English majors, year II

Lecture 6 Pronouns
Most pronouns replace full noun phrases, and can be seen as economy devices. Personal and demonstrative pronouns, for example, serve as pointers to the neighbouring text (usually preceding text) or to the speech situation. Other pronouns have very general reference, or can be used for substitution or ellipsis. In this section, we survey the major pronoun classes: personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns. Pronouns have a very different pattern of use from nouns.

1 Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns have different forms according to • number: singular, plural (e.g. / vs. we) • person: first person, second person, third person (e.g . I vs. you vs. she) • case: nominative, accusative, possessive (e.g. I vs. me vs. mine) • gender: masculine, feminine, neuter (e.g. he vs. she vs. it). Personal pronouns and corresponding possessive and reflexive forms
person personal pronoun
nominative 1st singular plural 2 singular plural 3rd singular
nd

possessive
determiner pronoun

reflexive pron.

accusative

I we you you he she it they

me us you you him her it them

my our your your his her its their

mine ours yours yours his hers theirs

myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves

plural

A Case forms of pronouns The form of the personal pronoun varies according to case. Nominative personal pronouns like I, he, she are used for the subject of a clause, whereas accusative personal pronouns like me, him, and them are used for other positions in the clause, such as object. The possessive determiners (e.g. my, her) and possessive pronouns (e.g. mine, hers) are in effect the genitive case forms of personal pronouns. Anca Cehan 1

A First person: we While the singular pronoun I is unambiguous in referring to the speaker. second. The three persons ( f i r s t . he. things. and us generally refer to people. etc.B Person forms in pronouns In spite of their name. 1. I + my family): Nancy. <personal reference > 2 Those are great pictures. him. However. third) are generally used as follows: • First-person pronouns refer to the speaker/writer.and third-person categories are clear enough and apply to the vast majority of personal pronoun uses. second. we. because they is the plural of he.’ We Americans are spoilt. It can also be exclusive . to the speech situation. there are some problems and special cases. • Third-person pronouns refer to other people or entities. we love you. personal pronouns may have both personal and non personal reference. while it has non-personal reference. including the addressee(s) (I + you): What game should we play?. The plural pronouns they. The speaker can make the reference more explicit by adding other words to we: We all believe in h i m . theirs can have both personal and non-personal reference. ' said the 18-year-old chairwoman. me. which are neither the speaker/writer nor the addressee. excluding the addressee(s) but including other people (e. the plural pronoun we/ us/ ours can vary according to context. Another more explicit method is to use I/ we in coordination with another pronoun or proper noun: We’ve got a bond in common. Anca Cehan 2 . • Second-person pronouns refer to the addressee(s ) . her. aren’t they? Did you see them? <nonpersonal reference> Person in pronouns actually relates people. you.g. she.1 Person and pronoun usage The above definitions of the first-. she and it: 1 You hear about guys beating up women and stuff and yet they love them much.' he said. them. /. We can be inclusive. you and I.

Notice that w e in these examples is used as a subject. Anca Cehan 3 . we refers to people in general. We are now able to understand why our information about the states of motion is so restricted in quantum mechanics. In 2. When we start talking we often cease to listen. which refers to the author(s) of the text. so the readers must decide the intended meaning in each case. All these meaning differences are usually implicit. it is left to the addressee to decide the reference of we from the situation. and is three times more frequent in American English conversation than in B r i t i s h E n g l i s h c o n v e r s a t i o n : t h i s form ( a l s o transcribed y’all) is especially a feature of southern American English. ‘editorial we’ is used. we refers to the author(s) and reader(s). Two uses of we can be distinguished: 1 We spoke of special chalk.Well. we here is similar to the generic pronoun one. assuming a common understanding shared by both. In a very different way. since you can be either singular or plural. However. the meaning of we can also vary in academic writing. it was late. but is reinforced by a loosely attached coordinated phrase. it is not always clear whether it refers to one person or more than one. A third use of we is obsolete and associated to the royals: 3. In 1. in general. 2. we’d been to a game. and me and my friend Bob. B Second person: you You is similar to we in inviting different interpretations. (Queen Victoria) 4. In 4. As with we the plural use can sometimes be specified by a following nominal expression: And what did you all talk about? You two are being over optimistic Are you guys serious? You all is particularly common. This use sometimes occurs even when there is only one author. We are not interested in the possibilities of defeat. For example.

