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TIPS FOR A BETTER DESIGN OF KITCHENS
Compilation by: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Thirty-One Kitchen Design Rules, Illustrated
• • • • • Home Planning Cabinets Counters Flooring • • • • • Lighting Structure Space Measure Pantries • • • • Budget Guidelines Ergonomics Design Process
Starting in 1944 the University of Illinois conducted a number of studies of kitchen design and developed the fundamental design principles that are still very much in use. These days the National Kitchen & Bath Association updates and publishes these basic design standards. Methodology & Overview The NKBA Kitchen & Bathroom Planning Guidelines with Access Standards is a collection of illustrations and planning suggestions to aid professionals in the safe and effective planning of kitchens and bathrooms. These guidelines are excerpted from the National Kitchen & Bath Association Professional Resource Library Kitchen Planning and Bath Planning volumes. Designers and those interested in becoming kitchen and bath design professionals benefit by studying the complete body of knowledge found in the NKBA Professional Resource Library. These flexible and easy-to-understand guidelines were developed under the guidance of the NKBA by a committee of professionals. The committee completed in-depth historical reviews of planning guidelines dating back to 1920. The guidelines published in this booklet reflect a composite of the historical review, current industry environment, future trends, consumer lifestyles, new research, new building codes, and current industry practices; as well as a Kitchen Storage Research Project conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute. The "Universal Design Guideline Access Standard" is a relatively new addition to the guidelines. It defines the rules for kitchens intended for use by persons with less than full physical abilities. A kitchen that follows all of these rules is almost guaranteed to be both functional and safe. See how many rules your existing kitchen violates for a better understanding of why it may seem awkward and hard to use. While these guidelines are a good start, they do not substitute for competent kitchen design. Design encompases these rules and much more. It's the "much more" part that gets novice designers in trouble. A new kitchen is a major investment, and not something you are going to want to do over because the first design was not quite right. So, invest in a good design. It's money well spent. Legend Code Requirements: Refer to national building and access codes. Your local code authority may have modified or added to these national requirements. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: Refer to Americans with Disabilities Act guidelines and recommendations published by the American National Standards Institute for universal design. These may or may not be mandated by local building codes, but are required in some federally subsidized housing. Notes: Remarks by the publishers of the rule or standard.
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Comments: Our own observations and clarifications. We use comments to introduce rules and guidelines from other sources as well as discuss our own experience with and application of these guidelines. Other Guidelines These are not the only kitchen design "rules". Designers and carpenters have worked out some rules of thumb over many years that do not arise to the level of "standards", but represent accepted industry practice. We have included these in notes and comments where applicable. Rule 1 - Kitchen Entry Doors
Guideline: The clear opening of a doorway should be at least 32" wide. This requires a minimum 34" or 2'-10" door. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. Universal Design Guideline: The clear opening of a doorway should be at least 34’’. This would
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require a minimum 36" or 3’-0’’ door. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of door and stop, with the door open 90 degrees. (ANSI 404.2.3) When a passage exceeds 24" in depth, the minimum clear opening increases to 36". (ANSI A117.1 404)
Comments: • Standard door widths include 18", 20", 24", 28", 30", 32" and 36" doors. Any other width and any door wider than 36" is generally made as a custom door. Since a 34" (2-10) interior door is typically a special order, custom door, this standard is usually met with a 36" (3-0) standard door. A 36" opening for a narrow passageways requires a 38" door to meet the requirements of ANSI A117.1 404. These are not available except as custom doors — so narrow passageways should be avoided where possible. These standards have been around for a few years now, and the door industry has been slow to respond to the new door width requirements. The effect is minimal, however, since most kitchen designs are open plans with doorways, not doors, connecting them to adjoining rooms. Rule 2 - Kitchen Door Interference
nor should appliance doors interfere with one another.com Page 5 .Rule 2: ADA Guideline Guideline: No entry door should interfere with the safe operation of appliances. qobit@yahoo.
2.1) Page 6 • email@example.com 404. See ADA/ANSI Guidelines below. Rule 2:Kitchen Door Interference ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • For a standard hinged or swinging door.1) The clearance on the push side of the door should be the door width by 48”.com .Code Requirements: No national code requirements.2. the clearance on the pull side of the door should be the door width plus 18” by 60”.3.3. Universal Design Guideline: In addition. the door area should include clear floor space for maneuvering which varies according to the type of door and direction of approach. (ANSI A 117.1 404. (ANSI A 117.
we like to locate refrigerators and pantries at the edge of the kitchen so that snack-seekers can get what they want without crossing into the main. For example.com Page 7 . Notes: qobit@yahoo. such problems may be unavoidable. In kitchen remodels. But. working within an existing space.Comments: Door interference can be subtle. working part of the kitchen. If cabinets are improperly spaced. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. they should be avoided if possible. the doors of two adjacent cabinets may strike each other. Rule 3 . Universal Design Guideline The kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Guideline standards. there is a good risk that the door of a refrigerator located next to an entry door will block entry when the refrigerator door is open. However.Distance Between Work Centers (Kitchen Triangle) Guideline: In a kitchen with three work centers the sum of the three traveled distances should total no more than 26' with no single leg of the triangle measuring less than 4 feet nor more than 9 feet.
it remain a valuable preliminary gauge of how well a kitchen design is likely to function. tall obstacle should not separate two primary work centers.Work Triangle Traffic qobit@yahoo. no triangle of any kind is possible. Comments: The concept of a kitchen work triangle was developed in the early 20th century. and has now been superseded by more modern concepts such as integrated work zones. or refrigerator) Code Requirements: No national code requirements. (Examples of a full-height obstacle are a tall oven cabinet.• A major appliance and its surrounding landing/work area form a work center. clean-up/prep primary sink. • • • Each leg is measured from the center-front of the appliance/sink. When the kitchen plan includes more than three primary appliance/work centers.com Page 8 . The distances between the three primary work centers (cooking surface.Separate work centers Guideline: A full-height. for most kitchens. No work triangle leg may intersect an island/peninsula or other obstacle by more than 12". cooking surface and refrigerator are on one wall. in a Pullman kitchen where the sink. and refrigeration storage) form a work triangle. Nonetheless. tall pantry cabinet. A properly recessed tall corner unit will not interrupt the work flow and is acceptable. full-depth. Rule 5 . Universal Design Guideline: The kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Guideline standards. Rule 4 . It does not work in every situation. each additional travel distance to another appliance/work center should measure no less than 4' nor more than 9'. For example.
