The City of Curitiba “Integrated Bus System”
Beto Richa
Mayor of Curitiba SHANGAI EXPO 2010 COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN Eduardo Lopes Pereira Guimarães
Municipal Secretary of International Relations and Protocol

MEMBERS IPPUC - Institute for Research and Urban Planning of Curitiba Augusto Canto Neto

URBS S.A. - Municipal body for Public Transportation Management and Traffic Operations Paulo Afonso Schmidt

Clodualdo Pinheiro Júnior
Director for Business Development

Municipal Institute for Tourism Luiz de Carvalho

José Antônio Andreguetto
Municipal Secretary of Environment

Curitiba S.A. - Municipal Company for Economic Development Juraci Barbosa Sobrinho

IPPUC Lubomir Ficinski Dunin
Project Coordinator

ASSISTANTS Liana Vallicelli Priscila Tiboni Lara Rodrigues Cristiana Camargo Gusso CREDITS Research and English Revision Gisele Krzyzanowski PHOTOS Nani Goes Carlos Ruggi SMCS

Expressions of Interest Form for UBPA Self-Recommend Exhibition Case Proposals

Case ID No. to be filled out by the organizer Case Title City and Country
The authorized sources that introduced and recommended the proposed case (Please attach the photocopies of the name, cover, contents and relevant documents of the mentioned sources) The City of Curitiba “Integrated Bus System” Curitiba - Brazil World Bank East Asia Urban Development Unit

Curitiba as a Model City

Reasons for Self-Recommendation Briefing of the Recommended Case

page 07.

page 15. page 19. page 29.

Case Master Plan Contact Person

page 33.

page 38.


City of Curitiba “Integrated Bus System”

Brazil is a Federative Republic and municipalities have their own autonomy.

The local governments are responsible for developing, coordinating and implementing policies and projects according to the States and Federal laws related to urban planning, environmental, public transportation, education, health care, and social services issues.

Curitiba, the capital city of Paraná State, located in the South Region of Brazil, is 315 years old. Situated 905 m above ocean level, the climate is classified as a moist subtropical type with average temperatures of 19oC in the summer and 13oC in the winter. The city is the center of a metropolitan region encompassing 26 municipalities totaling 3.2 million inhabitants. Only in the city boundaries, 1.8 million people are living. The urbanization process in Curitiba and in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba followed the Brazilian pattern with an intense population growth in the 70’s and 80’s decades as result of the rural-urban migrations.


Curitiba is an important cultural, political and economic center.

Comprising a comprehensive infrastructure, Curitiba and its Metropolitan Region have a wide range of spaces and facilities, such as an international airport, modern convention centers, shopping centers, a diversified gastronomy, a broad hotel infrastructure, a variety of retail areas, outstanding leisure spaces, a network of public parks and woods, museums and theaters. In addition, Curitiba is reference as regards education and health care, counting on with 4 universities such as the Federal University of Paraná, the oldest Brazilian university and a number of hospitals, including 3 University-Hospitals.

The Service Sector is responsible for 65% of formal jobs in Curitiba, followed by the Commerce Sector with 18% and Manufacturing Industry with 17% of total employment. Curitiba is worldwide known as a city planning model in Brazil with over 40 years of urban planning experience. The city is adhered to the integration among the urban functions as an induction principle for urban growth. Land Use for the city space arrangement is linked to the Road System prioritizing the Public Bus System over the individual transportation, valuing the city space addressed to the pedestrian. The city relies on the country’s most efficient public transit system. In addition to these guidelines, the city growth is also oriented by its social, environmental and economic policies. 05.


For the last decades many national and international missions have come to

Curitiba in order to know and study its forward projects, especially regarding the city’s “Integrated Bus System” and its environmental approach on urban planning. Some new Public Transit Systems in Brazil and abroad are based on the Curitiba’s System, encompassing different profiles of cities, as follows:
Capital of Goiás State Capital of Ceará State
Capital of Mato Grosso do Sul State

Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Ecuador Colombia Ecuador Brazil

Dedicated Lanes and Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Dedicated Lanes and Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration Bus Integration
Dedicated Lanes and Bus Integration and Integration Stations



Campo Grande Cuiabá

Capital of Mato Grosso State Capital of Amazonas State
Capital of Rio Grande do Norte State

