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Ventilation Systems for Horse Barns Barn Ventilation Affects Horse Health Clearing the air: Reducing harmful stable odor is easy Stable Design Installation of mechanical ventilation in a horse stable: effects on air quality and human and equine airways. Horse Stables And Barns Design Installation of mechanical ventilation in a horse stable: effects on air quality and human and equine airways Windows & Ventilation Ventilate Your Horse Barn Why Ventilation Is Important For Animals Being Transported By Road Equestrian Facility Planning and Design Considerations











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Ventilation Systems for Horse Barns
Larry D. Jacobson, P.E., Professor and Extension Engineer Chuck Clanton, P.E., Professor Bioproducts & Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota Introduction Ventilation or air exchange is needed in horse barns or buildings to control and remove moisture, prevent condensation on surfaces and maintain acceptable air quality by removing carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, dust, airborne pathogens and fumes during cold weather and to remove heat and hold down excessive high temperatures preventing heat stress in warm/hot conditions. This exchange of air or ventilation can be accomplished with a natural (non-mechanical) system that is driven by buoyancy (hot air rises) and wind forces or by a mechanical ventilation system that uses electrical exhaust fans along with planned designed inlet openings. Natural Systems The simplest natural system is an open front shed, pointing to the south. This allows the horse to get in out of the wind and/or rain and snow. This is very adequate for the horse as long as they are well fed and acclimated to the current weather conditions. An enclosed naturally ventilated barn must have sidewall vents or eve openings (inlet) and ridge or roof chimney openings (outlet). Conditions inside these enclosed facilities are typically at or slightly above outsides temperatures, year round, but are generally draft-free and when combined with dry bedding can provide a comfortable environment for mature and well fed horses. The advantage of natural systems is economics, but control of airflow and air distribution is not as good. These barns should have heated water lines and tanks to prevent them from freezing during cold conditions. Mechanical Systems A mechanically ventilated barn is design for three seasonal levels: cold, mild and hot. During cold weather, minimal ventilation is needed to remove moisture generated from respiration and evaporation of spilled drinking water and urine and feces. This cold weather rate is 25 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm) per 1000 lbs of horse or about 50 cfm/horse. This cold air exchange rate is best provided by a continuously running sidewall exhaust fan. During mild weather, a second fan that delivers an additional 100 cfm/ 1000 lbs (total of 125 cfm) with an indoor temperature controller (thermostat) set at about 50 F. During warm/hot temperatures a third exhaust fan sized at an additional 200 cfm/ 1000 lbs (total of 325 cfm) needs to be added to hold down excessive temperature rises in barn with a separate (or a single two stage) temperature controller set about 60 F. A mechanically ventilated barn needs designed inlets or someplace for air to enter the building. The inlets should be sized to provide 1 sq.ft of inlet area for every 600 cfm of fan capacity and they should be evenly spaced down the length of the barn to provide good air distribution. Supplemental Heat During winter conditions, indoor temperatures may drop below acceptable levels (water lines could freeze). For these situations, a small gas-fired or electric space heater is need to maintain the minimum desired temperature. The heater should be sized at roughly 4000 BTU/hr. (gas) or 1 kW (electric) per horse. It should be noted that these space heaters are the number one cause of fires so safety precaution need to be taken.

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Insulation All housing needs to be well constructed (as air tight as possible for mechanical systems) and have insulated walls and ceiling. The insulation will keep the building cooler in the summer and prevent moisture condensation as well as keeping the building warmer in winter. For open sided and enclosed naturally ventilated barns, roof insulation with an R-value of 2 to 4 is strongly suggested to prevent condensation from forming on the underside of the roof in winter plus reduced heat load in summer. For mechanically ventilated or "warm" barns, a minimum R-value in the mid-teens (15) is needed in the walls and mid-twenties (25) in the ceiling. A vapor barrier or retarder (sheet of plastic) needs to be place on the warm side of the insulation in both the walls and ceiling to keep moisture from moving through the interior surfaces into the cavity which could deteriorate the building material. Summer Management For mechanically ventilated barns in the summer it is best to keep the barn closed up and the exhaust fans and inlets operating to limit temperature rise inside the barn. Internal circulation fans can be used to increase airflow over horses but these do not exchange air in the building like the sidewall exhaust fans and should only be used to provide additional cooling. Under some special conditions, evaporative cooling systems have been installed in horse buildings. A common option is to operate the building with mechanical ventilation during the fall, winter, spring periods; but when outside temperatures are warmer, open up the building using natural ventilation (shutting off the exhaust fan(s)). Additional information The MidWest Plan Service (MWPS) sells a Horse Facilities Handbook (2005) for $43.00 plus S&H. Information can be found at; clicking on Livestock, then horses or kunumber=MWPS60&crow=1 Detailed information can be obtained in the Penn State publication Horse Stable Ventilation at

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Barn Ventilation Affects Horse Health
By Amy DeGeer Oberdorf

Poor barn ventilation is among the leading causes of decreased performance, illness, and possibly death in today's horse population. It's also a commonly unaddressed issue for most horse owners. How does poor barn ventilation really hurt your horse's health? After all, it's common for horse barns to smell like ammonia. By discussing everything from pathogens to porches, Brad Cumper, DVM, and Lorri Hayward of Hayward Design will help you understand how your barn's polluted air can make your horse sick, and how to design your barn for proper horse barn ventilation-whether you're updating the old or building a brand new barn for your horse. "Poor barn ventilation can ultimately kill your horse," affirms Dr. Brad Cumper of Saginaw Valley Equine Clinic in Freeland, Michigan. Such a decree may sound excessive at first, but as Dr. Cumper explains, the long-term effects of poor ventilation create a wide variety of respiratory disorders, some of which are fatal under the right conditions. From the rancid smell of ammonia from degrading urine, to the build-up of dusts, molds and other pathogens from insufficient ventilation, your barn may be the reason for your horse's respiratory difficulty. Basic Physiology First, let's understand the basic physiology of a horse's respiratory defense system and how it becomes susceptible to disease. "The primary defense mechanism of the equine respiratory tract is the trapping ability of mucus," Dr. Cumper explains. "Mucus is then expelled by the cilia which line the airways of the lungs and trachea.

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composed of cells that consume infectious agents and other antigens.Billions of microscopic hairs (cilia) fan or wave mucus out of the lungs. The secondary defense mechanism is the immune system. fresh air moving in the barn to remove odors and stale air which helps keep you and your horses healthy. there can be a 1030 degree difference between the floor and the roof. as well as raised center aisle windows. which helps you breathe a little easier. etc." This is seen as a nasal discharge (or snotty nose). Barn ventilation is an important issue that is often given cursory attention. The most important factor is also the most unsophisticated. By running the fans at low speed. Proper ventilation keeps healthy. doors. Consider using ceiling fans evenly spaced throughout the walkways or breezeways. can be left all or partially open depending upon the weather.). outside air.choicebarns. airborne allergens and infectious agents. up the trachea. such as hay dust. www. Strive for cross-ventilation by having stall windows or doors. and medium to medium low in the winter to keep the warm air down off the ceiling and to improve the overall air quality. you can cut energy costs at the same time by using the heat that is generated instead of letting it dissipate at ceiling level. Many people turn fans off in the winter. So the basic physical responses can be associated with different types of pollutants. and expel the overflow of mucus which catches and contains the irritants and pathogens. This means replacing the air from inside the barn with fresh. Inc. Most often. You can achieve proper ventilation through natural means (windows. Noting that hot air rises and cool air falls. When it gets cold. It's better to put an extra blanket on your horse than to keep them in a completely closed barn. Remember to make adjustments to accommodate seasonal differences in temperature and air Page 6 . Ventilation: Keeping Your Horses Healthy It's all about the airflow! The importance of proper ventilation cannot be overstated. the basic principle is to pull fresh cool air in from below and pull hot air out from above. Closing off your barn from all inlets/outlets allows only the old stale air to recirculate." Dr. etc. constant aggravation of the respiratory tract's immune system can cause it to overreact (such as occurs with a severe allergic reaction).com 866-994-2276 qobit@yahoo. which can cause health problems for your horses. Choice Barns. "There are three categories of airborne irritants that adversely affect horses: contact irritants. mix and homogenize the air. This second arm of defense invokes an immune response-which protects the respiratory tract from infection. Breezeway doors. but in colder climates. Ceiling fans will recirculate. mechanical means (fans.) or a mixture of both. fans are run on medium high or high in the summer for more cooling effect. not only will it greatly reduce or prevent condensation from forming on the roof. moving large volumes of air vertically over the horses and throughout the entire barn resulting in a healthier. A well-ventilated barn will provide a healthy home for your horses. air ducts. However. which can cause loss of airway function and death in minutes to hours. cooler and more consistent environment all year long. resist the temptation to seal up your barn to keep your horses cozy. Cumper explains.

yours and your horse's-. That's unwise. the temptation is to keep your horse barn as airtight as possible to keep your horses cozy. The better ammonia-absorbing products effectively eliminate the odors at their source by locking up the molecules of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide -. Fortunately. Strive for cross-ventilation. Article donated by the mane points horse resource center. but dusty.when the smell becomes noticeable. that these are not tears of endearment. you'll enjoy the added benefit of lessening the fly population in the barn and adjacent areas by creating an inhospitable environment for insect egg-laying and maggot growth. The spell is broken. Ammonia poses a threat to health -. turning to the task of stall cleaning. non-toxic and non-caustic. less ammonia.Clearing the air: Reducing harmful stable odor is easy by Rebecca Colnar. there is a compelling attraction.especially ammonia smells -. Daily cleaning of stalls is a must. concentrating especially on the wet areas. One either sprays or sprinkles the ammonia-absorbing products on the stall floor. and lime dust poses difficulty for the horse's respiratory system and eyes. safety (non-toxicity).less dampness. can cause problems for mature horses and is very risky with foals. open them.thereby extending bedding life -. fresh air moving in the barn to remove odors and stale air. stale air can. When buying an ammonia-controlling product. put a window in each stall to allow for cross-ventilation. Fresh air has never hurt a horse. If you have stall windows. open them. economy and environmental compatibility.are often the least significant problem from prolonged exposure to ammonia less ammonia is released into the air. As annoying as they can be. which is caustic. in some cases. Several products on the market are natural. The substance can burn the soft part of a horse's hoof. Proper ventilation keeps healthy. tears welling in your eyes. you stride to his side. Use common sense. the smells associated with barns -. If you have a full loft. but you realize. Without loss of eye contact. "Must love entail such torment?" you ask yourself. consider your objectives -. as your nostrils are assaulted by ammonia fumes. You love your horse. As your eyes meet.make good sense. a regular maintenance program that draws on common sense with products to control odor will handle the threat. Ventilation helps horses breathe When it gets cold. hydrated lime. The trick is to have fresh air without the barn being drafty and uncomfortable. Natural desiccants that absorb water without breakdown -.or. You might also want to qobit@yahoo. If you have doors. But how you control odors does matter. Besides better smells. For example. changing the bacteria population Page 7 .