You've got to be a bit careful when you ’re renting out though. it occurs rather infrequently in formal speech or in writing. as in 2. including the speaker's. These generic pronouns tend to retain a trace of their basic meaning as first-. as they say. choice of t h i s generic pronoun appeals to common human experience. Ross duly' appeared in a multi-million pound advertising campaign and the rest. she. You is typical of spoken English. i. and they can all be used to refer to people in general: We cannot nibble at quantum theory. Thus we is typical of written style. < distance> Empty it also appears in special clause types (extraposition and clefting). She designs a lot of clothes for Lord Browning. They. If we are to digest it properly it must be swallowed whole. which does not have a specific reference.e. 2 On his arrival in Hobart. is history. can be roughly glossed 'people. where the antecedent precedes the pronoun. and places the focus on shared human experience or knowledge. also common in speech. Third-person pronouns are usually anaphoric as in 1. second-. but has the role of 'place filler'. 1. Bond told journalists he was not finished yet. we underline the antecedent . not you or me'. Anca Cehan 4 . Mr. for a pronoun to go before its antecedent (cataphoric use).C Third person: it. you. he.2 Generic use of personal pronouns The personal pronouns we. <weather> It is eight o'clock in the morning. Her best friend is Princess Margaret. In the following examples. they Generally third-person pronouns are important in making referential links in a text or a conversation. or third-person pronouns. A fourth pronoun capable of expressing the meaning 'people in general’ is the generic pronoun one. She’s a designer. It also acts as a dummy pronoun . particularly as an empty subject: It’s cold. the noun phrase a pronoun refers back to: 1 My cousin works at Jons’. <time> It's a long way from here to there. inviting empathy from the hearer. But it is also possible. One can have too much of a good thing. she’s very famous.

without being integrated into a clause.) Anca Cehan 5 .4 Some oddities of pronoun use Certain inanimate objects are sometimes referred to with a feminine pronoun form. cars. they—them. hurricanes. The use of these forms is generally straightforward: the nominative is used as subject. The accusative form (me) predominates as in 3. There is a tendency for the accusative form to spread in popular usage into contexts traditionally reserved for the nominative form: A Variation in pronoun choice after forms of be A: Who’s there? B: It is I. which now are given alternative masculine and feminine names and referred to as he or she as appropriate. 1. he—him. and the accusative as object or complement of a preposition. countries.3 Case: nominative vs.g./ It’s me. accusative personal pronouns Most of the personal pronouns have a distinction between nominative and accusative case forms: I—me. In some positions. she—her. (Note that once an animal or anything else has been given a gender-marked proper name. we’ve been to a game. in both conversation and the written registers.g. and until recently. there is variation. C Stand-alone noun phrases Where a noun phrase stands on i t s own. This has been true for ships. the appropriate feminine or masculine pronoun tends to be used. the accusative form (e. B Variation in pronoun choice after as and than We find more or less the same pattern after as and then in comparative constructions: 3 She's as bad as me and you! 4 You are closer to death than I . especially in conversation. we—us. Me and my friend Bob. however. although the use of it is more common today. the accusative forms are again commonly used: A: W ho told him? B: Me. Although the nominative form (e. I) is the historically older and formally prescriptive form and traditionally considered correct after the copula be. me) is the normal choice in practice.1.

2 Possessive pronouns The possessive pronouns (mine. When a person first arrives in a new country. his. which would be expected in a complete sentence or in a partially reduced sentence with a verb form. he or she has many adjustments to make. As mentioned previously.) are like possessive determiners. (use of plural) In verbless or elliptical utterances. he’s a fool. the object pronoun sometimes replaces the subject form. These forms are becoming colloquially acceptable.The controversy continues as to whether or not it is sexist (or discriminatory) to use the third person singular masculine form when one intends to include both the meaning of he and she. Who received the letter? I received the letter. personal pronouns functioning as subject noun predicates used to take the subject form in formal English: It is I. and in informal English. This is she. That’s her. in full sentences with the copula be. stylistic alternatives are possible and often preferred. except that they constitute a whole noun phrase. For now. ?Between you and I. / I did. yours. However. the desire to use formal English and be “correct” may lead some native speakers to use I even as a conjoined direct object or a conjoined object of a preposition. the object form of the pronoun is definitely preferred: It’s me. / Me. as in When a person first arrives in a new country. As some people find such references offensive. (use of “he or she”) When people first arrive in a new country. ?This concerns only you and I. this controversy will have to be resolved by each individual. ?The article was written by Nancy and I. they have many adjustments to make. and they are occurring with everincreasing frequency even though they are prescriptively incorrect. etc. This usage is now changing even in formal English. he has many adjustments to make. (The antecedent is underlined in the examples below:) Anca Cehan 6 .