Manaus Natal

The second most populous city of Paraíba State

Campina Grande
Capital of Sergipe State


Capital of Espírito Santo State Capital of Pernambuco State Capital of Bahia State Capital of Santa Catarina State
City with a relevant industrial District situated in Santa Catarina State City with a relevant industrial District situated in Santa Catarina State

Grande Vitória Recife


Florianópolis Joinville

Blumenau Londrina Cascavel

City located in the northern region of Paraná State

City located in the western region of Paraná State

City located in the western of Minas Gerais State

Uberlândia Quito

Capital of Ecuador

Capital City


Dedicated Lanes and Bus Integration Dedicated Lanes and Bus Integration
In order to prepare the city for the 2014 International Soccer Championship and to submit its candidacy for the 2016 Olympic Games, it is being studied a system of dedicated lanes and bus integration to complement the City’s Metro System

The most populous city in Ecuador


Capital of Rio de Janeiro State

Rio de Janeiro


Reasons for Self-Recommendation
of how integration of public transit with urban planning, without losing sight of environment concepts, has born fruits.

The case City of Curitiba “Integrated Bus System” is a best practice example

The case offers opportunity to understand the processes of change in Curitiba that led to a sustainable urban development. The revolution began in the 60’s when the City and its citizens tried to answer two important questions: which is the city vocation and where does it lead to. As an answer to those two questions, the 1943 Master Plan which envisioned, permitted and induced the city growth from the center to the outlying neighborhoods, in a radial pattern, in evermore all-embracing circles, was substituted by the new 1966 Master Plan. In opposition to the circularly conceived city, where the main thoroughfares and itineraries led always from the center to the periphery and vice-versa and the public transit was thought as something subsidiary to the car, the 1966 Master Plan broke away radically and irreversibly the city’s radial growth pattern and embraced the idea to change the model of urban expansion into a linear growth.



To do this the new Master Plan aimed at setting up a system of structural

arteries intended to foster the city’s growth called Structural Axes. These axes would provide new areas for high density housing, medium-sized business and services and allow the setting up of a mass public transit system that would not only grow with the demand but if necessary it would induce it. The mass public transit should be conceived not as a collection of separate lines, but as a System. Instead of the car, the mass public transit system and the land use laws would lead the urban growth and create a new urban landscape in Curitiba. The first axis to be implemented, the North-South, should be 60 meters wide along its 20 kilometers of length. It implied in high costs of expropriations for which no funds were available. To solve the problem of the axis width the hypothesis the Trinary System of Roads, a three-road system, was raised.


The idea was to divide the traffic into three roads using already existing more or less external parallel streets, one on each side of the main thoroughfare already existing and now considered a structural artery. This consisted basically of a central road and two a one-way road on its either side. The central road was divided into 3 sections, two sections with a one-way street for local traffic and parking and a central two-way street dedicated for buses in the center. The external roads were meant for continuous traffic flow in and out downtown area. The continuity of the three external parallel streets was ensured through small expropriations at a very low cost.

In a time of cheap fuel, Curitiba decided to base its development not on road thinking, not on car, but on a public transportation development, avoiding also costly solutions by the use of bus system. It was a beginning of a transportation and environmental revolution. All today’s political concern over CO2 emissions was really addressed and with the introduction of biofuel in the near future, the emissions will be dramatically decreased.



The 1966 Master Plan also call for preservation of green areas that already

existed. Among them the Iguaçu Park, one out of a nowadays existing network of over 30 Parks and Woods. The Iguaçu is a river that is born in Curitiba and attracts millions of tourists to its world renowned falls. The idea of those parks would be nothing more than the preservation of the areas along riverbanks subject to flooding, giving back to river what belongs to it. During 42 years, Curitiba steadily pursued its objectives and built step by step of its “Integrated Bus System” and its environmental preservation. The Green Line, the new development axis currently under construction, integrating public transit, land use readjustments and a 22 km Linear Park is the most recent materialization of Curitiba’s development vision. Self-recommendation of the case of the City of Curitiba “Integrated Bus System” as a model - as already shown - is based in real facts that demonstrate that very good results can be achieved by small steps and political will.




