid Wilson Gibson (1878-1962). as is his set In London (7. that Denis M. Arkansas. however. 17:1. (P 18.110&view=mjp_object Página 29 de 36 . His “Four Poems in Unrhymed Cadence” (2. Monroe described him as “essentially a landscape poet—landscapes of London streets as well as Mississippi banks and Arizona deserts. The foot-step? A passer-by. Today. . His December 1913 submission “Irradiations” betrays how present determinations may hide within childhood hopes: Oh. . The following is from her series New Life: Ah.

didn't have the best of critical receptions.6.brown. have exercised to the full a woman's privilege of independent choice. who in his essay “Small Magazines” played the Queen's Gambit: “I cannot see that Kreymborg has ever understood language. all exist on their own rhythmic terms. H. He is an excellent chess http://dl. Moore. his verse never had a word out of place. Kreymborg and Alice Corbin Henderson often found themselves on opposite sides of the poetic spectrum.6 282) James Joyce (1882-1941). Understanding Poetry—who despised its pedestrian sentiment. Poems are made by fools like me.6). a decade before he would win the honor for best original script for Underworld at the first annual Academy Awards. working on Underworld. Djuna Barnes.” though anthologized today. would have fared after the Great War. Over the fold your hands had folded— I laid my face to the face of my letter. (P 6. Helen Hoyt's “Ellis Park” with a similar sound and theme (“Little park that I pass through.5 160) Alfred Kreymborg (1883-1966).5). His Girl Friday.3). Eunice Tietjens' Profiles. writer of such poems as “Tutto è Sciolto” and “Gas from a Burner. “The Letter” is from the second of these: The words were beautiful. I laid my fingers along the edges. In his young eyes a sudden glory shone: And I was dazzled by a sunset glow.5.5 247) Helen Hoyt [Lyman] (1887-1972) was an associate editor at Monroe's journal. Her prolific verse includes Poems of Life and Death (6. His short story collection 1001 Afternoons in Chicago (1922) ought to be read more often. Gone with the Wind. who saw poetry as a vehicle to escape male patriarchy. . He was a Hollywood director and one of the most important screenwriters of all time. . And he was gone. it was followed by more poems in 4. The magazine was financed by Walter Arensberg. as did Kreymborg and Pound.lib. Before I had read them.” also wrote a little modernist novel called Ulysses. Each has a strongly personal rhythm.00. In fact. Monkey Business (the Cary Grant-Ginger Rogers-Marilyn Monroe film—not the Marx Brothers' one). But only God can make a tree.php?id=mjp.6. Scarface. “Trees” appeared in issue 2.2005. quickly becoming more and more popular. Monroe described her verse and that of others: “Helen Hoyt. (P 11.5 239) Ben Hecht (1894-1964)—who Monroe called “a new adventurer” (P The sly reeds whisper in the night A name—her name. (P 9. . it was the scourge of the New Critics—specifically Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren in their influential book. and 9. I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree. Eunice Tietjens. She was the aunt of Elinor Wylie (see below). and The Harp (13.2 70) [Alfred] Joyce Kilmer's (1886-1918) poem “Trees. Notorious. (“Trees” P 2. but he was sadly killed fighting for the Americans at the age of 31. and its contributors included Williams. 4. Lowell. . City Pastorals (9. Interestingly enough. Helen Hoyt's impassioned love-songs. He published “Snow Monotones” in Poetry in February 1918. Pound. D. / I carry off a piece of you / Every morning hurrying down / To my work-day in the town”) appeared in the same issue directly before Kilmer's poem.. and the artists Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp. (P 11. each poet escaping into prose now and then but achieving poetry of singular precision in her happier moments” (FVMA 704). . Stagecoach. Stevens. Some Like It Hot. published Others: A Magazine of New Verse from 1915 to 1919.1. Mina Loy.5 285)—was one of the most remarkable figures to appear in the pages of Poetry. Unfortunately for his reputation as a modernist poet. The shore-lamps in the sleeping lake Laburnum tendrils trail. and A Farewell to Arms (to name more than a few). Miss Moore's icily acid reflections. . The list seems endless. . And all my soul is a delight. It would have been interesting to see how Kilmer. A swoon of shame. Eliot.110&view=mjp_object Página 30 de 36 .Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 And waved his hand. The night is not so silent as the snow And yet the night is dark and mute and deep— The faery strains that wander to and fro Are what the night is dreaming in its sleep. Marianne Moore . an important modernist editor. . “Alone” was published in 1917: The moon's soft golden meshes make All night a veil.

