H2>
ELEMENTS
OF
QUATERNIONS
BY THE LATE
SIR
WILLIAM ROWAN HAMILTON,
D. C. L.
LL. D., M, R.
L
A.,
CANTAB.
;
FELLOW OK THE AMERICAN SOCIEIT OF ARTS AlTD SCir.NCKS; OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS FOR SCOTIAND OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL ROCIKTT OF LONDON; AND OF THB KOTAL NORTHKRN SOCIETY OF ANTIQ'IAUIES AT COPKNHAGE>f : CORRESPONDING MKMBER OF THE INSTITUTK OF FRANCE HONORARY OR CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE UrPERTAI OR ROYAL ACADEMIES OF ST. PETERSBURGK, BERLIN, AND TURIN OF THE ROYAL SOCIETIES OF EDINBDRGH AND DUBLIN; OFTHR NATIONAL ACADEMY f)F THE ITNITED STATES; OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY THE NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY ; THE SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCIENCES AT LAUSANNE THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF VENICE OF AND OTHF^ SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES IN BRITISH AND FORKIGN COUNTRIES ANDREWS' PROFESSOR OF ASTRONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
AND ROYAL ASTRONOMER OF IRELAND.
EDITED BY HIS SOX,
WILLIAM EDWIN HAMILTON, A.B.T.C.D., C.E.
LONDON
18G6.
:
LONGMANS, GREEN,
& CO.
DUBLIN:
^rCntett at
t})t
QnibersitB ^reais,
BY M. H.
GILL.
\i^
QA
TO THE
RIGHT HONOEABLE WILLIAM EAEL OF ROSSE,
CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN,
IS,
BY PERMISSION, DEDICATED,
BY
THE EDITOR.
In
my
late father's
Will no instructions were
left as
to the publication of his Writings, "
nor specially as to
that of the
for his late
Elements of Quaternions," which, but fatal illness, would have been before now,
hands of the Public.
in all their completeness, in the
My
brother, the Rev. A. H. Hamilton,
who was
in his cle
named Executor, being
rical duties to
too
much engaged
undertake the publication, deputed this
for
task to me.
It
fulfil
my triple duty in this matter — First,
dead
;
was then
me
to consider
how
I
could best
and
chiefly,
;
to the
secondly, to the present public
I
and,
thirdly, to succeeding generations.
came to the conclusion that my duty was to publish the work as I found it, adding merely proof sheets, partially corrected by my late father and from which I removed a few typographical errors, and editing only in the literal sense
of giving forth. Shortly before
versations with
my
father's death, I
had several con"
him on the subject of the
Elements."
In these he spoke of anticipated applications of Quaternions to Electricity, and to all questions in which the idea of Polarity is involved applications which he never in his own lifetime expected to be able fully
—
to develope,
bows
to be reserved for the
hands of
another Ulysses. He also discussed a good deal the nature of his own forthcoming Preface and I may
;
intimate, that after dealing with
topics,
its
more important
he intended to advert to the great labour which
(
vi
)
the writing of the
"
Elements" had
as,
cost
him
— labour
both mental and mechanical;
besides a mass of
subsidiary and unprinted calculations, he wrote out all the manuscript, and corrected the proof sheets,
without assistance.
here I must gratefully acknowledge the generous act of the Board of Trinity College, Dublin, in
relieving us of the remaining pecuniary liability,
And
and
this
thus incurring the main expense, of the publication of volume. The announcement of their intention to
gratifying as it was, surprised me the less, when I remembered that they had, after the publication of
do
so,
former book, " Lectures on Quaternions," defrayed its entire cost an extension of their liberality beyond what was recorded by him at the end of his
my
father's
;
Preface to the " Lectures," which doubtless he would
have acknowledged, had he lived to complete the Pre" face of the Elements."
He intended also, I know, to express his sense of the care bestowed upon the typographical correctness of this volume by Mr. M. H. Gill of the University
and upon the delineation of the figures by the Engraver, Mr. Oldham. I annex the commencement of a Preface, left in maPress,
nuscript by my father, and which he might possibly have modified or rewritten. Believing that I have
thus best fulfilled
lished
*'
part as trustee of the unpubElements," I now place them in the hands of
my
the scientific public.
William Edwin Hamilton.
January
1 5^,
1866.
PREFACE
[1.] The volume now submitted to the public is founded on the same principles as the " Lectures, "^^^ which were published on the same subject about ten years ago but the plan
:
entirely new, and the present work can in no sense adopted be considered as a second edition of that former one. The
is
Table of Contents^ by collecting into one view the headings of the various Chapters and Sections, may suffice to give, to readers already acquainted with the subject, a notion of the
course pursued
:
but
it
seems proper to
offer
here a few intro
ductory
sition,
remarks, especially as regards the
it
method of expo
which
has been thought convenient on this occasion
treatise is divided into
to adopt.
[2.]
The present
to
Three Books, each
designed
illustrate it
by
develope one guiding conception or view, and to a sufficient but not excessive number of exam
ples or applications.
iion
The
First
Book
relates to the Concept
line^
of a Vector^ considered as a directed right
in space of
three dimensions.
The Second Book introduces
a First Con
ception of a Quaternion^ considered as the Quotient of two such And the Third Book treats of Products and Powers Vectors.
of Vectors^ regarded as constituting a Second Principal of the Conception of Quaternions in Geometry.
Form
*
This fragment, by the Author, was found in one of his manuscript books
by the Editor,
TABLE OF CONTENTS,
BOOK
I.
ON VECTORS, CONSIDERED WITHOUT REFERENCE TO ANGLES, OR TO ROTATIONS,
. .
.
Page
.
1102
CHAPTER*
I.
FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES EESPECTING VECTORS,
Section!
1.
;
.
111
lity of Vectors,
Section
2.
—On the Conception of a Vector and on Equa—On Differences and Sums of Vectors, taken two
13
by two,
Section
3.
35
or
Section
4.
— On Sums of Three more Vectors, .... — On of Vectors,
Coefficients
;
57
81
1
This short First Chapter should be read with care by a beginner any misconception of the meaning of the word "Vector" being fatal The Chapter contains explanato progress in the Quaternions. tions also of the connected, but not all equally important, words " or phrases, " re vector," "provector," transvector," "actual and null vectors," " opposite and successive vectors," " origin and term of a vector," " equal and unequal vectors," "addition and subtraction of vectors," "multiples and fractions of vectors," &c. with the notation B  A, for the Vector (or directed right line) ab and a deduction
;
:
of the result, essential but not pecuUarX to quaternions, that (what is here called) the vectorsum^ of two co initial sides of a parallelo" gram, is the intermediate and coinitial Aiagonal. The term Scalar" is also introduced, in connexion with coefficients of vectors.
ter of the
* This Chapter may be referred to, as I. i. ; the next as I. Second Book, as II. i. and similarly for the rest.
;
ii.
;
the
first
Chap
t This Section
may
be referred
to, as I.
i.
1
;
the next, as
ii.
I.
;
i.
2
;
the sixth
on.
Section of the second Chapter of the Third Book, as III. X Compare the second Note to page 203.
6
and so
b
ii
CONTENTS.
Pages.
CHAPTER
ArrLICATIOIs^S TO POINTS
II.
AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE,
Coinitial
1149
Section
—On Linear Equations connecting two Vectors, —On Linear Equations between three Section
1.
1112
Coinitial
2.
Vectors,
After reading these two first Sections of the second Chapter, and perhaps the three first Articles (3133, pages 2023) of the following
Section, a student to whom the subject is new may find it convenient to pass at once, in his first perusal, to the third Chapter of the present Book; and to read only the two first Articles (62, 63, pages 4951)
1220
of the
first Section of that Chapter, respecting Vectors in Space, before proceeding to the Second Book (pages 103, &c.), which treats of Qua
ternions as Quotients of Vectors.
Section Section
— On Plane Geometrical ...... — On Anharmonic Coordinates and Equations of Points and Lines in one Plane, — On Plane Geometrical Section resumed, — On Anhaimonic Equations and Vector ExSection
3.
I^ets,
2024
2432 3235
4.
5.
iN'ets,
.
.
.
6.
pressions, for
Curves in a given Plane,
3549
Among
which seems
other results of this Chapter, a theorem is given in page 43, to ofifer a new geometrical generation of (plane or spheri
cal) curves of the third order.
The anharmonic
coordinates
and equa
tions employed, for the plane and for space, were suggested to the writer by some of his own vector forms; but their geometrical interThe geometrical nets were first discussed pretations are assigned.
by
Professor Mobius, in his Barycentric Calculus (Note B), but they are treated in the present work by an entirely new analysis and, at least for space, their theory has been thereby much extended in the Chapter
:
to
which we next proceed.
CHAPTER
Section
1.
III.
.
applications of vectors to space,
.
.49102
4956
—On Linear Equations between Vectors not Com;
planar, been recommended to the student to read the first two Articles of this Section, even in his first perusal of the Volume and then to pass to the Second Book.
It has already
Section 2
Space,
—On Quinary Symbols
for Points
and Planes in
57_62
men BOOK • 11. i. 6267 6785 8589 On Barycentres of Systems of Points and on and Complex Means of Yectors. In the last Section. Section 4. . First Motive for naming the Quotient of two Yectors a Quaternion.. that . 103239 in a any. tioned . Section 3. but involves the Vectors of Velocity and Acceleration are conception of limits. and which will be indicated in the proper place in this Table. HI Pages. 87.— On Differentials of Yectors. — Sections. Simple On Anhannonic Equations. Section 5 — pressions. Still cones.. even perusal since it contains the most essential conceptions and notations of the Calculus of Quaternions. . at least so far as quotients of vectors are concerned. by consideration of an angle on a desk. First Principles 1 Introductory Remarks 103106 adopted from Algebra. there are a few investigations respecting circumscribed and ellipsoids. should be omitted. 106110 Section — . in length and . Section 7. CONSIDERED AS QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS.. nition of differentials {pi vectors have their vector equations assigned. 9097 98102 An rycentres^ occurs in p.CONTENTS. ^^Tets . Illustrations. 110112 shown. AND AS INVOLVING ANGULAR RELATIONS. 103300 I. ON QUATERNIONS. —On Geometrical in Space. tion. CHAPTEE Very little. — Additional It is l)lane. and Yector ExSection 6. a defirand scalars) is proposed. or inclined the complex relation of one vector to another. application oifinite differences^ to a question connected with baThe anharmonic generation of a ruled hy perboloid (or paraboloid) is employed to illustrate anharmonic equations and (among other examples) certain cones^ of the second and third . Section 2. . tions. of this Chapter II. in the thirteenth Sec which a student may pass over. and a hint of Sodographs is given. if FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES RESPECTING QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS. orders. and which is independent of developments and of infinitesimals. —On Anhannonic Coordinates in Space.. imaginary intersections. with numerous geometrical illustrafirst . of Surfaces and Curves in Space. which is afterwards extended to differentials of quaternions.
' i2=p = h'i = ijk^'[. (A) . as denoting the (uninterpreted) Imaginary of Algebra. ]S"ulI . among other things. 6. and Section 120129 l^orm of a Quaternion. in this as in several other systems but when thus treated : as real. The Symbol V  1 admits then of a real in. that the plane of a quaternion is generally an essential element of its constitution. " Many other motives. 133142 In the five foregoing Sections it is shown. the order of the factors. . Quaternion. is important.Arcs. on accoxmt of its constructions of muland division which show that the product of two diplanar and therefore of two such quaternions." are foimd to present themselves in the course of the work. — 142157 This Section tiplication versors. and on the Multiplication and Division of any one such Yersor by another. ijk. Opposite. is not independent of . of a YecSection Section 5. On a System of Three Eight Yersors. terpretation. or tor . or called the scalar imaginary. Quaternion. Section 10. from its fundamental connexion with the number " Four. 112117 or . and on the Plane —On the Axis and Angle of a Quaternion and 117120 on the Index of a Eight Quotient. . leading to the adoption of the name. or nonreal contacts.iv CONTENTS. and Yector. . of a Quaternion. in direction. 157162 The student ought which are all to make hxm&eM familiar with these laws. included in the Fundamental Formula. considered as Eepresentatives of Yersors of Quaternions . so that diplanar quaternions are unequal. and on some General Formulae of Transformation. and on Quaternions. — Symbols. in Three Eectangular Planes and on the Laws of the . —On the Yersor of a Quaternion. Conjugate. . involves generally a system oifour numerical elements. but that the tquare of every right radial (or right versor) is equal to negative unitt/j whatever its plane may be. in investigations re specting nonreal intersections. —On Eadial Quotients and on the Square of a Section 129133 Quaternion." for the subject of the present Calculus.Angles. 7. —On the Eeciprocal. in geometry. it is account it in the present Calculus too vague to be useful on which is foimd convenient to retain the old signification of that what may here be symbol. Sectiost 4 On Equality of Quaternions . Section 9 On "Vector. 8.
obeying the laws contained in the subject to all the formula (A). or of a Quater Section nion 11 . —On Complanar Proportion of Vectors. 240285 ii. y = + A. with a Pirst Proof of the Associative Principle of Multiplication of Quaternions. new symbols.CONTENTS. but ji = k. Fourth Third Proportional to Two. the and on the Product or Quotient of any two Qua ternions. k are tliree four scalars. 162174 Sum or Difference of (or ternions ternion. Square Root General Reduction of a Quaternion in a given Plane. Section 1. Section 12 — On . Section 14. y. 240246 Proportional to Section tors . Three. and iy^k^ =. in pp. symbolically defined to be a Quadrino niial JSxpresston of tlie q= in "which tv. may be reading. — On . may be passed over first perusal. ON COMPLANAE QUATERNIONS. to a Standard Binomial Form. and therefore not : usual rules of alge since we have. z are iv + ix+jy + kz. AND LOGAEITHMS OP QUATEENIONS. y. OR QUOTIENTS OF VECTOES IN ONE PLANE AND ON POWEES. 246251 . —On Continued Proportion of Four • • • Roots of Unity. EOOTS. for instance. 214233. Quaternion may be form.{ifk^.) The in a first six Sections of this Chapter (II. and on the Scalar any two QuaScalar Part) of a Qua175190 Section 13. Articles 233239 213220 (with their subarticles). more Vecwhole Powers and Roots of Quaternions and or . —On the Tensor of a Vector. (B) while bra t. . II. a V Pages. 2. In fact. . Mean Proportional. or ordinary algebraic quantities. omitted at first CHAPTER . On the Reduction of the General Quaternion — to a Standard Quadrinomial Form . Quaternion the Right Part (or Vector Part) of a and on the Distributive Property of the 190233 Multiplication of Quaternions. x.
. Section 6. Exponents. 280. in p. and on . of Multiplication of Diplanar ternions. Section 3. with Coefficients of the kind considered in the foregoing braic Form. On the Ponential and Logarithm of a Quater — nion . Section 1. — On some Geometrical Proofs of the Associative 286293 Property of Multiplication of Quaternions. 257264 any such 265275 Equation of the w''^ Degree. should be read.. 279285 and the 7) the short first Article 258.. This Chapter 286300 may be omitted. . OE QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS IN SPACE AND ESPECIALLY ON THE ASSOCIATIVE PRINCIPLE OF MULTIPLICATION OF SUCH QUATERNIONS. to which the Student may next proceed. Section 3. — On Finite (or Polynomial) Equations of Alge. of and on — Section. —On some Enunciations of the Associative ProQua perty. Section 4. — . CHAPTER : III. On some Additional FormuloB. Reciprocal of a Vector. and on Powers of Quaternions.. as a preparation for the Third Book. —On the 275279 monic Means monic Quaternion of a Group of Pour Points. 293297 297300 .VI CONTENTS. which are independent of the Distributive Principle. ON DIPLANAK QUATERNIONS. and for their Powers..n Imaginary (or Symbolical) Roots of a Quaternion Equation of the n*^ Degree. In this last Section (II. in a first perusal. Section 7. as far as the formula YIII.— On the Amplitudes of Quaternions in a given Plane. Section 2.. Pages. with Quaternions for their Section 5. involving Complanar Quaternions the Existence of n Eeal Quaternion Eoots. and on Harof Vectors with Remarks on the Anhar Conditions of Concircularity. ii. following Art. or Principle. 259. On the n^ . and on Trigonometrical Expressions for such 251257 Quaternions.
CONTENTS.
Vll
BOOK
III.
Pages.
ON QUATERNIONS, CONSIDERED AS PRODUCTS OR POWERS OF VECTORS; AND ON SOME APPLICATIONS OF QUATERNIONS,
301 to the end.
I.
CHAPTER
ox THE lUTEEPEETATION OF A PEODUCT OP VECT0E8, OE POWER 301390 OF A YECTOE, AS A QTJATEENIOX,
.
.
.
The
first
first six
Sections of this Chapter ought to be read, even in a
perusal of the work.
1
Section
of
.
—On a
—
Two
2.
Section
First Method of Interpreting a Product Yectors as a Quaternion, 301303 On some Consequences of the foregoing Inter
pretation,
303308
(i.a, as
This^r*^ interpretation treats the product
qmtietit
(II.
ii.
equal to the
the previously defined Reciprocal 7) of the vector a, namely a second vector^ which has an m/3
:
ai
;
where
a~^ (or
Ro)
is
and an opposite direction. Multiplication of Vectors is thus proved to he (like that of Quaternions) a Distributive, but not generally a Commutative Operation. The Square of a Vector is shown
verse length,
to be always a Negative Scalar, namely the negative of the square of the tensor of that vector, or of the number which expresses its length ;
and some geometrical applications of
&c., are given.
this fertile principle, to spheres^
The Index of the
RigJit
Part of a Product of Two Coline,
initial Vectors, oa, ob, is
proved to be a right
perpendicular
to
Plane of the Triangle cab, and representing by its length the Double Area of that triangle while the Rotation round this Index,
the
;
from
the Multiplier to the Multiplicand, is positive.
This right part,
or vector part, Va/3, of the product vanishes, when the factors are parallel (to one common line) ; and the scalar part, Sa/3, when they
are rectangular.
Section
Section
3.
Interpretation,
4.
— On a Second Method of arriving the same of a Binary Product of Yectors, 308310 —On the Symbolical a Right
at
.
.
.
Identification of
:
Quaternion with
its
own Index
and on the Construc
tion of a Product of Two Rectangular Lines,
by a Third
Line, rectangular to both,
Section
310313 some Simplifications of JNotation, or of Expression, resulting from this Identification and on the Concei)tion of an UnitLine as a Right Tersor, 313316
5.
—On
;
.
viii
CONTENTS.
Pages.
this second interpretation,
In
sults
with the
first,
found to agree in all its rebut is better adapted to an extension of the theory,
which
is
as in the following Sections, to ternary products of vectors, a product of the two riffht quaternions, of of two vectors is treated as the product
which those vectors are the indices (II. i. 5). It is shown that, on the same plan, the Sum of a Scalar and a Vector is a Quaternion.
Section
or
6.
— On the
Interpretation of a Product of Three
as a Quaternion,
is eflfected
more Vectors
316330
by the substitution, as in recent oi order of Sections, of Bight Quaternions for Vectors, without change the factors. Multiplication of Vectors, like that of Quaternions, is
This interpretation
thus proved to be an Associative Operation. reduced to the Standard Trinomial Form,
p
in
A vector,
kz ;
generally, is
= ix +ji/ +
(C)
are the peculiar symbols already considered (II. i. Vector TTnits, 10), but are regarded now as denoting Three Rectangular while the three scalars x, y, z are simply rectangular coordinates ; from
which
i,
j,
Jc
the
known theory of which last, illustrations of results are derived. The Scalar of the Product of Three coinitial Vectors, oa, ob, oc, is found
on the
direction of a rotation, the
;
to represent, with a sign depending
Volume of
nishes
the Parallelepiped
under those three lines
so that
it
va
when they
are complanar. Constructions are given also for pro
ducts of successive sides of triangles,
and other closedpolygons, inscribed
in
circles,
circle is
or in spheres ; for example, a characteristic property of the contained in the theorem, that the product of the four suc
cessive sides of
an
inscribed quadrilateral is a scalar
:
and an equally
characteristic (but less obvious) property of the sphere is included in
this other theorem, that the product oii\iefive successive sides of
inscribed gauche pentagon is equal to a tangential vector,
an drawn from
the point at which the pentagon begins (or ends). Some general Formula of Transformation of Vector Expressions are given, with which a student ought to render laimsQli very familiar, as they are of continual occurrence in the practice of this Calculus formulae (pp. 316, 317)
:
;
especially the four
Vy/3a
pSajSy
V.yV/3a=aS/3y/3Sya; = aS^y/3S7a+ySa/3;
(D)
(E)
;
+ /3Syap + ySa/3p pSai3y=Y/3ySap+VyaS^p + Va/3Syp;
aS/3yp
in
=
(F)
(G)
which
a,
j8,
y, p are
any four
vectors,
while S and
V are
signs of
the operations of taking separately the scalar and vector parts of a quaOn the whole, this Section (III. i. 6) must be considered ternion.
to be (as regards the present exposition)
it
an important one and if have been read with care, after a perusal of the portions previously indicated, no difficulty will be experienced in passing to any subse;
quent applications of Quaternions, in the present or any other work.