Briefing of The Recommended Case

In the early sixties, at an era of extremely cheap oil and at a moment when

Brazil was implementing its own automobile industry, thus geometrically rising the domestic supply of cars, and when Curitiba was beginning to face accelerated demographic growth - to be accentuated in the 70’s and 80’s and the consequent disorganization of some urban functions, the pressures on the city’s infrastructure became insurmountable. It became clear that the 1943 Master Plan, due to its vision and the costs to be incurred for its implementation, could not address the situation. A turning point occurred during the debate over a large overpass that the State’s Development Company refused to finance offering instead funds that would enable a new Master Plan for Curitiba to be drawn up. By 1966 the new Master Plan was ready and after a public consultation, officially in effect. The 1966 Master Plan reversed completely the 1943 Master Plan and proposed the linear growth and structural arteries - the Structural Axes that would concentrate population and services according to the directives of the new land use regulations established by the Plan. So along the Structural Axes there would be a maximum density that should decrease with the distance of the axes. Thus, the remaining zones have been designed with decreasing densities from those axes, which constituted the basis for structuring the city. That enabled the city to maximize investments and reduce infrastructure costs.

The downtown core area that concentrated cultural and religious establishments would be protected and the commerce and the services would be decentralized along these Structural Axes and special streets named Collector Roads where retail and services were also located to serve citizens in their own neighborhoods, avoiding unnecessary trips.


This arrangement would provide density to an efficient mass public transport notwithstanding the fact that the public transportation in many occasions could be used to induce desirable land occupation.
A hierarchy of city streets was also proposed by the Plan. The Structural Axes were connected to the neighborhoods trough Collector Roads and other complementary roads.


was developed and the bus was chosen as the modal avoiding expensive solutions. Other than getting decongested the city center, revitalizing its historical district and giving priority to pedestrians, creating new parks and preserving its green areas, the new Master Plan also brought on economic changes. Until the end of the 1960’s, the municipal economy was locally-oriented and incipient, focused on commerce and services. The 1966 Master Plan gave rise to its industrialization process by setting aside an area to the West of the city for industrial uses. The 1966 Master Plan has also recommended the creation of an institution that should monitor and detail its implementation.

With all these major changes, the new vision of public transportation as a System

Thus, the Institute for Research and Urban Planning of Curitiba (IPPUC) was created. IPPUC is a municipal body that was responsible and is until today by implementing and monitoring the urban planning process for the City of Curitiba. It’s main responsibilities among others are: to implement the measures that are necessary to improve living conditions for the population; develop and deliver to the Mayor’s Office a draft bill establishing the urban plan; develop studies and research for the city’s integral planning development; analyze and propose legislation and administrative measures that may be representative for the development of the city.




After the approval of the 1966 Master Plan, IPPUC began the detailing of
its basic guidelines that encompass seven sections, dealing with road system, zoning, land subdivisions, urban renovation, preservation and revitalization of historical areas, green areas and building code. For the first time in the history of Curitiba, urban planning and its application were based on the tripod: Land Use, Road System and Public Transportation developed together. During the 1966-70 period the plan of the Central Slow Traffic ring to protect the central area and the Structural Sector Project were detailed. The Structural Sector was composed by the Trinary System, a corridor of buses only, sided by slow traffic roadways, and two parallel streets for fast traffic. In 1971 began the implementation of the plan, first with implantation of the Flower Street Pedestrian Area, the first in the country. Notwithstanding other uses, the transformation of the most important downtown street into a pedestrian area was symbolic to signalize the start of great transformations in the city, demonstrating clearly the priority of the people over the car.



During the 1971-74, the creation of great parks, woods and massive street tree
planting was initiated having as outcome the today’s ratio of 50m² of green area per inhabitant transforming Curitiba in a “bio-city”. In 1974 the Express Bus - a new model designed to operate in the axis, with capacity to transport 100 passengers - begins to operate in the North-South Axis, a 20 km long axis. The city had approximately 700.000 inhabitants and all bus lines, including the new North-South Axis line were transporting 500.000 passengers per day.