Universal Design Guideline: The kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Guideline standards. Code Requirements: No national code requirements.Work Aisle qobit@yahoo. But. Unless significant alterations are made to the structure of the house. Rule 6 . If the refrigerator is in or adjacent to the path.Guideline: No major traffic patterns should cross through the basic work triangle. a great many existing kitchens are arranged so that back door or basement access is straight through the kitchen work triangle. however.com Page 9 . Comments: Clearly this rule is an ideal standard for new kitchens. it does little harm. locate the sink and range or cooktop out of the traffic path. If possible. there is little that can be done about it.
See Code References for specific applications. (ANSI A 117. 1003. Measure between the counter frontage. tall cabinets and/or appliances.2).2. 804. plan a minimum clearance of 60” between opposing arms. • firstname.lastname@example.org. Clear floor spaces can overlap.1 305.1).3.2.12.Rule 6: Work Aisle Guideline: The width of a work aisle should be at least 42” for one cook and at least 48” for multiple cooks. Code Requirements: No national code requirements.1 404.3.1 804. (ANSI A 117.1. (ANSI A117. Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design recommendation.com Page 10 . ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • A clear floor space of at least 30” by 48” should be provided at each kitchen appliance.1) In a U-shaped kitchen.
• Include a wheelchair turning space with a diameter of at least 60”.1 304. counter or sink for a depth of 8”. Especially is older kitchens. • Notes: • Knee clearance must be a minimum 30” wide (36” to use as part of the T-turn) and maintain a 27” clear space under the cabinet. (ANSI A117. (ANSI 306. A wheelchair turning space could utilize a T-shaped clear space. the toe clearance should extend 17” minimum beneath the element. where possible. This leaves a minimum 36” wide base and two 36” wide arms. A work aisle is where a person stands while working in the kitchen.com Page 11 . Where toe clearance is required as part of a clear floor space. which is a 60” square with two 12” wide x 24” deep areas removed from the corners of the square.3. In such case the minimum width of the combined walkway/work aisle should be 48".1). Comments: There is a great deal of confusion over the distinction between a walkway and a work aisle.1 304. with a clear space of at least 17” extending beneath the element.2). (ANSI A117. which can include knee* and toe* clearances. T-shaped wheelchair turning spaces can include knee and toe clearances. A walkway is the passagway through the kitchen. Rule 7 .3. (ANSI A117. the work aisle and walkway may be combined and be used both for work and for traversing the kitchen.2). • Toe clearance space under a cabinet or appliance is between the floor and 9” above the floor. The next 3” of depth may slope down to a height of 9”.Walkway email@example.com 306.3).
A work aisle is where a person stands while working in the kitchen. Universal Design Guideline: If two walkways are perpendicular to each other. Comments: There is a great deal of confusion over the distinction between a walkway and a work aisle.Traffic Clearance at Seating qobit@yahoo. one walkway should be at least 42” wide.com Page 12 . Especially is older kitchens.Rule 7: Walkway Guideline: The width of a walkway should be at least 36”. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. A walkway is the passageway through the kitchen. the work aisle and walkway may be combined and be used both for work and for traversing the kitchen. Rule 8 . In such case the minimum width of the combined walkway/work aisle should be 48".
allow 32” of clearance from the counter/table edge to any wall or other obstruction behind the seating area. qobit@yahoo. Code Requirements: No national code requirements.Rule 8: Traffic Clearance at Seating Guideline: In a seating area where no traffic passes behind a seated diner.com Page 13 .
but may extend into a walk area if a minumum walk space of 44" is provided.Seating Space qobit@yahoo. however. A 44" clearance is better.Notes: • • If traffic passes behind the seated diner. and the 36" clearance rule applies to allow the second person to edge past. It can be appropriate in a seating area that has just one seat. allow 36” of clearance from the counter/table edge to any wall or other obstruction behind the seating area. Universal Design Guideline: In a seating area where no traffic passes behind a seated diner. A 60" space is better.com Page 14 . Comments: • A 32" clearance is almost never appropriate. If traffic passes behind the seated diner. then the user of the second seat will have to pass behind the user of the first seat to get to the second seat. Rule 9 . • A seating area should never extend into a work aisle. if room is available. Notes: If traffic passes behind the seated diner. plan a minimum of 60” to allow passage for a person in a wheelchair. and required for wheelchair access. This allows a walker to pass behind the seated diners. allow at least 44” to walk past. allow at least 36” to edge past. If there are two seats.
a minimum 15" deep clear knee space for each seated diner. qobit@yahoo. a minimum 12"deep clear knee space for each seated diner.com Page 15 .Rule 9: Seating Space Guideline: Kitchen seating should be a minimum of 24" wide for each person and. For 42" high counters. For 36" high counters. a minimum 18" deep clear knee space for each seated diner. • • • For 30" high tables/counters.
Code Requirements: No national code requirements. locate it adjacent to or across from the cooking surface and refrigerator. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. • Comments: • • Measure knee space from the front edge of the table or counter top. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: qobit@yahoo. Rule 10 . While a 24" wide space for each diner is workable. Recommended minimum size for a knee space is 36” wide x 27” high x 8” deep.Cleanup/Prep Sink Placement Guideline: If a kitchen has only one sink. Universal Design Guideline: • Kitchen seating areas should be 28” – 34” high x 30” – 36” wide x 19” deep to better accommodate people of various sizes or those using a mobility aid. A 28-30" wide space is better and should be considered the minimum where space is available. Insulation for exposed pipes should be provided. it is not very comfortable. Recommended minimum size for a knee space at a table or counter is 36” wide x 27” high x 19” deep. increasing to 17” deep in the toe space. which extends 9” from the floor. Universal Design Guideline: Plan knee spaces at the sink to allow for a seated user.com Page 16 .