CONTENTS.
Section
7.
IX
— On the Fourth Proportional to Three Diplanar
331349
Vectors,
Section
8..
— On an Equivalent Interpretation of the Fourth
Proportional to Three Diplanar Yectors, deduced from 349361 the Principles of the Second Book,
Section
9.
—On a Third Method of interpreting a Product
;
or Function of Vectors as a Quaternion
and on the
Consistency of the Results of the Interpretation so obtained, with those which have been deduced from the
two preceding Methods of the present Book,
.
.
.
361364
These three Sections may be passed over, in a first reading. They contain, however, theorems respecting composition of successive rotations (pp. 334, 335, see also p. 340); expressions for the «^m^arm of a
an arbitrary pyramid^ as the angle of a quaternion product^ with an extension, by limits, to the semiaiea of a spherical figure bounded by a closed curve^ or to half the
spherical polygon, or for half the opening of
opening of an arbitrary cone (pp. 340, 341)
;
a construction (pp.
358
360), for a series of spherical parallelograms, so called from a partial analogy to parallelograms in o, plane ; a theorem (p. 361), connecting
a certain system of such (spherical) parallelograms with the foci of a and the concepspherical conic, inscribed in a certain quadrilateral
;
361) of a Fourth Unit in Space (u, or + I), which is of a scalar rather than a vector character, as admitting merely of change of sign, through reversal of an order of rotation, although it presents
tion (pp. 353,
itself in this
theory as the Fourth Proportional (Jj'^k) angular Vector Units.
to
Three Sect
\l/Section 10. On the Interpretation of a Power of a Vector as a Quaternion, 364384
It
—
may
be
weU
to read this Section (III.
i.
10), especially for
the Exponential Connexions which it establishes, between Quaternions and Spherical Trigonometry, or rather Polygonometry, by a species of
extension of Moivr^s theorem,
from the plane to space, or to the sphere. For example, there is given (in p. 381) an equation of six terms, which holds good for every spherical pentagon, and is deduced in this way from an extended exponential formula. The calculations in the
subarticles to Art. 312 (pp. 875379) may however be passed over ; and pei'haps Art. 315, with its subarticles (pp. 383, 384). But Art.
314, and its subarticles, pp. 381383, should be read, on account of the exponential forms which they contain, of equations of the circle,
ellipse,
logarithmic spirals (circular and elliptic), helix,
^^Ql.
screw sur
face.
Section 11.
ternions
—On Powers and Logarithms of Diplanar Quawith some Additional Formulae, ....
;
384390
X
It
CONTENTS.
Pages.
read Art. 316, and its first eleven subarticles, In this Section, the adopted Logarithm^ Iq, of a Quapp. 384386. ternion q, is the simplest root, q\ of the transcendental equation,
may
suffice to
and
its
expression
is
found to
1^
be,
= 1T^ + Z^.UV?,
of tensor and versor, while
(H)
Lq\B the
in which
T and
U are the signs
angle of
and tt. Such logarithms q, supposed usually to be between are found to be often useful in this Calcuhis, although they do not generally possess the elementary property, that the sum of the logarithms
of two quaternions is equal to the logarithm oi iliQix product : this apparent paradox, or at least deviation from ordinary algebraic rules,
arising necessarily from the corresponding property of quaternimi not generally a commultiplication, which has been already seen to be
And
mutative operation {q'q" not  q"q', unless q' and q" be complanar). here, perhaps, a student might consider his first perusal of this
work
as closed.*
CHAPTER
;
II.
ON DIFFERENTIALS AND DEVELOPMENTS OF FUNCTIONS OF QUATERNIONS AND ON SOME APPLICATIONS OF QUATERNIONS TO GEOMETRICAL AND PHYSICAL QUESTIONS, 391495
It has
first
been already said, that this Chapter perusal of the work.
1.
may
be omitted in a
Section
tials,
—On the
Definition of Simultaneous Differen
391393
* If he should choose to proceed to the Differential Calculus of Quaternions in the next Chapter (III. ii.), and to the Geometrical and other Applications in the third Chapter (III. iii.) of the present Book, it might be useful to read at this
stage the last Section (I. iii, 7) of the First Book, which treats of Differentials of Vectors (pp. 98102); and perhaps the omitted parts of the Section II. i. 13,
namely
Articles 213220, with their subarticles (pp. 214233),
wbich
relate,
among
other things, to a Construction of the Ellipsoid, suggested by the present Calculus. But the writer will now abstain from making any further suggestions of this kind, after having indicated as above what appeared to him a minimum
course of study, amounting to rather less than 200 pages (or parts of pages) of this Volume, which will be recapitulated for the convenience of the student
at the
end of the present Table.
CONTENTS.
Section
2.
XI
Pages.
— Elementary
Illustrations
of the Definition,
from Algebra and Geometry,
In the view here adopted (comp. I. iii. 7), differentials are not neBut it is shown at a later stage cessarily, nor even generally, small.
(Art. 401, pp. 626630), that the principles of this Calculus
^^toz^j
394398
us,
whenever any advantage may be thereby gained, to treat differentials as infinitesimals ; and so to abridge calculation^ at least in many applications.
Section
tion,
3.
— On some general Consequences of the Defini398409
;
Partial differentials and derivatives are introduced tials oi functions offunctions.
and
differen
Section
4.
—Examples of Quaternion
dL.qq'
Differentiation,
.
.
409419
One of the most important rules is, to differentiate tjie /actors of a quaternion product^ in situ ; thus (by p. 405),
The formula
(p. 399),
di.q^
= ^q.q' + qAq'. = q^dq.q\
(I)
(J)
for the differential of the reciprocal of a quaternion (or vector), is also very often useful ; and so are the equations (p. 413),
dT^
(K)
and
(p.
411),
d.a«
=
y
a«+id^
;
(L)
q being any quaternion, and a any constant vectorunit, while Hs a variable scalar. It is important to remember (comp. III. i. 11), that
we have
not in quaternions the usual equation,
dl^
unless q
=
—
,
and d^ be complanar ; and therefore that we have not generally^
if
p be a variable vector
;
although
we
is
scarcely less simple equation,
orbital motion^
which
have^ in this Calculus, the useful in questions respecting
if
a be any constant vector, and
if the
plane of a and p be given (or
constant).
Section
5.
— On Successive
Differentials
and Developments,
of Functions of Quaternions,
420435
Xil
CONTENTS.
Pages.
In
this Section principles are established (pp.
;
ing qnateraion functions which vanish together
423426), respectand a form of deve
lopment (pp. 427, 428) is assigned, analogous'^ to Taylor's Series^ and like it capable of being concisely expressed by the sytnboUcal As an example of partial and succeseqtmtion, 1 + A = i^ (p. 432).
sive differentiation, the expression (pp. 432, 433),
p
= rk*j^kj^k~^y
may represent ang vector, is operated on ; and an application made, by means of definite integration (pp. 434, 435), to deduce the known area and volume of a sphere, or of portions thereof together
•which
is
;
with the theorem, that the vector sum of the directed elements of a spheric segment is zero : each element of surface being represented by an
inward normal, proportional to the elementary area, and corresponding in hydrostatics to the pressure of a fluid on that element.
Section
6.
— On the
;
Differentiation of Implicit Functions
of Quaternions
and on the General Inversion of a Linear Tunction, of a Yector or a Quaternion with some connected Investigations, 435495
:
In this Section it is shown, among other things, that a Linear and Vector Symbol, (p, of Operation on a Vector, p, satisfies (p. 443) a Symbolic and Cubic Equation, of the form,
whence
m^"i
= w — m'<{> + m"(p^  <p^ = m' — m'<p + <p^=\p,
;
(N)
(N')
=
another symbol of linear operation, which it is shown how to deduce otherwise from (p, as well as the three scalar constants, m, m', ni'.
The connected
algebraical cubic (pp. 460, 461),
Jf = w + m'c + m"c2 + c' =
is
0,
it is
(0)
provedf (pp. 460, 462) that if SX^p = Sp^\, independently of X and p, in which case the fimction ^ is said to be selfconjugate, then this last cubic has three
;
found to have important applications
and
real roots,
Ci, c^, cz
;
while, in the same case, the vector equation,
Yp<pp
is satisfied
=
0,
(P)
Directions
7),
:
by a system of Three Heal and Rectangular
III.
iii.
namely (compare pp. 468, 469, and the Section
those of
the axes of a (biconcyclic) system of surfaces of the second order, represented by the scalar equation,
Theorem
* At a later stage (Art. 375, pp. 509, 510), a new Enunciation of Tayloi^s is given, mth a new proof, but still in a/orm adapted to quaternions.
t
A
simplified proof, of
some of the chief
results for this important case
first
selfconjugation, is
given at a later stage, in the few
subarticlcs to Art.
of 415
(pp. 698, 699).
CONTENTS.
Sp<pp
Xlll
Pages.
=
Cp"^
+ C,
;
in
which C and
C are constants.
(Q)
and general forms (called cyclic, rectangular, focal, bifocal, &c., from their chief geometrical uses) are assigned, one useful pair of for the vector and scalar functions 0p and Sp^p such (cyclic) forms being, with real and constant values of g, X, /j,
Cases are discussed
:
(pp=gp+YXpn,
Sp(pp
= ffp^ + S\pfip.
(R)
And
finally (pp. 491, 492) that iffg be a linear and quaternion function of a quaternion, q, then the Symbol of Operation, f, satisfies a certain Symbolic and Biquadratic Equation, analogous to the
it is
shown
cubic equation in 0,
and capable of similar applications.
CHAPTER
III.
ON SOME ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS OF QIJATEENIONS, WITH 495 to the end. SOME CONCLUDING kemaee;s,
.
.
This Chapter, like the one preceding it, may be omitted in a perusal of the Volume, as has indeed been already remarked.
first
Section
1.
—Remarks
.
Introductory to this Concluding
Chapter, Section 2
Space,
495496
iN'onnal Planes to Curves in
On Tangents and
JS^ormals
—On and Tangent Planes —On Osculating Planes, and Absolute l^ormals, Section Curves of Double Curvature, — On Geodetic Lines, and Families of Section
Section
to
3.
to Surfaces,
496501 501510 511515 515531
4.
.
5.
Surfaces,
a normal
In these Sections, dp usually denotes a tangent to a curve, and v to a surface. Some of the theorems or constructions may
perhaps be
lels
new
;
for instance, those connected
with the cone of paral
(pp. 498, 513, &c.) to the tangents to a curve of double curvature ;
(p. 525),
and possibly the theorem
space
:
respecting reciprocal curves in
at least, the deductions here given of these results
may
serve
as exemplifications of the Calculus employed. In treating of Families of Surfaces by quaternions, a sort o^ analogue (pp. 629, 530) to the for
mation and integration of Partial Differential Equations presents itself; as indeed it had done, on a similar occasion, in the Lectures
(p. 574).
Section
6.
—On Osculating
in Space; with
Circles and Spheres, to Curves some connected Constructions, 531630
.
.
.
The
analysis, however condensed, ofthis long Section
(III.
iii.
6),
cannot conveniently be performed otherwise than under the heads of the respective Articles (389401) which compose it: each Article
XIV
CONTENTS.
Pages.
it
being followed by several subarticles, which form with Series*
a sort of
Article 389. Osculating Circle defined^ as the limit of a circle, which touches a given curve (plane or of double curvature) at a given point p, and cuts the curve at a near point q (see Fig. 77, p. 511). Deduction and interpretation of general expressions for the vector k of the centre k of the circle so defined. The reciprocal of the radius KP being called tbe vector of curvature^ we have generally^
Vector of Curvature
—
=
(o
 k)i = p— =
Idp
— Y ? = &c.
dp
;
(S)
dp
and
if the arc (s)
of the curve be
made
the independent variable, then
p" = D,8p
Vector of Curvature
=
= ^.
(S')
Examples curvatures of helix, ellipse, hyperbola, logarithmic spiral ; locus of centres of curvature of helix, plane e volute of plane ellipse, Ajiticle 390 Abridged general calculations; return from (S')
:
—
531535
535, 536
to (S),
Article 391
Centre determined by three scalar equations
;
Polar Axis, Folar Developable,
Article 392.
Article 393.
j9?ffw^ CMr?;^ to
— F<;c^or^^Mai/ow of osculating
537
circle,
—Intersection (or
it
538,539
with a
intersections) of a circle
which
Article 394. Intersection (or intersections) of a spherical curve with a small circle osculating thereto example, spherical conic ; con;
—
osculates
;
example, hyperbola,
539541
structions for the spherical centre (or pole') of the circle osculating to such a curve, and for the point of Mi^^rse<?^w» above mentioned, . .
Osculating Sphere, to a curve of double curvature, defined as the limit of a si^here, which contains the osculating circle to
Article 395
—
541549
the curve at a given point p, and cuts the same curve at a near point Q (comp. Art. 389). The centre s, of the sphere so found, is (as usual) the point in which the polar axis (Art. 391) touches the cuspedge of
the polar developable.
Other general construction for the same centre
General expressions for the vector, & = os, (p. 551, comp. p. 573). = sf; i?" Ws the spherical curvature (comp. Art. and for the radius,
E
397).
(S —
(as
Condition of Sphericity 1), for a curve in space.
{S=
1),
and
Coefficient
of Nonsphericity
"When
this last coefficient is positive
it is
for the helix), the curve lies outside the spliere, at least in the
neighbourhood of the point of osculation,
Article 396.
—Notations
549553
;
r, t,
.
.
for D^p, Dg'^p, Sec.
properties
of a curve depending on the square (s^) of its arc, measured from a = given point p ; r miittangent, t = vector of curvature, r~' = Tr' = curvature (or first curvature, comp. Art. 397), v
=
tt'
=
binormal
;
the
*
A Table of initial Pages of all the Articles will be elsewhere given, which will
facilitate reference.
much
CONTENTS.
three planes^ respectively perpendicular to r,
r',
XV
Pages.
v, are the
normal
plane, the rectifying plane,
and the osculating plane ; general theory of emanant lines and planes, vector of rotation, axis of displacement, oscillating screiv surface ; condition of developability of surface of emanants,
654—559
Article 397.— Properties depending on the cube (s^) of the arc ; Radius r (denoted here, for distinction, by a roman letter), and Vector
r'r, of
Second Curvature ; this radius r
may
be either positive or ne
gative (whereas the radius r of /rs^ curvature is
positive),
and
its reciprocal r"^
may
always treated as be thus expressed (pp. 663, 559),
(T), or,
r»
Second Curvature* =ri
= S ,,,
d^n
\
,
=S
—
t"
TT
,
(T')
Vdpd^p
the independent variable being the arc in (T'), while it is arbitrary in but quaternions supply a vast variety of other expressions for this important scalar (see, for instance, the Table in pp. 674, 575).
(T)
:
We
have
also
(by
p. 560,
comp. Arts. 389, 395, 396),
Vector of Spherical Curvature
= sp"i=
(p
—
(r)i
=
&c.,
(U)
= projection
of vector (r') ot (simple or first) curvature, on radius (li)
denote the linear and angular of osculating sphere : and if p and elevations, of the centre (s) of this sphere above the osculating plane,
P
then (by same page 660),
^ = r tan P= i2 sin P = r'r = rD,r.
Again
(pp. 560, 561), if
(U')
we
write (comp. Art. 396),
\
=V—
T
=rir
+ rr' =
Vector of Second Curvature plus Binormal, (V)
this line
X may be
called the Rectifying Vector
;
and if
H denote the
Urn (\) to
inclination (considered first
by Lancret), of this
1
rectifying
the tangent (j) to the curve, then
tan
H = /
tan
P=
>•
'
r.
(V)
and with
Known
right cone with rectifying line for its axis,
H
H
for its
.
semiangle,
which
osculates at
p to the developable
locus of tangents to
;
the curve (or by p. 568 to the cone of parallels already mentioned) new right cone, with a new semiangle, C, connected with by the
relation (p. 562),
tanC=^tan^,
(V")
which osculates to the cone of chords, drawn from the given point p
* In this Article, or Series, 397, and indeed also in 396 and 398, several references are given to a very interesting Memoir by M. de SaintVenant, " Sur les lignes courbes nx)n planes .•" in which, however, that able writer objects to such
known phrases as second curvature, torsion, &c., and proposes in their stead a new name " cambrure," which it has not been thought necessary here to adopt.
{Journal de T E'eole Polytechnique, Cahier xxx.)
XVI
to other points
o.
CONTENTS.
Pagus.
of the given curve.
Other osculating cones, cylinders, Mix, and parabola ; this last being (pp. 562, 566) the parabola which osculates to the projection of t/ie curve, on its own osculating plajie. Deviation of curve, at
any near point a, from the osculating circle at p, decomposed (p. 666) into tivo rectangular deviations, from osculating helix and parabola. Additional formulae (p. 676), for the general theory of emanants (Art. 396) case o£ normally emanant lines, or of
;
tangentialhj
emanant
planes.
;
General auxiliary spherical curve (pp.
676578, comp. p. 515) new proof of the second expression (V) for tan JEf, and of the theorem that if this ratio of curvatures be constant, the proposed curve is a geodetic on a cylinder : new proof that if each
curvature
(r'^, r"i)
be constant, the cylinder
is right,
and therefore
the curve a helix,
659578
space, depending
Article 398. Properties of a curve in fourth and Jifth powers (s^, s^) o£ its arc (s'),
This Series 398
is so
—
on the
578612
longer than any other in the Volume, and is supposed to contain so much original matter, that it seems necessary here to subdivide the analysis iinder several separate heads,
lettered as (a), (b), (c), &c.
(a).
much
Neglecting
s^,
we may
write (p. 578, comp.
Ai't.
396),
OT?s = ps = p + ST+ sV + ^s^t" + i^sir"
;
(W)
("W")
Xs, y«, Zs,
or (comp. p. 587),
ps
= p + XsT\ ysrr' +
and
s.
Zsrv,
with expressions
in terms of r, r,
(p.
588) for the
coefficients
(or coordinates')
r", r, r',
If
s^
be taken into account,
it
be
comes necessary to add to the expression ("W) the term, x^s^r"; with corresponding additions to the scalar coefficients in (W), introducing
r'"
and
r"
:
for extending
them
the laws for forming which additional terms, and to higher powers of the arc, are assigned in a
subsequent Series (399, pp. 612, 617).
(h).
to serve in questions in
Analogous expressions for r'", v", k", X', </, and p', K, P', £"', which s^ is neglected, are assigned (in p. 579)
;
t"
v',
k, \,
<T,
and p, R, F, H, having been previously expressed (in
while r", v", k", \", <t", &c. enter into investigations ^ the arc s being treated as the independent
:
Series 397)
;
which take account of
variable in all these derivations.
(c). One of the chief results of the present Series (398), is the introduction (p. 581, &c.) of a fiew auxiliary angle, J, analogous in several respects to the known angle (397), but belonging to a higher order of theorems, respecting curves in space : because the neio
H
angle / depends on \he fourth (and lower) powers of the arc s, while Lancret's angle depends only on s^ (including s^ and s"^). In fact, while tan ^is represented by the expressions (V), whereof one is r'l tan P, tan /admits (with many transformations) of the following
R
analogous expression
(p. 581),
tan/=ie'itanP;
(X)
CONTENTS.
JR' depends* by (b) on «*, while / and depend (397) on no higher power than s^. {d). To give a more distinct geometrical meaning to this new angle /, than can be easily gathered from such a formula as (X), respecting
xvii
where
P
Pages,
which
it
may
defined
by expressions
be observed, in passing, that /is in general more simply for its cotangent (pp. 581, 588), than for its
tangent, we are to conceive that, at each point p of any proposed curve of double curvature, there is drawn a tangent plane to the sphere ^
which
osculates (395) to the curve at that point
envelope of all these planes is determined,
and that then the which envelope (for reasons
;
afterwards more fully explained) is called here (p. 581) the " Circumscribed Developable :" being a surface «nfl/o^OMs to the '''Rectifying Developable" of Lancret, but belonging (c) to a higher order of questions.
tion,
And
then, as the
Z:;«om;w
angle if denotes (2>^1^ ihe inclina
suitably measured, of the rectifying line (X), which is a. generatrix of the rectifying developable, to the tangent (r) to the curve; so
the new angle
represents the inclination of a generating line (jp), of just been called the circumscribed developable, to the same tangent (r), measured likewise in a defined direction (p. 581), but in the tangent plane to the sphere. It may be noted as another ana
J
what has
logy
(p.
