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Abstract: Operation of solar installations is dependent on the time the sun shines. Variability of solar radiation has a significant impact on both the design of the solar system and how the equipment component, are put into the opera. For proper evaluation of performance of a solar system designers also need data about the intensity of solar radiation for different areas and data about temperature, measured at the times of the day and depending on the season. All these data are essential for effective design of a thermal solar system. Key words: Energy Efficiency, Solar Energy, Solar Collector 1. Introduction The image of Solar Technology improves every day that passes. The solar offer there will be with us long before now. Solar energy has many outstanding qualities: it is free (as a form of primary energy), is found in unlimited quantities and, unlike conventional systems, solar installations pay for themselves in terms of energy, after a few years. It is true that large investments in solar installations require purchase, but they also offer independence from the rising prices of conventional fuels. Investment costs for solar technology is, in case of new houses built for one family, only 12% of construction costs. In addition, between latitudes that outlines the physical profile of Romania, the sun can provide sufficient radiant energy, especially for getting hot water. Such a solar installation is emerging as a real investment for the future. So what could be more natural than the exploitation of this energy? 2. The energy produced by a solar collector Solar thermal plants convert solar energy into heat that can be used to heating and hot water consumption. Equipment which can be achieved through this conversion are solar collectors By converting thermodynamics, a thermal agent store and transfer this energy (for example) a solar water heater coil, or - it - can be stored to be used later for hot water. The solar weather conditions in Romania, a thermal solar collector working under normal conditions of safety and efficiency during the period April to September, with yields that can reach even up to 90%. A solar thermal system - properly sized and operated – can to cover 50% up to 65% of annual hot water, so - called "solar coverage rate"; in the summer - sun coverage - is often of 100%.
solar panels were built with vacuum tubes. Generally. . but also because. . with heat pipe solar panels. taking into account the influence of solar radiation.make possible the description of the instantaneous efficiency.solar collector optical efficiency a1 .a2 G (T*)2 η0 . passing – through conduction.even at temperatures below 0 ° C . useful thermal energy and energy losses . For achieving this objective. So that.η0). Case Study . that much of the year.heat loss (through convection) G . it is obvious that the heat load of solar thermal collectors will be just as variable.is greater than 200 W/m2. which means thatis we can speak of maximum and minimum values of this sizes. derives not only from the fact.heat loss (through conduction) a2 . "Principles" of capture The intensity of solar radiation are variable.Optimizing the number of solar thermal tubes to an objective in the city of Vaslui (Romania). energy produced is free. Global Energy Assessment The thermal balance created at a time . 4.collector efficiency depends on its operating condition. consuming.Efficiency itself. The largest amount of heat is found in infrared radiation and no radiation in the visible. It is recommended that factor optical sensor to be as large as to absorb as much solar radiation intensity. both during the year.the efficiency of a solar collector shows to what percent the solar radiation falling on the absorption surface can be converted into useful heat output. during operation.when the solar flux density . The generally principles accepted by international norms (ISO) and European (CEN) on the efficiency of a solar collector can be described by three independent temperature coefficients: η = η0 – a1T* . convection and radiation . and for efficient capture of solar radiation . 3.were performed solar panels. technological applications in solar radiation ranges are considered only . less.a portion of the warm from the environment (correction factors by which these losses are taken into account the factors a1 and a2.thermal solar panels. 5. I-2 .global energy measured in the solar collector So: [%] [%] [W/m2K] [W/m2K] [W/m2] . .correction factor . and every day.between solar energy received by the collector. leading to the conclusion that this type of radiation can be captured effectively in conditions where the sky is perfectly clear.correction factor . boiler operating at low capacity. when a thermal compensation is required.part of a solar radiation reaching the solar collector is lost through reflection and absorption (parameter which takes into account these losses is the optical efficiency of the collector . Yield of a solar collector is the amount of heat that is found in the thermal agent to be heated and the amount of solar energy incident on the solar collector surface. obviously.
96 June 5.8 3. C0 Jan Febr.18 July 5.79 Sept 3.34 0.4 86. that is .str Parametrul Luna January February March April May June July August September October November December τ. τ.is equal to the ratio between the number of hours of brilliance and the potential number of hours that the sun may shine.46 Dec 1.ins.ins [monthly] 0. the fraction of sunstroke . τan.8 231.5 21. The annual number of brilliance hours is .49 0.ins = 0.(in column 3).481. Thus.) for the city of Vaslui (considered relevant to the project) are: 46 ° 38'39 "North.fins .2 16. fl.53 Oct.36 Febr.9 307.For solar energy applications are useful to study more detailed information on both solar radiation and the number of hours collecting items subjected to this radiation. 1.4 3.7 0.9 -0. Operation of solar installations is dependent on the time the sun shines.5 169.τan.66 0. temperature.5 21 16.ins [yearly] 2156.str [hour/month] 86.4477 hours per year.05 April 3.29 August 4.27 fan. Nov.4 10. .31 0.Average daily horizontal solar radiation (per month) .7 10.61 0.str [hour/year] fl.(in column 1).7 277.2 19.2 -1.47 0.5 Ville la plus proche: Vaslui.2 67.5 212.2 294. . March April May June July August Sept Oct.481 Monthly value characteristic of heatstroke each month of the year for the city of Vaslui (Romania) are illustrated in the table below (using the RETScreen software).13 March 3.str = 2153 hours and the average fraction Sunstroke is .2 167.35 0.Monthly and Annual Averages fins.9 93. Dec -1. 27 ° 44'15" East Elevation: Table 2.1 Table 3.54 0.36 Nov.69 0. 2.82 May 4. the number of monthly heating degree days.1 162.72 0.fan. According to this soft. wind speed.9 τan.str. 2. etc. Table 1 .Monthly average outdoor temperature .43 0. Roumanie (0 km distante) I-3 . kWh/m2 Jan 1. climatic characteristics (monthly solar radiation.