2). (ANSI A117.3).1 1002. (ANSI 117. qobit@yahoo. There should be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under sinks.12. The sink bowl should be no more than 6 1/2” deep (ANSI 117. Exposed water supply and drain pipes under sinks should be insulated or otherwise configured to protect against contact.• The sink should be no more than 34” high or adjustable between 29” and 36”. • • Rule 11 .6).4.1.Cleanup/Prep Sink Landing Area Guideline: Include at least a 24” wide landing area [Note C] to one side of the sink and at least an 18” wide landing area on the other side.1002.com Page 17 .1 606.4.
Notes: • Note A: If all of the countertop at the sink is not the same height. • Comments: In Universal Design. Hence the standard in Note A that allows the landing area to be at a different level than the sink countertops as long as there is at least 24" of same-level countertop space on one side of the sink. it is not uncommon for the cabinet containing the sink to be lower than the adjacent cabinets.com Page 18 . Note B: The 24” of recommended landing area can be met by 3” of countertop frontage from the edge of the sink to the inside corner of the countertop if more than 21” of countertop frontage is available on the return. • Note C: Landing area is measured as countertop frontage adjacent to a sink and/or an appliance. The countertop must be at least 16” deep and must be 28” to 45” above the finished floor to qualify. Rule 12 .Food Preparation Work Area qobit@yahoo. Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design standards.Rule 11: Cleanup/Prep Sink Landing Area Code Requirements: No national code requirements. then plan a 24” landing area on one side of the sink and 3” of countertop frontage on the other side. both at the same height as the sink.
Universal Design Guideline: A section of continuous countertop at least 30” wide with a permanent or adaptable knee space should be included somewhere in the kitchen.6.com Page 19 . it is sometimes necessary to decrease the depth of the countertop (never to less than 21"). (ANSI A 117. and provided the finished floor extends under the cabinet. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. As a practical matter. increase the width of the countertop work area to 36".Rule 12: Food Preparation Work Area Guideline: Include a section of continuous countertop at least 30” wide x 24” deep immediately next to a sink for a primary preparation/work area. Rule 13 . remain 30".1 8.Dishwasher Placement qobit@yahoo. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: In a kitchen. Cabinetry can be added under the work surface. nonetheless.3. provided it can be removed or altered without removal or replacement of the work surface.04.12. If the countertop is deeper than the standard 25".6. 1003.3) Comments: There are very limited circumstances under which the countertop next to a sink should be less than 30" wide. If this is the case. there should be at least one 30” wide section of counter. the minimum width should. 34” high maximum or adjustable from 29” to 36”.
com Page 20 . qobit@yahoo.Rule 13: Dishwasher Placement Guideline: Locate nearest edge of the primary dishwasher within 36” of the nearest edge of a cleanup/prep sink.
Rule 14 . You have to bend and stoop a lot to load and unload it. For more information about ergonomic kitchen design. The bottom-hinged drawer gets in the way of people moving around the kitchen and makes it much harder for mobility impaired users to load and unload. • Code Requirements: No national code requirements. but as of yet.6. It is not a very user-friendly or efficient appliance. In kitchens where it is possible. The dishwasher door in the open position should not obstruct the clear floor space for the dishwasher or the sink. Universal Design Guideline: Raise dishwasher 6” – 12” when it can be planned with appropriate landing areas at the same height as the sink. It's much too hard to use. very pricey.1 804. see Body Friendly Design: Kitchen Ergonomics. appliances and/or cabinets. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: A clear floor space of at least 30” x 48” should be positioned adjacent to the dishwasher door.com Page 21 . that's what we do.Notes: • Note A: Provide at least 21”* of standing space between the edge of the dishwasher and countertop frontage. Note B: *In a diagonal installation. For more information of dishwasher placement.6.12. You have to spend a lot of time opening and closing the top tray to reach the bottom tray. which are placed at a right angle to the dishwasher. (ANSI A 117.3) Comments: The modern dishwasher is an ergonomic disaster. 1003. the 21” is measured from the center of the sink to the edge of the dishwasher door in an open position. The new drawer-style dishwashers are a vast improvement.Waste Receptacles qobit@yahoo. The solution is to raise the dishwasher off the floor so that the center of the appliance is about waist high. see Mise-en-Place: What We Can Learn About Kitchen Design from Commercial Kitchens.3.
Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Standard.Auxiliary Sink qobit@yahoo. Comments: The best location for the trash and recycling bins in most kitchens is under the sink. Code Requirements: No national code requirements.Rule 14: Waste Receptacles Guideline: Include at least two waste receptacles. This placement makes the best use of a cabinet space that is otherwise hard to use because of the piping and disposer Rule 15 .com Page 22 . Locate one near each of the cleanup/prep sink(s) and a second for recycling either in the kitchen or nearby.
12. which extends 9” from the floor. • • Rule 16 .1 606. (ANSI A117.4. Universal Design Guideline: Plan knee spaces at.Refrigerator Landing Area qobit@yahoo. (ANSI 117. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. Recommended minimum size for a knee space is 36” wide x 27” high x 8” deep.Rule 15: Auxiliary Sink Guideline: At least 3” of countertop frontage should be provided on one side of the auxiliary sink. The sink bowl should be no more than 6 1/2” deep (ANSI 117. There should be no sharp or abrasive surfaces under sinks. both at the same height as the sink.1002. Exposed water supply and drain pipes under sinks should be insulated or otherwise configured to protect against contact.6). the auxiliary sink to allow for a seated user. increasing to 17” deep in the toe space.com Page 23 . and 18” of countertop frontage on the other side.1. Insulation for exposed pipes should be provided.4.3).2).1 1002. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • The sink should be no more than 34” high or adjustable between 29” and 36”. or adjacent to.
com Page 24 . Universal Design Guideline: See ADA/ANSI Guidelines. or C.6.6) Rule 17 . (ANSI A 117. 15” of landing area above or adjacent to any undercounter style refrigeration appliance.Cook Surface Landing Area Guideline: Include a minimum of 12” of landing area on one side of a cooking surface and 15” on the other side. 1003.Rule 16: Refrigerator Landing Area Guideline: Include at least: 15” of landing area on the handle side of the refrigerator. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: A clear floor space of 30” x 48” should be positioned for a parallel approach to the refrigerator/freezer with the centerline of the clear floor space offset 24” maximum from the centerline of the appliance. qobit@yahoo. or A. or B.12.6.1 804. 15” of landing area on either side of a side-by-side refrigerator. 15” of landing area which is no more than 48” across from the front of the refrigerator.6.