Cornell University. qobit@yahoo.consider having doors at each end of the barn that can be left all or partially open. (607) 255-7654. NY 14853. depending on the weather. Horse Handbook: Housing and Equipment offers detailed suggestions for adding ventilation. Ithaca. It's available for $7 through Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Page 8 . 152 Riley Robb Hall.

com Page 9 . mechanical can be used Natural Ventilation Air moves by one of three ways (or a combination of the three): 1.Stable Design by Susan Raymond of the Equine Research Centre. Guelph. The "stack effect" or thermal buoyancy: air movement is driven by temperature differences cooler air enters the barn through lower openings (inlets) air is then mixed with warmer air that is inside the barn (usually this air has been warmed by heat coming from the horses or by activities in the barn) warm air rises and exists the barn from higher openings (outlets) displacement of air causes more air to be drawn into the inlets 2. Ontario Ventilation The ideal ventilation system provides fresh air without drafts during all seasons distributes air uniformly will help minimise your horse's exposure to a wide range of environmental irritants if natural ventilation is not sufficient. Aspiration air is moved by the action of the wind blowing across the roof of the barn this action draws air out through any available opening qobit@yahoo. Page 10 . Perflatation wind is blown through openings in the barn air is moved from side to side or from end to end Ways to achieve a well ventilated barn in warmer weather. windows and doors are usually open permanent openings should be installed to achieve sufficient air changes when windows and doors are closed the greater the height difference between inlets and outlets the greater the ventilation rate Inlets installed along each long side of your barn hinged on the inside bottom side of the vent (will help avoid drafts) baffled vents will help prevent drafts and the entry of snow or rain place as low as possible but not at a height that could interfere with your horse should be adjustable qobit@yahoo.

damp barn with condensation problems if the barn is insulated and not properly ventilated it will be even worse condensation occurs when warm stable air hits a cold inside wall qobit@yahoo. Page 11 .Outlets continuous ridge along the peak of your roof or chimney(s) should be capped to prevent water from entering a copula on the chimney will prevent water from entering if the barn has a loft make sure that there are openings in the floor of the loft to allow air to reach the outlets at roof level or extend an insulated chimney down through the loft to the stable ceiling rule of thumb .install inlets twice the area as outlets if using a mechanical system. install an extractor fan in the base of the chimney the recommended pitch in the roof is 1:2 with a roof overhang of 2-3 ft Insulation Important for all seasons Winter conserves heat and reduces condensation Summer prevents heat of sun from heating barn Spring and Fall minimises temperature fluctuations caused by warm days and cold nights Ventilation and insulation work together during the winter ventilation is usually greatly reduced to keep the barn warm if the reduced ventilation does not remove the moisture produced by the horses the result will be a cold.

com Page 12 .6m) Stall Door Width 4 ft (1.66m) 150ft2 (14m2) 1553ft3 (44m3) Floor Area Per Horse Airspace Per Horse qobit@yahoo.4m) Stall Ceiling Height 12ft (3. insulate the roof first Heat (usually not necessary) could prove useful if your barn is still cold and damp in the winter it is better to add supplemental heat than reduce ventilation a number of infrared heaters are suitable for barns The Checklist Your Dimension Recommendation Stall Size 12 × 12ft (3.6 × 3.Installation the vents in an insulated barn can be smaller than in a non-insulated barn a vapour barrier on the inside wall will help prevent condensation within the insulation the more porous an insulating material is. the greater is its insulating power if you are limited in what you can do.2m) Stall Door Height 8ft (2.

08ft2 ( Page 13 .1m2)** 3.5% of floor area = area required for an open ridge ventilator.30°C (32 . airspace per horse: qobit@yahoo. volume of pitched roof: barn length × barn width × height of highest roof point 2 c. volume of barn: answer a + answer b d.85°F) *note: an insulated stable can have slightly smaller inlets and outlets **note: may only be suitable for smaller buildings .3m2) Inlet Area Per Horse Humidity Range 30% .may be more appropriate for medium and larger buildings: general rule of thumb: 1 to 1. volume of barn without roof: length of barn × width of barn × height of barn b.70% Temperature Range 0 .Outlet Area Per Horse* 1.23ft2 (0. How to measure your barn Floor area per horse: length of barn × width of barn # of horses Airspace per horse: If the barn has a closed loft: length of barn × width of barn × height of barn # of horses If the barn has an open pitched roof: a.

For further information please click here To access EquineCanada click here. 1996. © Equine Research Centre. Ontario.2000 qobit@yahoo.answer c # of horses Outlet area per horse: total area of all chimneys or all outlet vents # of horses Inlet area per horse: total area of all inlet vents or open windows # of horses This article was kindly contributed by the Equine Research Centre. Page 14 .

Pringle J. Uppsala. measurements of daily peak-expiratory flow (PEF). Hogstedt Page 15 . A decreased level of ultrafine particles was observed (8000-5400 particles/cm3) after the intervention. Wålinder R. Source Department of Medical Sciences. ammonia. The results on the horses may indicate less impact on their airways after the Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of installing a mechanical ventilation system at a riding-school stable on indoor air quality and human and horse airways. while total and respirable dust levels were mainly unchanged (200 and 130 µg/m3). The horses were examined clinically by airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were analysed for cytology and biomarkers. There was no significant clinical effect on human airways. Nordquist T.indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3117214 Free PMC Article qobit@yahoo. whereas airborne microorganisms and endotoxin increased. levels of exhaled nitrogen oxide (NO). 751 85. Riihimäki M. but there was a tendency for reduced inflammation markers.Installation of mechanical ventilation in a horse stable: effects on air quality and human and equine airways. Raine A. Elfman L. Bohlin S. Occupational and Environmental Medicine.walinder@medsci. PEF-variability. as demonstrated by reduced levels of CO2. horse allergen. Uppsala University Hospital. robert. CONCLUSIONS: The installation of a mechanical ventilation system resulted in an increased air exchange rate. ammonia. PMID: 21431789 [PubMed . Levels of microorganisms in surface samples decreased following the intervention. exhaled NO or inflammatory biomarkers in the nasal lavage. Sweden. The stable-workers and riding-students completed a questionnaire and underwent the following tests: analysis of nasal lavage for inflammation biomarkers. University of Uppsala. the mean score of lower airway mucus was significantly reduced together with the mean level of expression of interleukin-6 mRNA in BAL cells after the intervention. METHODS: The intervention was the installation of mechanical ventilation in a riding-school stable. There was no significant change in human symptoms. microorganisms and endotoxins were measured in the stable. Carbon dioxide (CO2). In horses. particles. ultrafine particles and horse allergen.8 kU/m3) after the intervention. RESULTS: Levels of CO2 were nearly halved and airborne horse allergen levels were markedly reduced (5-0.

• Size The stable must be big enough for the size of horse. security.Horse Stables And Barns Design From: Horse Stables And Barns Stables A stable is a building in which a horse can be housed. a top bolt will not be enough as many horses quickly figure out how to open them so the addition of a kick bolt at the bottom of the door will help to keep even the most determined escapee in there stable. Stable Walls The stable should have no sharp edges that the horse could catch itself on and allow the horse plenty of room to move around in as well as lye down. fixtures and fittings. A stable should be well built and secure offering a safe environment that will protect against the weather and from other horses and be practical to use. size. stable door and roof vents. have a emergency fire plan ready along with all the necessary fire safety equipment. muck heap and the tack room for example. lighting. The size of the door must be wide enough for the horse to easily fit through and also high enough for the horse in question. Stable Design The stable itself must provide a safe enviroment for the horse to be in. The use of kick boards around the wall are an excellent choice as they not only provide a smooth safe surface they can be placed at the height you want and are easy to clean. lye down and get up without bumping into walls. • Accessibility The doorways must be easily accessible and be wide enough for the horse to easily fit through. accessibility. • qobit@yahoo. • Ventilation Each stable must offer adequate ventilation. motion censors. There must be ample room for the horse to turn around. Access from the stable to the rest of the yard is also important when it comes to access to the feed room. lighting. • Safety In the event of a fire you must be able to remove your horse(s) from the stable area quickly and efficiently. Safety. drainage. • Security The stable must be able to be Page 16 . Care must be taken to allow the air to circulate without causing draughts. structure and positioning are all factors which must be taken into consideration. Yard security is another area that will need careful consideration. this can be achieved in a number of ways such as windows. ventilation. windows. hay barn. The ceiling height must also be high enough with the added consideration of any overhead lights being high enough not to cause any problems. flooring. padlocking gates and securely locking tack rooms can all help to deter thieves. The use of cctv.

the bed itself or for use in walkways. • Feed mangers are useful for easily distributing feeds and they can be positioned for ease of use. Stone stables are often sturdy and offer warmth in winter and stay cool in the summer. Windows in the box will also help to allow light into the box. or each stable can have a drain within the stable which then leads to the main drain. Fixtures And Fittings There are many useful fittings that will enhance the practical use of your stable such as tie rings. • Lighting Ensure that any light fittings are correctly installed and at the correct height and covered so that they cannot to be broken and that all light switches are safely covered and on the outside of the box. Each stable can have a gentle slope that leads outside to a communal drain. • Tie Rings can be used for both tying up your horse to and also tying up hay nets. a lot will depend on the area and the planning permission.• Drainage Within each stable there must be adequate drainage available. Any windows must be covered to prevent the horse from breaking them with a grille or mesh frame. • Windows The addition of windows to a stable are an excellent way of increasing light and air circulation. If possible choose a roofing product that offers extra light to be let in and that is weather resistant. this is especially important if you ever have to disinfect a isolation box for example. Ensure that they are fixed at an appropriate height for the horse to suitably and safely use them. Ensure that they are fixed at an appropriate height. therefore allowing the waste to go directly into the mains drain from each individual stable. • Structure Stables and American barns can be built of a number of structures. The use of clear sky panels is a great way of allowing light in from the roof of a stable. rubber matting is an excellent choice for this as it can also be used as either a base for the stable bed. • Flooring The main consideration when it comes to floor choice is that it must be non slip. water drinkers. stable window panel. • Hay Racks can be positioned either in a corner or along the wall for hay to be easily placed into. Feed mangers that can be removed allow for easy daily cleaning. which is a great option for preventing contamination from one stable going all along the yard. Wooden stables are aesthetically pleasing and are often reasonably priced. the gully of which can then be easily disinfected. • Water Drinkers can be a great asset especially in mare and foal boxes where water buckets on the floor are not advisable. feed mangers and window Page 17 . • Roofing There are many roofing options available it will depend on planning permission and the style of stabling that you are going for. qobit@yahoo. hay rack.