582), that while
^
is
is right
when
and
the curve
equal
;
is spherical.
a right angle for a plane curve, so / For the helix (p. 585), the andeve
gles
JS"
/ are
and the rectifying and circumscribed
lopables coincide,
with each other and with the right
is
cylinder,
on
a geodetic line. be measured from the given point p, in (e). If the recent line a suitable direction (as contrasted with the opposite), and with a suitable length,
it
which the helix
becomes what
may
be called (comp. 396) the Vector of
Rotation of the Tangent Flane (d) to the Oscidating Sphere ; and then it satisfies, among others, the equations (pp. 579, 581, comp. (V)),
= V ^, V
this last being
T0 = i2i cosec /;
velocity
(X')
an expression for the
of rotation of the plane
just mentioned, or of its normal, namely the spherical radius R, if the given curve be conceived to be described by a point moving with a con
* In other introduces no difierentials words, the calculation of r' and higher than the third order ; but that of R' requires \h.Q fourth order of difierentials. In the language of modern geometry, \kiQ former can be determined by
the consideration oifour consecutive points of the curve, or by that of two consecutive osculating circles ; but the latter requires the consideration of two consecutive osculating spheres,
P
posed to be one of double curvature).
and therefore of five consecutive ^;o?V^ ^5 of the curve (supOther investigations, in the present and
immediately following Series (398, 399), especially those connected with what we shall shortly call the Osculating Twisted Cubic, will be found to involve the
consideration of six consecutive points of a curve.
d
xviii
CONTENTS.
Pages
stantvelocitij,
assumed
= 1. And
or PS is the given radius then this point kind, or to the radius of a consecutive osculating sphere,
divides the line ps internally, into segments
R
denote by v the point in which nearest to a consecutive radius of the same
if
we
v which may (ultimately) be
thus expressed (pp. 580, 581),
Fv = i2sin2/,
But these and other connected
vs=i2cos2/.
results,
(X")
for 7, and r for R), in that earlier theory analogues (with introduces only s^ (besides s^ and 62) and they are all in(c) which cluded in the general theory oiemanant Knes and planes (396, 397), of which some new geometrical illustrations (pp. 582584) are here
known
R
depending on s\ have their
:
given.
(/).
New
auxiliary scalar n {=p'^RR'
= cot/secP = &e.), = vep of
locity of centre s of osculating sphere, if the velocity of the point
the given curve be taken as unity (e) ; n vanishes with R', cot /, and (comp. 395) the coefficient S1 (=wrr~i) of non sphericity, for the case of a spherical curve (p. 584). Arcs, first and second curvatures,
and rectifying planes and
rectifying* developables
;
beyond
s^,
lines, of the cuspedges of the polar and these can all be expressed without going and some without using any higher power than s*, or differ\ — nr, and ri = nr, are the and second curvature oi the former cuspedge, ri
;
rentials of the orders corresponding scalar radii of first
being positive when that curve turns its concavity at s towards the determination of the point r, in which the latter given curve at p
:
cuspedge
is
touched by the rectifying line \ to the original curve
(pp. 584587).
(^).
the second order,
Equation with one arbitrary constant (p. 587), of a cone of which has its vertex at the given point p, and has
contact of the third order (or fourside contact^
with the cone of chords (397) from that point; equation (p. 590) of a cylinder of the second order, which has an arbitrary line pe from p as one side, and has
contact of the fourth order {ex fivepoint contact) with the curve at p ; the constant above mentioned can be so determined, that the right line
PE shall be a side of the cone also, and therefore apart of the intersect Hon of cone and cylinder; and then the remaining or curvilinear part, of the complete intersection of those two surfaces of the second
plane of X and
* The rectifying plane, of the cuspedge of the rectifying developable, is the r', of which the formula LIV. in p. 587 is the equation ; and the rectifying line rh, of the same cuspedge, intersects the absolute normal pk to the
given curve, or the radius (r) of first curvature, in the point h in which that radius is nearest (e) to a consecutive radius of the same kind. But this last theorem, which is here deduced by quaternions, had been previously amved at by M. de Saint Venant (comp. the Note to p. xv.), through an entirely different analysis, confirmed by geometrical considerations.
CONTENTS.
order, is
XIX
Pages,
(by
known
or what
is briefly
principles) a gawhe curve of the third order, called* a Twisted Cubic : and this last curve, in
its construction above described, and whatever the asdirection of the auxiliary line pb may be, has contact of the fourth order (^or fivepoint contact) with the given curve of double cur
virtue of
sumed
vature at p (pp. 587590, comp. pp. 663, 572). (Ji). Determination (p. 590) of the constant in. the equation of the eone {g), so that this cone may have contact of the fourth order (or
fiveside contact)
with the cone of chords from p the cone thus found be called the Osculating Oblique Cone (comp. 397), of the second and the coefficients of its equation inorder, to that cone of chords
;
may
;
volve only r, r, /, r', r', r", but not r'", although this last derivative is of no higher order than r", since each depends only on s^ (and lower
powers), or introduces only ffth differentials. Again, the cylinder (J) will have contact of ^q fifth order (or sixpoint contact) with the
given curve at
p, if the line pe,
which
is
by construction a side of that
cylinder, and has hitherto had an arbitrary direction, be now obliged to be a side of a certain cubic cone, of which the equation (p. 590) in
volves as constants not only rrr'rV'r", like that of the osculating cone just determined, but also r"'. The two cones last mentioned have the tangent (r) to the given curve for a common side,f but they have also
three other
common
sides,
whereof one
at least is real, since
;
they are
assigned by a cubic equation (same p. 590) and by taking this side for the line pe in (y), there results a new cylinder of the second order,
which cuts the oscidating oblique cone, partly in that right line pe itself, and partly in a gauche curve of the third order, which it is proposed to
call tact
an Osculating Twisted Cubic (comp. again
{g)),
because
it
has con
of the fifth order (or sixpoint contact) with the given curve at p
(pp. 590, 591).
(i).
In
general,
a Twisted Cubic
sented
(J), if
and independently of any question of osculation, passing through the origin o, may be reprevector equations (pp. 592, 593),
by any one of the
* By Dr. Salmon, in his excellent Treatise on Analytic Geometry of Three Dimensions (Dublin, 1862), which is several times cited in the Notes to this final Chapter (III. iii.) of these Elements. The gauche curves, above mentioned, have
been studied with much success, of late years, by M. Chasles, Sig. Cremona, and other geometers but their existence, and some of their leading properties, ap:
pear to have been
first
perceived and published
by
Prof.
Mobius
(see his
£ary
centric Calculus, Leipzig, 1827, pp.
114122, especially
(p. 614),
tioo cones,
p. 117).
t This
side,
however, counts as three
imaginary) of these
intersection (real or
in the system of the six lines of which have a common vertex p,
and are respectively of the second dcndi third orders (or degrees). Additional light in which also will be thrown on this whole subject, in the following Series (399)
;
only one osculating twisted cubic, at a given point, to a given curve of double curvature and that this cubic curve can be determined, without resolving any cubic or other equation.
it
will be
shown that
there
is
;
XX
Yap+Ypfp = 0,
or
CONTENTS.
(Y);
or (Y'") p = (^4c)ia, (Y"); in which a, y, \, /* are real and constant vectors, but c is a variable scalar; vrhile <pp denotes (comp. the Section III. ii. 6, or pp. xii., xiii.) a
linear
+ c)p = a, Vap + pVy/o + VpVXp/t = 0,
or
(^
Pages.
(Y')
and vector function, which is Iiere generally not selfconjug ate, of the variable vector p of the cuMc curve. The number of the scalar the equation, is constants, in the form (Y'"), or in any other form of
found to be
ten (p. 593), with the foregoing supposition that the curve it is easy to remove. passes through the origin, a restriction which The curve (Y) is cut, as it ought to be, in three points (real or imagi
by an arbitrary secant plane ; and its three asymptotes (real or imaginary) have the directions of the three vector roots (3 (see again the last cited Section) of the equation (same p. 593),
nary),
y/3^/3
= 0:
(Z)
(P), p. xii., these three asymptotes compose a real and rectangular system, for the case of selfconjugation of the function tp
80 that
by
in (Y).
(y). Deviation of a near point p* of the given curve, from the sphere (395) which osculates at the given point p this deviation (by p. 593,
;
comp. pp. 553, 584)
is
ris^
R's^
ns^
ultimately equal (p. 595) to the quarter of the deviation (397) of the same near point Ps from the osculating circle at p, multiplied by the sine of the small angle spSs, which the small arc sss of the locus of
it is
the spheric centre s (or of the cuspedge of the polar developable) subtends at the same point p ; and it has an outward or an inward direction, according as this last arc is concave or convex (/) at s, towards the
given curve at p (pp. 585, 595).
to the deviation ps^ It is also ultimately equal (p. 596)
of the given point p from the near sphere^ which osculates at the near point Ps ; and likewise (p. 597) to the com
 PsSs,
ponent, in the direction of sp, of the deviation of that near point from the osculating circle at p, measured in a direction parallel to the nor
mal plane
at that point, if this last deviation be
:
accuracy of the /owr^A order
whereas
it
now expressed to the has hitherto been considered
sufficient to develope this deviation from the osculating circle (397) as far as the third order (or third dimension of 5) ; and therefore to treat it as having a direction, tangential to the osculating sphere (comp.
pp. 566, 594).
Qc). The deviation (Ai) is also equal to the third part (p. 598) of the deviation of the near point p^ from the given circle (which osculates at p), if measured in the near normal plane (at p*), and decomposed in
the direction of the radius Ss of the near sphere ; or to the thirdpart (with direction preserved) of the deviation of the miv near point in
which the given
circle is cut
finally to the third part (as before,
by the near plane, from the near sphere : or and still with an unchanged direc
CONTENTS.
from the given sphere, of that other near point in which the near circle (osculating at Pj) is cut by the given normal plane (at p), and which is found to satisfy the equation,
tion) of the deviation
c,
XXI
Pages,
sc
=
3sps

2ip.
(Bi)
(Jc),
Geometrical connexions (p. 599) between these various results {j) illustrated by a diagram (Fig 83).
Circle to (t). The Surface, which is the Locus of the Osculating a given curve in space, may be represented rigorously by the vector
expression (p. 600),
ws, M
= ps + rsTs sin w + n^ r^' vers u\
(C i)
and u are two independent scalar variables, whereof s is (as before) the arc pp^ of the given curve, but is not now treated as small : and u is the (small or large) angle subtended at the centre Ks of the circle, by the arc of that circle, measured from its point of osculain
which
s
tion Vs.
But the same
superficial locus
(comp. 392)
may be
repre
sented also
by the
vector equation (p. 611), involving apparently only
one scalar variable (s),
in
which
V4
= r^r/, and
Wps w=a>s,M =
Vi^+v« = 0,
(DO
of the surface.
3,
The general method
the vector of an arbitrary point (p. 601), of the Section III. iii.
shows that the normal
to this surface (Ci), at
thereof, has the direction of
point,
of the radius of the sphere, and has the same point of osculation Ps to the given curve. The locus of the osculating circle is therefore found, by this little calculation
any proposed point Ws,m— <^«; that is (p. 600), the direction which contains the circle through that
with quaternions, to be at the same time the Envelope of the Osculating Sphere, as was to be expected from geometrical considerations
p. 600). curvilinear locus of the point c in (Jc) is one branch of the section of the surface (J), made by the normal plane to the given
(comp. the Note to
(w).
The
curve at p
;
new
curve,
and if d be the projection of c on the tangent at p to this which tangent pd has a ^vcQcXxoTSpterpendicidar to the ra
dius PS or
of the osculating sphere at p (see again Fig. 83, in p. 599), while the ordinate DC i^ parallel to that radius, then (attending only to principal terms, pp. 598, 599) we have the expressions,
jR*^
R
— ns^
(p. 600),
and therefore ultimately
from which
it
follows that p is a singular point of the section here
considered, but not a cusp of that section, although the curvature
at p is infinite
: the ordinate dc varying ultimately as tbe power with exponent f of the abscissa pd. Contrast (pp. 600, 601), of this
XXU
section,
CONTENTS.
Pages.
with that of the developable Locus of Tangents, made by the same normal plane at p to the given curve the vectors analogous to PD and DC are in this case nearly equal to  ^s^t' and — \s^x~^v', so
;
that the latter varies ultimately as the power  of the former, and the point p is (as it is known to be) a cusp of this last section.
(n). A given Curve of double curvature is therefore generally a Singular Line (j^. 601), although, not a cuspedge, vi]^on that Surface (f), which is at once the Locus of its osculating Circle, and the Envelope
of its osculating Sphere : and the new developable surface (d), as being circumscribed to this superficial locus (or envelope'), so as to touch it along this singular line (p. 612), may naturally be called, as above,
the Circumscribed Developable (p. 581). (o). Additional light may be thrown on this whole theory of the singular line (w), by considering (pp. 601611) a problem which was
two distinct Sections (xxii. xxvi.) of his wellthe Notes to pp. 602, 603, 609, 610 of these Elements) ; namely, to determine the envelope of a sphere with varying radius E, whereof the centre s traverses a given curve in space ; or
discussed
by Monge,
in
known Analyse (comp.
briefly, to find the
Envelope of a Sphere with One varying Parameter
(comp.
what
especially for the Case of Coincidence (p. 603, &c.), of are usually two distinct branches (p. 602) of a certain Characp.
624)
:
teristic
lope (real or
Curve (or arete de rebroussement), namely the curvilinear enveimaginary) of all the circles, along which the superficial
is
envelope of the spheres
(j)).
touched
by those spheres themselves.
Quaternion forms (pp. 603, 604) of the condition of coincidence (o) ; one of these can be at once translated into Monge's equation of condition (p. 603), or into an equation slightly more general, as leaving the independent variable arbitrary ; but a simpler and
more
easily interpretable
form
is
the following (p. 604),
ndr = + JSdi2,
in
(Gi)
which r
is
is
the radius of the
envelope
(o),
while
^'i
is
of contact, of a sphere with its the radius of (first) curvature of the curve (s),
circle
which
the locus of the centre s of the sphere. {q). The singular line into which the two branches of the curvi
linear envelope oxeftised,
when this condition is
an orthogonal
(s)
;
trajectory (p.
satisfied, is in general 607) to the osculating planes of the curve
is noiv the given one, is therefore (comp. 391, 607) oith& polar developable, corresponding to the singular line just mentioned, or to what may be called the curve In this way there arise (p), which was formerly the given curve.
that curve,
which
(p.
395) the cuspedge
many
verifications of formulae
is easily
(pp. 607,
608)
;
for example,
the
with the results of (/). (r). With the geometrical hints thus gained from interpretation of quaternion results, there is now no difficulty in assigning the Complete and General Lntcgral of the Equation of Condition {p), which was
equation (Gi)
to be consistent
shown
presented
by Monge under the form (comp.
of the second order,
differential equation
p. 603) of a nonlittear involving three variables
the result is in In by calculation and by geometry. respecting that gauche curve of the third order (or degree). to the cone of chords (397) from p . along the same side. the formula for k" enables us to assign general exits (f). ip. («). namely the coordinates of the centre of the sphere^ regarded as varying with the ra(^. Other applications of preceding formulae might be given . A less ge neral integral is also assigned. while the other tangent plane to the cubic cone (C3) crosses ihoi first plane {P). (A)). of the results of Series 398. at once the Enve of the osculating Sphere and the Locus of the osculating Circle. 609) that although. for instance. (s). to that Singular Line on itself. tt) dius. quaternion form (p. that many ways when the condition of coincidence (^) is satisfied. pressions (p. Among the verifications {q) of this whole theory.CONTENTS. and therefore touching also. which osculates at K to the locus of the centre of the osculating circle. Additional general investigations. or the quadric cone (Cg). helix. 610. along that side. which has been above called an Osculating Twisted Cubic (398. 611) for the centre and radius of the circle. yet in the of fusion (p) this cuspidal character is lost (as was likewise seen by Monge*) and that then a section of the surface. the Surface lope as in (w). but which does not appear to have been either integrated or interpreted by that illustrious analyst. which however could scarcely have been much abridged. is. the osculating oblique cone (Ci) of the second order. 609 of these Elements. 611). XXlll Pages. as Monge perit to be). considered as functions of a fourth (a). — with applications to the case. But it is time to conclude this long analysis. for the case of the plane evolute of the plane evolute of a plane curve. (pp. and its geometrical signification exhibited. being the osculating plane (P) to the curve. and to pass to a more brief account of the investigations in the following Series. it is shown of the general curvilinear envelope of the circles of the system are real and distinct^ each branch is a cuspedge (or arete de rebroussement. made by when the two branches (p) ceived case : a normal plane to the singular pressed by the equation (Fi). 608. the tangent . (K) one tangent plane to that cone (C3). 610) into the usual language of analysis. Article 399. to any proposed curve of double ciirvature . upon the superficial envelope of the spheres. as answering to a case for which the singular line lately consi dered reduces itself to a singular point (pp. pt to the given curve is a nodal side of the cubic cone 398. 614). but is easily translated (^. confirmed. . 609). The general integral here found presents iisQlisit^v^i'vaQ. In general (p. where the given 612621 curve is a. has precisely the form (m). exshort. to a given curve in space : with an elementary verification. into which by (g) the tivo branches (o) of general cuspedge are fused. at an angle of which the trigonometric cotan Compare the first Note to p. line.
that for this case the general cubic cone (C3) breaks up into two separate loci. as follows. pe. ders. having sixpoint con * It is known that the locus of the vertex of a quadric cone. This Second Method consists in taking.XXIV gent (^r') is CONTENTS. 617). which passes through six given iwints of space. in the tangent pt. (C2'). for the coordinates of the twisted cubic . not only (pp. and which is at the same time a side of a real quadric cylinder (ia). but also in a second real side pe. : is found (p. (e). The two quadric cones. with the real cylinder (£2)of thi<. 615. as in one is a plane (P'). and contains the twisted cubic : this gauche curve being thus asymptote the curvilinear part (p. which has that asymptote for anotlier side (p. 615) for the deviation of the Jielixfrom that osculating curve. c. pe'. (d). 616). (f)) to the gauche curve sought being also sides of three quadric cylin. are the through the given point p to the three asymptotes (398. (Z^'2). b. whereof no four are in one . in a point a such that pa is to ab as three to seven. whereof But usually the foregoing method requires. Method to the case of a given helix. pe". the solution of a cubic equation : an inconvenience which is completely avoided. (Co) ^^d (C2')) touch each other and fhe plane (P) along the tangent pt. of these tivo cones. d. 614) that the general cubic cone (C3) breaks up into the system of a new quadric cone. f. with a faciwhich arises chiefly from the circumstance (i). for a second locus of the gauche osculatrix sought. The First Method (a). 617) by the axis of the right cylinder (b). which is cut internally (p. expression (p. and is of the sixth order : the between the tangmt pt and the real asymptote. by the employment of a Second General Method. succeeds then for the case of the helix. {L"^. although they can still be used in calculation But the plane (P') cuts the cone (C2). and two of the corresponding cylinders (a). which contain those asymptotes as other and of which each contains the twisted sides (or generating lines) cubic sought. e. it (b). 615) of the intersection of the real cone (C2). result . "which remain when the tangent pt parallels is excluded. are in this case imaginary. is a right line PB. and of which one at least must be real. (fi)). and is cut in it by the quadric cone (C2). least distance. to which the real is parallel (a) . 614. common sides. and a new plane (P') which latter is the rectifying plane (396) of the helix. fractional ex(c). of which every point is the vertex* of a quadric cone. which had been established in the prelity ceding Series (398). a certain Cubic Surface (^83). or the tangent plane at p . and have no other real common side : whence two of the sought asymptotes. whereon that given curve is traced. a. divided by the differential of the arc (js). 398. to the right cylinder. 617). On applying this First say (Z2). which deviation is directed inwards. Transformations and verifications pressions (p. equal to half the differential of the radius (r) of second And the three curvature.