Note B:For safety reasons.com Page 25 .Rule 17: Cook Surface Landing Area Notes: • • Note A: The 12” and 15” landing areas must be at the same height as the cooking surface. • Most safety codes require that a cooking surface next to a door be separated from the doorway by at least 12" of countertop. The purpose of the guidelines for cooking surface landing areas is not just ensuring enough working space on both side of the cooking appliance. Comments: • Note A is ambiguous.) Code Requirements: No national code requirements. • Note C: For an enclosed configuration. but to ensure that there is a sufficient space between the cooking appliance and any combustible cabinet materials for safety. in an island or peninsula situation. (This may not provide adequate landing area. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • qobit@yahoo. the countertop should also extend a minimum of 9” behind the cooking surface if the counter height is the same as the surface-cooking appliance. a reduction of clearances shall be in accordance with the appliance manufacturer’s instructions or per local codes. We have always interpreted this to mean 12' from the flammable door trim. Universal Design Guideline: Lower the cooktop to 34” maximum height and create a knee space beneath the appliance. The guideline is met if the adjacent surface is roughly at the same level as the cooking surface. Surfaces adjacent to a cooktop or range are almost never exactly at the same level as the cooking surface.
(ANSI 1003.com Page 26 .• When a forward-approach clear floor space is provided at the cooktop. Code Requirements: qobit@yahoo. it should provide knee and toe clearance and the underside of the cooktop should be insulated or otherwise configured to prevent burns. or electric shock.6. (ANSI 1002.4) The location of cooktop controls should not require reaching across burners.12.4) • Rule 18 .Cooking Surface Clearance Guideline: Allow 24” of clearance between the cooking surface and a protected noncombustible surface above it. abrasions.6.12.
the conservative. (IRC G 2407. IRC G 2447. The recommended minimum is 150 cubic feet of air per minute (cfm). (IRC M 1504. approach is to use the greater clearances specified here.3). The exception occurs where the clearance specified here exceeds the manufacturer's maximum clearance. Refer to local codes. (IRC M 1507. and better.• At least 30” of clearance is required between the cooking surface and an unprotected/combustible surface above it. (IRC M 1901. In all cases. • qobit@yahoo. The minimum required exhaust rate for a ducted hood is 100 cfm and must be ducted to the outside.com Page 27 . the minimum clearance specified by the appliance's installation instructions should be followed rather than this rule if the manufacturer's recommend minimum clearance is greater. If a microwave hood combination is used above the cooking surface.4). ducted ventilation system for all cooking surface appliances. Rule 19 .1) • Comments: • This rule must be coordinated with Rule 19.1). the item installed above a range or cooktop is a range hood or microwave/hood combination. Most often. in which case the manufacturer's clearance specification should be used.1. (IRC G 2407. Make-up air may need to be provided.Cooking Surface Ventilation • Guideline: Provide a correctly sized. then the manufacturer’s specifications should be followed. Code Requirement: • • Manufacturer’s specifications must be followed.1). Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Standard. If the manufacturer's clearance guidelines are less than the clearance required by this rule.
Comments: • Formerly it was permissible in most jurisdictions to recirculate vented air back into the kitchen. Air must be vented through and wall or the roof to the outdoors. Generally the specifications provided by the manufacturer of the ventilation device or system must be followed. then blown back into the kitchen. The earlier practice of venting into the attic is also no longer allowed due to the risk of fire. Where the • qobit@yahoo. even if they conflict with other building code requirements. Recirculation is now not allowed in most jurisdictions. The air was drawn into the ventilating device through carbon filters.com Page 28 .
Guideline: qobit@yahoo. Where a forward or side reach is obstructed by a 20” – 25” deep counter.manufacturer's specifications are silent. (ANSI A117. then guidance is to be obtained from the applicable building code requirements. Makeup air is merely aid drawn from outside the dwelling through ducting that is installed by a mechanical contractor.4). Universal Design Guideline: Ventilation controls should be placed 15” – 44” above the floor. easy to read and with minimal noise pollution.com Page 29 . operable with minimal effort.2. Where a forward or side reach is unobstructed. The force required to activate operable parts should be 5 pounds maximum. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • Operable parts should be operable with one hand and not require tight grasping. the high reach should be 44” maximum.2) • • Rule 20 .1 309. pinching or twisting of the wrist.1 308. • Typically make-up air is required when the capacity of the ventilation system exceeds 300 cfm. the high reach should be 48” maximum and the low reach should be 15” minimum above the floor.1 308. (ANSI A117.Cooking Surface Safety Place your extinguisher in plain view or in a clearly marked cabinet.(ANSI A117.1). The belief is that at this capacity the house can no longer provide enough air and there is danger of backdrafting gas appliances.3.2.1 and 308.