com Page 18 . clients and farriers. Isolation Box should be slightly away from the other stables. • The hay barn should have easy access for deliveries and be close enough to the stable yard to be practical but without causing fire hazard issues.straw. shavings and feed and also access for veterinarians. • • The shoeing box or area must allow the farrier the ability to easily park outside it. The Feed Room needs to be within close proximity to the stables and also have access to it for deliveries of horse feeds. wooden stables often benefit from these especially in the summer when some stables needs increased air flow.• Window Vents are a great asset as they can be opened or closed depending on the weather. Lorry Park will need a safe area for loading and unloading and easy access off the yard. The yard layout that you choose must be workmanlike and safe and offer easy accessibility to all who will need to use it. The muck heap also needs to be able to be removed by tractor or any other means if necessary. • The Tack room needs to be within close proximity to the stables but also have secure location to help guard against thieves. The Muck Heap also needs to be close to the stables but not too close that it would pose a fire hazard. • Positioning And Layout Careful positioning of your yard is essential. • • • • qobit@yahoo. Stable window panel are small panels that can be left open to allow the horse in the next stable to see through the panel thereby offering more sociable stable or left closed to offer privacy. with thought being taken into account of access not only for horses but also for deliveries such as hay. The veterinary box should allow the vet to easily pull up outside it and be close enough to the stable yard to be of practical value.

Conclusions The installation of a mechanical ventilation system resulted in an increased air exchange rate.1 Amanda Raine. as demonstrated by reduced levels of CO2. pigs and poultry there is considerable evidence that farmers and farm workers. The stable-workers and riding-students completed a questionnaire and underwent the following tests: analysis of nasal lavage for inflammation biomarkers. levels of exhaled nitrogen oxide (NO). while total and respirable dust levels were mainly unchanged (200 and 130 µg/m3).2 and Lena Elfman1 Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ► Abstract Objectives To examine the effects of installing a mechanical ventilation system at a riding-school stable on indoor air quality and human and horse airways.Installation of mechanical ventilation in a horse stable: effects on air quality and human and equine airways Robert Wålinder. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. A decreased level of ultrafine particles was observed (8000–5400 particles/cm3) after the intervention. the mean score of lower airway mucus was significantly reduced together with the mean level of expression of interleukin-6 mRNA in BAL cells after the intervention. Results Levels of CO2 were nearly halved and airborne horse allergen levels were markedly reduced (5– 0. Keywords: Airways.1 Carl Hogstedt. Destroy user interface control1– qobit@yahoo. There was no significant change in human symptoms. ultrafine particles and horse allergen. particles. ammonia. There was no significant clinical effect on human airways. whereas airborne microorganisms and endotoxin increased.3 John Pringle. PEF-variability. are at increased risk of developing respiratory diseases [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Horse. measurements of daily peak-expiratory flow (PEF). horse allergen. 1 Miia Riihimäki. exhaled NO or inflammatory biomarkers in the nasal lavage. who spend large parts of their days in the barn environment.1 Tobias Nordquist. In horses. Methods The intervention was the installation of mechanical ventilation in a riding-school stable. Indoor air quality Introduction In intensive agricultural practices involving cows. Carbon dioxide (CO2).com Page 19 .2 Susanne Bohlin. ammonia. but there was a tendency for reduced inflammation markers.8 kU/m3) after the intervention. Biomarker. Levels of microorganisms in surface samples decreased following the intervention. microorganisms and endotoxins were measured in the stable. The results on the horses may indicate less impact on their airways after the intervention. Human. The horses were examined clinically by airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were analysed for cytology and biomarkers.

such as bacteria and fungi (e. farming is one of the occupations associated with the highest prevalence of asthma [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. with many of these actively coming into close contact with horses. microorganisms and endotoxins present in different farm animal stabling systems can cause chronic pulmonary diseases in humans [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. 6% of the Swedish population). and it has been estimated that 4. can be found in high amounts in the stable air [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. regardless of the species. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. either as employees involved in the care and training of horses or as a leisure activity (for example. including microbes and the products thereof. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version.6 million Americans in the USA are directly involved in that country’s equine industry (American Horse Council Foundation 2005: Economic impacts of the US horse industry). Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. qobit@yahoo. Destroy user interface control9]. Destroy user interface control4]. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control6].g. Faenia rectivirgula. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Specifically. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. contain a wide variety of gases and organic dusts in the atmosphere. the organic portion that often originates from feed. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. large numbers of people work in the equine industry. Similar to other farming environments. Destroy user interface control7– The following popper user interface control may not be accessible.000 full-time jobs in the equine industry in Sweden. Many people spend a considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments.The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Farm buildings with confined housing of domesticated animals. Destroy user interface control5. It is well known that exposure to the organic dusts. bedding or manure or from growth on stable walls [ The following popper user interface control may not be Page 20 . such as endotoxins and 1-3-β-glucans [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Aspergillus fumigatus) or their products. horse stable air also contains a plethora of inorganic and organic particles that are potential airway allergens and irritants. Destroy user interface control4]. In industrialized countries. The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. There are 28. Destroy user interface control10]. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. In Sweden.

however. which may cause inflammation in human airways. The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. as well as stable air quality indices. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. In addition to this risk to human health. Destroy user interface control10. Destroy user interface control13]. Destroy user interface control15]. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control6] and even in clinically normal horses [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control16]. Increased contact with horses has been related to an increased incidence of asthma and decreased pulmonary function in grooms [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Destroy user interface control12]. Several recent surveys based on self-reporting data have also identified an increased risk of respiratory symptoms in people with high exposure to equine barn air [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Until Page 21 . Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. were measured longitudinally before and after the installation of a mechanical ventilation system in a previously naturally ventilated stable. We hypothesized that selected components of stable air environment measurements in horse stables could be correlated to indices of respiratory health in individuals spending a considerable amount of time in the stable environment as well as in the stabled horses. Destroy user interface control14.Destroy user interface control11]. no data have been published that relate detailed measurements of stable air quality and respiratory health measurements in stable personnel and horses in the same stable. the influence of equine stable air on human health has been relatively ignored. are often exceeded [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. We therefore conducted an intervention study in which markers of respiratory health in people and horses. Studies in conventional horse stables have shown that acceptable levels of endotoxin and 1-3-β-glucan. indoor stable air is a wellestablished trigger of airway inflammation in horses with the asthma-like disease “recurrent airway obstruction” (RAO) [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. To the best of our knowledge. The hypotheses that we specifically tested were: qobit@yahoo. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. The following popper user interface control may not be accessible.

The particulate and gaseous makeup of stable air would measurably differ from that of a naturally ventilated equine stable following the installation of mechanical ventilation. The supply air came in from the outer wall in the middle of the building and was distributed via outlets from the ceiling into 18 of 24 horse-boxes. The indices of respiratory health in stable personnel and in stabled horses would be measurably improved following the installation of mechanical ventilation in the stable. and the airflow was regulated by the indoor temperature and adjusted for a maximal flow of 2200 L/s under summer conditions and a minimal flow of 400–550 L/s during the winter at a temperature of 5°C in the stable. and Round 3. qobit@yahoo. The ventilation system was scaled for occupancy of 25 horses. 1). Round 3 measurements (after the intervention) were performed in early April when the new mechanical ventilation system had been running—and personnel and horses had been exposed to these new indoor stable conditions—for 1 month. of which one was used for removing manure while cleaning. The evaluations (both before and after the intervention) consisted of hygienic measurements of indoor air quality and clinical examinations of both humans and horses. 2. in the summer before the intervention. was run by a communal riding school. The installation of mechanical ventilation was performed in February the year after the first measurements (Round 1 and 2) were Page 22 . Fig. Go to: Methods Study design Intervention A balanced supply and exhaust ventilation system was fitted in a former naturally ventilated ridingschool stable.1. 1 Scheme of the mechanical ventilation system installed in the riding-school stable Building The horse stable. without supplemental heating or mechanical ventilation. Round 2. The exhaust air was pumped out through a vent-canal placed in the middle of the stable corridor that passed up through the hay-loft to the top of the roof (Fig. It was a concrete frame building with a concrete floor and metal roof (12 × 30 m2). in the following winter after the intervention (hereafter referred to as Round 1. built in the 1920s. There were four entrances to the stable. The horse-boxes were separated by wooden plank walls with upper steel bars and with sliding doors of the same construction. There was a loft above the stalls and under the roof where hay and straw were stored. one at each end of the building and two on one of the long sides. Measurements were performed three times within a 1-year period: in the winter before the intervention. and the other was used to take horses in and out to the adjacent riding hall. respectively).

In general. The sampling point was in the middle of the stable corridor. Gothenburg. Monitoring of ultrafine particles. such as cleaning the stalls. Riding classes were held between 4:00 p. respectively. Measured data are presented as particles per cubic centimetre.02–1 µm) was performed with a P-Trak (model 8525.. Hygienic measurements At each of the three rounds. Eighty-Four. PA) for sampling of horse allergen. and 9:00 p. Samples were analysed at The Swedish Environmental Research Institute. A DustTrak aerosol monitor (model 8520. was constructed to provide a visual indication of the timing and duration of peak concentrations and their relation to activities in the stable. we carried out hygienic sampling on two successive days. The boxes or stalls were mucked-out by stable-personnel each morning after the horses had been taken outdoors. total and respirable dust.m. CO2. no sample was available for Round 1 because of the authors’ unawareness of the method at the time. defined as particles with a diameter of < Page 23 . TSI) was used to measure airborne dust concentration (ADC. airborne microorganisms. A graphical display of time versus temperature. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. logging data every minute over a period of 12–37 h. when routine morning activities were being carried out in the stable. which was programmed to log measured data every minute over a period of 28–37 h. at midday when coming back to the stables prior to the training sessions and in the evening) with haylage and pelleted fodder. the samplings were conducted over a period of 4–7 h.1 µm (range 0. which means horses were groomed and made ready for riding. Horses were fed three times a day (in the morning before going out to the fields. MI) up to 37 h.33 software for data analysis. and continuing into the afternoon. In order to obtain peak exposure values. Doors were generally kept open during the cleaning of the stable and during training sessions. Real-time monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2). when the horses were being fed. Measurements of ammonia in the air were obtained using passive samplers during three different 24h periods in 1 week. Some overnight samples were also taken when all the horses were in the stables and doors were closed. TSI). particles <10 µm). beginning at 7:00 a.m. A normal day's activities at the stable consisted of the following. and endotoxins. and relative humidity (RH%) were logged every minute with a Q-Trak (model 8550. Fresh straw for bedding was taken down from the loft via a hole in the ceiling inside the stable and distributed to the boxes. Pumps were adjusted for a flow of 2 L/min for 4–7 h qobit@yahoo. temperature.m. and people and horses were coming and going on an hourly basis. RH%. TSI. However. ultrafine particles and coarse particulate matter (PM10) was made continuously for 30–37 h during the 2 days of sampling at each round. temperature. All logged data were downloaded after sampling using TrakPro v3.. The values are expressed as micrograms per cubic metre and are the median of three samples. Air sampling was performed with pumps (SKC. Destroy user interface control17].The stable housed a total of 24 horses of mixed breeds. Shoreview. Concentrations are presented as milligrams per cubic metre. and CO2 or ADC and ultrafine particles. Sweden [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. humidity. groomed and trained. three samples of each factor were collected at each sampling round.