We might think of this all as a type of nepotism. Kreymborg's Toadstools series was printed in 1917: I have been a snob today. determined way. was a friend of James Joyce. leaf-shaped and flower-painted. He ran the Poetry Bookshop in London.6 and 20. Monroe's relationship with Monro was touch-and-go. Monroe published his “Trench Poems” at the end of 1916. The sun descend. Each piece moves in a certain. which published Pound's Des Imagistes anthology. Chess is a highly conventionalized game. . but they published each other's work. Joyce http://dl. look inward. fine limbs. and precise. Isaac Rosenberg. The windows. and he had a hand in publishing such journals as The Poetry Review and Georgian Poetry. fierce like a song? (“The Song.1 26) Like so many artists of his era. (P 8. They are stark.” Rosenberg “had mailed her his 'somber trench poems. one of the most influential poems of the war. to bathe in painted shade. “Mr. All are shut.” because it “need[ed].” as Poetry introduced him. above all. Alfred Kreymborg's review of Ridge's The Ghetto and Other Poems was published in Poetry in March 1919 (13. His “Break of Day in the Trenches” is. (“Love Was Dead All Day. . protesting that he was focusing too much on reviews rather than on poetry (see Grant 42-43). Its speaker is a little more complicated than we might take him to be on first glance: It seems you inwardly grin as you pass: Strong eyes. all inquisitive. a genuine desire to build a network of poetry and promote it rather than the poets themselves.lib. the Irish poet and Celtic now undergoing recovery. both adoring. socialist.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 player. And that strange vibration at the roots of us— Desire. Kreymborg and Monroe were fierce competitors. He was the initial head-editor of Knopf's Everyman's Library. perhaps. he was killed fighting in the trenches. Have you? Have you? (P 15. plowed by iron .” P 10. a direction” (APL 255). They spoke of the “iron cloud” and the “the torn fields of France.3 163). Ridge's own reviews were published in issues 17. haughty athletes. set. and feminist—had an altogether different twentieth-century voice. They are like the roots of plants: they are organic. On the bloodied ooze of fields. fortunately. rather. Her poems. (P 9. had become “a member of the British army in France” (P 9. Like her relationship with Kreymborg.6). . Less chanced than you for life. carries a meditative tone: I understood each thing The leaf says to the flower when. with roots in Lithuania—was taken before his time.00. I've never seen a body in the house. often overlooked because he operated behind the scenes. Bonds to the whims of murder. but I think. sent on ragged scraps of paper'” (Niven 258). they interpenetrate and tangle with life. you cannot detach them as pieces of an anatomical figure” (701). See like themselves. Just over a year later. She wrote to him. The torn fields of France. Sprawled in the bowels of the earth.2005. loud. Do you remember how we heard All the Red cross bands on Fifth Avenue .1 2) Lola Ridge (1873-1941)—the Irish-Australian-New York poet. such as those in the Chromatics series. His poem “Introspection” mixes curiosity and confession: The house across the road is full of ghosts. which is.brown. formerly a student of the Slade School of Art in London. “April Romance. . Scourge me with a thousand thongs! The crowds that passed me atoms were: Plunge me into a vat of tar! Love was dead all day.110&view=mjp_object Página 31 de 36 .2.3 129) James Stephens (1882-1950).1 27) Harold Monro (1879-1932) was another major modernist figure.php?id=mjp.6 298) Ernest Rhys (1859-1946) was part of the "Rhymer's Club" in London. even among literary and personal rivals. And the harsh and terrible screaming.” P 13. are to New York what Sandburg's poems are to Chicago. that it shows. Isaac Rosenberg (1890-1918)—a Jewish poet from London.” published by Monroe in the spring of 1916. He responded that one could not “expect the public to turn over piles of rubbish to find something for itself. Words do not function in this manner. That day in the slipping of torsos and straining flanks.