(«). It is found (p. (Hi') the circles of contact (398. to the problem of the osculating twisted cubic to a curve. which has a for vertex. and the fourth is the intersection of the two planes. (0)) reduce themselves each to o. point (or rather to a pair of imaginary right lines. which p and <t are corresponding vectors of involute and evolute together with a theorem of Prof. and when this right line is set aside^ the remaining (that is. and then the quartic surface (/S4) is reduced to the as foreign to the question cubic surface (S^. AE. 602). is the Osculating is Twisted Cubic sought : which gauche osculatrix generally determined. but not to the osculating planes plane. (i). while its radius is the variable intercept between the two curves but because we have here the relation (p. an orthogonal trajectory to the tangents of the evolute . above described. without any such difficulty or apparent variety. (p. undergoes important modifications in its results. the involute is indeed. p. is generally a Surface. the oaculating plane to that curve : may be excluded. (a.bcdef). intersecting in a real point). AF. say (S^). it is cut by the plane of the triangle abc in a system of four right lines. But when we set aside iihejive right lines. and the preceding theory (398). the conditions of the application being difierent. in the same cubic curve as the cubic cone (C3). 621—626 The usual points of Monge's theory are deduced from the two S((Tp)p' = 0. we find that the (remaining or) curvilinear part of the complete intersection is reduced to a curve of the third degree. 622). which are common to the two surfaces here considered. 621).. fundamental quaternion equations V(<Tp)<r'=0. 622. we might expect to find (in some sense) a curve of the eighth degree. and passes through the five other given points. Sin: XXV Pages. — On Involutes and Evolutes in Space. as the equations (Hi) express. of the Fourth Degree : in fact. ad. (Hi) . which is precisely the twisted cubic through the six given points. In applying this general (and perhaps new) method. In particular. ab. respecting the in case when the invohite is a spherical curve. 621). . the curvilinear') part of the intersection of the two loci. An involute in space is generally the only real part (p. (62) and {Si). tact with the given curve at p so that this tiew surface is cut hy the plane at injinity. 624) of the envelope of a certain variable spJiere (comp. and with new verifications for the case of the helix Article 400. ac.. of envelopes of spheres with one varying parameter.. De Morgan (p. or say {O2). 398). R : comp.CONTENTS. e . which has its centre on the evolute. whereof three are the sides of that triangle. ABC and DEF. (p. If then we investigate the intersection of this surface (^S^) with the quadric cone. 620) to he a Muled Surface^ with the tangent pt for b. gular Line . i2'2 + «t'2 = 0. as might be supposed to attend the solution of a dindi thus completely cubic equation (d).
with the and ^q cond curvatures o{ curve in space. 626630 Section 7 On Surfaces of the Second Order. some phrases have been used in the foregoing analysis of the Series 398 and 399. Curvature of hodograph of of involute and evolute. 398. xi. as the singular line (398. assigned in Articles 389. S2P2. and if we s. A^p. and on Curvatures of Surfaces. the notation 630706 Article 402. for the sake of brevity. . — . comp. draw right lines sti. (^)) of the former envelope was.% fourside or fiveside contact between cones.. circle. without abandoning it is possible to abridge calculation... when a certain condition of coincidence (or oi fusion.XXvi CONTENTS. by the treatment of quaterand of the first p. . and with a common length = sp. be corresponding points • . . if p. of that curve. yet the reasonings in the text of these Elements have all been rigorously reduced. and even of clearness. P2. cases. . . . trouble to write these latter symbols frst. and fivepoint or sixpoint contact between curves. for norm is employed In some of these equations. in the directions of SiPi. 6). or between a curve and a surface. Ap. and sphere. &c. 635) the equation. Article 403. such as the plane at infinity. tvith the involute fpiP3 • • (pp.631 631633 N (comp. d^p. Q. 625. to make it visible how. as in other parts of Analysis.. it is shown that in Quaternions. p. the Section II. 82. 626). BO far.. the rigour of limits ih. In short. — References — 630.) as new deductions of osculating plane. to some equations of Surfaces. and evolute (p. or are all obviously reducible. 633635 T(tp + p. &c.1. for the case of points. will have contact of the second order at Article 401. .* — Calculations abridged. {pj) was satisfied. (c). st2. as denoting fnite differences. 307. with a few other expressions of modem geometry. 401 such ultimate reference to limits. the spherical curve ptiT2 . to the fundamental conception of Limits : compare the definitions of the osculating circle is and sphere. infinitesimals . in the .t finite distances : and then having the additional trouble oireducing\hQ complex expressions so found to simplerformsy in which differentials shall finally appear.).e facility can be combined with of infinitesimals.c)=K2_. such 0. dp. Quaternion equations of the Sphere (p2 = . The object of Art. which are borrowed from the doctrine of consecutive points and lines. Article 404. 625) . as if without taking the they represented infinitely small differences. nion differentials (which have hitherto been finite. i. to those of the curve which was the locus of the centres of the spheres hefore considered. 395. Quaternion equations of the Ellipsoid. in earlier parts of the Volume.2. &c. rigorous statement of a problem. . in several by treating (at this stage) the differential symbols. of which statement it is not always easy to assign the proper form. &c. Pages. vector equation (392) of the circle. a. Pi. One of the simplest of these forms is (pp. Si. and therefore from that of infinitesimals . . &c. (Ij) * Although.
scalar semiaxes (real or ima(J)). ^"^^^T^' vector semiaxes corresponding are. (Ii") Central Surface of the Second Order (or l. and constant vectors. common to the whole system of the (real and positive) scalar I is also constant for that sysbut the scalar e varies. 645. and cyclic forms (pp.CONTENTS. Cfp in which. 643653 III. . central quadric). by a new analysis. 644) of the three ginary). (Ii') whence Article 405. lines of * For example. • Sp<pp=fp = 636638 638643 Sp0p=/p = O. that the focal the focal cone. is with some quaternion formulse. — General Cone of the Second Order (or quadric cone). 230) in terms of k as follows a = Tt + TK:. 644. a. —Bifocal Form of the equation of a central but non: .1) (e + Saa') l^. (a). by means of a Biacentric Sphere and a Point (p. p. (Jj) (Ji') confocals tem : (real) focal unitlines. and k are the ci/clic normals. : *. 226). a' are = (S«p)2 . 53.e^) p2 = C= (e« . deduction. to the focal lines of any cone circumscribed to a confocal.2eSapSa'p + (Sa'p)2 + (1 . conical surface of the second order relsLting to Confocal Surfaces. Article 407. which has any proposed point p for vertex. 644. 227. it is proved by quaternions (pp. c^ = {e\)P. 13). are generating lings of the singlesheeted hyperboloid (of the given confocal system). a^^{e^\)P. may be regarded as a parameter. and rests on the focal hyperbola. «. vector function <pp . c. which passes through that point and an extension of this result. of several known theorems* (pp. are expressed (comp. in wliich t xxvu Pages. which was among the earliest geometrical results ternions. comp. and two . 656). in passing from surface to surface. C. 643. say (e). in these Contents. ii.k) (t o = TtT«. unifocal. three scmiaxes. 644). The squares (p. The bifocal form here adopted (comp. 653) respecting confocal surfaces. 653). (Ki) ^^'^ ^'=T~' aU(a+a'). the Section 6) the equation. in the directions of This fonn (Ii) is intimately connected with. that Construction of the Ellipsoid (II. cU(aa'). 650). and real indeed served to suggest. to each of which corresponds a form of the (c). in a subsequent Series (408. 652. b=^~T . theorems respecting confocals can only be alluded to. 652. 648. (Mi) Rectangular. ai"'c — General = T(i k). The t. of the Quap. bVYaa'. arranged in algebraically descending order. known . Fig. p. i. are. Article 406. whence and the three bi^{e+^aa')P. of the scalar function fp. from another (pp. 648. of which the value serves to distinguish one confocal. is deduced : by a similar But such analysis.
which are (Ni'). by interchanging the two focal lines a Second Exponential Transformation is obtained. for X and with each other by the relation (i). in (Ni). into which that ellipse can be orthogonally projected : and the angle ^tn is now the excentrie anomaly. a'. Pages. we allow t to vary. as well as of the first system (/). (Oi) Circumscribed Quadric Cones. the lines a. 648. almost as interesting as the known : and it is proposed (p. of the equation {cT). of any central quadric . If SiUj fixed value be assigned to t. which section is an ellipse if the surface be an ellipsoid. the equation (Ni) then represents the section made by a plane through a (p. 651). radius of a circle in a plane perpendicular to a. whatever the species of the surface either hyperboloid .T . the equation (Ni) then represents an ellipse (p.n.XXVIU and their focal CONTENTS. (/). in circular sections some points of view. however connected . conies . with x^^fa + 2/2/UVaa' = 1. And a. but an hyperbola for and the cutting plane makes with the focal plane of a.(pv^ = Nv(l>. 1863.v. (Ni') . 647). is an arbitrary or variable scalar. a' in ((?). centres on the line a'. with a for its axis. 652).»v (aea)JJYaa this auxiliary vector nent. 649) to the Lectures* for ihe focal ellipse of the Ellipsoid^ and for several different generations of this last surface. If. (Ni). General Exponential 7}ransformation (p.G63 * Lectures on Quaternions (by the present author). a' are asymptotes to the focal : hy refeperbola (p. with a Second System of centrofocal ellipses. or the surface. circles. — On Yv. on the other hand. 649). may be . Dublin. x represents the distance of its centre from the centre o of the measured along the focal line a. 65 1 ). they are. 653. any one confocal (e) the expoand the coefficients. of which the ellipse is a section. (3 is constant. Hodges and Smith. 651). y. . are two other scalar variables. Equation of Confocals Article 408. and are projected into (p. an angle = itrr. and on the Umbilics of a central quadric. Qi). on a plane per pendiciilar to this latter line (p. it is obvious that. or with the plane of the focal hyperbola. but assign to X and y any constant values consistent with (Ni'). p = xa + yYa% . y is the radius of a right cylinder. but which have their (g). whereof the proposed surface is the locus. whatever the species of the surface may be rences (in Notes to pp. Such elliptic sections of a central quadric may be otherwise obtained from the unifocal form (c) of the equation of the surface . t. 649) to call them Centro Foeal Ellipses.
also The condition (Qi) may he thus transformed (p. (<^). the cone circumscribed to any sruface of the system. One form this is Vvd2p = 0. this latter is also a p'.. 659).to the circum scribed cone (Qi) or may be represented (p. o on. 663). (QO which (i). (a). by III. (/).p')i)^=(/pi)(/p'i). (Si) yrhexQ P \& ihe perpendicular from the centre ihQ tangent plane. Order. for central quadrics. rectians. 654). of the same surface with the riffht = l. connected with by certain relations of reciprocity (comp. or Com of Normals (Q. Article 409. 653) of Conjuffate Points. /(p. to the first integral. 659). (a). (/(p. for a confocal system. = (P:). shown (p. and which are its intersections with the three focal curves : and these twelve points are ranged. which likewise admits of an extremely simple interpretation. other for known results are easy consequences of the present analysis example (pp. is a developable surface (p. Reciprocal Cone. p. A central quadric has in general Twelve Umbilics (p. XXIX Pages. 515). — Geodetic Lines on Central Surfaces of the Second 664667 on of the general differential equation of geodetics an arbitrary surface being. is form of the equation of the Cone. The last equation.CONTENTS. with vertex at circumscribed to the same quadric (/p = 1). (Pi') line pp'. from any point of either of the two real focal curves^ is a cone of revolution (real or imaginary) but a similar conclusion holds : focal. when the vertex is on the third (or imaginary) (e). . 663). Equations (p. 656) is touched by two confocals. and which it is proposd to call the Eight Umbilicar Ge neratrices of the surface. and . 483) . FYpp' = a^^c^fip p). These (imaginary) umbilicar generatrices of a quadric are found to possess several interesting properties. when that vertex is any point of the (known and imaginary) developable envelope of the confocal system.and/(p. for this (c).p') 0. iii. i?'((T:Sp'(T)=l. 664) (Ri). on eight imaginary right lines (p. 655) by the very (Qi") simple equation. and of Conjugate Diwith respect to the surface /p = 1. p2i)2 = Tv2/Udp = ^ = const. which intersect the circle at infinity.i')> <t at p'. and a simple geometrical interpretation F being / may be assigned. 662). 5 (p.p') Condition of Contact. especially in relation to the lines of curvature : and their locus. 658. A given right line (p. and even more generally (p. if Tdp = const. (Qi') a scalar function. (Rj') to conduct. three by three. namely the known envelope (d) of that system. whereof ovlj four (at most) can be real. good.
667) because it is a limiting form of this other equation. Without the restriction (Hi')? the in (Si) differential of the scalar (p. p. may be multiplied (pp. J) = h'^. on confocal (^. (b). in the equation (Ti). for then (by pp. (Ti') which is the condition of intersection (or of parallelism). dv=^dp+V\dp. Pages. without any real change in that equation but in this whole theory. is constant. Svdi/dp = 0. if constant. ei sin^ vi + e^ cos^ vi = e. same time. (Si') which agrees with one of M. (real or B is the to imaginary) semidiameter of the surface. (d). represents the geodetic lines on any surface : the theorem (a) is therefore in this way reproduced. which will be seen. 515). P. (R). Article 410. also. 409. that the quantity h. (Ui') . at the or P. 666). (<?)). (Ui) generally which usually involves p (p. by (Si").) . 669. For instance. of Curvatures of Surfaces by Quaternions. being by no means necessarily be not an ellijJsoid. 673. 666) of the form. that the tanalso a conifnon gents to a geodetic. set but tial also for a certain other of curves. represents (p. in the next Series.XXX and is CONTENTS. lines. Svdpd2p = 5. the surface Deduction (p. equation of the second order. by the lately cited Section (III. 487) we shall have an equa tion of the form. Central Quadric.. (Ri") with an arbitrary scalar variable. upon an arbitrary surface . = const. But we see. and in particu667674 on such (a). touch and of an integral (p. (5). SvAvAp = 0. is therefore proved The known equation anew. of the normals drawn at the extremities of the two vectors p and p + Ap. p. determined by the differen equation of ihe first order. this last real. which parallel the tangent (dp) to the curve. lar — On Lines of Curvature generally.i. (c). to represent the lines of curvature. it is advantageous to consider the expression Svdp as denoting the exact differential of some scalar function of p . Svdp«d2p iii. 700) by any constant or variable scalar n. of Joachimstal. of the treatment . 486. we may write comp. i\ie (TO Lines of Curvature. however. h may be thus decomposed into factors d/i = d. 665) of a theorem of M.i) = const. the differential 0. xiii). Srdvdp = 0. dr = ^dp = a selfconjugate function of dp. (Si") but. P2i)2 = 2Sj/dvdpi. Chasles. Liouville. for the case of a The differential equation (comp. not only for the geodetics on a central quadric. . any one central quadric [e). The normal vector r.
668) and they are distinguished (as he likewise saw) from . are easilyture. also (as was seen by Dupin) the directions of the axes of the Index Curve (p. and the equation is. and being generally* func tions of p. of a central quadric. but in some cases more. of which the variable vector 1. namely that if a developable be circumscribed to any surface. (A). («). (Ui'") (/). It will soon be . being real. of curvature pass through an umbilic of a quadric. is a line of curvature on each. 645). namely that the curve of orthogonal intersection (p. the its more generally = which the centre is or and it is proposed to call this surface. theorem of Dupin. of two all other : tangents t and r'. ((?). being in the present notation (see again Sr^r' = 0. This being understood. Case of a central quadric . 668). (e)). 669). the two\ directions of the tangent dp. 670). as they have known to be. is the imaginary envelope of the lines of curvature on that surface (p. it is found useful to introduce the conception of an Auxiliary Surface of the Se The cond Order (p. or Sr^r = 0. partly diametral section. UYvX + UVv/i. which satisfy at once the general equation (Ti) of the lines of curva= of the surface. and the vectors X. the scalar ^. which may be considered to coincide with the known " indicatrice" of at the given point p. tangents to the given surface. that whatever the given be. The surface may expressions (Ti") show (p. surface itself remaining still quite arbitrary. 670). (W) because Index Surface. the tangents to the lines of curvature bisect the angles fonned by the traces of the two cyclic planes of the Index Surface ((f). /i are constants. of two confocal surfaces. 671) of still another thereon. long been {d). is p + p'. is a certain Index Curve (p. and each such generatrix is itself sea. . and the differential equation Si^dp found to be represented by the two vector expressions (p.CONTENTS. but not inyolving dp. new proof (p. at the given point p. (Ti") they are therefore generally rectangular to each other. on the tangent plane to the given surface these two tangents have . imaginary * t Generally two lines For the case of a central quadric. 671) . seen. p. to the corresponding tangents to the curve. The system of the eight mnbilicar generatrices (408. 669) of another theorem of Dupin. New proof (p. by the condition that each is perpendicular to its oivn conjugate. made by the tangent plane to the given surface at p. X. that three . 668). with respect to that indicating curve the equation of such conjugation. Sp>p' = ^p'2 + SXp>p' = const. [i xxxi Pages. g. (J). of Dupin. as tangents to the surface. along any curve its generating lines are everywhere conjugate.
and therefore the locus of the point p' is usually a quartic curve. (e). 662). (e)) there pass three lines of curvature (comp. whereat two branches of the curve cut each other at right of the chord pp' is and touch the two lines of curvature. may be easily transformed for the case of a quadric. pair ofplanes. in an imaginary sense. at most. has at the same time no real umbilics (comp.. quadrics. If the point p be one oid. of the results apply. and the rest can easily be adapted to this latter case. Article 411. 674— 6< The general equation of condition (Ti'). Under the same conditions. namely the two umbilicar generatrices through p (pp. and otherwise proved. . or a doublesheeted hyperboloid) real normal. Page : so that through each of the twelve umbilics (see again 408. indeed most. so as to express (p.XXXll line CONTENTS. It follows that the normal pn at a real umbilic p (of an is ellip soid. central. perpen dicular thereto. whereof one is the principal section itself. which (alone of central quadrics) has real generating lines. or surfaces of the second omit the term order. the second plane (P') (^d). 676. or Sj/AvA/o = 0.. 678. except those that this real normal the normals p'n'. is the plane of the section. for conciseness. will be illustrated. say (P). the cone (C) breaks up into a. into o. but ginary generatrices through the real umbilic p so that each of these * Many. and is not tangential to the surface and thus the quartic (b) breaks up into a pair of conies through p. principal section of the given surface. . (c). These last results. for the case of a Central* Quadric . and simply speak of t It is well known that the single. (P')> i^ .sheeted hyperboloid. and especially of the theorem respecting the Three Lines of Curvature through an TJmhilic. . not intersected by any other are in the same principal section . p be an umbilic. 661. But if the given point becomes a tangent plane to the surface and the second conic (c) breaks up. with p for a double point. at the same time. p. 675). whereof two are always imaginary and rectilinear. in the following Series (411). We shall therefore often. can be real namely two generatrices. the normals at p and p' intersect (or are parallel). but not an umbilic. 679). and the other is perpendicular to it. one. that when {a). and a principal section of the surface. by the consideration of infinitely distant points. whereof angles. Additional illustrations and confirmations of the — foregoing theory. which pn is intersected. and the other. pp. to its if the point p be given. for the intersection of two finitely distant normals. which are perhaps new. 676) a quadric cone. own polar. pair of imaginary^ right lines.. to the case of the Paraboloids . : of curvature thereon whereof however only one. the locus usually (p. 677). say (C) . the clwrd pp' is per pendicular (i). without modification. by all which are drawn at points p' of either of the two ima.
gene ratrices in question are. at points of this one common (JmaginariJ) normal plane (p. 672. and p + Ap that of any other point cone . under the following very simple form: that if a nonevanescent everywhere perpendicular to Quaternions are not at all re vector be directed to the circle at infinity.CONTENTS. 671. f . 300. a' are still. that each such generatrix pp' is crossed perpendicularly.. while a. but of which the directions are constant. which has already presented admits of a certain locus of chords transformations . 676) and as before. which cuts that circle. imaginary line is Compare the Notes to pages 459. for a whole confocal system. sponsible for the introduction of this principle into geometry. are situated in bilie. (c)) tivo rectangular directions. two real focal lines. (A)). (a). This cone (C). 459. (5). pp. 678) of a system * It might be natural to suppose.nd employ it. for instance (see p. because all the normals p'n'. for consistency with tity for every umbilic. becomes an idenas it ought to do. These geometrical results are in various ways deducible from calculation with quaternions . for example. of which the lengths are here arbitrary. But it is an almost equally well known as it modem geometry. by a second (and distinct. (g). is also the locus (p. connecting any two umbilics which are not in one principal plane' . but they recognise a. and that thus the quadratic equation (XXI. as in 407. whereof one represents the tangent to the principal section. it may many quaternion be written thus. 672) . (/). It may be noted here. as (by 408. that wli£)z this last symbol represents a vector which is not null. 662. real or imaginary the foregoing theory of the three lines through that umbilic. seen anew to be a line* ofcurmture^ on the sur: face (comp. in p. from the known general theory (410. of the although imaginary') 2iM^ received result of line of curvature. or (Yi). (c)) can usually be derived. that (e)) the lohen a right line is directed to the circle at infinity. and conversely. it is an imaginary value of the symbol Oi (comp. in 411. itself. while the other (SXd^p = 0) assigns the directions of identity/ at :  the two generatrices. And as an additional illustration of the coincidence of directions of the lines of curvature at any : nonumbilicar point p' of an umbilicar generatrix. 675). at every one of its nonumbilicar points p'. it may be added that the cone of chords {C). paradoxical then this must at first appear. imaginary right lines is XXxiii Pages. that such is the case with the reci procal polar of every chord of a quadric. SapA(0 Sa'pAp p' of the p being the vector of the vertex p. 677) to become an an umbilic (v X) while the differential of that equation breaks up into ivfo factors. (h). 410. the vector thus denoted is an imaginary line. itself as The equation of the cone (C). 669) from which the two directions (410. there are thus three lines of curvature through an umline. as before. (b). a form of the equation of the lines of curvature on a quadric is seen (p. is found to touch the quadric along that generatrix^ when its vertex is at any such point p'.