Sweden). with the filter unit attached to the steel bars. Orebro University Hospital. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Airborne horse allergen particles were collected with an IOM-sampler (SKC) equipped with a fluoropore membrane filter (pore size 1. where 1 unit is equal to 1 ng protein of a horsehair.006 m2) was performed using Scotch-brite on the outer wall of three stalls at about 1. Type FA. for which the incubation time was 21 days. The incubation time was 7 days on both media and for all microorganisms with the exception of Streptomyces sp. one male employee dropped out of the study during the first sampling round.5 m above ground level at three points in the stable corridor. Destroy user interface control18] and expressed as units per cubic metre. Millipore AB. the filters were extracted with pyrogen-free water and analysed at the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control.5 m above the floor.8 µm) membrane filter. Sweden). Stockholm. and dander extract was used as a standard (Allergon. Initially. SC). one near to each end and one in the middle. Destroy user interface control19] based on acridine orange staining and epifluorescence microscopy (performed by Pegasus Lab. immediately outside a stall. using the kinetic turbidimetric method with the Limulus test (Cape Cod. However. Eurofins Environment Sweden AB. Destroy user interface control20]. Surface sampling (90 × 65 mm. All airborne dust samples were analysed by a gravimetric method and the organic proportion calculated after combustion of the filter and weighing of the remaining inorganic material (Occupational and Environmental Medicine Laboratory. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible Page 24 . all seven personnel agreed to participate. which was the equivalent of 2 U/m3. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version.1 mg/sample.4 µm). monoclonal antibodies from Mabtech AB. Sweden). The results are expressed as EU per cubic metre. Sweden) [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. In the case of respirable dust. Uppsala University. a metal cyclone (SKC) was placed before the filter cassette. The detection limit for the assay was 2 U/ml. Investigation of humans At the start of this study the stable personnel comprised six women and one man and approximately 320 students between the ages of 7 and 18 years who were attending the riding school.and placed approximately 1–1. and the pump was attached to the personnel’s clothing or to the horse’s back. Charleston. and one female employee left before the second sampling round. MA and Endosafe (Charles River Endosafe. The detection limit was 0. For qobit@yahoo. For the analysis of endotoxin. Sweden).0 µm. Total and respirable dust in air was collected in a cassette with a 25-mm (pore size 0. Species of viable moulds and bacteria were determined by incubation on two different media [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. and results are expressed as milligrams per cubic metre. Valinge. Samples of airborne microorganisms and endotoxin were collected on a cassette with a 25-mm sterile nucleopore filter (pore size 0. with the inlet of the tubing in the breathing zone. The total concentration of airborne and surface moulds and bacteria were analysed with the CAMNEA method [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Air samples were analysed for horse allergen levels using a two-site sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. 0. The detection limit for viable organisms was 30 colony forming units (CFU)/m3 of air.

com Page 25 . Rome. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. eye irritation. In total. Uppsala. Destroy user interface control27]. Subjects were instructed to make repeated peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements using a Piko-1 electronic device (Medeca Pharma. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control25].9% sterile saline solution in each nasal cavity [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. only students >12 years of age and who were at the stables at least several days a week were asked to participate. Sweden) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) measurements four times per day for 2 weeks [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Italy) according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. myeloperoxidase (MPO) of the neutrophils in the mucosa [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. lysozyme (a marker of neutrophil activity and secretion from parasympathetically innervated mucosal glands) [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Destroy user interface control23]. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Sweden) were performed on the days the hygienic measurements were being made. NIOX MINO. Lavage of the nasal mucosa was performed by introducing 5 ml 0. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. qobit@yahoo. Lung function was measured by spirometry (Spirobank G. Stable personnel and riding-students completed a questionnaire on the annoyance of dust and smell in the stable and on symptoms of eczema. Aerocrine AB. Destroy user interface control24].practical reasons. albumin (a marker of capillary leakage of plasma proteins) [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. nasal congestion and dyspnea. seven students (6 girls and one boy) provided their own written consent to participate. Mir. after obtaining permission from their parents. The biomarkers analysed in the nasal lavage fluid included eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (a marker of eosinophil activity) [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Destroy user interface control22]. Solna. interleukin (IL)-5 (a marker of eosinophil and Th2 activity) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) a marker of Th1 activity [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. and measurements of nitrogen oxide (NO. Destroy user interface control26]. Destroy user interface control21]. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version.

IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. The initial selection was based on the probability that they would remain in the stable during the entire 1year study. The horizontal line represents the medial line.7 years. Investigation of horses Of the 24 horses of different breeds in the riding-school stable. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version.Destroy user interface control28]. and the tests included a clinical respiratory examination (pulmonary auscultation with and without re-breathing bag and cough provocation). and the remainder was prepared and stored for quantitative real-time multiplex PCR analysis for IL-6. all geldings. mean ± standard deviation (SD). upper and lower airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using a blind tube (Surgivet. The recovered BAL fluid was placed on ice. Abingdon. ECP.. Destroy user interface control29]. aged 12. The ∆CT value is the difference between the CT value for the target gene and reference gene.. Germany). )[ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. lysozyme and albumin were analysed at the Department of Clinical Chemistry. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. The value 1 on the . a 30-ml sample was removed for immediate processing for cytological examination using the cytospin technique as previously described. WI) according to published methods [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Destroy user interface control23]. and the ∆∆CT value is the difference between ∆CT values that are compared in Fig. Uppsala University using the QuantiTect Multiplex PCR NoROX kit (Qiagen. UK) at the Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. qobit@yahoo. The PCR cytokine mRNA expression for individual horses was calculated in relation to a theoretic median value of 1 (∆∆CT = 0. Waukesha. Destroy user interface control29].5 ± 2. All horses were examined at the riding school stable. MPO. University Hospital of Uppsala. 3. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. routine blood sample analysis. ultimately only eight of these 14 horses remained during the whole study period [six mixed breed ponies and two warmblood horses. Hilden. IL-5 and IFN-γ were analysed using ELISA kits according to the instructions of the supplier (R&D Systems Europe. 14 were included in the study. University Hospital of Uppsala by methods described elsewhere [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. 3 Comparison of the relative (fold) increase (with interquartile range) in cytokine (IL interleukin) mRNA expression in horse bronchoalveolar lavage cells on different sampling occasions. Page 26 . Fig. range 8–16 years].

Measurements for Round 1 were not complete within 24 h due to instrument malfunction. Relative humidity over 24 h varied between 40 and 84 RH% at the first winter sampling (Round 1) and varied between 58 and 97 RH% during the winter after the intervention. respectively. summer values ranged between 65 and 84 RH%. Sweden (Ups 03-649). respectively. 2 and 3 The mean temperature in the stable at the winter sampling before and after the intervention was 8°C (range 7–15°C) and 8°C (range 6–12°C). Go to: Results Hygienic effects of the intervention The median level of CO2 in the stable during winter season was reduced from 950 ppm before the intervention to 510 ppm afterwards (Table 1). the median summer value was 800 ppm. with 10th and 90th percentiles. 900 and 750 ppm. For particle data. Ethics The human study was approved by the regional ethics committee at the University of Uppsala. respectively. 980 and 810 ppm.Statistics Hygienic measurements and clinical data were calculated as mean or median values and. Before the intervention. Sweden (diary number C16/7). 2 and 3 was 1280. Table 1 Hygienic measurements in the riding-school stable Fig. the 98th percentile is also given. the 98th percentile for Round 1. Uppsala. The study on horses was approved by the Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments. The median level of ammonia was reduced from 3200 µg/m3 before the intervention to 1330 µg/m3 after installation of the mechanical ventilation system (Table 1). 2 Level of CO2 at the riding-school stable over a 24-h period in each of Round 1. qobit@yahoo. In Fig. The Wilcoxon matched pairs test was performed to compare clinical parameters before (stable with natural ventilation) and after the intervention (stable with mechanical ventilation).com Page 27 . 2 CO2 is plotted over time for each round. where appropriate. The 90th percentile for Round 1. 2 and 3 was 1410. At the summer measurement (Round 2) the mean temperature was 21°C both in the stable and outside.

com Page 28 . the intermittent summer value was somewhat lower at 70 µg/m3.6 × 105–0. in the winter following the intervention. Two students reported suffering from hay-fever. Destroy user interface control30. The median summer value was 1500 Pt/cm3. The median respirable dust level was also not reduced by the intervention.5 × 105/m3 before the intervention to 6. The summer value before the intervention was somewhat lower (53 µg/m3) than the median winter value after the intervention (65 µg/m3). Daily PEF measurements were not significantly changed after the intervention among the stable personnel (Table 2). nasal congestion and dyspnoea were unchanged after the intervention. The number of microorganisms on the inner wall surfaces fell after the intervention. being 100 and 130 µg/m3 in the winter before and after the intervention. age. The summer values before the intervention were in the same range as the winter values after the intervention. The 98th percentile for ultrafine particles showed the same pattern. One student smoked. respectively. weight and height [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. However. but not thereafter. there was an increase.No real difference was detected in total dust due to the intervention. The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Exhaled NO values were low and remained at the same level on all three sampling occasions. The median horse allergen level in the stable air was 5170 U/m3 the winter before the intervention. Destroy user interface control31]. with the mean PEF level increasing from 387 to 416 L/min and FEV1 increasing from 2. eye irritation. falling to 790 U/m3 in the winter after the intervention. Summer values were lower. eczema.15 × 105/m2. None of the employees or students reported asthma. The median level of ultrafine particles was reduced from 8000 particles (Pt)/cm3 before the intervention to 5400 Pt/cm3 after the intervention. The effect of the intervention on the PM10 level could not be evaluated at the winter sampling before the intervention due to a technical error. respectively. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. The results of pulmonary function tests were within normal limits according to gender. the median total dust level was 210 µg/m3 in the winter and 220 µg/m3 in the summer.4 × 105/m2 and that of fungi. annoyance to dust. qobit@yahoo.6 × 105/m3 after the intervention. Reports of smell-discomfort. with the number of bacteria falling from 110 × 105–1. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. while the total number of fungi increased from 3. but one employee had used asthma medication symptomatically before the intervention. it was 200 µg/m3. Prior to the intervention. The total number of bacteria in air samples was almost the same in all three rounds: 19 × 105/m3 before and 21 × 105/m3 after the intervention.9 to 3. This is most likely due to the growth of the students. albeit not significant. The median level of inflammation markers in nasal lavage was not significantly altered after the intervention (Table 2). in pulmonary function among the students (Table 2). Median endotoxin levels in air increased substantially after the intervention (from 96 to 275 EU/m3). Effects of intervention on human health The mean age of the stable personnel and riding-students was 34 (range 21–51) and 15 years (range 13–17 years).2 L/s. from 6. The median summer value before the intervention was 750 U/m3.