2 Writers have produced extraordinary work in conditions more oppressive than mine. and in fact you has two reflexive forms: yourself (singular) and yourselves ( p l u r a l ) : Personal: Reflexive: I we you yourself/-selves he she it they themselves myself ourselves himself herself itself The third person masculine singular reflexive pronoun himself. *Hisself and *theirselves also occur in some nonstandard dialects of English. the third person plural reflexive pronoun themselves. mine. means 'my conditions'. and everybody makes their own. (object) Possessive pronouns are typically used when the head noun can be found in the preceding context: thus in 1. <makes their own wine> The possessive form with own typically refers back to the subject of the clause (like reflexive pronouns). Anca Cehan 7 . a possessive determiner precedes own: We have a wine tasting. Consequently they are far more common in conversation than in the written registers. The possessive pronouns replace an entire noun phrase and can function as subjects or objects: A: Hal has an excellent word processing program. 3 Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns end with –self in the singular and -selves in the plural. hers means 'her house’ and in 2. Possessive pronouns depend a great deal on context for t h e i r interpretation.1 The house will be hers when they are properly divorced. formal third person pronoun oneself are formed differently from the others in that they contain the object form (Accusative) of the personal pronoun + self/ selves. Each personal pronoun has a corresponding reflexive pronoun. To make the possessive noun phrase emphatic. Here the possessive pronoun is parallel to the e l l i p t i c use of t h e genitive. B: Really? Mine has more options. (subject) A: Do you like Joe’s new car? B: I prefer yours. and the neutral. whereas the others consist of the possessive determiner + self/ selves.

The reflexive pronoun has to be used if coreference is intended. Mr. This word order is preferred in conversation: 3 I’lI do the preparation myself.3.1 Reflexive pronouns in their reflexive use The most common use of reflexive pronouns is in their basic 'reflexive' role: to mark some other element of the clause as referring back to the subject (underlined below. The reflexive pronoun most commonly f i l l s an object slot ( a s in 1) or a prepositional complement slot ( a s in 2) in the same clause as the co-referential subject (signaled here by underlining). 2 We're all looking very sorry for ourselves. Reflexive pronouns are used l i k e t h i s only when there is a co-referential subject in the same clause. such uses of reflexives are a form of asystematic variation. immediately following the emphasized noun phrase (underlined): 1 Unfortunately I myself did not have this chance. 3. (= you) The text was first copyedited by my mother and myself. and therefore him is used instead of himself: 3 He wanted [his big brother to treat him as an equal]. in 3. Pappas. and myself have spent hundreds of hours. there is another variant of this construction. if them were used instead of themselves in 1 (consultants are selling them) the meaning would be different: that consultants were selling some other products. that his big brother not he. is the subject of the non-finite clause. . The reflexive pronoun is separated from i t s noun phrase. 3. With subject noun phrases. (= me) From a syntactic view. as in 1. . and placed later in the clause. For example. Notice. (= me) Mr.3 An asystematic use of the reflexive pronouns The reflexive pronoun seems to be alternating with subject and object pronouns in ways that are not semantically reflexive. Dennison. What about yourself? (= you) We expected yourself to take the lead. (= I) On behalf of myself and Delta Airlines.2 Emphatic use of reflexive pronouns A reflexive pronoun can be used for emphasis. 2 This explains why the representation of the totem is more sacred than the totemic object itself.): 1 Most consultants are just selling themselves. . They may at times reflect the speaker’s or the writer’s insecurity over whether Anca Cehan 8 .