"Extinguishers shall be conspicuously located where they will be readily accessible and immediately available in the event of fire.3.3. Paragraph 6. Test your extinguisher at least every 6 months." • A kitchen fire extinguisher must be rated for class B fires. Universal Design Guideline: Place fire extinguisher between 15” and 48” off the finished floor.A. Window treatments above the cooking surface should not use flammable materials.1 states. Most fire extinguishes are rated for class B fires. it is very likely that a fire extinguisher in your kitchen is mandated by your local building or fire code." Paragraph 6. Stopping to read the instructions while a fire is blazing is not a good idea. "Fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. These are fires fueled by flammable liquids and grease.1. • • Rule 21 .3." National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) Guideline 10. read the instructions for using it to fight fires.com Page 30 . to make sure it is still charged and functioning. Comments: While there are no national building code requirements. C. Do not locate the cooking surface under an operable window. but check to be certain. B.1 states.1. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. but using it without reading the instructions is an even worse idea. more often if the manufacturer recommends a shorter interval. A fire extinguisher should be located near the exit of the kitchen away from cooking equipment. Comments: • Put the fire extinguisher in plain view even if you don't like the "industrial look. When you install your fire extinguisher.Microwave Oven Placement qobit@yahoo.
such as a keypad. as well as this rule. Universal Design Guideline: Locate the microwave controls above 15" and below 48".com Page 31 . • Over-the-range micro-hoods will need to follow the guideline for locating a range hood in Rules 18 and 19 above. not from the front. Comments: This guideline is a little vague when it comes to controls that have a vertical dimension. the best course is to carefully follow manufacturer's instructions for placement and mounting. If there is a conflict. but the illustrations that accompany the guideline seem to suggest that the entire pad should be below 48". Code Requirements: No national code requirements.Rule 21: Microwave Oven Placement Guideline: Locate the microwave oven after considering the user’s height and abilities. These are intended to be mounted under the countertop and are accessed from the top. If the microwave oven is placed below the countertop the oven bottom must be at least 15” off the finished floor. Until guidelines are developed. Rule 22 .Microwave Landing Area qobit@yahoo. the guidelines of Rules 18 and 19 supercede this rule. Comments: • The current guidelines do not address drawer-type microwaves. The ideal location for the bottom of the microwave is 3” below the principal user’s shoulder but no more than 54” above the floor.
Universal Design Guideline: Provide landing area in front of or immediately adjacent to the handle side of the microwave. it may be necessary to provide a landing area. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. or adjacent to the handle side of a microwave oven. Rule 23 . If necessary. if the microwave is located in a tall oven cabinet.Rule 22: Microwave Landing Area Guideline: Provide at least a 15” landing area above.com Page 32 . Comments: Typically there is a countertop near the microwave that will serve as a landing zone. below.Oven Landing Area qobit@yahoo. However. a pull-out shelf located under the microwave will work provided it is strong and stable enough to hold a minimum of 25 lbs.
com Page 33 .Rule 23: Oven Landing Area Guideline: • • Include at least a 15” landing area next to or above the oven. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. One qobit@yahoo. At least a 15” landing area that is not more than 48” across from the oven is acceptable if the appliance does not open into a walkway. Comments: An oven in a range has to share the landing zone on one side of the range.
1 804.com Page 34 . Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Standard. Rule 25 . so the Rule 24 combination guideline does not apply.5.Combining Landing Areas Rule 24: Combining Landing Areas Guideline: If two landing areas are adjacent to one another.interpretation of Rule 24 (see below) is that the combined landing zone has to be 27" or larger. the door latch side should be next to a countertop (ANSI A 117. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: For side-opening ovens.Countertop Space qobit@yahoo. with a minimum of 15" on one side. Code Requirements: No national code requirements. Universal Design Guideline: See ADA/ANSI Guidelines. We think the proper interpretation is that the range/oven is one appliance.1) Rule 24 . Landing zones surrounding range/oven combinations is adequately provided for by Rule 17 which requires a minimum of 27" divided between both side of the appliance. One interpretation this guideline is that the combined landing zone has to be 27" or larger. determine a new minimum for the two adjoining spaces by taking the larger of the two landing area requirements and adding 12". with a minimum of 15" on one side. Comments: An oven in a range has to share the landing zone on one side of the range. We think the proper interpretation is that the range/oven is one appliance.6. Landing zones surrounding range/oven combinations is adequately provided for by Rule 17 which requires a minimum of 27" divided between both side of the appliance. so this guideline does not apply.
Comments: qobit@yahoo. preparation/work area. but they may interfere with the landing areas. and storage. including landing area. 24” deep. Universal Design Guideline: At least two work-counter heights should be offered in the kitchen. with at least 15” of clearance above.com Page 35 . with one 28”– 36” above the finished floor and the other 36”– 45” above the finished floor. Notes: Built-in appliance garages extending to the countertop can be counted towards the total countertop frontage recommendation.Rule 25: Countertop Space Guideline: A total of 158” of countertop frontage. is needed to accommodate all uses. Code Requirements: No national code requirements.
3' of 21" countertop would count as 2' of countertop frontage. • • The guideline is not clear how island countertops are to be counted. Guideline: Specify clipped or round corners rather than pointed corners on all countertops. shallow countertops are often required to meet the 42" and 48" work-aisle requirements of Rule 6.• Any countertop at least 24" deep can be counted. Almost all standard countertops meet this requirement — most are 25" deep. then. This is where the designer's experience and good judgment comes into play in making the trade-off. we count both sides. However. so inside corners do not count toward the minimum counter space specified in this guideline. according to this Rule. even though this reduces the usable countertop area to as little as 13". but not the ends.Countertop Corners Round or chamfer outside corners for safety. • Countertop is measured at the front edges. So. If the countertop is accessible from both sides.com Page 36 . qobit@yahoo. The guideline allows counting the countertop in front of appliance garages and other similar storage that rests on the countertop. it does not count toward the 158" of countertop frontage. in remodeling older kitchens. it is clear that the recommendation applies only to outside corners. We generally count any countertop at least 21" deep but less than 24" as 2/3rds. If a countertop is shallower than 24". Do you count just the one side or both sides. Comments: • Although the guideline does not distinguish between inside and outside corners. Rule 26 .