the section is an equilait teral hyperbola. equations (p. 678) their :—If indefinitely many quadrics. in as in (III). 679 a be the vector of the centre of curvature of a normal section of an arbitrary surface. whatever the : \\  form of that surface may be that is. Srp' = 0).) of some known theorems from these equations and of some which introduce the new and general conception of the Indeic Swfaee (410. If —On for their locus. and where consequently the index curve is a circle. At any other point p of the given surface. asymp their normals at that point have a quadric cone {C) Article 412 («). 681. the normals 677) to the three confocals (p. to the three lines of curvature through that point. /* are. and if to a side. the difference of the two curvatures JB'i therefore vanishes at an umbilic of the given surface. are given (p. (defined. for any given point p. the constants in the equation (Ui") of the index surface. 680) by the expression. (X'l) r = gTXiJi. at a point. CONTENTS. in which g. be cut by any plane perpendicular and not passing through the vertex. (d). Introducing the auxiliary iscalar (p. (a). known Index (c). 680. Deduction (pp. (Wi). s . the which r ( dp) is a tangent to a line of curvature. expressed (p. &c. curvature thereon. 679). The same cone (C) has. 644) of a given system which pass through its vertex p . (J). Pages. by 410. which is as yet entirely arbitrary. (c). (<?)). while dv = 0dp. (Xi") being the scalar semiaxes (real or imaginary) of the index curve = l. 682). the values of r »*i may be thus = ar2. two values of r. Curve. sections of those three confocals.XXXIV of three rectangular lines . (Wi"). its equation (Vi) does not involve the constant of 407. a2 . which answer to the two rectangular directions (Ti") in 410. at any given point p. we arrive at the following theorem (p. comp. 681).. I. (Wi') whence VdpdUv = 0. as well as^that of the . cos (Z ^+ A ^ — /x ). Centres of Curvature of Surfaces. . ij^dp + dXJj/ = 0. 410. which are the inter (y). (y). by the equations Sp'^p' ai. common centre o. where v \ or /i. (T which touches one of the two lines of we have the two fundamental and and =p+ i2Uv. for three of its sides pp'. and therefore also. have and pass through a common point p..r2=a22. (d). (p. And because (b). X.. = ^ £ + S^ dp (Wi'") the equation (Wi") being a new form of the general differential equation of the lines of curvature. with a totic cones biconfocal. the tangents (i).
and to which r' or vt is normal. r' surface being still quite general. : which may be regarded also as a general form of the Vector Equation of the Surface of Oentres. and an analo gous one (same page) for the developable normal surface (jg). on the plan of the Section III. {j ). 6 (pp. If the vector of curvature (389) of a line of curvature be the normal v to the given surface. or that Yrdr' = 0. or the inverse squares of the two last semiaxes. a line of curvature on the developable normal surface. which has the same tangent r but this result. <T of curvature of the given surface. (A2). the projection is 686) the vector of curvatiire of the normal section of that sur. r. \// and Xj being derived from the function 0. The Svi (^ + r) ij/ = . it is (A'2) so that T and r' are unit tangents to the lines of curvature. of the point . or of the locus of the centre s the variable vector (0 of the point p of the given surface being supposed (p. and therefore tt = Uv. (/). 440. of wHcli ri and >'2. whereof therefore v. (Y'l) the linear and vector functions. has what may (on the same plan) be . are virtually included in Meusnier's theorem. (0. 683) under the symbolical fo7m. (Ji). line. (Bg). series (418). which will be proved by quaternions in Series 414. 443). and a become also and scalar functions. ii. sign. this general parallelism of dr' to r being geometrically explained. 501) to be expressed as a vector function of two independent variables. in connexion with the theory of the Measure of Curvature. on account of the The normal at s.S — — V tP V . pressed by the equation. 683) by the formula./j/ = 0. if r be tangential to the projected on (p.The vector cr of a centre s answering to a given point p thereon. maybe written (p. face. to the diiection of the tangent t to what may be called the First Sheet. easily (B'2) proved that dr' = rST'dT. quadratic equation. at the same time. The given r = Udjo. (Yi) which may be developed (same page) into ja this other form. XXXV Pages. i2iiiil2i = n r2 Tv 2 = . may (by (Wi) and (Xi)) be ex(C2) = p + riv.CONTENTS. are the roots. if we write = U (vdp). (p. generally. the product of the two curvatures of a sur face is expressed (same p. by observing that a line of curvature on any surface is. (Zi) which will be found useful in the following {g). {e). 686). although the two last involve an ambiguous Ttvo Sheets of the surface of centres. called the First Line of Curvature at p and the vector t. Hence. + rSvixJ' + Svi . which rests upon that line.
or any linear and . with the corre sponding Curve of Centres for one of its evolutes (400). follows easily from what precedes. on the corresponding «A«^< of the Reciprocal (comp. xxv. (E2') (w). of reciprocity. = Spu l. it is that surface of centres itself : while. when the derived vectors p' and tr' are changed to the cor responding differentials. sion. or general. is therefore in and the connected theorem (also of Monge). is (E2) a variable vector. the Note d(r=diJ. or the tangent plane at s to the or finally. Su(T=S<ru = l. 684) the normal plane to \he first line (y) of curvature at p. has (by p. Su^(7 = 0. whereof we And if v be regarded. which rests upon the second line of curvature. Svv0y = O. the reciprocal surface Q') is the envelope of this other plan&i Saw = 1. (t). to p. Suw = 1. (w). 684) the exprespp. Svw = 0. shall shortly meet with an example. 684).p) = 0. whereof many. In the foregoing paragiaphs of this analysis. or rather. dp and dc. as a vector fimction of two scalar variables.Uv. (Dg") (t). several less general but interesting results arise. represents (p. 508) of the Surface of Centres. here. we see that the equations (Hi) of p. and touches the first sheet 2Xou^ a certain cw?t^. at two corresponding points we have also the relations (pp. (D/) ^(T. or more simply. . in like manner. are known . The equation Sv (w . The equations (Wi). vector elements of those two surfaces. 507. 685). consistent with the equations of the surface of centres audits recipro cal. comp. = r(Spr)i. Sv denoting any infinitesimal variations of the vectors a and v. the tangent plane to first sheet of the surface of centres in : which w that developable normal surface (^). the given surface has throughout been arbitrary. 684. The known theorem (of Monge). are satisfied. the envelope of the variable plane (Eg) is a sheet of the surface of centres . «. and of which some may be mentioned (J). CONTENTS. (Wi) give (comp. S(r^u = 0. (F2) combining which with (C2). form of the Vector Equation of that Reciprocal Surface. on account of the ambiguous sign («).xxxvi corresponding to s. as stated in {d) and But if we now consider specially the case of a central quadric. this way reproduced : that this evoltite is a geodetic on its own sheet of the surface of centres. that each Line of Curvature is generally an involute. The vector v satisfies generally (by same page) the equations (Jc). Pages. (t)) to be a (D2) which may also be considered (comp. but perhaps not all.
<r = (^»+r>)v. the Index Surface (410. made by a plane parallel to the tangent plane . 684. each such normal (when real) having the length of one of the tral quadric (of Hence. whence many ffiven surface. i?3' = Pa2'. Pi of the perpendicular ^ from the centre on this result whence (by (Xi) and Xi")) these known expressions : for the two* curvatures J?ri (^). and a semiaxis of a section is imaginary. (/). . to the planes of diametral sections of the given surface. normal or oblique. 681) to the semiaxes of the diametral section of the given surface. simplifications follow. (p).CONTENTS. as in 409. (p). a2 of the index curve are now equal (p. <T = ri (^ + r) p. of the curva ture of any section. by changing the semiaxes abc to azb2C2 it being understood that the given quadric {abc) is cut by the two confoif 02 <p be formed from cals (aibiCi) and {azbzc^). we have the analogous expression. then. of the (imaginary) normal erected. 670) the from o to p . («)) to the curvawhich have the directions of the ttvo lines of curvature these being in fact what are always regarded as the two principal curvatures (or simply as the two curvatures) of the surface. 683) of being written thus : new surfacef admits (H2) St>(0p2)'p (r). to be made equal to the square of that semiaxis. {d)) becomes simply (p. : Throughout the present Series 412. V = y (0 + r)J ^(T. t When the given surface is an ellipsoid^ the derived surface : is the celebrated JFave Surface of Fresncl which thus has (H2) for a symbolicalform of its equation. the expression (C2) for a gives (p. any species'). Of on the same plan. and Spv =fp = 1. (J2). the equation of this (p. p = /'(^ + r)i(r. with its cent7e transported (o). the semiaxes ai. and Tv is. in a shortly subsequent Series (414). (J2') and by the theory (407) of con = ^2ij/ = 02''^p. But. as the if a new surface be derived from a given cen semiaxes of that section. (K2) . (I2') whence (pp. 684) the two converse forms. * tures of the ttvo normal sections of a surface. (I2). in the first and second lines of curvature : through the given point p centre s of curvature. = Par* . by (ri (d). (Gg) locus of the extremities of normals^ erected at the centre. we attend only (comp. the reciprocal latter plane . that not only dv (pdp. = = Supposing. but also i/ 0p. 689). Under the conditions (0). and therefore focal surfaces. the more general case will be considered. by (<?). When the given surface is an hyperboloid. and that <ri is here the vector of that^rs^ which answers to the^^rs^ line (comp. For example. = O. course. the (scalar and is still now positive) square. (p. XXX Vll Pages. 689).
p. as a new Vector Form* of the Equation of the Surface of Centres. by admission of an ambiguous sign (comp. for o. 684. 685. Salmon's result. and a^h2C2 retain their recent significations (r). . (p. (M2) may in various ways be proved by quaternions (w). for all the points of a Line of Second Curvature . by the developable normal surface (J). while conversely r is constant and r' variable for a second line.af)^ = &c. {j) (A:) (l)). first and if r. see also p. so that r' is constant. this association of rx and a\ with a%. (IsV) to the whereof the latter is the derivative of the former. in the whole extent of a first line of curvature. (X2). (f). In connexion with the same expressions if ri. 687. 686. along the same curve. Salmon. aibiC\. Pages. through The given tors p. first line of curvature.. it may be observed that be the corresponding values of the auxiliary scalar r in (c). 687). with respect to the two confocals through that point .. V can be expressed surface being still a central quadric (0). &c. for the vector of the second centre. arising from the circumstance that the tangents r andr' have respectively the directions of the normals vz and vi. namely that the given point are centres of curvature of a G89) a theorem of Dr. (t)). with respect scalar r'K It follows (comp. a. {a^hcz) and (aihic{).. along a Quartic Curve (N2) (No'). r^ for tri. (L2) (L2') r2=/r'=/[Jvdp = (a2'«i2)i = &c. while abc.(r (l+>i^)302a. the sheet same being also touched (see again p. but r variable. the vecas functions of v (comp. and the same constancy of ro. which rests on the same second line : with permission to interchange the words. 652). 02.). These expressions for tn. the scalar therefore constant. first and out the whole of this enunciation.m&j be easily deduced from this form. / still denote the unit tangents (jg) to the and second lines of curvature. «&. * Dr. then (comp. (s). n =fT =/IJdp = (^2 . given quadric at a 'daa poles of the tangent plane.(7 (1 + /V)20(r. 688). and either of them may he regarded. second. that this siuface of centres is of the twelfth degree. Writing simply r and r' for ri and r^. 688). 686). to the two confocal surfaces. and = S. and of r^ and a% with «i. or the equation. it is found (pp. pp. d/Ux^dp = 0. which curve is the Locus of the Centres of First Curvature. ] = S. («. that the First Sheet of the Sur face of Centres is touched by an Auxiliary Quadric (Xo).xxxviii CONTENTS. By the properties of such surfaces. 02 include (p. that the scalar equation of the surface of centres {i) may be regarded as the result of the elimination of r^ between the two equations.c. for the case (0) of a given central quadric. and here called ^2 is (ti)..
the scalar and then the two equations (0. the being related as in 408.* = 1. or for the Cartesian equation of the Reciprocal Surface. pp. of the second confocal {ao bo Co). as before.). which is biconcyclic with the given quadric. of second curvature on the given surfacd". this quartic curve. (Its") and accordingly (comp. XXXlX Pages. * The equation 1/ = V2. pp. (Q3') . we have F2V2Fv=l. = r. fp= 1. 685). by observHence also. (P2") and the scalar equationf of this as including both sheets. (Q2) with several equivalent forms one way of obtaining this equation being the elimination of r between the two following (same p. f 1 <p2P=^ V2. . and v = ^2 p = V2 . (P2). (R2') in which (comp. with the quadric cone (Q2") or (E2'). 645). =1= vo = 0ip = vi . quadric. fv + rv^ = 0. the reciprocal equations (p. as above. (Q2") The two last equations may also be written thus. and conversely the the former . For a line r is constant. being at the same time the intersection of the quadric surface (Q2') or(R2). and. (Oa') from which formula (N2) ing Qk) that Sffu sions. whence V2= i^ as before. = the normal . in which the quadric reciprocal (E2). the slightly different enunciation in p. for tho^rst and fUvi sheet of the reciprocal surface. p. by (r). 685). 688) a certain quartic curve. (x). 685. when expanded by coagrees perfectly with that which was first assigned by Dr. <T=(l+ri. reciprocal surface itself. we can infer the expresu p = (^ 1 + r») it is = 02 "^ V. Spv. to the confocal {a^ bi ci) at p. (z). (0.2') (Q3"). and v = (l + yi0)2 0(t . represent jointly (comp.^)3 0iy. that vz r  v. or > (^2)5 (R's). latter can be expressed as a function of any one of we have. . F2 wi = 1. the two sheets of the reciprocal (J) of the surface of centres may have their separate vector eqtiations written thus. Booth (see a Note to p. from the formulae and methods of that Series. intersects the first sheet (ij) of the Eeciprocal Surface (Q2) . 645). vi = (iFvl)fv. 689). may be obtained anew. 685) : Fv + r'v^ (y). (J). (Pz') \\ and in fact and Spv2 easy to see otherwise (comp. and f'Uv2=fT = r. = 1. for the Tangential Equation of the Surface of Centres of a it t The equation (Qo) ordinates. is one oi'CsxQ fourth degree . More fully.CONTENTS. is not ac tually given in the text of Series 412 but it is easily deduced. (R2). considered ftflic tions/and i?' may (by page 685) be thus written. J?'2V = Sv02"^u = Sw(0i+ri)u. last the for example. 483.
. (T2) (T2') v = Y/o'p. 692) agreeing. The square of a linear element d*.9\ proved ^J'. of the present Scries 413. (<?). P2 N2 then the areas of the two small triangles thus formed will bear to each other the ultimate ratio p. " Disqtiisitiones generates circa Superficies Curvas^^ as reprinted in the Additions to Liouvillc's Monge. we have.2f'. hia ftmdamental theorem. c. (a). OR. results of that great Hence follow * References are given. (IJ2') the form of this function (p. and if derivations with respect to these be denoted by upper and lower accents. namely. in Notes to pp. as the ultimate ratio of corresponding areas on surface and sphere. respecting ihe Measure of Curvature of a Surface.e parallelism of the radii . 690). that every Deformation of a Surface. P2be any three near points on a given but arbitrary r. and p. ORi. the formula (Zi) in 412. 690).. in * corresponding expression assigned by Gauss.(S2) . (/). Let surface. Note to p. Pages. 691) as follows : d52 = (Tdp2 =) ed^2 + 2/d^dM + gdiu"^ . and e. (S2') = Product of the two Principal Curvatures of Sections. Ri. of the given but arbitrary surface. 0R2 to the normals pn.1 — — _— =_S — Yapop V 1^ V . all its details.^g". . If the vector p of the surface be considered as a function of scalar two variables. t and tt. ARR1R2 APP1P2 = V. V V V \ } . whence. hm. and questions therewith connected. . CONTENTS. 690. G89G93. 692) two of the most important mathematician on this subject. Measure of Curvature in which =S^S^'(s^^.f. by Measure of Curvature — i?i "' Hz "'. &c. (b). leaves unaltered. with the at once (p. to the pages of Gauss's beautiful Memoir.dUj/^Ui/ ^1. Pi. consistent with the conception of it as an infinitely thin and flexible but ineztensible solid.9'\ e„f„g. may be expressed (p. R2 the three corresponding points (near to each other) on the unit sphere. this general transformation results (p. with a verification for the notation pqrst of Monge. 691). somewhat more briefly and perhaps more clearly than in the Lectures^ of the principal results of Gauss (comp. the measure (T2) (same pagef) to be an explicit function of the ten scalai's. The object of this short Scries 413 is the deduction by quaternions. (c). (U2) is and with the recent use (J) of accents. which are determined by th.xl Article 413. PiNi. with Oauss's definition of the measure of curvature. — On the Measure of Curvature of a Surface. .
(ri)i cos2 V + (p  (T2)"i sin2 v. fixed geodetic ab n' : so that in the immediate neighbourhood of we have w = f. (/). which make with each other an angle = Aw. from a fixed point a to a variable point p of the surface. 1st. Hi^J^i^ = . (Vg') bounded by two geodetics. Total Curvature of Area this area being apq = Aw . and u is the angle bap which this where t is variable arc makes with a a. as certain. such as the osculating plane at p to an arbitrary curve upon the surface. The vector of curvature (389) of any such curve or section k)^ being (p to be (p. Total Curvature of a Geodetic Triangle abc = a + b+c — 7r. where the section is made by an arbitrary plane. so that tan v = ndM dt. The general expression (c) for the measure of curvature takes thus the very simple form (p. By a suitable choice of t and u. 692) to the following. (U2") the length of a geodetic arc ap. be a given function of If this arc pq be itself a geodetic. (jf).2p. and modifications for the case of what may on the same plan be tivo called the Spheroidal Defect. 693) to another very remarkable and general theorem of Gauss. . (V2") total = what may be called the Spheroidal Excess of that triangle. ap and aq. the Measure of Curvature at any Pointy and Ilnd. (e). the Total Curvature of any Area : this last being the area of the corresponding portion {a) of the unitsphere. and therefore n\ may be conceived to u.CONTENTS. the former component being the Vector of Normal Curvature of the and g . it is found that dv = ~ n'du and thus the equation (V2') : . the expression (U2) may be reduced (p. xli Pagea. 694). and if we denote by v the variable angle which it makes at p with ap prolonged. (V2) and we have (comp. 692). On Curvatures of Sections (Normal — and Oblique) of Surfaces (a). when the curvatures of the surface are oppositely directed. — = D. = V' its normal and tangential components axe found (p _ (t)i S ^ = (p . and on Geodetic Curvatures. conducts (p. (i).J w'dM .n^Tit^n . the area (Itt) of the unitsphere being represented by eight right angles : with extensions to Geodetic Polygons. (i?)) the equation (p. 693). and by an arc pa of an arbitrary curve on the given surface. Article 414. for which t. the present Series 414 treats briefly the more general case. for an arbitrary surface^ which may be thus expressed. and = T>tn = 1. Series hav 694698 The curvatures considered in the two preceding ing been those of the principal normal sections of a surface. ( W3) (W2') (p0'=»''dp»SvdpidV.n^n" = . yeodetic coordinates. ds''=^dt^ + nHti^.
the surface in the direction dp of the tangent . (^). ^p^p = . which satisfy the vector equation 0. xii). 41 5. a theorem of Euler. so that the developed curve or part of one. and selfconjugate fimction cubic equation Jf =0 (p.Q first line {d). spheres. vector. 698) the radius of the developed circle.dUdp). for any given direction. sions for the radius 697) of various transformations. The equation (W2) contains i?1 form (p. Delaunay. of curvature of the surface. in which the axis of the osculating circle to the curve intersects respectively the normal and the tangent plane to the surface (p. may happen (p. which are thus included as a case of Didonias. considered in Series 412. is the projection on the normal v. 698) to call the given curve Q. The expression (W2'). = iJr 1 cos2 v + i?2i sin2 V . (Y2) . of the general existence of a system oithree real and rectangular directions. Srdp = 0.Bidonia (as in the Lectures'). it contains also Meusnier's theorem (same page). a^ are the vectors of the two centres Si. — Supplementary Remarks. which is also the radius of plane curvature of the developed curve. imder the form (comp. In the foregoing expressions. 695). when is a linear. : and the latter Surface.xlii CONTENTS. of the vector of oblique curvature. (/»)) that the vector of normal curvature (h) of a surface. ^JS(Ui^. under the ( W2") \h. a\. It and of a system of three real roots of the xii). when the developable circumscribed to the given surface along the given curve is unfolded into a plane : and when this radius is constant. with corresponding expres— T(p ^) of geodetic curvature. 698706 Simplified proof (referred to in a Note to p. Article {a). 697). which represents generally (p. which was first considered by M.dp5p) + c^JTdp = 0. by the rules of : ternions c what may be called the Calculus of Variations in Quabeing a constant. may be. points s . Sg. for the vector of geodetic curvature. it is proposed (p. ad mits (p. 698701) that the differential equation. 694) s is also the centre of the sphere. for the direction of tlie tangent to the curve being the Vector of Geodetic Curvature of the same Curve (or section). of least : which are at the same time the centres of the two osculating which the curvatures are (algebraically) the greatest and and v is the angle at which the curve here considered crosses of curvature. Pages. under the same condition (pp. whatever the inclination of the plane of the sec tion to the tangent plane (e). 412. or c'dp (X2) (X'2) = V(Uj/. from its possession of a certain isois circle. and becomes infinite for geodetic lines. which osculates to (c). (P). a perimetrical property. and is represented in quaternions by the formula (p. a and ? are the vectors of the and x. 700).