to use the subject or object pronoun or a reflexive pronoun. . . For one another. Another factor in the use of reciprocal pronouns appears to be the animacy . is dependent on the number of participants involved: each other should be used with two participants and one another with more than two: Bob and George dislike each other. The three sisters are devoted to one another. They refer back to the subject of the clause. They got along. speakerlistener role that everyone is experiencing: I’d like to remind ourselves. dual. and occur as object or prepositional complement: We always speak Romanian to each other. Quirk et al. whereas each other appears to occur freely in both speech and writing. Amundson (1994) noted that the written mode seems more amenable to the use of one another than the spoken mode. These may also be instances where a first-person narrator is interacting with several other people and uses “ourselves” instead of “us” to capture the interactive.or even humanness . The American Heritage Dictionary (1992) states that one another is preferred over each other in temporally ordered series of events or things: The waiters followed one another into the room. whereas participants can be inanimate in the case of each other: These sentences have nothing to do with each other.g. A and B hate each other means A hates B and B hates A. For these forms the subject must be conjoined or plural: Bob and Dick can’t stand each other. Prescriptive tradition and some current grammar books state that the rule for distinguishing the two reciprocal pronoun phrases. 4 Reciprocal pronouns The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another are similar in use to reflexive pronouns. The five children in that family helped one another throughout their lives. each other and one another. Reciprocal pronouns express a mutual relation between two or more parties: e. Each other is far more common than one another. they admired one another. or their desire to use a phonetically more salient form in juxtaposition with one or more proper names.of the referents. (1985) reject this rule and offer an explanation based on register rather than number: each other is informal. and one another is used in more formal contexts. all subject participants tend to be animate or human. Anca Cehan 9 .

demonstrative pronouns are usually pronounced with stress and so carry greater communicative weight. and those act as demonstrative determiners. It was just incredible. For example: Anca Cehan 10 . on the other hand. these) and 'distant’ reference ( that. these. But unlike the pronoun it . Like demonstrative determiners.1 The meaning and use of reflexive and reciprocal pronouns A potential cross-linguistic problem derives from the distinction English makes between plural reflexive pronouns and reciprocal pronouns. where it often has a vague reference: That's what I thought.To sum up. They also act as demonstrative pronouns. That is especially common in conversation. it seems to be used by some English speakers and writers to the exclusion of one another. those). those). in fact. which match the determiners in their meaning and function: That was by far my favourite ride. mom? B : Those are called hot plates. Many languages (Romanian among them) can use virtually the same forms to refer to both the reflexive and reciprocal meaning and allow the context to disambiguate. These pronouns all refer to something in the context — either in the neighbouring part of the text or the external situation. demonstrative pronouns contrast in terms of singular (this. I should put that in a frame or something and keep it. B: Yeah. The demonstrative pronouns are much less frequent than the personal pronouns. That is the most common of the demonstrative pronouns. The children hit each other. 5 Demonstrative pronouns The four words this. Demonstrative pronouns can often be considered as alternatives to the pronoun i t . and in terms of 'near' reference (this. The children hit themselves. is most frequent in academic writing. that) and plural (these. Both this and these are used commonly for textual linkage. 4. that. This . A: What are these. A: What a neat picture. each other is clearly the more frequent and flexible reciprocal pronoun.

is when they are used in introductions: Sally introduced them. A major exception to this rule. all. 6 Indefinite pronouns There are three main classes of indefinite pronouns: the compound pronouns somebody. some. ...> This explains why cases do not come to court <. 'Danny. 6. These will inevitably be cases in which the explicit extension of the various legal conventions contains nothing decisive either way.' Similarly.>.> cannot offer useful advice to judges in hard cases. The meanings of compound pronouns match the meanings of noun phrases with the corresponding determiners.1 Demonstrative pronouns referring to humans The demonstrative pronouns are usually not used to refer to humans.. beginning with the determiners every. In contrast. except that they refer to indefinite persons or things. anyone. this is Larry. which includes several preceding sentences. though.’ Anca Cehan 11 . the pronoun this is used here to refer back to a more extensive piece of text. any. this states precisely the practical importance of conventionalism in adjudication.. This passage illustrates the two major types of linkage with demonstrative pronouns.. although the hyphenated spelling no-one also occurs. But it must now be said that. . the quantifiers some. everything. etc. The pronoun these refers back to a specific noun phrase antecedent (hard cases). and no: everyeverybody everyone everything somesomebody someone something anyanybody anyone anything nonobody no one personal reference neuter reference nothing No one is normally spelt as two words.We must accept that the positive part of conventionalism <. any. callers in a phone conversation will often identify themselves using the demonstrative pronoun this: Hi. and the pronoun one. Compare: 'He brought me some natural food. this is my friend Sarah. etc. <..1 Compound pronouns There are four groups of compound pronouns. 5.' ‘I have brought something for you from Doctor Fischer. so far from being a depressing conclusion.