The effect of this intervention was evaluated by comparing two successive winter samplings. which may in many cases. ultrafine particles and horse allergen. Results from the cytological tests on the BAL showed a slightly increased percentage of neutrophils in two horses after the intervention. it is cold and damp outside. In winter. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. the accumulation of mucus (mucus score according to Gerber scale [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. of which one also had increased respiratory rate and respiratory sounds. We choose to compare values before and after the intervention during the winter season. The PCR expression of IL-6 mRNA in BAL cells was significantly lower in the winter after the intervention than in the winter before the intervention (Fig. Destroy user interface control32]) was significantly reduced in the winter after the intervention compared to the first winter sampling (p = 0. 3). We also compared winter values with summer values. be the best values anticipated in this Page 29 . when the indoor climate in a stable is generally at its worst.Table 2 Levels of pulmonary function and biomarkers in nasal lavage in stable personnel and riding-students Effects of intervention on equine health In horses. The fact that the CO2 level was halved shows that the installation of mechanical ventilation was effective in improving the air quality in the stable. with closed doors and windows [ qobit@yahoo. ammonia. Table 3 Results from the clinical examination and cytological tests on the bronchoalveolar lavage of the horses Go to: Discussion The installation of a balanced mechanical ventilation system with supply and exhaust air resulted in reduced levels of CO2. which means that natural ventilation in a stable is kept at its lowest. Haematology revealed only minor variations that had no clinical relevance.036) (Table 3).

Peak values are probably less affected by low.e. the ventilation system was running at a low capacity during the second winter sampling (Round 3) as the mean temperature was 8°C. Two students reported hay-fever. such as in Sweden. However. and a minimum flow (400 L/s) at 5°C.e. −10 to −20°C) to prevent the indoor temperature from falling below zero.The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. during the summer. In a previous study. implying a better quality of air after the installation of the mechanical ventilation. we described a possible disregard among stable personnel having respiratory problems [ qobit@yahoo. The flow has to be reduced at low outdoor temperatures (i. Destroy user interface control1. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. It is too costly to warm up the supply air in a stable. However. None of our subjects reported a diagnosis of asthma. The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Another explanation for why the measurements of dust. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. such as cleaning and feed delivery. Destroy user interface control35]. PM10 particle levels were low compared with those reported for other stables and pig farms [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Since the mechanical ventilation was running 24 h/day and automatically regulated by the indoor temperature in the stable. microorganisms and endotoxin were not reduced by the intervention could be because most hygienic measurements were made during peak exposures. The following popper user interface control may not be Page 30 . one of the stable personnel reported the use of asthma medication before—but not after—the intervention. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. i. This could explain why some hygienic measures showed greater seasonal effects than the comparison before and after the intervention and indicates that summer values were sometimes lower than winter values (Round 2 < Round 3) despite the use of only natural ventilation. with median values ranging between 53 and 65 µg/m3 in our study. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. the air exchange rate was increased to at least 400–500 L/s at the lowest indoor temperature of about +5°C. This means a much better exchange rate than can be expected with natural ventilation. Destroy user interface control33– The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. which is why ventilation systems are run in this manner in a cold climate. Destroy user interface control36]. It is well known that there is a substantial measurement error and also a large day-to day variability in many hygienic measurements [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Destroy user interface control12. Following the installation of mechanical ventilation. Destroy user interface control33].to moderate ventilation rates. but none of the personnel. with a maximum airflow (2200 L/s) at high temperatures.

Go to: Acknowledgments We would like to thank Mabtech AB. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Am J Ind Med. These results might be anticipated among a relatively healthy study population with environmentally-related symptoms being better than expected. together with another horse. Malmberg P. had a mild elevation in BAL neutrophils after the intervention (Table 3). Taken together. the overall clinical outcome in horses indicates less airway inflammation. No significant effects were observed in humans. Health effects of organic dust exposure in dairy farmers. such as MUC5AC. after the intervention. Why this was not observed in humans could be due to the fact that horses spend substantially longer times in the stable. This horse. Stockholm. Destroy user interface control38]. Go to: References 1. in horses [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Sweden. The overall clinical effects in horses may indicate a lower impact on the airways after the intervention. these results indicate an improved air Page 31 . Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. However. The expression of IL-6 mRNA can be associated with increased mucus secretion due to the stimulation of mucin genes. Destroy user interface control10]. 1990. one of the eight horses had an increased respiratory rate and respiratory sounds. Cytokine IL-6 is a pre-inflammatory marker and indicator of exposure to the stable environment per se. Destroy user interface control37. verified by reduced levels of CO2.17(1):7–15. The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. This work received funding from Swedish Farmer’s Foundation for Agricultural Research and Foundation for Horse Research.The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Go to: Conclusions Hygienic measurements showed an increased air exchange rate. we found a status quo regarding reported symptoms and airway measurements in personnel and students. In horses. but there was a tendency towards reduced inflammation markers. ultrafine particles and horse allergen. a decreased amount of mucous in the trachea together with a lower expression of IL-6 mRNA in BAL cells may indicate an improvement in the health of the horse’s airways after the intervention. Therefore. In summary. decreased tracheal mucous was the strongest indication of reduced airway inflammation after the intervention. In the present study. which generously supplied the monoclonal antibody reagents for the horse allergen ELISA. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. [PubMed] qobit@yahoo. ammonia.

doi: 10. Dixon PM. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 11.2003. Tosun GA. Exposure to inhalable dust. Riihimäki M. doi: 10. et al. Sgorbini M. Collie DDS. 2002. Mycopathologia. Gallagher Page 32 . Anakkaya AN. Smedley J.160(1):29–34. Nardoni S.1093/occmed/kqp003. 1998.01640.01439.1007/s00420-006-01414. Ghio A. Samadi S. 2009.53(6):595–603. Corazza M. doi: 10. Singh B.1007/s11046-005-2669-3. Pringle J. Taccini F. Norbäck D. Nadeau J.x. Wouters IM. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 4. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 3. Eur Respir J. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 15.99. Clin Chest Med. Linaker C. Identification and seasonal distribution of airborne fungi in three horse stables in Italy. et al. Jamshidifard A. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] qobit@yahoo. J Occup Med Toxicol. doi: 10.1046/j. Hjort C. endotoxins. Pickrell J. 2003.2. Lung status in young Danish rurals: the effect of farming exposure on asthma-like symptoms and lung function.8.32(8):1170–1173. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 9.8(11):1285–1291.157(1):15–18. Spurzem JR. Mancianti F. Ann Occup Hyg. Hazards in confinement housing–gases and dusts in confined animal houses for swine. Tutluoglu B. Pirie RS.451. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 12. High risk of adult-onset asthma and workrelated wheeze in farmers despite low prevalence of asthma in young farmers.59(4):220–225. 2007. Questionnaire assessment of airway disease symptoms in equine barn personnel. Janson C. 2006. Sensitization to horse hair. horses and humans.1365-2745. doi: 10. Rask-Andersen A. Vogelzang PF.2002. 2005. Occupational respiratory health of New Zealand horse trainers. 2002. McGorum BC. poultry. Eerdenburg F.33(5):676–683.23(4):795– 810. Yaman M. Vet Hum Toxicol. doi: 10. Gulden JW.13103199.1186/1745-6673-4-10. beta(1-3)-glucans. 1999.1046/j. Atiş S. Respiratory illness in agricultural workers. [PubMed] 8.13(1):31– 37. Houben R. Clin Exp Allergy. Folgering H. Preller L. Svatek J. Inhaled endotoxin and organic dust particulates have synergistic proinflammatory effects in equine heaves (organic dust-induced asthma) Clin Exp Allergy. Elfman L. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 13. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 14. doi: 10. 1991.1:10. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways. Maranda L. [PubMed] 6.1093/occmed/52. Occup Med (Lond) 2002. Occup Med (Lond) 2009.52(8):451–459. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis.80(4):335–341. Charavaryamath C. Bates MN. Kolk JJ.x. Agricultural lung disease. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 10. Crane J. Altug E. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Miller MR. doi: 10.1183/09031936. doi: 10. doi: 10. Christiani D. Omland O. doi: 10. [PubMed] 5.1093/annhyg/mep040.33(1):32–39. and airborne microorganisms in horse stables. Fitzharris P. J Occup Med Toxicol. Romberger DJ. 2009. symptoms and lung function in grooms.4:10. Sigsgaard T. Lembke B.1016/S0272-5231(02)00024-2. Pedersen OF. Pulmonary effects of exposure to pig barn air. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 7.1186/1745-6673-1-10. Endotoxin exposure as a major determinant of lung function decline in pig farmers. Heederik DJJ. Heederik D. 2004. Essen SG.1365-2222. Mazan MR. Wålinder R.