speaking all tongues. red dust.3) mix nostalgia and wonder. . is also experiencing a serious critical rereading.” haunts: Sing while you may. Light of My Land” and “Alma Mater: The Immigrant at Columbia” (6.110&view=mjp_object Página 32 de 36 . The “Scented Leaves” poems were published in September of 1913 (2.” mostly made-up from recollections (Carpenter 218). the long dead dust Of ancient Syria. .” is out of the larger collection Facets: Then all the air was thick With my last words that seemed to leap and quiver. . His collection From the Near East (12.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 considered him as a possible completer of Finnegans Wake. I floated once on that triumphant tide. Frank Baum (in the Emerald City of Chicago). calm. should he prove unable to finish it.2 62)” which were a series of poems translated from the Chinese. on the Syrian desert” (P 12. But stranded now among the wrecks and spars I watch the night succeed the afternoon. both critically and creatively. .5 289). often invoking it in his works. The following excerpt. who won what would later become the Pulitzer Prize for poetry. (P 6. . S.2005.6 200) Eunice Tietjens (1884-1944)—the writer. Early in life. Like Pound's "translations.brown. (P 3. Like Yeats. shows the strength of poetry to push across cultural and geographic borders: From the red. (P 14. She killed herself in 1933. She wrote often. . from “Parting After a Quarrel. poet. She offered a perspective about female experiences that was unmatched in much of her contemporaries' work. The day and thee and miserable me Dark wings shall cover up and hide away Where no song stirs of bird or memory: Sing while you may. just a year after Lindsay's own suicide.5) and his poems “I Sing of My Life while I Live It: The Syrian Lover in Exile Remembers Thee. (P 8. Gathered from all ages of time— Meet like pilgrims at one shrine. Her work seems simple. “Alma Mater. with gloried brow— Flame before the open portals of the House of Books. “Debt. . (P 4.” an earlier work. She was the widow of Paul Tietjens. And in my heart I heard the little click Of a door that closes—quietly. wrote the philosophical work The New Word. shows her sharpness: What do I owe to you Who loved me deep and long? You never gave my spirit wings Nor gave my heart a song. Who loved me not at all. And bide my sleep beneath the ancient stars. Her collection Memories (14.5 244) Allen Upward (1863-1926). Pound convinced him to publish his work in Poetry. and one-time war correspondent— became an associate editor at Poetry. all beside Is passion's lightning or affection's moon. Eliot or Ezra Pound. Much of his work. O bird upon the tree! . and found herself leaning more toward Carl Sandburg's aesthetic than that of T. But oh. It jibed well with what would quickly become Pound's fascination with Ernest Fenollosa.lib. I owe the little open gate That led through heaven's wall. Where the thoughts of noble men— Dressed in all habits.” about his time at Columbia University. [b]orn . to him I loved.5 194) "Ajan Syrian" (1887-?)—named initially with the quotation marks and later without them—is described by Monroe as “a rug-dealer in New York. but that may be misleading.3 110-11) Sara Teasdale (1884-1933). . a lawyer and judge." though. To see thy laureled head— Massive.6) shows her range as a poet. who wrote the musical score for The Wizard of Oz and co-produced the musical with L. forever. Upward's were what we might call “loose. .00. The following sestet is from Upward's sonnet “Finis”: There is no love but first love. He wrote regularly for the New Age and published widely. .6). Ezra Pound became a big admirer when he came across Upward's “Scented Leaves—from a Chinese Jar. Stephens was a collector of Celtic mythology. she had been close to Vachel Lindsay who had proposed to her.php?id=mjp. like “Dark Wings. . . I come .

