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Cheese has been defined as a product made from the curd obtained from milk by
coagulating the casein with the help of rennet or similar enzymes in the presence of
lactic acid produced by added or adventitious microorganisms, from which part of the
moisture has been removed by cutting, cooking and /or pressing, which has been
shaped in a mould, and then ripened by holding it for some time at suitable
temperature and humidity.

. Feta Cheese
•Camembert Cheese.
•Blue Cheese
•Brine Brick
•Swiss Cheese
Cheese Families:

•Family 1. Acid-coagulated Fresh Cheese

–Varieties: Cottage, Quark and Cream

•Family 2. Rennet-coagulated Fresh Cheese

–Varieties: Queso Blanco, Queso Fresco, Italian fresh cheese, Halloumi

•Family 3. Heat-Acid Precipitated Cheese

–Varieties: Ricotta (Italy), Channa and Paneer (India), some varieties of Latin
American white cheese.

•Family 4. Soft-Ripened Cheese

–Varieties: Fetta, Camembert, Brie, Blue

•Family 5. Semi-hard Washed Cheese

–Varieties: This is the largest and most diverse group of cheese including Gouda,
Edam, Colby, Brick, Montasio, Oka, Muenster and many others.

•Family 6. Hard Cheese: Low temperature

–Varieties: Cheddar types and Pasta Filata. types

•Family 7. Hard Cheese: High Temperature

–Varieties: Romano, Parmesan, Swiss

Cheddar Cheese:
•Standards: 39% moisture, 30% fat.

1. Standardize milk to P/F
–Fat content ranges from 2.0 to 7.0 %
–Total milk protein ranges from about 2.5 to 5.5 %

2. Add 1% of S. lactis and/or S. cremoris starter

3. Measure 70 ml cheese colour per 1,000 kg milk (optional). Dilute the colour with
10 volumes of water and add the mixture to the milk

4. Measure 190 ml rennet per 1,000 kg milk. Dilute the rennet with 10 volumes of
water and add the mixture to the milk.

5. Cut, using 3/8 inch (95 mm) knives when curd is firm. Agitate gently.

6. Start cooking 15 min after cutting. Increase temperature from 30C to 390C during
30 minutes. Heat slowly at first - no more than 1C every 5 min.

7. Hold at 39C until pH is 6.1 (about 75 min from the time the temperature reaches
39C or 2 h from the time of cutting).

8. When curd pH is 6.0-6.1 (whey pH 6.2-6.3) remove the whey. After the bulk of the
whey is removed stir out the curd two or three times to facilitate maximum whey

•9. Pile the curd 13-15 cm deep along the sides of the vat and allow to mat. After
about 10 min, trim the front edge and cut the curd into blocks about 25 cm wide.
10. Cut the blocks of curd into 10-13 cm (4-5 inch) strips and pass the strips through
the curd mill. Stir the cheese curds every ten min or so until the cut edges become
round and smooth (about 30 min after milling).
11. Distribute the salt uniformly over the curd and mix well. The final salt content of
the cheese should be about 1.7%.

12. After the salt is well absorbed and the flow of whey has stopped, the curd is ready
for hooping. Use 20 lb (9 kg) hoops and place 22 lb of curd in each hoop. The hoops
should be lined with plastic, single service press cloths.

13. Press overnight at 75 kPa (10 - 20 lbs/in2). Start with low pressure and gradually
increase to 75 kPa

14. Vacuum pack the cheese blocks and store at 0-16C for curing. Cold curing (5-8C)
produces the best cheese but ripening is slow. Warm cured cheese (10-16C) develops
flavour rapidly but quality control is more difficult. Raw milk cheese by law must be
"held at 2C or more for a period of 60 days or more from the date of the beginning of
the manufacturing process".

Condensed milk is a milk product obtained by evaporating part of water of whole
milk, or fully or partly skimmed milk, with or without the addition of sugar.

The term ‘condensed milk’ is commonly used when referring to full cream sweetened
condensed milk whereas the term evaporated milk is generally used while referring to
full cream unsweetened condensed skim milk.

Skimmed milk products are known as sweetened condensed skim and unsweetened
condensed skim milk respectively

Unsweetened condensed milk ( Evaporated milk)

•Contain not less than 8 % milk fat
•Contain not less than 26 % milk solids
Unsweetened condensed milk ( Evaporated milk)
• Contain not less than 8 % milk fat
• Contain not less than 26 % milk solids
Sweetened condensed milk
• Contain not less than 9 % milk fat
• Contain not less than 31 % milk solids
• Contain not less than 40% cane sugar
Unsweetened condensed skim milk ( Evaporated skim milk)
• Contain not less than 0.5% milk fat
• Contain not less than 28 % milk solids
Sweetened condensed skim milk ( Evaporated skim milk)
• Contain not less than 0.5% milk fat
• Contain not less than 26 % milk solids
• Contain not less than 40% cane sugar

Composition of condensed milk

Type ofWater Total Fat Milk Protein Lactose Ash Total Sucrose
condensed solids Solids Milk
milk Not Fat Solids
1 Condensed 26.0 74.0 9.0 22.0 8.3 12.2 1.5 31.0 43.0
2 Evaporated 31.0 69.0 9.0 22.0 8.3 12.2 1.5 31.0 --
3 Skim 29.0 71.0 0.5 25.5 9.3 14.0 2.2 26.0 45.0
The composition of unsweetened condensed skim milk has not been included in
the table shown above as it is rarely manufactured because of poor demand.

Some standard specifications for sweetened condensed milks

S.No Characteristics Standards

Condensed milk Skim sweetened
1 Total milk solids (%wt.) Min 31.0 26.0
2 Fat (% wt.) Not less than 9.0 Not more than 0.5
3 Sucrose (% wt.) Min 40 40
4 Acidity (% lactic) Max 0.35 0.35
5 Bacterial count (per g.) 500 500
6 Coliform count (per g.) -ve -ve
7 Yeast and Mould count (per g.) Max 10 10

A paper created by-

Md. Mirza Sahria Kamal

B.Sc in Food and Process Engineering
Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University
Dinajpur, Bangladesh.