702. (Z2') represents the general surface of the third degree. tvithout the expression In this case. that the Condition* ofln tegrability of the equation (Yg) expressed by the very simple for mula. xxviii). (A). and of cylinders. T(p . xliii Pages. with fp Sp0p. p. such that S^?vdp is the exact diffeis integrable. is generally case of paraboloids. Connexions (pp. * It comes. and q. in (Z^) which a.V. and deduced from (p on the plan of the Section III. that this monomial equation (Y"2) beof six terms.:^ii. rential of a scalar function of jO. vector function d> (c). The equation (p. vector. In this manner it is found is (p. . y a constant vector. on which there is not room to enter. C being a constant scalar. (p. 703) of the Mixed Transformations in the last cited Section. with its vertex at the origin. although the function not such noiv. (d). is shown. function of a scalar variable ^ without the assumption that this vect. derived its from quaternion forms of equation. y are any three vector constants. while and selfconjugate function of p. 442). which expresses the con dition of integrability of the differential equation pdiX + q^y + rdz . The vector of the centre of the quadric. Syv = 0. comp. The General Cubic Cone. known eqtiation 702. but not here equal to it. with the known Modular and Umbilicar Generations of a surface of the second order. (Yz") in which y is a vector function of p. t In a Note to p. and appears to offer a new mode of generation^ of such a surface. (/). at this late stage of the work.6 (p.V. 0dp0'dp = 2Vydp. (p.^Vya) = T(a . q'. = m~^\pe (g). or briefly the General Cubic Surface . n. as it was in 410. ^p is here again a linear. there exists some scalar /ac^or. 704) const. for several ^i^QXQTxi generatiotrs of the ellipsoid. when expanded. or represents a system of surfaces. 0' (Yo'") being the conjugate of <p. and then if we write (pp.CONTENTS. is thus represented in quaternions by the monomial equation (same page). 702. by the relation.3p).. q" three constant quaternions. as it was in the equation (XJi).0. df = ^dp. (Ya') new is will be selfconjugate. {e). tor p is itself a. in a Note to the p. 702). 701. Si/dp being an exact differential. this <p d «V = . 705). /3. the reader will find references to t]xQ Lectures. fiot generally linear. 649 (already mentioned in p. represented by the equation fp — 28ep .y V. xxx). 704). (idp. (i). = = k= ^'e The equation S>qpq'pq"p + Sp^p + Syp + C = 0. represents a central quadric.
Screw Surface. (/). on the central axis of the system . whatever may be the position of the sissumed origin o of vectors. 85. \iq be an auxiliary quaternion. (<?). 707 to the end. acting at the end of the o. conditions (C3) and (D3) are satisfied. 706). with y vector. and both the In the general case. or represented by the scalar. When S(2/3. when the equation of equilibrium (A3) holds good. Z= 0. (D3). such that = 2Va/3. the forces compound themselves generally into one couple. and if c = S^. is satisfied. so that they completely balance each other. When 2Va/3 = 0.) 0. Statics of a Rigid Body. with T2/3 > 0. Siaj3. (F3) total force . (g).SVa/3) = 0. when neither (C3) nor (D3) is ff2. (C3) the appHed forces have an unique the line whereof (A3) is then the equation. : = 2Vai3. On a few Specimens of Physical Applications of Quaternions. with some Concluding Remarks. Sqpq'pg'p = 0. and estimated with respect to any unitline 1 from the same ori gin. 707709 Equation of Equilibrium. but wo ^ 2/3 = 0. 705) (t). with or without (C3). 0. Pages. Section 8. . or the energy with which the force so acting tends is to cause the body to turn round that line St"ia/3 . for an arbitrary vector y. Arch. (B3). (3 (A3) the corresponding vector of applied force . (E3) then \q is the vector perpendicular from the origin. such that Q2/3 = 2a/3. then c2/3 represents. — Article 416. then SQ = c = central moment divided by * It is vector a from easy to prove that the moment of the/ore^ /3. VyS/3 each a is a vector of application . both in quantity and in direction. regarded as ^ fixed axis.3 satisfied. i = 0. the axis of the central couple. which acts along for its variable When the condition (C3) is satisfied. (Z2") . the forces do not tend to produce a rotation* round any point c. (c). . y an arbitrary vector and this one quaternion formula (A3) scalar equations is equivalent to the system of the six usual (X = 0. r= (A. as in (a). with illustration by a diagram (Fig.xliv CONTENTS. the applied forces have no tendency to produce rotation round any axis through the origin : which origin "comes an arbitrary point c.— On the (a). of which the axis = 2 Va/3. M= N= 0). as before. Screw Sections (p. Skew Centre of Skew p. If Q be another auxiliary quaternion. the forces have no tendency to turn the body round that point o and when the equation (A3) holds good. resultant = 2/3. so that when the condition (D3) t.
tion (H3) furnishes two general vector equations. for the case of parallelism. as for the case of a heavy body turning freely about its centre of gravity.CONTENTS. 'f>i+ (pDii + YKpi^O. and to have sl fixed point {c).?) = 2»»(D<2a_^) = 0. and we may write. force. and of which the value is in that case independent of the origin of vectors. free system. we shall have the equations. Rotation its versor namely the Vector Axis of Instantaneous Ut denoting the direction of that axis. considered as a scalar to which that quaternion with its sign changed reduces itself for the case of equilibrium (a). which need not here be a rigid one. being any ttco infinitesimal vectors. If a body be supposed to be rigid. which do not change in passing from one particle m to another and thus the general equa and i . 2*»S(D«2a?)^a = 0. or balance each other. o. or m^ the moving of which the vector at the time Hs a . 0t=SmaYat. (K). we may change each ^a to e « + Yia. or as the general centre of applied forces : xlv Pages. (d). (M3) again denotes a linear. Dta=Yia. t (K3) being here : o. and the scalar A' being the Constant of Living Force. what is («7). Principle of Virtual Velocities. and the law of description of areas. (Q3). geometrically compatible with the connexions between the parts of the system. in fact. Conceptions of the Total Iloment 2a/3. — Sa/3. (G3) 709713 General Equation of Dynamics. (I3). and if we write. (5). (R3) the vector y being what we may call the Constant of Areas. (O3). vector.nVa^ = 0. St0t=A2j (p'Dti (P3) whence Sty + A2 = 0. and \Q is the vector y of a point c upon the central axis which does not vary with the origin o. (H3) the vector ? representing the accelerating force. then only the equation (J3) need be retained . (Jfs). finite vector. — On the Dynamics of ^ Rigid Body. . . or compound themselves into a single force acting at the fixed point. namely. and 2mVa (D«2a . For the case of a. nerally a quaternion and of the Total Tension. then 2. and = Yiy. acting on a particle m and da heing any infinitesimal variation of this last vector. When the forces vanish. (J3) which contain respectively the law of the motion of the centre of gravity. ^S(3da = 0. and its body about it. so that (L3) . this point c coincides with usually called the centre of parallel forces. and selfconjugate function. (a). and which there are reasons for considering as the Central Foint of the system. Article 417. regarded as heing ge. y = 0. tensor Tt representing the angular velocity of the at the time t.
with respect to any axis ad passing through a given point = CA. of Poinsot's representations of the motion of a body. (Ji). Passage (p. second degree. (<p +A) (<t> + ^) (0 + C) = 0. if cd points B and c. (a). have the directions vector roots (comp. equal to the living force (A^) divided by the square (Ti^) of the semidiameter of the ellipsoid (P3). the variable semidiameter of contact. are obtained with equal ease by the same quaternion analysis . with the help of the first general construC' Hon of an ellipsoid.) may be thus written. the formula (N) in if (7 page xii. as a certain right line bd. fixed in the body. with respect to any axis through o. correJ.. (S3). o. suggested by quaternions. from moments referred through a given point parallel axes. sponding. (V3') and denote the three Principal Moments of inertia. 712). with o. being the vectoraxis (c) of instantaneous rotation of the body. although fixed in space. under the circumstances last supposed. rolls without gliding on the fixed plane to the I. a simple geometrical representation (p. chosen in more {g). and hence may be derived. to those which correspond through any other point Q of the body. which are likewise ways than one. The Moment of Inertia. (e). but may be A cone of the Sta/=0. (W3) to axes passing to respectively (y). B. 713). is thus reproduced under the form. is i (/). 711) of the squareroot of the moment of inertia of a body. with the help of two other A. xii. p. its ceittre at (Qti). which cuts the reciprocal ellipsoid^ Sy<p'7 in a certain spheroconic : = h^. for the (p. (T3) infixed in the body. to the last (Us) and the cone of normals t men tioned cone (or the locus of the line (Sty + /i2yi) rolls on the plane of areas = 0). in the body for example.xlvi CONTENTS. xlii. for each. One point that the Ellipsoid of living Force (P3). the line y. proposed by Poinsot. with J/ = 720t _ A202t. which is the locus of the instantaneous axis i and thus a second representation. given point o. . p. The Three (Principal) Axes of Inertia o£ the body. D<t = . 712) of the three rectangular and (i). then the Symbolical Cubic in <p (comp. as the rolling of one cone on another. (Vz).) of the equation \i(pi=0. Some of Mac Cullagh's results. the fixed which is parallel Plane of Areas (Sty = 0) . . but rolls in space on that other cone. because. describes an easily assigned cone of the second degree (p. (P). respecting the motion here considered. Pages. and the paragraph 415. which has the direction of that axis . is found for the motion of the body.
CONTENTS. mBia + DaP= 0. . . or constant. V . and on the on the initial vectors. (D. m. at the time . become thus.P) = JT. (d/) y being two vector constants. . of the differential Equations of Motion (A4). . . a'o. P= Swm'T (a . each depending on the final vectors of position. . a'. F= r 2 Tdt P= r (P+ T) df. . and the Characteristic Function. the Characteristic and Principal Functions. in which t\iQ Action (Y). ^ml>ta areas. In like manner we (J4). Extension of the notation of derivatives^ dP=='ES(J)aP. . the vector. while V (= the Action') living force. (E4). m'. (K4). . and = F+ tH.da). (C4) and (3. find equations of the forms.a')"' (Js) P is the poof the mass or particle m if . (Xa). as being foimded on the Calculus of Quaternions^ is altogether unlike the analysis which was employed in those former Essays. here used. (Zs) The differential equations of motion of the separate masses . (H4) . and of living force. being supposed to be known." in the Philosophical Transactions for 1834 and 1835. Method were lysis " 0« « General * References are given to two Essays by the present writer. . "Writing. in addition to those . uq. We are led thus to equations of the forms. . T=. .^^m (Dia)2= P+ (d). (I. a. as free particles m. (c). ?nD<2a + DaP=0. . xlvii Pages. whicli attract each other according to the law of the Inverse Square (a). and a certain other function (S). and H a scalar constant. (V). while the system (H4) contains the Final Integrals. tcntial {ox forcefunction) and the infinitesimal variations ^a are ar bitrary.) whereof the system (Gi) contains what may be called the Intermediate Integrals. of are obtained under the forms. considered — On the motions of a System of Bodies. . and initial vectors the masses m. = (3. . . _ff. mD^a + I>a^F= 0. . (/). (B4). in Dynamics. as above. D„^F=mDo«. . Equation of motion of the system. Article 418. which is here denoted by P.. 713717 SwSD«2a^a + ^P= a is 0.. t. (e). t. (F4) F may be called the Principal* Function. (L4) the intermediate integrals {e) being here the result of the elimination Dar=mT)ta. of the motion of the system . (G4) . . Di^F=<. But the ana^ called. (A4) and the laws of the centre of gravity. 2wVaD<a = y. but F depending also (explicitly) depends instead on the final cottstant : S oi time. m.
as a conic section with &. of the same system of differential equations (A4). Writing r = Da = vector of relative velocitij. . of H. the radius of curvature of the hodograph is equal to the force. in a new way. (^). (d). and conceiving this new vector r to be drawn from that one of the two bodies which is here selected for the origin T is o. V are Differential liquations in Quaternions. we have VaDa = j8 = which a constant vector . between the system ( J4) and the equation (L4) and the final integrals. focus at o. The functions F and . being now (theoretically) obtained. In fact. includes the two usual laws. and for the case of a sAor^ 717) for the functions mo tion of the system. so that the law of nature may be characterized. under the vectors (a or of the orbit and the hodograph. obliged to satisfy certain Partial which those relative to the are the following. It follows then. triT. is c. the differential Law equation of the relative motion is. to deduce .xlviii CONTENTS. of one body from the other being a. by eliminating the same constant R between (K4) and (L4).i^)2=P. however. (Ji). or by the constant parallelogram velocity. 2wi(D„r)2 + P+J? = 0. and as new verifications. conversely. (P4) /3). (N4) and they are subject to certain geometrical conditions. it is easy the/onw of the Orbit. with respect to the time t. as the Law of the Circular Hodograph : from which latter law. of the constant plane (i and of the constant ureal velocity (c). D«a = ilfairi . (M4). the law of motion of the centre of gravity.JF')iSmi(D. (h). (by earlier definitions) the Hodograph of the Relative Motion this and a hodograph is prove* to be. which holds good also for any other law of central force. from which can be deduced. and divided by the doubled areal velocity and r) oi position and (e). it isshown (p. General approximate expressions for their derivatives fi'and t. i^and F. and the law of description of areas. while the sum of the masses is M. with the law of the inverse (O4) square. The vector tance being r (=Ta).). and the dis(fl). Pages. Article 419. a'. the only law which renders the hodograph generally a circle . on the — On the Relative Motion of a Binary System . multiplied into the square of the distance. As a first integral. for the Law of the Inverse Square. the locus of the extremities of the vector . Circle. that for any /azi' of central force. of final vectors a. D being here used as a characteristic of derivation. (D. 720). and 717733 of the Circular Hodograph. . (p. that the law of the inverse square .
. 724). new chord mm'. 2M(r + r')i. by p. 725).x. so that points. or the harmonic conjugate of the point u. when o an ex (e> 1). 723) and for the harmonic mean. is the quotient obtained by dividing the same element of the hodograph. = Mc^=cp^ = {Mp^)^.. relatively to the (e). or what may be called the time of hO' dographically describing that element.CONTENTS. which answer to . in (Ji). namely is u. by two other circles. m' the points in which the line oii cuts the circle l the middle point. (/). x' the perpendiculars let fall from x and x'. while ux. as usual. The orbit is circle (e an here treated as the centre of force.x/ any near secant from n. x/. in the motion of the centre of the moon about that of the attractions of the earth. in the sense that eh the distance of the centre is h of the hodo graph. it is hodographic terior point < 1) (^= it is . 719). the time dt which corresponds to any vectorelement dDa of the hodograph. one secant from which u' the intersection of this secant last pole is thus the line nxx' . The quantity Mr^ being here called the Potential. is (Q4) The orbital excentncity e is also the hodographic excentri city. for example. . are proved to be xHiandP'. ux'. and denoted by P. is interior to the when the point a parabola. In general. and nt. from the point (/»). and P'. 724. If the semiparameter of this orUt be denoted. Also. on here be called the hodographic axis ln. for any motion ofa^mnt (absolute or relative. one plane or in space. x' : which ij). i. with the chord mm'. what may mean between these two ordinates the line u'l. if h be the radius of the Jwdograph. while v. with respect to the same chord . when o is on the circtimis ference of that circle 1) and all an hyperbola. with the help of the hodograph (p. . or to the two matelj proportional to the two potentials. if we write <?=^(le«)i orbit. And in these cases. and h ((jr). then (p. P ordinates xv. in pairs of and x. If u be the pole of the chord xx' m. between the two potentials. and hodograph. . = tf/ri(le2)'. (on the line ou) is the pole of the near chord TTI : then the two small arcs. because we may Avrite generally (p.x and I'x/. X. x. (R4) the constant a will have its usual signification. xlix Pages. and n the pole. under the perturbations produced by the sun and planets). intercepted between these two secants. u^ for their centres (pp. 86).x/ are four tangents to the the ttvo this circle is cut ortJwgonalhj. by the vector of acceleration D°a in the orbit . P the extremities of any proposed chord of that circle all constructions are illustrated by a now diagram (Fig. with a for the variable vector (418) opposition of the point. which ellipse. of the . which have the two near points u. geometrical constructions for this quantity P are assigned. obviously (by the construction) u. of the hodo graph. the harmonic xV.
several years ago. which passes through. the times of hodographically describing the inter If two circular hodographs. and w varies from to tt. of force is occupied by a common mass. as usual. l. (0). .For the law of the inverse square (comp. cos wy . to the Royal Irish Academy.1 CONTENTS. that is for the case of a pa: rabolic orbit . by supposing one secant become a tangent. this Theorem of JEodographic Isochronism. be not small. P'. but still intercepted (y) between two secants from the pole n of tho fixed chord mm'. If (Ui) suppose that the mass. but being. are therefore inversely as those tivo potentials^ P. d^'. d^.727). of which the sine = iit ul (p. of hodographically describing the small circular the t't/ of the hodograph. corresponding to the chord tt' of the hodograph . that the integral (V4) gives. 2MC^ = ^ ff^ Jo (1 dw . and outside those limits an hyperbola. e lying between ± 1 for an ellipse. .e'. when the yfh(^e periodic time 27rw"i for a closed orbit is to be computed s{r\ r')"i. in the orbit : so that we have the proportion. he cut perpendicularly by a third circle.T dt. v^ upon dius. h. 1847. the sum (say. of the hodograph. the chord mm' are given. Jf = a^n^.* and has since been treated as a subject of to investigation by several able writers : common chord. t't/. is altered. and the Jive points o. centre is imderstood that the . constant . is a certain auxiliary angle. (T4) and df. And hence may be deduced (p. or directly as the distances^ r. A< + A^') of the two times is independent of the radius. (p. Jf. dt:df:dt + dit'=r:r':r + r'. 726). 725) that although the two elements of time. . the TD2a = Mr^ = M'^P^ the times arcs T. being found by multiplying lengths 0") of those two arcs by the mass. m. that even if the tioo circular arcs. r'. or constant. separately vary. This common time can easily be expressed definite integral. ^ (V4) ^ 2g being the length oi the fixed chord mm'. yet their sum remains unchanged : from which it foUows. a common centre offorce. (a) and measure of the/ore^ is. M. or the position of the centre h on the hodo we graphic axis ln. (w). having a cepted arcs will be equal. or tends towards. h. and dividing each product by the square of the potential corresponding. which reduces itself to — for 1 when o is at m'. under the form of the Time of tmt _. which was communicated without demonstration. 726). Pages. but that the raTj. or : denote the length pp' of the chord of the orbit. in all these cases. e' the quotient lo lm. if s : with the verification. (m). («))? (0. wiule «<. tt. (W4) common * See the It Proceedings of the 16th of March. it is found in this way (p. in this last case.