3 115) Elinor Wylie (1885-1928). his renderings were more faithful than those of Upward or Pound. but she often contributed essays and reviews—all of which are worth considering.3 142) Edith Wyatt (1894-1968) was a poet. Benét.2005. but the one beyond.” is characteristic of his terse verse lines: Roads lie in dust— White. “On Finding a Hairpin in a Disused Well. Although he took his own liberties with the texts.lib.” like much of his other early work. was a friend of Edmund Wilson. Emily Dickinson was “a prophet of unspeakable doom. . plays upon poetic tradition and the expectations of the sonnet form as much as it plays upon the anticipations of the reader. Till one of her golden pins fell out And there in the well it has lain ever since. etc. She is one of my favorites too.2 77) (Arthur) Yvor Winters (1900-1968) was a poet. and her neighbor as if he were God” (279). W. for example. that they fly around at night and hang there in the day-time. She was critically acclaimed during her time and died young. and one-time assistant editor of Poetry. novelist. celebrates the range of sounds Wheelock admired in others: Behold the tormented and the fallen angel Wandering disconsolate the world along. To storm heaven's iron gates with angry longing. A terrible woman. and the selection in 20. buoy— And our mortal ways in wonder hail creation's unknown deep— "Siren ship! Silver ship! Sister ship. many-chorded. by which the willow stands. Emerson was “a sentimental philosopher with a genius for a sudden twisted hardness of words” (P 19. . Confucius. “City Whistles” was officially dedicated to Monroe. novelist and poet. Lola Ridge that palms do not grow on mesas. etc.110&view=mjp_object Página 33 de 36 . and critic. Sinclair Lewis. And she looked at herself in the well-water. friends with many in the Bloomsbury circle. who annihilated God as if He were her neighbor. And beat back homeward in a shower of song! (P 7. “W . Laughing and laughing at her own beauty.6) takes issue with petty critics who would.” (P 14. Her poems weren't published as often as those of other members of the Poetry office. and Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching (The Way and Its Power). she was a big influence on James Merrill and one of his favorites. .php?id=mjp. for instance. He won the Bollingen Prize in 1961. but it could be read as a dedication to the city of Chicago as well: Down the midland mists at twilight. Issue 14.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Arthur Waley (1889-1966). “Beethoven. And summer comes. also translated Chinese from “The Far Voice. takes issue with expired poetic licenses. He was born on Long Island. have you heard their singing sweep. The following quote. R.6 of Poetry contains Winters's Monodies. He translated the great poet Li Bai [Li Po]. some remembered wrong. say Helen Hoyt. literary critic.4): Once a girl was gathering flowers.” for example.5 278). pick out and excoriate Shakespeare for his mixed metaphors. . Wheelock won the Bollingen Prize in 1962. who served on the advisory board of Poetry during its early years. His literary criticism was influential and controversial: R..6 346).00. Her poem “Atavism.6 gives us glimpses of Winters's seasons. .brown. A formalist poet who never took form for granted. That seeks to atone with inconsolable anguish For some old grievance. bright shallows. (P 17. His “crying need for a Poets' Handbook of Science. and John Dos Passos. She was an admirer of Percy Bysshe Shelley. And he liked Dickinson! Winters's criticism was often leveled at modes of unreason. Long she looked and couldn't stop.” and “a spinster who may have written her poems to keep time with her broom. The person who wore it is dead and gone.” a sixth-century poem of T'ang Seng-ch'i. Her essay “Poetry and Criticism” (4. was included with Waley's collection Chinese Poems (11. should be informed that bats do not hang in barns at night. that jaguars do not inhabit deserts. Where laughing boys catch alewives in their hands In brown. when the frost makes all the birches burn http://dl. and her biography interestingly runs close to his. His book reviews started appearing in the journal in 1922. but it still takes us by surprise: I always was afraid of Somes's Pond: Not the little pond. curling far away. and he attended Harvard University where he befriended the soon-to-be literary critic Van Wyck Brooks.” published in 1921. The sonnet's turn comes when we expect it.4 198) John Hall Wheelock's (1886-1978) musically-oriented poetry was a favorite of Monroe. ahoy!" (P 9. There. New York. What was the use of the thing lasting? (P 11. Where their far-toned voices. .