base. Both options meet the guideline.• The guideline does not provide a minimum radius for rounded corners. and C. Storage areas that are more than 84” above the floor must be counted in the miscellaneous category. Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Standard. drawer and pantry shelf/ drawer frontage can be adjusted upward or downward as long as the recommended total stays the same.Storage Guideline Distribution of Shelf and Drawer Space Location Small Medium Large Wall Base Drawer Pantry Miscellaneous 300” 520” 360” 180” 40” 360” 615” 400” 230” 95” 360” 660” 525” 310” 145” Guideline: The total shelf/drawer frontage is: A. • The recommended distribution for the shelf/drawer frontage in inches is shown in the table at left. On a 1" overhang countertop. • Code Requirements: No national code requirements. B. 1700” for a medium kitchen (151 to 350 square feet). the typical overhang. 1400” for a small kitchen (less than 150 square feet). 2000” for a large kitchen (greater than 350 square feet).com Page 37 . • • qobit@yahoo. Notes: • Shelf and drawer frontage is determined by multiplying the cabinet size by the number and depth of the shelves or drawers in the cabinet. the largest radius is about 2". using the following formula: Cabinet width in inches x number of shelf/drawers x cabinet depth in feet (or fraction thereof) = Shelf/Drawer Frontage. The totals for wall. Do not apply more than the recommended amount of storage in the miscellaneous category to meet the total frontage recommendation. Rule 27 . Corners may be clipped (the more common term is "chamfered") or rounded ("billeted").
consider the following comparison: • A 24 inch-deep base cabinet with two shelves has the following frontage: 24" x 2' x 2 = 96 inches.Storage at Main Sink qobit@yahoo. • All of the drawer space is accessible storage. Now the comparison of frontage scores clearly shows the drawer cabinet to be more useful storage. the back 12" is inaccessible. To treat the two storage modalities as if they provided the same amount of useful storage is misleading and not useful. the high reach should be 44” maximum. A 24 inch-deep base cabinet with two drawers has the same frontage: 24" x 2' x 2 = 96 inches. The formula for the accessible part of the shelf remains the same: (width in inches) × (depth in feet) × (number of shelves). (ANSI A117.1 and 308. the high reach should be 48” maximum and the low reach should be 15” minimum above the floor. just pull the drawer out. But.2) • Rule 28 . The revised formula for the back 12" of shelf is (width in inches) × (depth in feet) × (number of shelves) ÷ 2. (ANSI A117. While the calculation may serve the need to have some math problems on the various NKBA certification examinations. In our calculations we score inaccessible storage at only 1/2 the value of accessible storage.1) Where a 20” – 25” deep counter obstructs a forward or side reach. base. The base cabinet with drawers retains its original frontage of 96". The drawers are more useful storage and their higher utility should be accounted for in calculating minimum frontage. and Any storage above 74" from the floor. To reach the back 12". but it applies to just the front 12" of the shelf. calculated as follows: 24" × 1' × 2 shelves ÷ 2 = 24" of frontage. We treat the following as inaccessible storage: • • • The back of a base cabinet shelf behind the first 12". the frontage of the accessible part of the base cabinet shelves is 24" × 1' × 2 shelves = 48" of frontage.• Storage/organizing items can enhance the functional capacity of wall.3. So using the above example. only the front 12" of the shelves is useful storage. it has little real world utility because it does not distinguish between accessible and inaccessible storage. Comments: The whole notion of minimum shelf/drawer frontage is an attempt to quantify functionality that is not readily quantifiable.1 308. This gives the back half of the shelf a frontage of 24".2. The total frontage for the base cabinet with two shelves is 48" + 24" = 72".1 308. drawer and pantry storage and should be selected to meet user needs.com Page 38 . Code Requirements: No national code requirements. To illustrate how differentiating between useful and inaccessible storage makes cabinet storage calculations more accurate. The part of any upper cabinet or tall cabinet shelf behind the first 16".2. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • Where a forward or side reach is unobstructed. Universal Design Guideline: Plan storage of frequently used items 15” to 48” above the floor.
ft. Code Requirements: No national code requirements.). at least 480” for a medium kitchen (150-350 sq.). ft.Corner Cabinet Storage qobit@yahoo. the following should be located within 72” of the centerline of the main sink: A. drawer and pantry shelf/drawer frontage. C. base. at least 400” for a small kitchen (less than 150 sq.). at least 560” for a large kitchen (more than 350 sq. ft. Rule 29 . B.Guideline: Of the total recommended wall.com Page 39 . Universal Design Guideline: Plan storage of frequently used items 15” to 48” above the floor.
Comments: Corner cabinets are not required in a kitchen.Guideline: At least one corner cabinet should include a functional storage device Notes: This guideline does not apply if there are no corner cabinets. The guideline recommends that if corner cabinets are used.com Page 40 . try this article. Universal Design Guideline: Kitchen guideline recommendation meets Universal Design Standard. For much more information on making the best use of corner space.Electrical Receptacles qobit@yahoo. they should contain usable storage. Rule 30 . Code Requirements: No national code requirements.
see Behind the Scenes . the piping. ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • Operable parts should be operable with one hand and not require tight grasping. The force required to activate operable parts should be 5 pounds maximum.2.1 and 308.5 for receptacle placement and locations.com Page 41 . Where a forward or side reach is obstructed by a 20” – 25” deep counter. heating and cooling.6). (ANSI A117.2) • Comments: For more information on the structural components of the kitchen.1 309.Lighting firstname.lastname@example.org).2. operable with minimal effort.1 through E 3801. • Where a forward or side reach is unobstructed. Universal Design Guideline: Lighting controls should be placed 15” – 44” above the floor. electricity and lighting.1 308. easy to read and with minimal noise pollution.3. Rule 31 .Guideline: GFCI (Ground-fault circuit-interrupter) protection is required on all receptacles servicing countertop surfaces within the kitchen. Refer to IRC E 3801.The Hidden Kitchen. (ANSI A117.1).(ANSI A117.1 308. the high reach should be 44” maximum.4. (IRC E 3802. the high reach should be 48” maximum and the low reach should be 15” minimum above the floor.4. pinching or twisting of the wrist.