s. and V=['^1Tdit=^F+tH. and that their partial derivatives.JfDa2 = 2 (P+ E) = 31 (2r.F=D/r. i. and denoting by a. or for the mass (M. in the second view of the same functions. {q). through a quite different analysis. or illustrated by more purely geometrical considerations. t. so that. enter into each of the two functions only by their sum . BrF^Dr'F. now (comp. (Bs). with the law of the inverse t of describing an are pp' of the orbit (closed or unfunction (p. D. By examining the general composition of tlie definite inte gral (V4).. (G5) along with two other equations of the same kind. by an employment oi partial deri M : vatives. and of r. for each of the functions here considered. r. is when M vectors of velocity. 729) of the three ratios^ square. J)a'F=Ba'V=^r' and . p. which are by Fig. Dai^=D«F=r. xlviii. and JT. . orbit.. li Pages. r' . 87. » multiplied into the square of the relative velocity (TDa). m. mentioned in p. 729). r and r'. 2 T= . and therefore simply a function of the chord (s. a. but different (although analogous') significations. (l)t)F=H. (Y4) introducing the two new integrals J'=f'(P+T)d^ (Z4). /. The same important theorem may be otherwise deduced. sition^ or of the that a' (instead of ao. D^F=— D«r=^.«i) (p. m. (p).CONTENTS. and oi partial differential equations in quaternions. or of the hodograph it is found given. that the two distances. degree. (E4) and (F4)) the same forms as before. the time closed) is Q. (E5) while. they and satisfy the two 'partial differential equations (p. and may still be called the Principal and Characteristic Functions of the motion while r. (F5). 729). it is found that. (A5) with which have thus (comp. "Writing relative living force. a) the initial Sind final vectors o£poare the two distances. a. or pp') of the orbit. a'. xlvii) the following expression for the (r). &c. which are analogous The equations (F5) (G5) still express. (C5) (Dg). in the first view of these two functions. F may be regarded as a function of the . r' the : two corresponding a function of a. and r. F may be treated as F are (p. or as a function of a. or of r. and a are and of the sum of the distances (r + r'y or op + op') when given which is a form of the Theorem of Lambert. if M be treated as given. respecting the motions of an attracting system of any number of bodies. which is analogous to that used in a recent investigation (418). 730). but of the second to those (s). s.m + m'^.
determined by observation. (Eo). 734 earth and comet from sun. and z their distance from each otber. purpose in the Mecanique Celeste.s\r+r+8 t 4:(t) = l\ . by the present writer (comp. namely. substantially equivalent to (H5) and (I5).lii CONTENTS. The final and by the facility of its deduction. which of the two * References are given to the First Essay. Hr V (~IirV). be yond the limits within which the radical is finite. while a is the heliocentric vector of the earth (Ta = r). has long been known to be proportional to the time corresponding. SpDpDV_^^£_ ^\ SpDpJJa with eliminating w tv"^ z \r^ w^ . equation. from the Earth. thus obtained. which Then it is easily proved by directed from the earth to the comet. On the determination of the Distance of a Comet. that is we have the equation (p. with the help derivatives. Pages. differs only by its notation. with Newton's Law. and p is the unit. which last result respecting the time agrees with s. three quantities. the Note to p. about ihQ full focus of an orbit. so the area aboxit th^ empty focus represents (or is proportional to) the action. ^ds. quaternions. xlvii. clearing of fractions. to expressions and thus. The masses of earth and comet being neglected. in which were assigned integrals. while V. r + r\ a. by his friend Professor Tait of Edinburgh. 734). (5). whereof one root is the sought distance. known by the theory of the sun. and D^F. — or Planet. Article 420. : (t). of (E5). the two following : }. by for the three partial merely algebraical combinations. 731). (Is) whereof the latter is not to be extended. The three partial differential equations (r) in F conduct. (a). and the rwZtJofLaplace there given. and therefore also t by be a function of the three scalars. from that assigned for the same for determining. and a and furnishes a new proof of Lamberfs Theorem. we are therefore conducted in this way to an algebraical equation of the seventh degree. z. which express respecin the relative motion of a Unary tively the Action and the Time. (Ja) j' = r^ + z^ .vector.2zSap (K5) between these two formulae. that while the area described. to ttvo new definite integrals* (p. and the mass of the sun being denoted by M. &c. . and t . system here considered.. without modification.. by inspection of a celestial globe. let r and w denote the distances of new 733. is found in like manner to r + r'. DrF.). (^). but deduced by a quite different analysis. and dividing by 2. It has recently been remarked to him.
CONTENTS. which contains (comp. each representing a : finite group oi partial disturbing forces. If we develope the disturbing vector 77. and s(=T<t). their geocentric distances Mthe sum of the masses of itself to . 1)2. which passes through of the sun and moon in the geocentric (or apparent) the heavens. unity). which is nearer . and three fictitious moons. »?2 = »72. &c. rigorously. and being conin the passage from any one group to the following . proportional to the »72. and the /o?«* forces of the jfAi'rt? group are proportional to 6. by simple numerical ratios (d). if = Vector of Disturbing Force = <p(a) = a^Tar\ = S{(pa — f (o. (L5). 15. T. 9. (in the plane of the three bodies) ])3. . which »7 may be thus = Jji + »72 + »73 + &c. 35: while the separate intensities of the first forces.i. circle drawn /rom the earth. 5. bodies (earth and comet) the formula (J5). the nearer to the stm. »72.2. <T be the geocentric vectors of moon and sun r (= Ta). and Di. Sr ZSr'^ T»7„i=.(?ac^5. . and terminating on a great its of the celestial sphere (supposed here to have radius equal to ^. (O5) (P5) these partial forces increasing in number. On the Development of the Disturbing Force of Sun on the Moon or of one Planet on another. Let a. according to ascending powers of the quotient r s.3. »?l . is liii Pages.2.. (b). nected with each other. For example. of the distances of moon and sun from the earth. »?2)3 numbers and the three forces of the second gxow^ are as the numbers 1. (Qa) their directions All \kGSQ partial forces are conceived to act at the moon. i> and angular relations. results at sight from the Article 421. 02. in the same great . S the mass of the sun . what may be called two fictitious suns. the two forces r)uii 1 J7i. (c). — than the Sun. equation of the disturbed motion of the moon about <l>a D2a=i{f^a+ and 7} J7. arc. 734736 earth and moon . &C. . 2. the equation (L5) reduces itself to the form D2a = M(pa elliptic .2 of the first group 3 . but may be represented by the respectively parallel unit lines JJt]\. denoted. in these three first groups. and D : (as in recent Series) the mark of derivation with respect to the time then the the earth differential is.x = 5S.l+>?l. we obtain an infinite series of terms. Denoting then the geocentric elongation by f 9 and by 0i. but not a linear one. (rt). = ». denoting here a vector function. J) of ^woowfrom sun (/). (e).3.3 ^^. but diminishing in intensity. of which the corresponding elongations from 0. If we neglect ».— a)) (M5) (N5) .i..i=g^. and ]). have the expressions. T^2.1+?72j2+»?2. (O4)) the laws of undisturbed motion.. within any such group.
and its reciprocal. comp. The normal component. (T5) which are independent of any hypothesis respecting the vibrations of (b). tending all these results (with the requisite modifications). so that all theformulce apply. and those of the /owr forces of the . 88 (p.Surface (ox surface of wave.fx^Sfide.'^Sfids. d£ = (!>^dp. the ether. the formula (W3) in p. and 0o. vector. to the fourth and subsequent groups. (NYs) which an extensive use is made in the present Series. by the same quaternion analysis. ^^Sp. that no supposition is here % made respecting any smallness of excentricities or inclinations (p.  20. (Vs) the function being of that linear. and if de denote the elastic force resulting. there exists then. which has been frequently employed in these Elements. and the tangential component. in a biaxal crystal.conjugate kind. (S5). tangential to the wave. with the necessary changes oi geocentric to heliocentric vectors. and self. either of the which relation may (with our notations) be expressed by two following equations. 736) . it is found that the directions of the two forces oiihejirst group are represented by the two radii of this unitcircle^ which terminate in D and J)\ those of the three forces of the second group. If p and On Fresnel's Wave. of the elastic force de. (U5). the Index. of rayvelocity and waveslowness.slowness) we have then first the fundamental Equations of Reciprocity (comp. xlvi) by the symbolic and cubic equa ^. effective in Fresnel's theory.. the veloand if ^p and ^{i be any inficity of light in a vacuum being unity fi . or briefly Bay and Index. 417). p. (c). circle. is same theory. Syup=1. or Sp = ^Ss'. by the radii to D2.  Pages. (II5). + 20. (gy And it is important to observe. Article 422 (a). 741. 30. and 0. between the functional symbol and the optical constants abc of the crystal. as illustrated by Fig. (at the time) more distant than the comet from the sun. 735). S/i^p = 0. (^ of + a2) (<p + 52) (0 + c2) = .surface^. of the Wave (or wave. If 5p be next regarded as a displacement (or vibration). to the perturbations of the motion of a comet about the sim. The fundamental connexion. by the three' radii to 0i. on account of the supposed incompressihility (in the of the ether. and . a relation between these two small vectors . D. which is be two corresponding vectors. 736756 nitesimal variations of these two vectors. is expressed (p. is in((?). with facilities for exthird group. S/)^/f = 0. produced by the attraction of a planet. &c. and with present notations) to be equated to . p. + 30. tion. on Fresnel's principles. 0. consistent with the equa: tions (supposed to be as yet unknown). Di.liv are CONTENTS.
are given . {g). S/iw (Eg) Spu)=1. 739) on the tangent plane to the index. namely the lines oix and ow of Fig. the expression. . and may be thus transformed. w. (Be). "we ob the propagation of a rectilinear vibration (p. tain then thus.(. = 0. (^d). the following Eule of the Interchanges holds good In any formula involving p. 738. both drawn from the common centre o of the two surfaces. from one of these reciprocal surfaces to the other. S^t. or any of them occur. The Wave. or some of them.*2_0). to denote any infinitesimal vector. O (Y5) which is a Symbolical Form of the face. 738) on the tangent plane to the wave. = 1. or t. (Xs) and therefore by (Sg) the equation. 0=^Spi(i>p^y^p^.Surface. or l (Ae) (Be) = Sp(o20i)ip. they are connected with p and fi by the equations (pp. 737) . 739). for such a vibration or tangential displacement. . (Ge) and generally (p. (He) (le) . 89 .iVv jw = )u + vi — /ai = (o'^Ywp = p + w' . V and (i)(= 0u). and hem^ parallel to the direction of the elastic force 6e . We have also the relations (pp. that dp and Se have their directions generally fixed. and is parallel to the displacement dp. fi^cp. but not generally* dfi with 5p.conte:nts. dp. and vided that we at the same time interchange dp with de. (Z5) (^). v with w. but v terminating (p. 739. in this whole investigation (although subject to a common reversal by +). (/).^. Spv = 0. Besides the relation. is surface as being the reciprocal (a) of the indexeasily found (p. when these variations. tangential to the indexsurface at the end of p. = 0"'a.. it is permitted to with 0'i proexchange p with fi. dp = (01 _ /«2)i/Ai Bfids = S)tt^(0i/t*2)VS . 739. and 0. (Ce) connecting the two new vectors (/) with each other. (A).Sur = S. continues to be used. (Fe). when p and p. : .pi = u. whereas w terminates (p. whereas dp.surface.t. 740). n. In such transitions. l scalar Equation of the Index. . 739). (o = ^v. 740) from the circumstance. 738) to be represented by this other Symbolical Equation. v. * This apparent exception arises (pp. for Iv Pages. as in («). it is found convenient to introduce two auxiliary vectors..
with the form (H2) in p. inverse function ing e to p2. on comparing the symbolical form (As) of the equa(A. and 8. J"i. tivo concentric qtiadrics. to represent the indexsurface : so that each of these two surfaces is of the fourth degree.amt^ . the degree of that equation is depressed and therefore the Wave Sp0ip is cut. for each. &c. will be the sought (J). by changnew forms of the equation (Ae) of the wave are where obtained. and if perpendiculars to by an arbitrary plane that plane be erected at that central point. or with the equation 412. (comp. to observe that they an arbitrary semidiamefer. respectively. by the above(p. 738. and the Reciprocal Ellipsoid. = AS p2 + r2 = 0. (Lg) and (Me). It is. If either Sp^'p or p2 be treated as constant in (Ne). by each of the (Oe).j he connected (as stated in p. in <p enables us easily to express (p. Among such deductions. tion of the Wave. &c. (^). (m). Sp(pp=l. however.. 741) the . through centre. which (at least for the first of these two reciprocal surfaces (a)) was assigned by Fresnel himself. 683. 89. whereof one is. 739) for the Constructions of the JFave and the Index.0^^ = 1. by a very simple rule. Q'). which may all be cited Fig.Surface from the ellipsoid (^"'^"'ci) : A precisely auxiliary surfaces. of which (by (W5). (Yv(pvy + Sv(pv = 0. of the perpendiculars so erected. a Quartic Surface. rage= illustrated with others easily deduced. that if the ellipsoid its {abc') be cut. xxxvii. p denoting. (Lg).Ivi CONTENTS. of which two lociihe constructions mQ.. 741) with those of the two reciprocal ellipsoids. and a"i. (Me) ellipsoids. (n). a much more interesting use of these two b. v and w. (Vw0iw)2 xSw^ia) = 0. in p. (Ne) with an analogous equation in p. the^rs^. The cubic (W5) (jp f e)i. the rule in (jf)). which shall have the lengths of the semiaxes of the section.). similar construction applies.Surface. then the locus of the extremities. or briefly. In fact. = (^ip)2 + (p2 + a2 + J? + c^) Sp0'p . XLI. e is any scalar and thus. ci for the second. c for may be employed (pp. is a Surface of the Fourth Degree. WaveSurface. the following equations 740) may be mentioned. may be briefly called the Generating Ellipsoid. to the derivation of and thus the two the Ind^ex.) the scalar semiaxes are a. (Je). : (Pg) in a (real or imaginary) curve of thefourth degree of which two quar . as indeed is otherwise known. we derive at once FresneVs Construction : namely. wherein the two vectors v and w terminate (/). (Ke) which show that the Locus of each of the two Auxiliary/ Foints. from the fourth to the second.
hence the curves of the^. In general. perpendicular to the elastic force . (o). Abticle 423. and similarly placed. while the sphere (Pe) has r for radius . the conjugate hyperboloid same two cases respectively.—Mac Cullagh's Theorem of the Polar Plane. projection of the indexvector on the tangent plane to the index surface so that the ray is ihMs. or at the end of any ray p. this new quadric (Re) is an hywith one sheet or with two. tic curves. (r). and every because it is. the intersection of that sphere (Pe) the concentric and quadric cone. and or between b sheets or one. . of course. (o) has two conies t In a different theory of light (comp.CONTENTS. t. (Qe) * by (Be). the generating ellipsoid (Le). O=Sp(0 + r2)ip. with this other concentric quadric. whereof the conjugate (obtained by changing equation) has <i2r«. Ivii Pages. by the quartic of the second system (n) is a spheroconic.«^ system (w) are Lines of Vibration of the Wave : and the curves of the second system are the Orthogonal Trajectoriesf to those lines. in the and c and. . the next Series. the •wave is the common locus. * For real curves of the second system (n). answering to all scalar values of the constants h and r. the vibration Sp has (on Fresnel's principles) the direction of the projection of the ray p on the tangent plane to the wave . with equation (Ae) of the wave. these spheroon the wave are themselves the lines of vibration. according as the constant r lies between a b.2r2. so that these two quartics cross each other at right angles. and each is a common orthogonal in all the curves of the other system. the tangents to the two curves (w) have the directions of w and fiut . But the vibration dp is easily proved to to w . and the : elastic force ds has in like manner the direction of the p. 423). or. for the squares of its scalar semiaxes. ^2^2. The new ellipsoid (Og) is similar to the ellipsoid (Me). 1 (Re) to + 1 in the last (Se) and is therefore confocal with {py For any point p of the wave. 757762 perboloid. l = Sp(^i + r2)ip. be parallel (j2). .
Iviii CONTENTS. Table* of Initial Pages of Articles. Art. .
lix Table of Initial Tagbs— continued.CONTENTS. [ 1 Art. .
.
CHAPTER I.a. which then results. TO ^^s. and its final point b is said to be its term. ON VECTORS. —A right of Vectors. more fully. be a Vector. which is B . CONSIDERED WITHOUT REFERENCE TO ANGLES. Section I. it is also denoted by the symbol b . and on Equdity the Conception of having not only length.A is said to be an actual (or an effective) vector but . FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES RESPECTING VECTORS. such as ab and ba.— On a Vector. the vector ab or b . line ab. the vector aa or a .1B .a and c . are occasionally said to be vector and provector: the line ac. are sometimes (as a limit) those when called vector sive vectors.a a notation which will be found to be exten: sively useful. two points are conceived to coincide. and. vector ab is conceived to be (or to construct) the 1 . or c .A and a . or.ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. ba or B . BOOK I. in conformity with this conception. OR TO ROTATIONS.b. _ Succes A— such as ab and bc. Opposite vectors. or ^_2 < Revector. When the extreme points a and b are distinct. is said to be null.a. is said to A differenc^o? its two extreme points . to be the result of the subtraction of its own origin from its own term . vector. Art. on account of the analogies which it serves to express between geometrical and algebraical operations.B. considered as but also direction. and revector. Its initial point a is said to be its origin.
but also similar directions. origin a of the first to the term c of the second.2. is said to hold equation ab good. . Conversely. > 'b I'ig. bc dia becoming thus the two gonals of such a figure. such as that used for zero . our only vectors are (as above) right A^ lines. and may therefore be denoted by a common symbol. of a parallelogram. but that two actual vectors. in tions. B B p 0.c. being then said to be the trans At a later stage. follows that all null vectors are equal.ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Two vectors are said to be equal to each other. because their directions differ. we shall have to consider vectorarcs and vectorangles .a = d . two lines AD and bc are commedial. drawn from the vector. by transports (or by translations) without rotation. or have a common middle point e. of any one circle (or sphere). the two lines ad.e=Eare satisfied. ac. ab and cd. or b . the equation Dc = BAis satisfied. Two radii. ab. so that we may write. so that the A. [book I. 2. and c E=e B. equal vectors . D. if the two equaother. 4. when and the term of the one can be brought when) origin (and only to coincide respectively with the corresponding points of the It other. unless they have not merely If then they do not equal lengths. or the = CD. but at present. can never be Fig. they must be opposite sides abdc . are not (in the present full sense) equal to each other. and consequently bisecting each some point e. happen to be parts of one common line. then even if they be parts of one right line.
being thus symbols of opposite vectors. if c' . Two vectors. as in algebra. (b 4.(b .a to the abridge. admits of inversion and ^ ^ alternation . by such a decomposition of a null vection into two opposite vections. cd and ef. and these three equal vectors are. . and that. . =AB. Fig.a' = c .b a) the revector ba. An equation between vectors^ considered as an equidifference of points. which are equal to the same third vector. If then so that. and D. we may write briefly. the remainder is we . generally. or in symbols. if J DC=B then C .A.CHAP. the remainder is that fourth vector bc. in general.a) .a shorter form. or from a third is vector a'c' which equal to that second vector. In order to be able to write. the three parallel edges of ^ a prism. 1). an expression of the form = ab ba a and . agree to .a) are. ^ = c .B = CA.  (b  = (a . the remainder is the : we next define. which is drawn from the term b of the first to the term c of the second vector so that if a vector be subtracted from a transvector (Art. if an actual vector ab be subtracted from a null vector A A. while a and (.a) = A . subtraction of vectors answers to a decomposition of vections (or o£ motions) . ab. are also equal to each other . a. (c' a') a) that when a first vector ab is subtracted from ac a second vector which is coinitial with it. 5. we have the formula. Section 2.J FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES VECTORS. 3 3. I.D A. It is evident that this geometrical provector corresponding. — On Differences and Sums of Vectors taken two by two.B.
the ference of two points . + and . [bOOK : I. and c'  b' =c b. we while relatively to it they may be jointly called shall have the two following consequences : I. traction of one such vector from another. . so that we may 5. or more fully that if b'  a' =b A. If a provector bc be added to a vector ab. 1) of a vector as a dif In fact. (c  b) + (b  a) = c . BA + AB = or (a  b) + (b a) = It follows also that the sums of equal pairs of successive vectors are equal. ab or b . a. 1) and II.4 for the ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. If a vector. symbols of one common vector write. the identity. c. and 11.a) + A = B . (b a) + a==b. b. and adopting on that account the formula of relation between the two signs. so that 0. then c' . . is I. . Art. the identity. . general when combined with the conception (Art.a. and according to which we have (as in algebra) for any three points^ a. the sum the transvector ac or in symbols. (b . clear that this geometrical addition of successive vectors corresponds (comp. connects the signs + and .a. in their which we sum is shall say as usual that b. 4. (c  a)  (b  a) =c B. or motions two opposite is and that the sum of vectors (or of vector and . be added to its own origin the sum is its term b (Art. revector) a null 0. and that summands. as above. 4) to a composition of successive vec It is tions. Aiming still at agreement with algebra. first equation is an immediate consequence of the formula which. as in algebra. which was assigned in Art. b a is added to a. and the second is a result of the same the definition of the geometrical subwith combined formula. line . same reason.