and William Carlos Williams spent time together as undergraduates in Pennsylvania. It represents self-sacrifice.2005. nothing to do with format ” (Pound 689). in contrast. The Modernist Journals Project (MJP) has been acting as a similar sentry for modernism. will end by freeing American literature. “the poem like the wild pigeon would have remained among us no more than an official memory” (qtd. we know that isn't quite the case. why? Despite the rivalries and constant bickering among the editors. who ended up having an affair with Pound's mother-in-law (Olivia Shakespear). “Without Poetry. that Ezra Pound. The Liberator. but also to preserve the legacy of what poetry meant a hundred years ago. . “Success to them all!” Monroe wrote in “Our Contemporaries”: It is the little magazines which should be encouraged and subscribed for. . who has published nothing hitherto in this country.1 21) VI. not as the 20th-century version of the split lyric self. ended by freeing the slaves. It means acknowledging the fundamental happenstances of modernist culture. was a testament to how important Monroe's journal had become in the cultural world of America. Teaching modernism means teaching the complexity of the moments of a historical culture. when looking to find Eliot. or even that Pound's mother-in-law's cousin (Lionel Johnson of the "Rhymers' Club") had a friend named Yeats. how.6 317) http://dl. “well known to our readers. To these wonderful ideas. but as a work embedded “in the literary and social discourses. and poetics. obviously. . been written in such magazines” (702).” First billing was given to the exotic free verse landscapes of the Syrian-born immigrant. as part of the larger dialogue of modernity”: Indeed. While it is tempting to say that the staggeringly large endowment was a testament to how important poetry had become in the century after Monroe first published her journal. exactly. The great magazines are mostly engaged in the same game—that of getting a million readers. Eliot's “Prufrock” first appeared to the public—not as the great modernist poem of existential grief.lib. D. and Skipwith Cannell—poets who were. Writers reacted to other writers who were already. did William Carlos Williams write to Harriet Monroe to try to get her to reconsider not not-publishing Alfred Kreymborg's and Maxwell Bodenheim's poems. Ajan Syrian. POETRY or one of these others. and the pale sky shines Like a polished shell between black spruce and pines.” William Carlos Williams wrote. it had everything to do with format. What Pound didn't understand was that. political debates. not unlike today. The teaching section of the MJP offers wonderful suggestions on how to work with the archive. “[t]he personalities of editors”—importantly female ones—“like those of the writers and artists who opened the doors of experimentation. beginning in a dream. and poets of the various journals.” and reviews of Edgar Lee Masters's Spoon River Anthology and Some Imagist Poems—An Anthology. But it is not only about getting lost within periodicals.110&view=mjp_object Página 34 de 36 . why.php?id=mjp. At the heart of the MJP is the belief that a greater understanding of literary history depends upon examining how it was mediated by its periodical forms. however. and William Griffith. beginning in a garret. As the MJP reveals. "Dryad" (H. Alfred Prufrock” was first published in the June 1915 Poetry. was introduced as “a young American poet resident in England. Closing In 2003. I would add a prompt on how to get productively lost in the web of modernism. Poetry magazine received a $100 million grant from Ruth Lilly. Eliot's poem appears last. say.). It is about getting lost across them.brown. according to the editors. as Jayne Marek writes. Ezra Pound recognized that the “history of contemporary letters has. hoping not only to continue to promote poetry. enmeshed in a web of personalities. the hopes of one journal always rested on the shoulders of the other. alongside poems by Bliss Carman. it means seeing that. the “significance of the small magazine has. Suzanne W. Modernism was—is—dynamic. (P 6. however. where. Such an awareness is still critical for our contemporary cultures. Arthur Davison Ficke. and it might shed some light on the aesthetic conventions and innovations we take for granted today. and what did this all have to do with one of Alice Corbin Henderson's snarky reviews? This is not only about recognizing some intriguing coincidences. in Whittemore 8). for example. just as importantly. and a prose section that included a eulogy for Rupert Brooke. heiress to the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly. subscribers. we can get as lost as Prufrock. “The Love Song of J. along with a promise that more was to come. . (5) Churchill and McKible show how. and. What was happening in Masters's Anthology? What was being included in Some Imagist Poems . turning where we turn. courage. as I wrote earlier. T. But each magazine represents someone's enthusiasm for a cause or an art. politics. The shock of the news shows that poetry still isn't what most people think of when giving away $100 million dollars. Too often we focus on the events of history rather than the moments that make such events possible.00.” Eliot. and if poets were getting published often depended upon quid-pro-quos and settling old scores. it means getting enmeshed in the very same web of culture. a “symbol of the waste of war. The news. For Pound. (P 18.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Yellow as cow-lilies. Churchill and Adam McKible remind us how. or that Pound and Yeats were tramping about together at Thoor Ballylee in 1914 and 1915. became central to the dynamics of modernist publishing” (Women 3). Why. Some strange thing tracks us. and historical events of the day . Georgia Wood Pangbom. some vital principle. to a very manifest extent. tucked between a selection of conventional rhymed lyrics by Dorothy Dudley.