The force required to activate operable parts should be 5 pounds maximum.Photo: Merillat Guideline: In addition to general lighting required by code.com . the high reach should be 44” maximum.1). pinching or twisting of the wrist.4).1.1 309.1 308. (ANSI A117.2) Page 42 • • email@example.com. Where a forward or side reach is unobstructed. (ANSI A117.1 308. equal to at least 8% of the total square footage of the kitchen. (IRC E 3803. (IRC R 303. Window/skylight area. Code Requirements: • At least one wall-switch controlled light must be provided.2. IRC R 303. every work surface should be well illuminated by appropriate task lighting. Switch must be placed at the entrance. the high reach should be 48” maximum and the low reach should be 15” minimum above the floor. Where a forward or side reach is obstructed by a 20” – 25” deep counter.2) • Universal Design Guideline: Lighting should be from multiple sources and adjustable ADA/ANSI Guidelines: • Operable parts should be operable with one hand and not require tight grasping. or a total living space which includes a kitchen.(ANSI A117.1 and 308.2.2). is required.
and uncommonly. vinyl. it should include a convenient place to store groceries.A Case Study (Sidebar) Few homeowners are of average height. O Box 80265. It should be large enough to hold at least a week's worth or groceries. average girth. So. Pantry Design Rules Do you know the pantry design guidelines? Every kitchen needs a pantry. You may have to get creative and even make a few compromises in your original grand design. Need to know more about kitchen remodeling? Try these articles: • Adapting a Kitchen to a Budget — A Case Study (Sidebar) If you feel you cannot afford a great kitchen. but you will end up with a wonderful kitchen that will look good and serve your needs for years to come. NE 68501 • 402-871-5301 Copyright © 2001-2013. ceramic tile. • Kitchen Ergonomics (Sidebar) The kitchen — unlike most other rooms in the home — is a workplace. stone. and this critical storage requires careful thought and planning. think again. Making that environment fit you is a most critical factor in your satisfaction qobit@yahoo. standard kitchen dimensions and • • Flooring Options for Kitchens and Baths Wood. What are the pros and cons of each? Learn the fundamentals of kitchen flooring.com and let's get started. A terrific kitchen does not have to break the bank.com Page 43 . If you were not aware that hardwood is a Nebraska crop. StarCraft Custom Builders • P. All rights reserved. and close enough to the food preparation…more » Are you ready for your own dream kitchen? We can build one just right for your budget. Guide to Nebraska Hardwoods for Cabinetmakers and Woodworkers Most of the fine native American hardwoods commonly. These articles are written by carpenters. Lincoln. Unless you happen to be that perfectly average person. You will get a very warm thank you in return. plumbers.Comments: For more information on kitchen lighting. Yet almost all kitchens are arranged and sized using standards written for the the mythical average person.. have average reach or average range of motion. any help with correcting typos. • Adapting a Kitchen to Human Dimensions and Movement . Just drop us a note. or use their kitchens in an average manner. used in cabinetry grow and are milled into lumber in Nebraska. Whatever the size of your kitchen. read this detailed guide to Nebraska hardwoods. grammar or spelling is gratefully appreciated. The job of preparing and serving meals gets done there. see Designing Efficient and Effective Kitchen Lighting. These Guidelines recommend between 180" and 310" of pantry storage. electricians and other tradesmen and women who are neither writers nor editors. laminated flooring. Contact usE-mail us at design@starcraftcustombuilders.
beneath the gleaming tile floor are the invisible bones and sinew that make the kitchen work electricity. hickory. Custom. maple. hard look. Here is how we adapted one kitchen to the physical characteristics and limitations its owners. Faced and unfaced. There are too many. venting. laminate. but with drawbacks. Is solid surfacing. Can your new kitchen do away with wall cabinets? Probably. How do you pick the cabinets that are just right for you? Click here to find out. • Body Friendly Design: Kitchen Ergonomics Planning for efficiency and ease of use are more important than ever in kitchen and bath design. Here is a chart of just a few dozen of the styles we build. even steel. Since we are an entirely custom cabinet builder. Melamine. we can learn a lot about kitchen efficiency from studying commercial kitchens. under the sparking countertops. heating and plumbing. Find out all that's needed behind the scenes. Thermofoil. stone or tile your best choice? Or maybe something more exotic. Every aspect of kitchen and bath design is being given a new.com . Find out how. think again. Framed and frameless. from countertop and toilet heights to the optimum placement of the microwave and dishwasher and the best depth of the kitchen sink. cherry. semi-custom and manufactured. A terrific kitchen does not have to break the bank. ash. We could not possibly show them all. • Behind the Scenes — The Hidden Kitchen Behind the beautiful new cabinets. • Cabinet Door Styles There are an almost infinite number of cabinet door styles available. Practical Ideas for Creating Your Dream Kitchen on a Budget If you feel you cannot afford a great kitchen. • Off the Wall Kitchens: Living Without Wall Cabinets Wall cabinets are unquestionably useful storage. MDF. • Comparative Kitchen & Bath Cabinet Construction with your kitchen. and in the context of universal design has become the hot new topic among kitchen and bath designers.and limit the number and size of windows in the kitchen. • Mise en Place: What We Can Learn from Commercial Kitchens Organized to prepare a large variety of appetizing meals at a moment's notice. Saving Household Water Page 44 qobit@yahoo. but you will end up with a wonderful kitchen that will look good and serve your needs for years to come.arrangements may not be right for you. Here are a few practical ways of reducing the cost of your new kitchen. A major disadvantage is that wall cabinets make a kitchen seem smaller by closing in the space at eye level — which is where we subconsciously judge how large the space around us is . So many choices. You may have to get creative and even make a few compromises in your original grand design. Take a look at the incredible selection of modern counter top materials. Options that simply did not exist 10 years ago are in every home store today. • New and Traditional Countertop Choices Exciting changes are happening in the world of countertop materials. we can make any door you can describe. • Kitchen Remodeling on the Cheap: Simple. • Cabinet Basics Oak.