The two personal forms in -body and -one have the same meaning. Nesbitt (1980: 60) reports that the “everyone. “Who should introduce the speaker?” I asked. . This town is run on fear. someone said. or their to refer back to the following singular compounds is acceptable in informal usage. Pronouns ending in -body are most common in conversation. and least common in academic writing. There was nothing in there. Anca Cehan 12 . proximate.” Compound pronouns are most common in conversation and fiction. distant. their” combination actually occurrs far more frequently than ‘the ‘sexist’ his form and the wordy his or her form.All the compound indefinite pronouns prescriptively require singular verbs. intimate. anybody / ?anyone. They gutted it and they put in all new offices and everything. Pronouns ending in -body are also more common in American English than in British English. “You don’t understand. .” he replied. did they? Has anybody brought a watch with them? Bolinger (1977) hypothesised that compounds do not occur in free variation. Thus: This present is for someone / ?somebody very dear to me. “Oh. Roth (1991) found that somebody occurrs with significant frequency in contexts that are hypothetical. Someone occurrs very frequently with verbs of communication such as say and tell: Years ago when I worked in Hollywood. on the other hand. compound pronouns have a general and often vague reference: I enjoyed not having to say anything to anybody. but somewhat different distributions. such as: Everyone / Everybody has his/ their own way of doing things. general. while pronouns in -one are preferred in the written register. He suggests that –one signals nearness in both a spatial and psychological sense and that –body signals distance. Someone. Presumably this same preference will carry over to the other indefinite pronouns and will result in their increasing acceptability in combination with plural pronouns: Somebody is driving without their lights. and where the speaker/writer expresses positive stance towards the NP. As the examples below show. them. and where the speaker/writer expresses neutral or negative stance towards the NP. Nobody had a good time. occurrs with significant frequency in contexts that are concrete. the use of a formally plural pronoun such as they. Nevertheless.

(a) little (of). one and ones can follow a determiner or semi-determiner: e.g. <i.. each (of). several of my . <i. it is success to be one. An artist cannot fail. and they can have an elliptic meaning. In this use. one is singular and has no plural form. much (of).2 Quantifying pronouns (quantifiers) Quantifiers can act both as determiners and as pronouns. any (of). oneself One is also used as a generic pronoun referring to people in general. They can even follow an adjective: the latest one. some of the steak> 6. B: I'll have some.. <i. However. both (of). B Generic one. that's all. the form of the word is identical for both. those ones. one is best seen as a replacement for a noun. another one.e.: some (of). A singular noun is replaced by one. enough (of). ones One can replace a countable noun that has been mentioned before or is inferred from the context.. the one. However. none (of). either (of). many (of).6.. few (of) For example: Bring all of your friends.e. as in some of the . 3 One does not wish to repeat oneself unduly. In general. several (of). 2 A: I'll eat some of the steak. quantifying pronouns can also stand alone as a noun phrase (e. the last one.. Anca Cehan 13 . which colours> Note that unlike other indefinite pronouns. one's. In fact. one has two uses as a pronoun: A Substitute one.g. all in 1 below). and a plural noun by ones.g.3 The pronoun one Apart from its use as a numeral. referring back to some previously mentioned noun phrase (e. rather than for a whole noun phrase. all (of). it has a possessive form one's (2) and a reflexive form oneself (3). to be an artist> You can test out the colors tonight and find which ones are best. Most quantifying pronouns are followed by of and a definite noun phrase. the second some in 2): 1 I just want to get my bonus. 2 Success and acclaim were seen as a means of validating one's existence. neither (of). 1 One doesn't raise taxes with enthusiasm.e.

CUP Leech. Longman Downing. (1989) An A – Z of English Grammar and Usage. (2002) Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. on the other hand. (1990) A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. A.. Give an example of generic we in a sentence of your own. Give an example of the exclusive use of the first person plural personal pronoun. Anca Cehan 14 . et al. Larsen-Freeman. Be self-reliant and helpful to others. or for emphasis. A University Course. What's the problem? But he's in the wrong. the latter. demonstrative. D. Leech.. and indefinite. 6.. R. What does we refer to in the sentence: ‘In this article we spoke of inert gas’. • Demonstrative pronouns point to entities which are 'near' or 'distant' in the context of discourse. G. Can personal pronouns have non-personal reference. Pullum G.. Quirk R. I underestimated you.. Nelson Quirk. Generic one. What does we refer to in the sentence: ‘As we saw in Chapter 2…’ 7. another. 7 Other pronouns There are pronoun uses corresponding to semi-determiners.. which. whom. If so. Longman Celce-Murcia. Leech G. • Reflexive pronouns are used to refer back to the subject.. Andriescu I. (1972) A Grammar of Contemporary English. 3. especially fiction and academic writing. 4. the other. they can also have generic reference. M. Greenbaum S. Conclusions • The major types of pronoun are personal. G.Substitute one is far more common in conversation than in the written registers. the last. (1999) The Grammar Book. She said: Jack. Cehan. • Personal pronouns refer to people and entities in the context of discourse. Bibliography: Biber. (2006) English Grammar. who.' he said. such. Longman Huddleston. 5. reflexive. It is largely restricted to the written registers. D. he's the one who's wrong.' 'Such was my suspicion. G. What role can play the genitive case forms of the personal pronouns? 2. related in form and meaning to quantifying determiners.. Iaşi. The wh-pronouns what. others... S. Conrad S. Heinle and Heinle Vereş. (1998) A Dictionary of English Grammar. give examples and explain. Polirom Exam questions 1.. • Indefinite pronouns are mostly quantifying words. (2002) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.. and whose are used to form interrogative and relative clauses. Svartvik J. is impersonal and rather formal in tone. R. A. For example. Give an example of the inclusive use of the first person plural personal pronoun. Routledge Greenbaum.