. eds. Joy. In the letter. celebrating the young and the new. and major authors have been published in magazines both little and big” (519). 7. She is lonely and exceedingly unattractive. 4 (Summer 2008): 71-85. D[oolittle]. 1935.” dreaming large was never off the mark (94). Lawrence of September 16. 9.” PMLA 121:2 (March 2005): 517http://dl. Endnotes 1. 370. 2007. . 55-58). 1988. They continue: “The rise of cultural studies enables us to see this distinction [between art and economics] as artificial. . 12. Latham. John Gould Fletcher. As can be seen in Pound's letter to Henderson: “I have just written a violent epistle to Miss Monroe. and the like). As Rebecca Beasley writes: “In 1912 Pound visited an exhibition of Whistler's paintings at the Tate Gallery. Ed. . she too often goes out of the way to excuse Lowell's inexcusable behavior. “Lowell was a defender of Monroe for other modernists. careless. and even this informal salute. It is frightfully ” (5/20/1915. vol. in Scott 150-51n). 6. profound” (702). on the wrong side of middle age. soon found himself carried away into heights which his muse had never before explored. welcoming experimental forms and outsider subject positions. and defining itself in antagonistic opposition to an anti-modern national tradition. . in Timothy Newcomb's words. . ProQuest. Amy Lowell: A Chronicle. little magazines have also made an appearance. 5. . “Mr. 1922: “If you stay in Sante Fé. Do tell me when she gets really tired of my tirades” (December 1912/January 1913.6 199). Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1963) 6 Oct. Suzanne W. .2005. for example. publication genre. 1913). not in sequence of a metronome” (P 1. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. .php?id=mjp. Aldershot: Ashgate.” (May 1. font. Grant. B. He is “huge. 1988. Letters.110&view=mjp_object Página 35 de 36 . H. 31.' whether subjective or objective”. “Dear Harriet. She reads. . and he sent editor Harriet Monroe his poem . 10. 18 Aug. A Serious Character: The Life of Ezra Pound. qtd. Humphrey. Lucas Carpenter. Eds. 3. surrounding texts.” The Journal of Modern Literature. may not be out of place at the threshold of what I hope is an endeavor to carry into our American poetry the same sort of life and intensity which he infused into modern painting'” (“Ezra Pound's Whistler” American Literature 74. and when it gets us I think it should fill in with people whom I can take seriously” (letter of 10/14/13. drastic as it is. she criticized Richard Aldington for harshly rejecting a set of Monroe's own poems. . on the sins of American poetasters. . Lowell's letter to Aldington as “defend[ing]” Monroe. MA: Riverside Press. the quotation is from Paige. Her one consolation in life is to believe herself talented. qtd. . Pound suggested to Alice Corbin Henderson that Poetry should have “All the Yeats and all the me it can get. 2. Sean and Robert Scholes. see her letter to D. Or. Gerber. in Damon 621). ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849 . “In the realm of editorial theory. Berkeley: U of California P.1986). Cambridge. illustrations. with hardly enough money to live upon. commenting: 'I count him our only great artist. Works Cited Carpenter. AR: U of Arkansas P. art.lib. . Philip L. his escape from classic and historic subjects made him an epic poet of the formative period in the region where he was born” (FVMA 7012). in Nadel 8). The Autobiography of John Gould Fletcher. . Fayetteville. Alice Henderson and Witter Bynner—how they hate me!” (qtd. H[ilda]. typography in general. Lowell describes Monroe as “a poor woman. Editorial scholars such as Jerome McGann and George Bornstein have distinguished 'linguistic code' (words) from 'bibliographic code' (layout. . Damon. Foster. . Yeats. Or Southampton. Dear Amy. “The Rise of Periodical Studies. End to Torment: A Memoir of Ezra Pound. 2) “To use absolutely no word that did not contribute to the presentation”. wrote a poem about the exhibition . and Adam McKible. Norman Holmes Pearson and Michael King. (With humble apologies): “The Brawling of a Sparrow in the Eaves: Vision and Revision in W. Little Magazines and Modernism: New Approaches. and 3) “As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase. New York: New Directions 1979.brown. since high literature. 1912). Churchill. Scott writes. Not surprisingly. no. 2009.”Journal of Modern Literature 5:2 (April 1976): 233-42. 1912. 8. you will be right in the nest of my enemies. and advertising have mingled in periodicals from the earliest years. Fletcher. 10: August 18. Ezra Pound and Poetry. While Scott's critique of the patriarchy overshadowing modernist studies is indispensable. 1967. .Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 Perhaps Monroe was overstating her case. 499. Monroe writes: Masters “started with a modern theme and a new method. 11.3 (2002). She should be credited for bolstering this important journal and influencing its generous treatment of rhythm and cadence” (139). Web.00. S. little magazines have proved to be richly significant sites for exploring how bibliographic code works in modernism” ("Preface" in Churchill and McKible xvi). Mark Morrisson writes. Nadel. “pioneered the rhetorical self-fashioning of the modern American avant-garde. perhaps not. 4. . The new manifesto called for: 1) “Direct treatment of the 'thing. But for one who.