May-August: To: Monthly average solar fraction of 63% and average monthly solar radiation 5. Table 4 I-5 .Changes in solar radiation during the day for different weather situations (March) Fig. .Fig.Variation of horizontal solar radiation over a year The determination of the numbers thermal collectors and heat supplied Thermal tubes collectors . the amount of heat generated is recorded in Table 4.1 .06 [kWh/m2/zi]. 2.
48 . the amount of heat generated is recorded in Table 5.December: To: Monthly average solar fraction of 32% and average monthly solar radiation 1.27 0.18 5.96 5.17 .13 1. Table 6 I-6 .ins [monthly] 0.ins [monthly] 0.10 1.32 Energy average insolation [kWh/m2/zi] 0.46 1.79 5.31 0.06 Average solar fraction fl.51 Average solar fraction fl.Maximum thermal energy captured by solar thermal tube surface: 0.January – February – November .35 0.72 Energy average insolation [kWh/m2/zi] 0.34 0.175 m/tube for each of the periods analyzed is shown in Table 6.51 [kWh/m2/zi]. Table 5 Month January February November December Solar Radiation [kWh/m2/zi] 1.69 0.63 3.49 0.29 4.36 2.Month May June July August Solar Radiation [kWh/m2/zi] 4.61 0.
then it is very much diminished.52 Thermal energy produced / thermal solar tube [kWh/tub/zi] 0.175 0.555 Tubes required 118 Tubes required/collectors 16 Collectors required 7 b) For mounths: April – September Heat requirement for hot water [kWh/zi] 65. March-Oct. It is important to emphasise the fact that the heat produced by the equipment . In order not to oversize the facility and to optimally exploit the potential of solar collectors will select 8 collectors (16 tubes/collector).39 0.084 In the event that the heat demand for hot water consumption is: a) For mounths: May .175 0.76 2.52 Thermal energy produced / thermal solar tube [kWh/tub/zi] 0.175 0.August Heat requirement for hot water [kWh/zi] 65.523 0.418 Tubes required 157 Tubes required/collectors 16 Collectors required 10 d) ) For mounths: Jan – Febr .48 Thermal energy produced / thermal solar tube [kWh/tub/zi] 0.555 0.17 2.523 Tubes required 125 Tubes required/collectors 16 Collectors required 8 c) ) For mounths: March -October Heat requirement for hot water [kWh/zi] 65.175 Energy average insolation [kWh/m2/zi] 3.is obtained in May-August.084 Tubes required Tubes required/collectors Collectors required 780 16 49 Conclusions For a collector between April and September the values for the efficiency are between 4090%. a better efficiency can be obtained and in April-September (practically from March 22 to September 22 ). however.Nov – Dec Heat requirement for hot water [kWh/zi] 65. Surface solar absorption tube [kWh/m2/zi] 0.52 Thermal energy produced / thermal solar tube [kWh/tub/zi] 0. Jan-Febr-NovDec. I-7 .Period May-August April-Sept.52 Thermal energy produced / thermal solar tube [kWh/tub/zi] 0.most effectively .418 0.
It can be seen that a calculation which takes as input measurements/determinations heatstroke energy.west of Romania. 2008. Vasilica Ciocan. REFERENCES     EAST-GSR Solar Thermal applications in Eastern Europe with Guaranteed Solar Results Professional manual for designing collective systems that use solar thermal energy. PhD thesis. In the case of a simple calculation.Assessing performance of a photovoltaic system using thin technology video connected to relays. 2011 www. Dumitru Florin . Oradea. using monthly averages of daily data. schedule and system size.Optimizing the number of solar collectors taking into consideration the influence of solar radiation – Conferance Timisoara. 2009 Marina Verdes. production of daily. is more optimistic than the monthly calculation based on the measurement results of the annual cumulative energy heatstroke Vaslui area ranging between 1150 and 1250 kWh /m 2/ year. Thus.net I-8 . the area west and north . which is 12 values for each parameter. application. Production capacity of the hot water supply system using solar energy obtained depends on various parameters in a complicated way: weather data.retscreen. Marius Costel Balan . monthly and annual basis can not be defined by a simple formula.
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