1986. Haas M. 1991. 2004. Soluble markers of allergic inflammation. 1995. Stabling is associated with airway inflammation in young Arabian horses. Larsson PH. Venge P. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 17. Raine A. Equine Vet J. Smedje G.1994. doi: 10.2001. Sources of protein in allergen. 2001. doi: 10.56(8):771–774. Venge P. Int Arch Occup Environ Health.82:333–337. Malmberg P.2746/042516401776249606. Jefcoat A. Raphael G. doi: 10. Allergy. 1987.x. Gerber V. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 18. Collection of airborne micro-organisms on nucleopore filters. Eur Respir J. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 19. Eosinophil activation in allergic disease.tb00765.1007/s004200050309.1111/j. Lactoferrin and lysozyme in nasal secretions. Palmgren U. Int J Clin Lab Res. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Holcombe SJ. Jeney E.13989995. Gannon PF.13989995. V. 2008.1172/JCI114329. J Environ Monit.00027304. Nasal patency and biomarkers in nasal lavage–the significance of air exchange rate and type of ventilation in schools. Igarashi Y. Berney C.1016/00916749(91)90298-3.1034/j. Jackson C.33(3):244–249. Pringle J. Norbäck D.61:401–406. Peterson C. Pathophysiology of rhinitis. Håkansson L. doi: 10. Ström G. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001. Anees W. Vagn Jensen The dilution plate count technique for the enumeration of bacteria and fungi in soil. et al. Kim I. Venge P. Erwall C. The pathophysiology of rhinitis. 1962. 1998. Field intercomparison of diffusive samplers for measuring ammonia.1(3):259–265.116:13–32.72(5):432– 439. [PMC free article] [PubMed] qobit@yahoo. estimation and analysis-CAMNEA method.1183/09031936. J Appl Bacteriol. Effect of peak expiratory flow data quantity on diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in occupational asthma. Wålinder R. Huggins Page 33 .84:1528–1535. 1989. doi: 10. Riihimäki M. 22. doi: 10. Braeutigam S. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 24. Baraniuk J. J Clin Invest. 21. doi: 10. Blomqvist G. doi: 10. Elfman L. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 28. American Thoracic Society (ATS) American Thoracic Society Medical Section of the American Lung Association standardization of spirometry.1039/a902378j.152:1107– 36. Markers of respiratory inflammation in horses in relation to seasonal changes in air quality in a conventional racing stable. 1994. Meredith S. Eberhardt S.1159/000234219. Härfast B. Dispersion of horse allergen in the ambient air. Can J Vet Res. Ferm M. 1994 update. Wickman M.056008771. White M. doi: 10.49:1–8. [PubMed] 20. et al. Pantin CFA.04.induced nasal secretions. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 29.x. Kaliner M. detected with sandwich ELISA. Romagnani S. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 25.1007/BF02591635. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 26.21:152–158. 1999. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 23. Kaliner M. Kirchner M.71(7):479–486.16. Hofschreuder P. Emenius G. Burge PS. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 27. doi: 10.23(5):730–734. Allergy. regulation and role in protection and disease. Raphael G. Type 1T-helper and type 2 T-helper cells: function. Hangartner M. Zbl Bakteriol Parasitenkde.88:33–42. Wieslander G. 1991.

doi: 10.2042-3306. but not MUC2. doi: 10. Gerber V. Ho Y. 2003. exposures variables and host risk factors.x. Herholz C. 2004. 1980. flow-volume curves and spirometry in healthy children. Eur J Respir Dis. Wallace K.tb03422. Crichlow EC. Hotchkiss JA.2746/042516403776148291. Equine Vet Page 34 .x.18:341–395. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] qobit@yahoo. Straub R. DeSouza M.21(6):551–557. Webster AJ. 7–18 years of age. Endoscopic scoring of mucus quantity and quality: observer and horse variance and relationship to inflammation. 1980. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol.36(7):576–582. mucus viscoelasticity and volume.1111/j. Stable dust–threshold limiting values. Zhao Y. 1987. 1: Effects of stable design. Tovey E. may play a role in recurrent airway obstruction. Wathes CM.61(5):275–286. Monitoring personal allergen exposure. Reference values for lung function tests in females.x.2042-3306. Thai P. O’Meara T. 1993. ventilation and management on the concentration of respirable dust. King M.2778:17036–17043. Regression equations with smoking variables. Clarke AF. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 38. Mucin genes in horse airways: MUC5AC. Venta RJ. et al. 2000.1111/j. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 35. doi: 10.1993. Jefcoat AM. Robinson NE.35(3):252–257.1111/j. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 33. doi: 10. doi: 10. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 37. Hauptman J. Equine Vet J. Nitrogen single breath test.30. Stimulation of airway mucin gene expression by interleukin (IL-17) through IL-6. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 36.1987. Equine Vet J. doi: 10. Chen Y. 2003. Solymar L.tb02641. Equine Vet J. [PubMed] 32. Madelin TM. Malmberg P. Equine Vet J. Bjure J. Aronsson PH.19(5):448–453. J Biol Chem.12(4):185– 188. Bake B. doi: 10. [PubMed] 31. Dust levels in a riding stable.M210429200.1385/CRIAI:18:3:341. 1985.25(3):172–174. Rawson J.2042-3306. Clarke AF. Hedenström H. Air hygiene in stables. Gerber V.1980. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 34. Agarwal K. Marti E.2746/0425164044864525. Yoshida K.1074/jbc.tb02933.

We have sets available for each of our standard windows sizes and contains the panes ready cut for installation.Windows & Ventilation WINDOWS ARE IMPORTANT FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN STABLING A HORSE To suit a variety of requirements we offer a choice of 5 standard window designs Hopper. Size: 900mm square OPENING Designed to fit flush with their surroundings and allowing hinged opening to 305mm on chains or dropped down totally for ease of cleaning. Size: 940mm high x 787mm wide FIXED Ideal for use where light is required without ventilation. Constructed out of planed joinery grade timber. PRICES HOPPER A1500 (window only) £ Page 35 . Available in two sizes and externally operated. They are rebated ready for glazing with glass or Perspex and finishing with beading. Fixed or Louvre. Perfect where ventilation is required. All stable windows can be supplied with Perspex and beading at a special price. HOPPER WINDOW The top section is louvred and can be secured open in any position. Opening. Size: 940mm square COMBI HOPPER Suitable for brickwork openings with a louvred top section and bottom traditional opening. great for older/traditional buildings. glued and star doweled together. PERSPEX A lightweight Acrylic sheet which is extremely strong and very safe. stables and out buildings. The Perspex is 4mm thick unless you require Louvre where it is 6mm thick. Size: 940mm high x 787mm wide TRADITIONAL OPENING WINDOW Has top opening light. Size: 838mm high x 1143mm wide LOUVRE Incorporating six Polypropylene coated Aluminium louvers to allow a great deal of flexibility in controlling air circulation. Size: 760mm high x 1140mm wide VENTILATORS Used to maximise air circulation creating a healthy environment for your horse to live in. They are made in quality Redwood timber (100mm x 38mm) jointed.65 A1501 (with perspex and beading) £247. Operated from the outside for convenience and come complete with a detachable internal galvanised grille which fits flush on to the frame. Suitable for brickwork openings. The most versatile window designed with the equestrian in mind. Combi Hopper.22 qobit@yahoo. Size: 356mm high x 559mm wide LOUVRE SETS When making your own windows we can offer you louvre sets for a cost effective job.

and entering the Product Code in the search field.22 PERSPEX GLAZING A1570 150mm x 669mm £18.39 A1511 (with perspex and beading) £244.23 A1510B For Opening Window £9.56 A1560 6 blade set 863mm long £87.70 A1530B For Fixed Window £9.43 A1701 (with perspex and beading) £263.46 LOUVRE A1520 (window only) £200.20 A1580 150mm x 819mm £21. call 02033 184775.73 A1531 (with perspex and beading) £212.51 BEADING A1500B For Hopper Window £9.60 LOUVRE SETS A1550 2 blade set 304mm long £35. qobit@yahoo.65 VENTILATOR A1540 £60.21 FIXED A1530 (window only) £136.34 OPENING A1510 (window only) £ TRADITIONAL A1710 (window only) £388.98 To Buy.horserserugs4u.COMBI HOPPER A1700 (window only) £214.15 A1711 (with perspex and beading) £393.96 A1521 (with perspex and beading) £ Page 36 . or buy online by visiting www.

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The majority of older stables simply do not offer adequate ventilation. Scotts of Thrapston has highlighted the basic principles of ventilation and provides some useful advice here to check whether the current levels of ventilation in your horse’s home is adequate. and with a 25 degree roof pitch provides the perfect ridge height of 3. which should be continually available. The fundamental principle is fresh air. especially those in competition. and ventilation greatly affects their breathing and respiration. so providing good ventilation is a basic necessity for horses who are required to perform. On a windy day this could cause muscle stiffness. Stale air should be expelled. 2010 by Julia Berrie in Let's talk stables. The horse’s anatomy. Louvred windows can direct wind up into the box for better airflow. If they are. follow these tips in your own yard: • Boxes should not be sited immediately adjacent to large trees or other obstructions that may affect the free flow of air through the building. try to reduce the obstruction by keeping trees well trimmed • Plenty of headroom within the stables is recommended as it increases the volume of air in each box and goes a long way to avoiding the problem of bad air. Horses needs strong lungs. To check that you are providing the best levels of ventilation for your horse.6m • Check the air travelling through the window does not blow directly onto the Page 39 . On windless days this type of window also works well with the stack effect – the heat rising from the horse draws in fresh air from the outside as the warm air rises past the louvres • Install a top door at the rear of the stable to increase the cross flow ventilation and keep the stable fresh qobit@yahoo. with its respiratory passages close to its mouth. Scotts standard height to eaves is 2. also means that there is an ever-present risk of contagious spore infection from anything that it might smell or eat. Jun. For example.Louvre Set 6-blade Ventilation matters… Posted on 30. Scotts News The importance of ventilation for competitive advantage… Recent research and modern theory have placed greater importance on draught free ventilation and raised awareness of the many benefits to the horse’s welfare. therefore horse owners should take this topic very seriously.4m. it can be achieved by careful provision and positioning of adequate air inlets and vents when the building is being designed. To achieve good ventilation you don’t require mechanical extraction. but without introducing draughts.