35. they’ve known … for years.8. What is the difference between possessive determiners and possessive pronouns? 18. 39. 45. Complete the following sentence: Help … to more cake. 19. yes. 46. Anca Cehan 15 . 13. Fill in the gap with a reciprocal pronoun: ‘I didn’t know that Max. Explain which form of the indefinite article is more appropriate in the following sentence: ‘This present is for someone/somebody very dear to me’. 16. Can own be added to both possessive determiners and pronouns for emphasis? Give examples. Illustrate the use of the quantifier some as both determiner and pronoun. Explain what is odd about the sentence: ‘Nobody had a good time. 34. Explain what is odd about the sentence: ‘Somebody is driving without their lights’. 11. Illustrate the use of these as both determiner and pronoun. Illustrate the use of the quantifier all as both determiner and pronoun. 17. 31. Explain which of these sentences is correct: ‘The great man himself visited us’ and ‘The great man visited us himself’ 27. 30. 22. 24. Can personal pronouns be used as complements of prepositions? If so. Illustrate the use of the quantifier much as both determiner and pronoun. 37. Give an example of reflexive pronoun which functions as a predicative. Explain the use of myself in the sentence: ‘On behalf of my company and myself…’ 26. Give an example of reflexive pronoun which functions as an IO. 29. 23. 33. Give an example of reflexive pronoun which functions as a DO. … needs to drink’? 15. Explain what is odd about the sentence: ‘Has anybody brought a watch with them’. Explain whether the sentence: ‘This is she is correct’. give an example in a sentence of your own. 10. 41. Illustrate the use of the quantifier both as both determiner and pronoun. give an example of your own. Illustrate the use of the quantifier neither as both determiner and pronoun. Explain which sentence is correct: ‘It’s I’ or ‘It’s me’? 12. Illustrate the use of the quantifier many as both determiner and pronoun. did they’. Explain whether the sentence: ‘The paper was written by Jane and I’ is correct. 20. 44. What pronouns can be used in the gap: ‘When a person is thirsty. give an example in a sentence of your own. Richard and Jan were friends. Translate into English: ‘Copiii s-au lovit’. Illustrate the use of the quantifier either as both determiner and pronoun. Illustrate the use of those as both determiner and pronoun. Illustrate the use of the quantifier enough as both determiner and pronoun. Can the pronoun you be followed by a nominal expression? If so. 21. What inanimate objects can be referred to with feminine pronoun forms? 14. Illustrate the use of that as both determiner and pronoun. 43. Explain the meaning difference between: She poured herself a drink and She poured her a drink. 40. Explain which sentence is correct: She’s closer to death than he or She’s closer to death than him. Give an example of reflexive pronoun used after a preposition. 32.’ ‘Oh. 36. Illustrate the use of the quantifier each as both determiner and pronoun. Illustrate the use of this as both determiner and pronoun. 9. Illustrate the use of the quantifier several as both determiner and pronoun. 42. Can the pronoun we be followed by a nominal expression? If so. 25.’ 28. 38.

Illustrate the use of the quantifier a little as both determiner and pronoun. 51. give examples.47. 53. 52. Illustrate the use of the quantifier little as both determiner and pronoun. give examples. Does the generic pronoun one have a plural form? If so. Illustrate the use of the quantifier none as both determiner and pronoun. 49. Anca Cehan 16 . Illustrate the use of the quantifier a few as both determiner and pronoun. 50. Does the indefinite pronoun one have a plural form? If so. 48. Illustrate the use of the quantifier few as both determiner and pronoun.

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