a Magazine of Verse. The Letters of Ezra Pound 1907-1941. New Edition. Mitgang. Paige. Stevens. Poets & Their Art. Pound's “Small Magazines” is also available through the essays page on the MJP website.00. Harriet Monroe and the Poetry Renaissance: The First Ten Years of Poetry.. Abbreviated as "FVMA" in the body of the essay. 1994. New York: McGraw-Hill. Penelope. ___. George S. Women Editing Modernism: "Little" Magazines & Literary History. New York: Macmillan. Oxford: Oxford UP. The Letters of Carl Sandburg. Pound. Austin: U of Texas P. Ed. Urbana: U of Illinois P. “Ezra Pound. Moody. 115-31. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P. John C. and The Dial: A Story in Letters. “Vachel Lindsay is Lying Low. Schulze. 1938. A Poet's Life: Seventy Years in Changing World. Lawrance. Joseph. Ira ed. 1970. 216-35. Rinehart and Winston. Lensing. 1981. Thirlwall.” College English 12:3 (Fall 1985): 233-45. Volume I: The Young Genius 1885-1920. Large Ones. Harriet Monroe. Wallace Stevens: A Poet’s Growth. Marek. Sutton. Monroe. Pound. and Poetry's Early Years. Founder of Modern Periodical Studies.” Illinois Writers Review 7:2 (Winter 1988): 16-22.. National Identity. Paul. Reed. Parisi. “Poetry's Opening Door: Harriet Monroe and American Modernism” in Churchill and McKible. ed. Scholes. ___. eds. “Form Follows Function: The Construction of Harriet Monroe and Poetry: A Magazine of Verse” in A Living of Words: American Women in Print Culture. Noel.” Legacy 21:1 (2004): 50-67. David. ed. 83-103. 2004. “Amy Lowell's Letters in the Network of Modernism” in Munich and Bradshaw. KY: UP of Kentucky. 1991. Newcomb. Abbreviated as "APL" in the body of the essay. Bonnie Kime.” Journal of American Studies 20:1 (1986): 51-69. Stock. John Timberman.php?id=mjp. New York: Macmillan. New York: Harcourt. Ellen. 213-25. 1-25. William Carlos Williams. Munich. American Modern. New York: Random House.” The English Journal 19:9 (November 1930): 689-704. Abbreviated as "EW" in the body of the essay. 136-53. Little Magazines. 1963. D. Lexington. A. The Letters of Ezra Pound to Alice Corbin Henderson. Ann. The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams. New York: McDowell. “Harriet Monroe's Pioneer Modernism: Nature. 1995.Modernist Journals Project 13/08/13 13:23 31. 1951. 1968. 1977. 1996. Herbert. Thompson. ___. 1951. “The Care and Funding of Pegasus” in The Little Magazine in America: A Modern Documentary History. Abbreviated as "P&TA" in the body of the essay.110&view=mjp_object Página 36 de 36 . 1993. ___. New York: Pantheon. Robin G. 1966. Jayne. Williams. 1932. Niven. John Chapman. 2010. Obolensky. Mariani. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P. FL: UP of Florida. 2007. Adrienne and Melissa Bradshaw. D. Brace & World. Yonkers: TriQuarterly/Pushcart. Ward. Robert Frost: The Early Years 1874-1915. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Abbreviated as "Columbian" in the body of the essay. 1995. Susan Albertine.lib. ___. “The Free-Verse Movement in America. Scott. Watson. Harriet. Carl Sandburg: A Biography. Williams. Gainesville. and Those In-Between” in Churchill and McKible. Inc. Letters of Wallace Stevens. Elliott Anderson and Mary Kinzie. Eds. 1986. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP.. Nadel. Ezra Pound: Poet. and Poetry. The Selected Letters of William Carlos Williams. Yale UP. 1957. 1912-22. 1978. London: Faber and Faber. New York: Holt.” In Robert Scholes and Clifford Wulfman's Modernism in the Magazines: an Introduction. Thayer. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. The Life of Ezra Pound.. 1948. “'The Columbian Ode' and Poetry: A Magazine of Verse: Harriet Monroe‟s Entrepreneurial Triumphs. ed. “Small Magazines. Massa. http://dl. Berkeley: U of California P. Holly.2005. Walter.” English Journal 13:10 (December 1924): 691-705. “Alice Corbin Henderson.brown. William Carlos. Whittemore. Ezra. ed. “Afterword: Small Magazines. Robert. Amy Lowell.

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