HhsIPasU.scottsofthrapstonblog.See more at: http://www. helping the wind passing over the ridge to create vortices that suck out some of the air from the box. as an additional feature. which encourage stagnant air • A fully vented roof ridge can be added to the stable. For more advice and further information please telephone 01832 732366. Scotts employ their unique scissor trusses which offer increased space and headroom and therefore improved airflow inside • Low roof pitches are prone to condensation and lack adequate air flow which will adversely effect the respiratory performance of the horse.dpuf qobit@yahoo. To keep tack in prime condition it is necessary to have good ventilation and heating needs to be at a constant temperature to protect the leather without drying. . they are also more likely to have• Steeper roof pitches form good resistance to wind currents and help promote ventilation in the If this is not possible then a roof vent every two to three loose boxes should help • Large overhangs create resistance to the wind hitting the wall of the building and the wind is deflected up into the soffit vents. increasing the ventilation rates within the stable. A 1. Blanket rooms should also have some degree of high-level cross-ventilation to remove the humidity in the air that has been extracted from the wet Page 40 .2m overhang is fitted as standard to a Scotts loose box • Gable end vents provide cross ventilation and should be installed at the end of a stable block • Don’t forget your tack room. increasing air movement within the box while not creating draughts.

Crumper. Here’s a brief rundown on each one. There are three categories of airborne irritants that adversely affect horses: contact irritants. Then we’ll give you six ways you can improve your horse housing’s air quality in all seasons. of Saginaw Valley Equine Clinic in Freeland. some of which are fatal under the right conditions. to the build-up of dusts. If irritants persist. Michigan. healthy air.Ventilate Your Horse Barn By Amy DeGeer Oberdorf Dutch doors provide fresh air and are easy to install on most structures. and invoke a mild inflammatory response without an immune response. and proteins derived from plants. we’ll first tell you how your barn’s polluted air can make your horse sick. such as hay dust — invoke a mild to severe immune response. and infectious agents. exposing a vulnerable respiratory tract. your barn may be the reason for your horse’s respiratory difficulty. and other pathogens from insufficient ventilation. Here. “Poor ventilation can ultimately kill your Page 41 . and some illnesses can even lead to death. • Airborne allergens — molds. whether you’re updating an existing barn or building a new one. Once the noxious irritant is removed. the primary defense mechanism is weakened. qobit@yahoo.” notes Brad Cumper. Do you keep your horse in a warm barn in the winter? If so. pollens. Poor barn ventilation can make your horse ill. and severe nasal discharge. The Air in There From the rancid smell of ammonia from degrading urine. it’s important to bring in fresh. He explains that the long-term effects of poor ventilation create a wide variety of respiratory disorders. airborne allergens. molds. This may show up as periods of labored breathing. airways quickly return to normal function. They become the trigger for the overproduction of mucus and constrict the lower airways. courtesy of Dr. • Contact irritants aren’t truly harmful by themselves. DVM. a chronic cough.

” says Hayward. outside air that’s filtered to remove pollens. with a bedding guard on the bottom. put a ceiling over the wash rack or tack stall and have vaulted ceilings over the horses. he may become lethargic. a full-sized. “It’s a big expense. especially over the stall areas. polluted air with clean. and display nasal discharge and/or a cough. and viruses — invoke a severe immune response and can diminish your horse’s ability to defend himself by eroding the airways of his defense mechanisms. A Healthy Design Here’s how to clear the air. “Ventilated cupolas cost more money. Install ventilated cupolas.” Hayward explains. Position the fan blades to pull air up from the stalls. and cause mold and mildew. “Don’t put ceilings over the horses. • Install ceiling fans. Instead. Ventilated cupolas are equipped with an electric fan that pulls air out of the barn. but it’s worth it. Vented cupolas are basically air vents in the roof. which can carry pollutants. Hayward recommends either grill or mesh on the bottom half of the stall. it’s a critical feature to produce healthy airflow. The filter also removes moisture from the air. designed and constructed equestrian facilities of all types and sizes for 20 years. says Hayward. If possible. keep in mind that hot air rises and cool air falls. leave open spaces in the pitch of the roof. where air is typically still. have no appetite. She’s planned. and down the center aisle.” Here’s how. If your horse has a turnout door. durable screen door with a bedding guard on the bottom will foster air circulation when inclement weather keeps him inside. To increase air circulation in your barn. If infection overwhelms your horse’s immune system. • • • • qobit@yahoo. It truly exchanges the air. Interior stall vents at the bottom of the stall front increase ventilation and air flow at the floor level and within the stalls. become feverish. with design tips from Lorri Hayward of Hayward Designs in Page 42 . Consider investing in a thermostatically controlled cupola that will turn on the fan when your barn reaches a certain temperature. you want to pull fresh cool air in from below and pull hot air out from above.• Infectious agents — bacteria. Install ceiling fans over the stalls. over the stall partitions. Georgia. Vault the roof. “When trying to move and remove air. “You want a volume of air above the horses. fungi.” Install stall vents. but in the long run. Consider an air exchanger.” says Hayward. Air exchangers replace stale.

to ensure the utmost comfort during a journey. In Elvira Currie’s study on improving the welfare of animals during transit. It is therefore imperative that. to allow outside air in. but another vitally important part of successful preparation which is often underestimated is the transportation of animals to events. exercise and grooming are all important factors in the run-up to a competition. Training. Therefore if your horse is suffering the effects of poor ventilation. Hayward recommends Dutch doors that open to the outside. pollen and bugs that enters their air space during a journey. They cannot choose to have a travel break and get out of their vehicle. often these conditions can cause stress. it is inadvisable to let them go on to compete in any event. Training our horses. If direct turnouts aren’t an option. she asserts that transport is “considered to be the greatest predisposing factor contributing to severe lower respiratory tract infection in horses” with the respiratory system being affected by dehydration and pollution. They are unable to close a window and block the stream of airborne dust. The benefits of these components in a long journey are self-evident and once you are used to them.• Install Dutch doors. qobit@yahoo. Raidal and Love in 2000 which found that strenuous exercise immediately after transport greatly increases the risk of respiratory infection. in order to do justice to the effort and time we have put into preparation for events and competitions. Their conditions are governed wholly by the transport and conditions we provide for them and. and ourselves. it is hard to imagine travel without such luxuries. we enable ourselves and our animals to perform to the best of our abilities. Currie states research by Racklyeft. discomfort and illness. Ventilation problems which arise are largely to do with heating (especially overheating) and pollution experienced during transit. due to factors such as pollution and heat. for competitive events and races requires a high degree of commitment and emotional investment. Furthermore. we can improve the comfort of journeys for our animals through the use of proper ventilation. diet. Why Ventilation Is Important For Animals Being Transported By Road Horse Information .Horse Articles PerformAir Aug 01|02:24 Last Updated on Friday. just as our cars have been improved with air conditioning. affecting their respiratory system. positioning. Animals being transported in trailers or floats are not so lucky. Luckily. high density of animals and ventilation. Research has shown that animal health is affected during transit and aspects to be considered include restraints. 23 November 2012 06:03 Modern cars come equipped with excellent air conditioning and heating Page 43 .

com Page 44 . effective ventilation for your horse(s) during transport can save you from expensive veterinary bills. {sidebar id=3}Animal welfare rules and guidelines address the issue of ventilation. well-prepared and at the top of your health. standard ventilation methods tend to be straightforward windows and vents.Health problems related to overheating in horses and other animals include shock. such as dogs. Also. particularly on a hot day or if there are a number of animals contained within. However. is to provide the best possible welfare for the creatures we have responsibility for. The Department of Local Government and Regional Development for Western Australia has published a Code of Practice specifically for horse transportation which states that the air circulation in enclosed vehicles should be sufficient to prevent bacterial build-up and that a mechanical means of forcing the circulation of air may be necessary for enclosed vehicles. which cool down via evaporative cooling (panting). By keeping these doors open. As we have seen. but most importantly. In addition to this. be they horses. by providing a method of ventilation which is not directly adjacent to the exhaust outlet of a vehicle. risks are reduced greatly. It is possible to empathise with our animals when it comes to comfortable and safe transportation. when rear vents such as doors are open. kidney failure. muscle cramping and stiffness. they will not be able to do justice to their abilities and experience in competition. Currently. they can be affected by the weather as they may need to be shut against extreme conditions such as heavy rain and hail. When the ambient temperature outside is 22⁰C. Another point made is that the exhaust system of the towing vehicle must not pollute the air inside the animal’s transport. diarrhoea. Instead you can be sure that you and your horse will reach your destination on top form and ready to win! The reason for ensuring good ventilation for our animals during transit. There are a number of issues associated with these – firstly. the temperature in a vehicle can rise to over 47⁰C within 60 minutes. current methods of ventilation do not necessarily prevent this from happening. For those animals. Clearly this is going to cause severe problems for animals within vehicles but through ensuring effective ventilation. filtered air and will not be affected by adverse weather conditions. you may seem to be doing the right thing. Ventilation must be effective to minimise the risks of dehydration and pollution. you will save your animals from discomfort. This is a potential problem during transport as the float or trailer could become heated quickly. the effects of air pressure when a vehicle gathers speed are such that the exhaust fumes will go underneath the trailer or float but will then be drawn in through the rear doors. pain and the possibility of long-term illness. stress. It is clear that if your animal is suffering from any of these ill effects following a journey. This is exactly what our animals need too. one of the factors it attributes heatstroke to is lack of acclimatisation to heat. Providing your horses with the optimum conditions for travel will ensure their comfort and health during a journey and will also help to ensure that your hard work and preparation for an event or race is not wasted. ensuring their comfort and well-being. you would want to feel well-rested. Ideally a ventilation system will provide greater air flow. adequate airflow is qobit@yahoo. greyhounds or even alpacas. exhaust fumes can actually be sucked right into your animal’s trailer or float and through its air space. Would you want to run a race feeling dehydrated or having difficulty breathing? No. RSPCA Australia advises that good ventilation is vital to avoid heatstroke.