From 1974 till now, 34 years span of time, Curitiba abode to its public transportation guidelines. As a result the Integrated Bus System transports 2.2 million passengers per day in a city with 1.8 million inhabitants. The main line, the North-South Axis itself transports 420.000 passengers per day. All this development was done step by step through rather simple measures compatible with the financial possibilities of the city. There were too much small steps to be described in this document, but there are some points in the trajectory of development of the Integrated Bus System that deserve to be indicated.


In 1975 twelve Feeder Bus lines were physically integrated to the North-South
Axis in their two Bus Terminals, thus beginning the integration process. At that time 14% of the whole system was integrated.

In 1977 the Boqueirão Axis, with two Bus Terminals and 10.6 km long was inaugurated. In 1979 the first Circle Line connecting the Hauer Bus Terminal, located on the Boqueirão Axis, to the Capão Raso and Cabral Bus Terminals located on the North-South Axis.




In 1980 the East and West Axes with its 22 km long were inaugurated.

The Integrated Transportation Network - RIT was set up allowing the fare and physical integration involving several types of bus services and the possibility of making several itineraries with the payment of a single fare. The passenger paying one fare can use the all system changing the busses at the Bus Terminals. The new, Articulated Bus with capacity of transporting 160 passengers entered in operation in the Express Lines of Boqueirão Axis. 1981 - 84 - Construction of 15 new Bus Terminals on the five axes. 1984 - As the beginning of the streamlining of the whole transportation system, 185 bus lines were reduced to 14 Express Lines and 54 Feeder Lines. At this time 55% of the public transportation was already integrated.

1991 - The ‘boarding-on-the-same-level-of-the-bus’ in Integration Stations and in special stations called Tube Stations was inaugurated. It represented and still represents one of the most innovative solutions regarding the bus model. Other than improving the passenger comfort, it enormously reduces the boarding and disembarking time and promotes accessibility to all citizens. The pre-payment of the fare that started being use with the Tube Station was very important to the process as well.



1992 - The new Bi-articulated Bus, 25 m long and with capacity to transport 270 passengers began the operations on the Boqueirão Axis.

2000 - The Bi-articulated Bus was operating on the 5 Axis.

2006 - A total of 93% of all public transportation are tariff and physically integrated. 2007 - Beginning of the construction of the Green Line - a Sixth Axis, intending to be the first metropolitan axis 22 km long. The Green Line will be the greatest avenue of Curitiba designed with a new concept of an urban avenue.




Other than saving an enormous amount of money to finance the construction of broad avenues and avoid unnecessarily and destructive urban surgery and the use of expensive modals, the implementation of the “Integrated Bus System” has been of paramount consequences to the city.
The System acted effectively as a spear-head for the city development by inducing the land occupation and creating a new urban pattern with a unique urban landscape. Integrations at the Bus Terminals combined with the same fare allowing the total use of the system guarantee the full accessibility to all urban areas. From this stand point Curitiba, today, maybe described as an ‘Open City’, once people can reach everywhere by bus. Another outcome from the “Integrated Bus System” is the decentralization of the location of jobs and services.


In 1964, 80% of passengers using public transportation had as destination the

central area. Recent research on the North-South Axis demonstrates that 55% of the all passenger’s destinations was to the South Axis, 26% was to the North Axis and only 19% was to the central area. This distribution clearly demonstrates the decentralization of jobs and services accomplished due to the guidelines provided by the 1966 Master Plan. Today, existing data demonstrates the most frequently modals used by people living in Curitiba.
MODAL Bycicle Car Motorcycle Taxi Public Transit Transport of Enterprise Van Walk Other
Did Not Answer

TO WORK (%) 4.96 18.96 3.18 0.25 42.37 2.29 21.50 4.58 1.91 100

TO STUDY(%) 2.33 16.28 1.74 0.58 50.59 1.16 25.58 1.74 100


2.18 32.20 1.96 1.16 53.07 0.65 7.25 1.38 0.15 100


Obs.: Research made with a sample of 1855 people.

As to environmental issues, given the fact that 44% of the people interviewed have car, it is easy to verify the diminishing of emissions of CO2 due to the bus-oriented pattern of development, the “Integrated Bus System” of Curitiba. The new transportation operation measures in study overlapping and in implementation - the Green Line should also contribute to reduce even more the emissions on the South Axis by 40.9 tons per year.