lifetime faucet. Continue to Body Friendly Design: Kitchen Ergonomics Are any links on this page broken? Please report broken links. treated water are used in American households every day. see our list of major faucet manufacturers with ratings and guidelines on what to look for and how to select a good. or at least the illusion of more space for your new kitchen. well-built and will last a long time. • Fine Furniture and Built-Ins We craft fine furniture and built-ins to match any decor or preference. • Finding Some More Kitchen Space In many cases. While remodeling your kitchen. • Distributed Cabinet Manufacturing: Today's Cabinet Making Revolution Local and regional cabinetmakers are catching up the the factory manufacturers in creative technologies to make custom cabinetry that rivals factory cabinets in price. existing kitchens are just too small for any real improvement in space management. but costs a fortune in electrical power to treat and pump it into our homes. • Using Toe-Kick Space (Tips and Tricks) The toe-kick space under your cabinets can be effectively used for extra storage. Fifteen billion gallons of fresh. But is is possible to make a corner cabinet effective storage with just a little prior planning. Useful corner storage requires some pretty fancy hardware to make the space work. some better than others.Some cabinets are made better than others. Did You Find What You Were Looking For? qobit@yahoo. to store kitchen and bathroom accessories and for truly dramatic lighting. Learn the differnce between a cabinet that is solid. construction and finish.com Page 45 . • Solving Corner Cabinet Woes (Sidebar) Corner base cabinets are notorious as dark. It usually serves as the administrative and the social hub of the home. you have the perfect opportunity to create a highly efficient lighting system. For more good reading. Find out how. • Sources of Supply: Faucets Thinking about buying a faucet? Before your do. It not only deletes our water sources to waste this water. difficult-to-reach storage space. there is no look we cannot reproduce. Learn where to get more space. check out the complete Articles Index. from Chinese to French Provincial. The kitchen uses a lot of energy for lighting. but exceeds factory cabinets in creativity. and all the others. From traditional to avant-garde. That makes this room an important place to use efficient lighting. • Designing Efficient and Effective Kitchen Lighting The kitchen is more than just a place to cook and eat. Find out what you can do to reduce your impact on the environment while saving 33% of your water bill. There are a variety of solutions.
we have provided navigation tools on our site to help you find the information you are looking for. At the top left of the page you will see the main topic menu. flooring. They do not understand synonyms or know when two or more terms or phrases mean the same thing. If the search words you use do not closely match the words appearing on a web page. kitchen remodeling. This is especially true if you reached our site using a search engine like Yahoo or Google. They contain a summary of the content of the article to help you locate the one that contains the information you are looking for. Search engine indexing robots are very fast. not very smart. go to articles on selecting cabinets.com Page 46 . if you did not find it on this page. if you want to know all about countertops. • Site Search. I would like a new… • • • • • • • • • • • Kitchen Bath Addition Furniture/Built-In Closet/Storage Home Office Deck/Porch Window/Door Garage/Outbuilding Post & Beam Insulation To overcome the limitations of the major search engines. renovating and updating your home. Even less helpful is the fact that if a web search engine finds more than one relevant page on a web site. but also leads you to many more articles on various aspects of kitchen remodeling. and so on: all in different articles.No? Then Let Us Help You. If you are looking for information about. architectural integration. it will probably display only the first page it finds — which may not be the best page for your purpose. They look only for specific word groups. countertops. cabinet construction. you can. one by topic and a second by title. setting the proper countertop height for maximum comfort. From the Kitchen page. We maintain two indexes to articles. for example. • Article Indexes. lighting. The information on a particular topic you are looking for may be spread across several articles. design concepts. Our site qobit@yahoo. there are separate articles on countertop materials. and structural issues. • Main Topics. do not give up just yet. so it is not always easy to find all the articles that contain the information you are looking for. Our site contains over a hundred articles on remodeling. This will lead you to every article in which the word "countertop" is used. the search engine will probably miss it entirely. appropriate countertop materials for various styles of kitchens and baths. select "Kitchen" to go to a gateway page that introduces the topic. The best way to find all of the articles that deal with countertops would be to search our site for the term "countertop". Nor do they have the foggiest notion of concept searching. for instance. For example. So.
Find out why. and click the "site search" button to display all of the articles containing the term. to help you identify possible search expressions. windows. tell us about it. and at no cost to you. StarCraft Custom Builders is a design/build remodeling company located in Lincoln. Nebraska. Papillion. Contact us at your convenience.search utility does this for you. Wahoo. StarCraft Custom Builders if the first choice of seasoned professionals in south-east Nebraska. There are lots of terms used in construction and remodeling that may not be familiar to you. garages and outbuildings. relate to the content of this article. ceramic and porcelain tile. Craftsman. Knowing the right search expression to use is somewhat of an art. Our Design Service features the very latest architectural CAD software that allows us to plan your project and show you in full-color. serving Lincoln. qobit@yahoo. photo-realistic images what it will look like when it is finished. And. Bungalow. Beatrice. and home additions. Nebraska. into the small spaces typical of older homes. gutters or all of the above. doors. About StarCraft Custom Builders Preserving the Past. but it should at least get you started. homes built before 1970 — including Victorian. You can view it from any angle. Our designers are very skilled at matching exterior renovations to the historic period of your old home. So. with all the modern conveniences. roofing. Since 1996. including walls. Our interior design/build team can help you with the interior remodeling of any room in your home. So you may search for "kitchen remodeling" and miss a great article on strategies for updating yor old kitchen because the article talks about "kitchen renovation". or renovation of any kind. Need to remove a load-bearing wall to enlarge a room? We can do that. Prairie and post-war modern retro houses. and three times longer than our competition. For any remodeling or renovation need. according to Google's wearch words utility. Enter a search term. The search box is located at the top right corner of this page. We are always looking for good additions to our list. Building the Future. We specialize in heritage homes — generally. we have prepared a list of search terms that. big or small. the longest in our business. and what we can do for you. Our Construction Management Service relieves you of the worries of supervising and managing a complex remodeling project and places the responsibility and the risk where it ought to be — in the hands of trained and experienced professionals. Bellevue. get a detailed look at any feature. We also design and build decks and porches. and Fremont. search engine indexing robots do not look at language the way you do. We emphasize remodeling to conform to the architectural period of the home. We stand behind our workmanship with a written three-year limited warranty. Search Terms Related to the Content of this Page. If you discover a search expression that leads to exactly the information you are looking for. We can also work with you to update the outside of your home whether it needs siding. Omaha. but never mentions the words "kitchen remodeling". Seward. of course a very limited list.com Page 47 . Over the years we have become the experts at building heritage bathrooms and kitchens. If any of our work is defective in any way we will remedy the problem quickly. It is. painting and finishing. and examine it from every imaginable perspective to make sure you love it before we build it. hardwood flooring. Arts & Crafts.
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