It is clear from the emphasis placed on the importance of ventilation during animal transport by the above authorities that this is a critical area when it comes to the safe and humane transport of horses. By planning ahead and exploring the options available for suitable ventilation you will keep your animals healthy. or just enjoy life to the full. Comment on this article using the Comment Function below. happy and in the best condition to event. Page 45 . qobit@yahoo.required. and any other animals which are subject to travelling in similar conditions. Got News? Send your news stories and press releases to the HorseYard News Desk. Discuss this article with other users on the Horse Forums. alpacas. race.

as standing water and marshy areas are breeding grounds for insects and disease. Site considerations: A horse barn's site position should be given careful consideration. image." Gralla notes. "Image can be a preliminary goal. climate.Equestrian Facility Planning and Design Considerations by Gralla Architects Site considerations | Image | Health and Safety | General construction issues | Making barn life easier Generalization does not lend itself well to barn building because of the tremendous number of variables in any project: purpose. it is basic safe practice to eliminate sharp edges. But remember. "It's about thinking through what you want in your facility and then figuring out the best way to get it." states Todd Gralla of Gralla Architects. available material and labor. The ideal is to capture summer breezes for their cooling effect while avoiding the winter wind. and the potential for sickness or disease with attention to detail. Some of the solutions are inexpensive." (Top of page) Health and Safety: Given the fact that a horse can injure himself in ways his owner never dreamed of. and so on. and to screen private areas. Roofs can be designed to take advantage of the sun's heat in the winter. budget. The idea is to build what is cost-effective. to serve as windbreaks. fire hazards." All of the barn problems that plague horse owners can be resolved. the barn's orientation to wind and sun should be considered. interior Page 46 . personal preferences. and equipment. (Top of page) Image: Although some horse people like to be dirt-plain and practical. Good water drainage is also essential for maintaining a healthy stable. For example. and what avoids doing something that will cost you a lot more later on. building materials. a trainer might want fancy finish materials and brass fittings to project a successful image or imply that the horses there fetch a premium price. while the therapeutic riding instructor might be more concerned with projecting the notion of safety and security. "Planning is as important to the person who owns one or two horses as it is to the big breeder. For example. Trees are to be treasured as a design tool to provide shade. Your image goal will guide many of your choices including architectural style. others prefer their facility to say something special about them. what gives you the best quality for your money. qobit@yahoo. Many are not. a firm that specializes in equestrian design. These variables make good planning critical to the overall success of the project. "and one that is important to recognize as you plan and budget. all of them are much more cost-efficient if they are solved before the barn is built. future plans. with overhangs planned to provide shade for a cooling effect during the summer.

Many of those features that improve ventilation also improve natural lighting. The ridge vent is one of the most common and economical means to open the ridge of the roof. Dutch doors work well when the top half is opened. they allow more natural light infiltration and also make it more convenient to see what your horses are doing (especially in a broodmare operation). but an even better option is to install full mesh or grill doors. clerestory vents. in which the hot. You must allow the air to escape. how do you get air moving? One of the best methods is to have each stall equipped with a second door that opens to the outside. Plenty of natural light is also of vital importance in barn raising horses." Gralla stated. Gralla considers good natural ventilation to be one of the most important features. Gralla prefers a product called popcorn asphalt. regardless of weather conditions. Gralla uses glass or partial glass alley doors (Plexiglas-glazed for safety) which. Clerestory vents are larger structural components of the roof system which utilize a louver system to allow air to escape while keeping things like weather and birds out." states Gralla." Gralla states. Unfortunately. The openings in the mesh should be no larger than two inches square to prevent hooves and other things from getting caught. Clerestory vents and cupolas are other popular choices for good roof ventilation. and open front stalls all allow light to flow freely throughout the structure. and germs cause air to stagnate and become unhealthy. and project an upscale image all at once. The principle of natural ventilation is not a complex one. dirty air is forced toward the peak or ridge of the roof. They are capable of moving an enormous amount of air. (In cold climates glass doors glazed with Plexiglas can be used on the outside of the mesh doors to allow light even during poor weather. meaning that for every 12 inches of length there are 6 inches of rise. contrary to typical modern uses. in his words. odors.Barns with inadequate natural ventilation are a major cause of respiratory problems in horses as dust. Cupolas. In addition. The asphalt is laid hot and hand-tamped. "Full-view doors and stall fronts not only provide better ventilation. Gralla likes to use these mesh doors on the inside of the barn to improve interior air circulation. are not merely decorative embellishments. most preengineered building companies offer grossly undersized versions which are usually not even open to allow air flow. Hot air naturally rises (think of a chimney). allow natural light into the barn." Another important consideration in horse barns is flooring. The problem occurs in making sure that air has a place to escape and that fresh air is continually pulled into the Page 47 . The continuous ridge vent spans the entire peak of the barn and is always open. For stalls. Now that there are openings at the top of the barn. and the steel used should be at least 3/16" in diameter to prevent damage. not packed. "For example. They are an excellent means by which to move hot air. This steeply pitched roof creates an inverted funnel effect. From limestone screenings and blue clay to concrete and rubber brick. "really open the barn up. voids similar to those in lava rock allow liquids qobit@yahoo. When it cools. "The barn roof pitch is a critical element here. cupolas with windows. A 6-12 pitch is recommended. "We try to avoid mechanical ridge vents that open and close because they usually fail within a few years and are continuous maintenance problems." Gralla said. the outer stall doors.) In addition. In designing any horse barn. there are literally hundreds of different flooring options for barns.

there are many other things within a barn that are. qobit@yahoo. It's also a good idea to use electrical outlet face plates with hinged covers." states Gralla. Experience has shown that masonry construction is an excellent choice for safety and reduction of long-term maintenance. it also hinders the ability to maximize natural ventilation. "Many times it's a matter of budget. When stalls are planned for heavy use. Loft hay storage is not only a serious fire hazard. If masonry is used. from limestone screenings to paving brick. budget. however. Gralla recommends using an epoxy paint which is very durable and cleans easily. the long-term cost savings far outweigh the difference. and other materials to fit your image goal. You should also be careful to follow building codes regarding electrical work to prevent the risk of electrical fire (keep in mind that codes should be considered a minimum requirement). non-slip. If you choose to paint your flow through to the subsurface drain system. However. They are very durable. This will prevent them from damage and injury. regardless of construction materials. The trench drains should have a catch basin and basket for occasional cleaning. such as paint. the stall walls should be filled solid with concrete up to a minimum of four feet high to prevent the risk of kick-through. If you plan to wash or groom horses in the alley. it's a good idea to include floor drains for easy cleaning. and all mat joints should be sealed to prevent bacteria from developing beneath the mats. Even if your budget does not allow for masonry or steel construction. "While paving bricks or rubber brick may be preferred. equipment. Gralla has used a variety of construction materials for barn structures. which will prevent moisture and other elements from eventually destroying the outlets." Another great quality of masonry construction is that you can achieve whatever image or appearance you wish. and allows for some flow-through drainage. corners. it may simply cost too much for an area as large as the alley. and more. While the initial expense is slightly higher than most other types of construction. This doesn't make the structure fireproof. there are many roofing options for horse barns. and outlets. non-slip. In alleys. Masonry will give you peace-of-mind for decades. electrical wiring. Gralla has used many products. Gralla recommends that his clients never store bulk hay in buildings where animals reside. can be sterilized. is to recess all faucets. ranging from wood to pre-cast concrete. or rounded." says Gralla." A good choice is popcorn asphalt. Rubber bricks are a good choice for wash and veterinary areas. A good all-around choice for any budget is metal roofing. These areas should also include a well-designed drain system to avoid blockage and overflow. It is relatively inexpensive. and come in a wide variety of colors. stucco. dry-vit. electrical switches. General construction issues: Over the past 28 years. In addition. As with any other type of structure. Masonry and steel are not combustible. Gralla usually installs a trench drain at one end of the stall and often uses a rubber mat Page 48 . flexible. The surface can be faced with wood or brick veneer. although it is often overlooked when barns are built. A good rule of thumb for all barns. "This eliminates sharp corners associated with most other types of construction so the potential for injuries and cribbing is reduced. you can use wood products that have been treated to be fire-retardant. ease of maintenance. "Part of the beauty of masonry construction is the option of having bull-nosed. Fire safety is also important. and appearance are the most important factors. There is no such thing as a fireproof barn. but it will slow the spread of fire.

Even if the feed room is near the end of the barn. In addition. The firm has completed more than 340 equestrian facilities across North America. and veterinary treatment stocks. save labor. Many of our clients have been using them for over 15 years without any trouble or major maintenance. and prevent injury. They have their own thermostat so in the winter they will not freeze and the horses always have fresh water. It should be one inch thick. and birds will not remove it or nest in it. while other types will have been totally replaced within that time frame and are sure to need periodic repairs. but they are great labor-savers. They're very inexpensive and cost-efficient. The approximate 12 by 24-foot area is open at each short end. And if you've got a barnful. More information and articles are available on the firm's internet site at www. Almost all barns have a feed room. But here are a few ideas that will make your work more pleasurable. "As a labor-saving device. Making barn life easier: Keeping even a few horses happy and healthy is not always the dream we thought it would Page 49 . We understand this. These are only a few hints and tips to create a horse barn that will stand the test of time. Swinging doors tend to get in the way of other activities and are not as easy to open and close when you have horse in hand. Over the last decade. Mexico. Even the lowest cost metal roofing should last a minimum of 30 years. qobit@yahoo. it can be a time-consuming venture. This will make feed and supply deliveries much easier and efficient as the truck can pull up and unload directly into the feed room. Rigid insulation is a good choice for its obvious insulating qualities. the floor is usually equipped rubber mats or pavers and a trench drain. wash stall. "We're also proponents of automatic insect spray systems to keep flies down. One functional feature Gralla repeats in many barn designs is a combination grooming area." Sliding doors will still fully open even if there is a tractor parked or horse tied in the alley. The stock enclosure in the center makes it possible to work safely with difficult horses such as kickers and vets really like them. The firm regularly gives presentations on equestrian planning and design at events such as Equitana USA. When Gralla uses metal roofing. Some clients don't like waterers because they can't tell how much their horses are drinking. we really like to use automatic waterers even in our pastures. Gralla positions counters and cabinets in the corners of this area to eliminate sharp edges that could cause injury. A very functional circulation pattern. he either fastens it to plywood decking or uses rigid insulation to help eliminate noise and also the potential for minor damage. There is a very wide variety of styles available from traditional ribbed panels and standing seam to styles that give the appearance of slate or clay tiles.grallaarchitects. Of course you do have to clean them periodically. it is a good idea to consider a four-foot wide external access door. Gralla Architects has been in the business of planning and designing equestrian dreams since 1973." "We also prefer sliding stall doors over swinging doors." says Gralla.either panels or standing seam. and today's coatings are very resistant to aging and ultraviolet fading. The color selection is also very diverse." said Gralla. and Southeast Asia ranging from Class I thoroughbred racetracks and multi-million dollar show facilities to commercial breeding/training operations and personal stables with as few as three stalls. metal roofing has seen more advancements than almost any other construction material.

com or call 405-527-7000 qobit@yahoo.grallaarchitects. and polo. and the North American Riding for the Handicapped Association (NARHA) Convention. Information on this page courtesy/copyright 2000. the American Horse Council Convention. and have been the focus of over 100 equestrian publication articles. In Page 50 . racing. Equine America.Racehorse America. 2001 Gralla Architects International Equine Facility Planning and Design www. the principals of the firm operate a 360-acre Thoroughbred farm in Lexington. Oklahoma and are actively involved in showing.

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