The Value of The Case in The Future
Urban mobility and accessibility in the fast growing cities all over the world
is one of the most important issues regarding urban development. Urban traffic problems are common not only in large cities but also in medium and even in small cities. The case demonstrates that: • The concept and implementation methodology of the case presented was tested by real use and approved. • It is not necessary to do everything at the same time, a System can be implemented step by step. • In order to implement a System this way strong political will and commitment are essential over the time. • The solutions adopted may be innovative but should seek simplicity and feasibility. • Integration between land use, road system and transportation must be pursued. • Solutions should consider the built and the natural environment. The notion of development should be strongly linked to the notion of preservation. • Even adopting a traditional solution, the bus, the less expensive of a wide range of transportation mass modals, when used with creative operational solutions can be extremely efficient. • Citizens should be involved early in the process in order to support the actions in the future and be proud of the System.


Case Master Plan
The Curitiba’s Pavilion, a light poliedric metal structure, with 220 m2 will be
built in an area of 600 to 800 m2. The exposition area will be a continuous space excepted by a small auditorium for 20 to 30 people. The Pavilion will be surrounded by a garden designed by a landscape architect and two totems to indicate its entrance. At night media projections will be made on the external walls of the Pavilion. The exposition of the Case of Curitiba “Integrated Bus System” is being conceived to meet two types of visitors: the general public and the mayors, managers and transportation specialists from the Chinese and other cities in the world. It isthe reason why the Curitiba’s Pavilion will have two distinct areas. The multimedia area to show and explain to the visitors the Concept, the Beginning, the Evolution and the Future of the Curitiba’s System of Public Transportation that along the last 43 years has been a model to many cities. The other area, the auditorium, for meetings and presentations with simultaneous translations to municipal representatives that would like to learn more about the System.


Themes and Medias of Exhibition Entrance “Electronic Door” - The visitor is invited by a sound system to say the word CURITIBA as a password to open the door and enter in the Pavilion.

Station 1 A panel showing general information about the Master Plan and about Curitiba’s urban planning process highlighting land use, road system, public transportation and the environmental approach.

Station 2 Digital information about the System’s concept and banners showing the Road System hierarchy, the Bus System and the bus types. In this Station the visitor will find information of the beginning of the implementation of the System, back in 1974 when the transportation capacity was of 500.000 passengers per day.

Station 3 A scale model demonstrating the evolution of the System step by step until today. In a big screen, the visitor will experience a bi-articulated bus trip from the stand point of view of the bus driver. In panels the visitor will see the on-level boarding and disembarking.



Station 4 A screen will show the new features proposed to update the System allowing the special bi-articulated busses operating on the dedicated lanes to overtake. These busses will stop only at the Bus Terminals and will have traffic priority at the intersections. The solution will enhance the bus operational speed and consequently the number of passenger transported. Going on, the visitor will see on a screen the Green Line, currently under construction, a new public transportation axis that incorporates significant environmental concepts, such as biofuels and a Linear Park with native plants.

Special Station Each hour ten visitors will be chosen to make a virtual trip through the Parks network and other touristic points of Curitiba.

Exit When leaving the exposition the visitor will receive a folder or a DVD card containing graphic or digital information about the exposition. A special brochure about the Curitiba’s Integrated Bus System History is going to be issued to present special authorities visiting the Pavilion. During the Opening week of the Exposition, the Mayor of Curitiba and other municipal authorities will make presentations to mayors of other cities especially invited. During all the exposition period, Municipal staff will make presentations to the mayors, managers and transportation specialists.



Contact Person
Eduardo Lopes Pereira Guimarães Secretary of the Secretariat of International Relations and Protocol Chairman of the EXPO 2010 COMMITTEE edguimaraes@pmc.curitiba.pr.gov.br internacional@pmc.curitiba.pr.gov.br Mailing Address Palácio 29 de Março Avenida Cândido de Abreu, 817 - Centro Cívico Curitiba - Paraná - Brazil 80530-908

Lubomir Ficinski Dunin Advisor to the President of IPPUC Project EXPO 2010 Coordinator lubomir@superig.com.br lubomir@ippuc.org.br Mailing Address IPPUC Rua Bom Jesus, 669 - Cabral Curitiba - Paraná - Brazil 80035-010


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