bc. in symbols.. and + (+ a). (c  a) + (b  = a) D a. and if a still denote a vector^ then + &c. (j3 + a). a. same vector . prism (comp. vectors is formed by adding the last to the sum of all that .a Fig. of any /?«r«Zlelogram abdc. which is A of the first to the term c of the seIt follows that the drawn from the origin cond. and if a null vector be added to an actual vector. ac. if d c = b . the sum is that actual vector or. the identities. (+ a) + (. sum of any two coinitial sides ^ ab. The sum of any two given vectors has .b' = c . &c. 6. a. is next defined to be that fourth vector. 8.a) = 0. b'c' be vector and equal to the second.(+ a) = 3. ab. obtained by adding the third to the sum of the first and second and in like manner the sum of any number of which is . as in algebra. 5 the two triangles. but not successive to the first. j3. + (. VECTORS. or.initial diagonal ad . — On Sums of three or more Vectors. is we have then (by 3) ca = db. If then we agree to abridge generally (comp. The sum S=7 + of three given vectors. y. the sums are equal vectors. and we have. as  (. + a = a. being in general the two oppo^ Art. if c' . because 7. even if the summands be not given as successive (comp. 5) . ac. be two successive vectors. in symbols. in symbols.a) = c . Section 8. 3). a /3 = /3 + a. If equal vectors be added to equal vectors. 4) the expression . thus a value which ) independent of their order or.CHAP. Again. the sum obtained by adding the third to the we shall define that if there if a third first is that fourth vector. in order to have. (c'  b') + (b . are other symbols for the in algebra. or briefly. I.B.A. a. abc and site faces o^o.] FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES a'b'c'. . S=7 + j3 + a. is the intermediate and CO. + « to + «.a) = + a.a) = .
it is easy to conclude that the Addition of Vectors is always both an Associative and a Commutative OpeIn other words. by combining which with the formula of commutation (Art. . which is drawn from the origin a of the first. B. /3. &C. CD. When any n summandlines. sum on for + a.. their sum is a null line. BC. arranged in any one order. to the The sum term d of the last . without paany number of summands. . the sum of any number of given vectors ration. the length and direction of the sum will also remain unchanged except that this last direction .6 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. has a value which is independent of their order. for any four vectors. bd. and be cause. /3. aa Fig. precede it: also. CA. . AB. bd of the (plane or gauche) quadrilateral abcd. cd. [bOOK 7. bc. are the n successive sides of a triangle abc. 10. /3 of any number of successive vectors. or of a quadrilateral abcd. with the equation. and "^ p. \f\ieJi the length of the sumline happens to vanish. a. which had been previously established for the case of any two such summands. we are allowed to establish the follow ing general formula of association. 7). either as the sum of ab. as in the case which we are about to consider. a + /3 = j3 + a. namely. is thus the line ad. when there are three such vectors. 7 : (7 + /3) +a=7+ (/3 + a)=7 + j3 + a. and of the mode of grouping them so that if the lengths and directions of the summands be preserved. 9) the two diagonals ac. we can draw (as in Fig. 1 0. for the case oi any three summand lines. CD. a. sum of ac. BC. the I. DA. may be regarded as indeterminate. or of any other closed polygon. ab. and so 9. S + (7 + /3 + a) is denoted simply by S + 7 + rentheses. and conversely. or AB. g may or as the then at pleasure regard ad.
will likewise be null. 1 1 a"b"c" is considered as such a polygon. Since a closed figure abc all its points o^re projected on any Sissumed plane. possible to construct another closed polygon (p'). this closing side of the second figure (p') will be equal to the remaining side de of the^r^^ figure (p). successive vectors. tors a. ^ Fig. supa it is pose pentagon abcde.CHAP. a'b'. but with the same number of sides. so that these latter vectors. For example. number of given be zero. 7 when the to zero. as a triangle . and if we on any one plane by .) . + b'c' + c'a' = 0. by transports without n successive if there sides of a closed polygon (plane or be gauche). . B C = AB. vectors a. is still a closed one. (In Fig. with an arbitrary initial point a'. a"b" + b"c" + c"a" as well as a'b' = 0.] FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES VECTORS. all . and ab + bc + ca = 0. . Hence. and we have the equation. D E = BC. with evanescent area. by any system . and then complete the new pentagon by drawing the line e a'. such as a'b'c'd'e'. they rotation) the sum of any given system ofn vectors is thus equal may be made (in any order. ^iven any such polygon (p). can be so placed as to become the successive sides of a closed polygon. . CD EA. y'i . if the sum of any j3. drawn from their extrethe sum of the projected vec/3'. like the former. . which new sides shall be equal (as vectors) to the old sides ab. even if they be not already such. as follows. project them parallel lines mities. \t follows that . y. if we draw^wr AB = CD. 11. . I. when 11. taken in any arbitrary order. ea. . . of parallel ordinates (although the ai^ea of the projected figure a'b'c' may happen to vanish). e'a'. . namely.
and (compare Fig. the formulae. we have . and write simply.a. ± a) = w/3 + ma . or 2 a. n (ma) = (nm) a = nma. . : 13. since (l)a + (2)a (. without danger of confusion. regarded as a coefficient by which the vector a is multiplied. is also denoted by la. ever tivo vectors may be denoted by a and j3.(ma). because by the rule. Thus.1 a. It follows that ivhatever tivo whole numbers (positive or and n. [bOOK I. na±ma= (n± m) 12). we have always. and . The or by 1 . the symbol 1 + m being here interpreted as in algebra. ma.8 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. the rule being. . 4. or simple or single vector. that for any algebraical integer. the double vector. = Again. by (+ 1 ) a . omit the parentheses in these last symbols. a^^a^ is denoted by 2a. because (I) a + (. Oa = 0. the zero on the one side denoting a null coefficient. la + ?wa = (1 +m) a . — On Coefficients of Vectors. m.l)a = (1 . in like manner.a.1) a = . we have always. we infer that (2)a = aa = . . or null) may be represented by m Fig.2) a. or (1. 12. as in algebra. .a = a = = (la). »« (j3 a.2a. and the zero on the other side denoting a null vector. &c. and tvhatnegative. (. Section 12.(ia = aa = 0. whatever whole number m may be so that we may. la4 Oa = (l + 0)a = la = a. .(2a) and generally.2)a = (. a.'.rn) a = . and in like manner. .1) a (1 1) a = Oa = 0.
A — also j3 is said to be multipjlied by thpractional coefficient n — . and shall write j3  a (because both are then parallel. at least if the multipliers be whole numbers. however. n then y is a fraction of /3. the coefficient m being still whole. and may be extended where x and y are i7icommensur able coefficients. if a and /3 be any For any actual vector two actual vectors. but has the opposite direction if a. to the case which include those of Art. fraction of that vector . 9 SO that the multiplication of vectors by coefficients is ii doubly distributive operation. the vector said to be a multiple of a . and if a and j3 be any then two v>ectors. of any of the foregoing kinds.J FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES VECTORS. If is ma = /3. ya±xa = {y±x)a. in the usual sense of the word. I. positive or negative number x. x{(5 ± a) = xj^ ±Xa . the vector a is said to be a integer m submultiple of j3. which has the same direction as the multiplicandline a. a coefficient x^O. conoi' fractional sidered as limits 15. Avill bear to ± 1 the same ratio. a. ones. satisfy the equation (5 = and the P ax.CHAP. with directions either similar or opposite. so found. interpreted as above. as that which the lenyth of the line 3 bears to the length of a. if ro 0. and for any coefficient a^. thus. as we shall also write it. y = i3 . if /3 = ma. and conversely (at least if the /3 be different from zero). < 0. which = Xa. if a? It fol lows that or null. which is denoted as follows. 1 3. and y = wa. becoming null if ^ = 0. a restriction which. will soon be re moved. we can shall always find. or. and y is said to be the product of this multiplication. 14. . represents always a vector (5. theproduct xa. or conceive as found. results y{xa) = (yx)a = yxa. Conversely. in each of which two cases we shall say that they are parallel vectors. and y be any two fractions (positive or negative Avhole numbers being included). multiple of a submultiple of a vector is said to be q. to one common line).
parallel vector a a. under the same is — conditions. the equations. are collinear (as Such scalar s are. ' "Z. and if the dividendline j3 he parallel thereto. to form one of the tion with the not less real . b. Hence it is quotient which results.x = (ax=)By X ^ ' and — = X a.10 16. = j3 r. [bOOK I. = ^ a . accordingly. d = . a which will afterwards " extended. hy the and to write. they main elements of the System. x=^. 17. a and Xa:a= — = x. because structed. (j3 : a) . or a. natural to say that this coefficient x is the from the division of the vector j3. there. it can always be found. SO that we shall have. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. c. ^ fore. or x = j5: a. to the case of nonparallel vectors. (or axis) or can be put under the form. at least if the divisorline a be an actual vector. by the number x so that we shall have these other identities. — . including zero as a limit. or Calculus.a=— a = j3. which is thus obtained by the division of one of two parallel vectors by another. may also be called a Scalar . as in algebra. and in a certain sense conscale by the compainson ofpositions upon one common . write also.a. in the figure ' simply the Reals (or real quanin combinatities) oi Algebra. but. Vectors above considered. c A AC where the three points.^ annexed). by We may definition. The positive or negative quotient. a. . identically. and may say that the vector a X of the division of the other vector (5 the quotient .
b. . that point and each particular vector. j3. When . and that the sum so obtained. . or the combination. II. we shall have (a a = o'a = ao'=  = OA . if the contrary be not expressed. But if it desired to change that origin o. without changing the points a. are situated . we shall only have to subtract. so that the three on one right line (as in the figure points^ o. are all drawn from one common System tions said to be the Origin of the point o. . . which we may have occasion to of its own term. is said to be the vector we that all In the present and future secalways suppose. Section 1 — On Linear Equations connecting two Coinitial Vectors. shall . If two vectors a. ^^ Scalar plus Vector ^^ is a Quaternion. from each of their old vectors a. 18. at a later stage. namely. that there is an important sense in which we can conceive a scalar to be added to a vector . . such as oa.oo'= o) (o'. several vectors. b. For . . 19. or oa. example. .a>. CHAPTER II. since the remainders. is . • consider. . j3'. a. a w. APPLICATIONS TO POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. the vectors a.o) 3. directions be either similar or ' and if their a 7*^ . a will be the new vectors a'. 11 which the present work relates. . In fact it will be shown. one common vector w. ob. oa. are thus drawn from one common origin. of the old points a.CHAP. oo' of the new j3 origin o'. a. . the old vector . .w. be term . ob. be thus drawn from a b ' o given origin o.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. opposite.
a . OA + 2. x=\. equal. j3.12 ELEMENTS Of QUATERNIONS. lar values. the linear equation becomes or b{(5a)~=0. — is positive or and conversely. is 0. annexed). tions. a. 21. of which is important. = a. 17) their quotient a . with «???/ tivo a?ii/ equation of the form aa^ b[5 scalar coefficients a and b whatever. b the particu. interpreted with this reference to an origin. connecting the two vectors a and : acquires a more symmetric ^rw. their directions can neither be similar nor opposite to each other . If two (actual and coinitial) vectors. Accordingly. more a^h=0. coincident points being thus treated (in notation at least) as In general. the equation negative scalar. a. )3. corresponding to the particular po^z o and of the variable point b^ whereof the indefinite the locus. right line 20. of the a? however only the ratio two points 7 a and B. such as x = xa. since /3a = 0. when a = b. is now = 1 . and therefore « : 6= bo : oa. requires that thepointB should j3 with the point a a case which may also be conve: niently expressed by the formula. a. we do not suppose = a. or. expresses (5 the condition qfcollinearity. OB = 0. wliere a and h are tioo scalars. then (by 16. oa The linear equation. The condition of coincidence. they therefore determine . be not con nected by = 0. when we write «a + ^/3 it thus = . Section — On Linear Equations betiveen three coinitial Vectors. and the equation coincide ob = oa. B = a. = 1 . or that both the coefficients vanish . [bOOK some I. answering above to symmetrically. i . the linear equation gives. of the points o.
y. so that the figure a'ob'c is (by 6) a parallelogram. a' and b'. which + brought back to the linear equation oa + 5/3 C'y therefore be said to express the condition ofcomplanarity of the four points. we denote symbol  sum by the where c is some third scalar. is situated. and consider the vectors a and riable point c will as given. in which the (now actual) vector. while x. represented by the sum aa + ^/3.CHAP. if c be any point in the plane aob. o. b. so as to satisfy the two equations. and 7 = 00 is some third vector. equation. but y as a variable vector. II. will be situated (by 19) on the two indefinite right lines. the locus of the va then be the given plane. ob'. so that the this cy. and if we make OA = aa then the two auxiliary points. three coinitial vectors. z are variable scalars. ca' and cb'. to the lines oa and ob. xa+ 7/j3 + 2y /3 =^ 0. Conversely. And if we write it under equation may the form. a.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. respectively : and we shall have the equation. 22. ob. for the sake of symmetry. c. 13 a plane aob. a. b. 7. are j3. oab. and shall thus be = 0. a. OA oa after OB' OB which we shall have the recent expressions for oa'. oa. we can draw from it the ordinates. OC = OA'fOB'. For if. c. and conse quently plane. connected by the linear aa^ bj5 + Cy = 0. with the relation oc = oa' + ob' as before . and can determine the ratios of the three scalars. .
by comparing which 21. and under this last form it expresses a geometrical which is otherwise known to exist. b. each of are conducted to these three other : equations. formula. so that we shall have an equation of the form. /3. the three scalars a. c. 7 terminate on one right line.7 = . Art. or = . : : . Fig. 17. Fig. last or (1 Oa + ^/3 .AC = C. we successively and separately. —+— c c OA OB + OA OB — — relation. or = i. c(y  fi) + a(a  (5) = 0. expressing certain ratios of segments 6 (3  a) + c(7  = a) 0. we see that the condition of collinearity of the three points A. B.14 23. the quotient to AC — must be equal some scalar. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. suppose t . y^^^U or 7 = a + ^(i3a). This condition may also be ~a b 1 thus written. «a + 6/3 + cy = 0. follows this proportion. a(ay) + b(j5y) = 0. In that case (comp.AB + C. 24. [book may happen is which that the point c is situated on the right here considered as a given one. c. so that the three coinitial vectors a. in the given plane oab. When we have thus the two equations. if we eliminate.BA = a.CB.BC + a. Hence ments. form with the linear equation of Art. 16. It line AB.CA + 5. 13). and « + ^ + c = 0. and may on that account be said to be terminocollinear. fl is expressed by the + 6+ c= 0. between coefficients and segtt :6:c= Bc CA ab.
ab into segments of which . might a = have observed that the proposed equations ^0 + ^7 o C'y +aa _aa + b[5 ^ whence AB 25. the variable quotient CB X let its Let c' be another point on the 5a?we /me.as variable. Xa + 2/'/3 . If )3a treat a a+h and (5 c we still as given^ but regard 7 and . or that it has this line for its locus : while it divides theJinite line is. vector be. and .] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. the equation a. also 15 We give.CHAP. II. % ^+y will express that the variable point c is situated someivhere on the indefinite right line ab.
with respect to the two given points.16 26. M ^ ' ' ' " we easily find that P/U y+ x y'fx so that the rectangle under the distances mc. if we establish the two equations. = y ' rca + 2/i3 1/ x+ y = ^ . a. <2? + ' ?/ _lxa + my (5 ^ Ixvmy XIX I —^^^—'xs any where the anharmonic OMO\jiexi\> ^ ^ constant scalar. if we denote by /x the vector of the middle point m of the given interval ab. divisions in involution. b. being the points a and b themselves. the two points c and c' are harmonically conjugate to each other. or/i i(a+/3). if we xa^y^ '' . More generally. the points of which each is its own As a verificonjugate. on the indefinite right line AB. m xy then in another known and modern* phraseology. in consequence of the variation of the value of . they form (in a wellknown sense). the group becomes (as If then we have the two equations. ' y . the double points {ov foci) of this involution. xa. two homographic More divisions. is equal to the constant square of half the interval between the two double write points. cation. namely. . tive ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. generally still. a and b and when they vary together. well known) harmonic. from the centre m of the involution. c'. the points c and c' will form. of the two variable but conjugate points^ c. 107. p. [bOOK I When the anharmonic quotient becomes equal to negais unity.pQ .) * Seethe Gtometrie Supe'rieure of 1^1. on the indefinite line ab. mc'. of which a and b are still the double points. so that A = /3/i=iUa. (Paris. Chasles. 1852.
&e. its coefficients. 7. z are tlirce scalars. b i c y= b c\a . The three collineations oaa'. more general case. give (by 19) three expressions of the forms. and equating to zero the sum of the coefficients of the new linear equation which results. the three coinitial vectors a. we may propose y of the three points. are then homographically divided. while a = oa'. in the given linear equation.. ab and a'b'. In tors this a'. and y  ^^. still constant. 23. C'= OCAB that is which the to say. II. a \ b . y. but they no longer terminate on one right line .c . .. from the ori X= a . When the linear equation aa + between without the relation a + 6 + c = 5/3 + cy = subsists. of the points in lines drawn from the origin o to the three corners of the triangle intersect the three respectively opposite sides. the two given lines. a bc. y are still complanar. namely. we T each in its turn. z= . not oc'. 17 y= x^y ^^. &c. and y = now supposed to move along one common line. y^—j Ix + my ' — being I fft . where x.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. and eliminating similarly ginal equation . their termpoints a. by the two variable points. which it is required to determine by means of the three other collineations. then ^. j3' = ob'. c and c'. b'=obca. find the values. j3'. but X variable. to find the vec a' = oabc. c being now tho corners of a triangle. with the help of relations derived from the principle of Art. x^aa + hji\^cy. b. Substituting therefore for a its value x'^a. /3.CHAP. 27.
the following proportion of coeffia cients and areas. a = 6)3 T + Cy . : : in general. whence the sought vectors are expressed following ways : in either of the two i.. attend to algebraic signs . in ' of concurrence of the three right lines aa'. such as o. y= — a^ ' 11. bb'.. y\ coincide with those which were found in Art. a triangle being conceived to pass {through zero) from positive to negative. B.. a:b:c= obc oca gab. we may write the last equations 28.. purpose.a=rr or . j3. made by the points the of segments For this c'. It is easy also to infer. common point. In fact see. y themselves. we may observe that the last expressions for a. = 6(ai3)c(ya') = c(i3'7)«(a/3') = «(7'a) Hfiy')'. . 6 + c f3 = c +a . . may next propose to determine the ratios of the sides of the triangle abc. b'. —. . + c 5 p ^ aa = cy J c + a 7 =^ a + . as follows : ba'_ a'c c b' cb' b'a _a c' Ac'_ b c'b «' whence we obtain at once the ba' known ac' c'b equation of six segments. . j3'. 24. and we see that they then give the required ratios. from the same ratios of segments. cb' b'a AC as the condition cc'. ffa + ij3 J' by one of these expressions for a'. we fication. under the form. on the particular supposition that the three points A. We y' for a. as compared with any given triangle in in which we must.18 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . for a. c were coUinear. that a' is on the line oa and by the other expression for the same vector As another veria. [bOOK I. or vice versa. that the same point a' is on the line bc. a'. /3'.
to the form. It may be observed that with this is.CHAP. 7. The linear equation between a. . AB+ BA = More fully. 29. If a' are similarly or oppositely directed. for a. j3. a'b'c'. At 7' mean point of the triangle. convention (which in fact. and which is here the the same time.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. 19 own plane. according as the two rotations. we have. the formulae. ob. but which we pre fer to call the origin o. are therefore. then a =b= c. abc. and b' bisect respectively the sides bc and ca. /3'. case. equation ABC + BAC = exactly as tion we had (in Art. 5) for any two points. the equa0.ACB and any two complanar triangles. that the three bisectors which is of the sides of a triangle concur. the first expressions in Art. the case last considered. or oa + OB + oc = . a'b'c'. ABC = . the 0. when (in the course of any continuous change) vertex crosses its base. in a point often called the centre of gravity. which may be conceived to be denoted by the same symbols ABC. its its 11. 7 reduces itself. in a + /3 + 7= 0. a necessary one. for the establish ment Qt{ general formulae) we have. oc. 30. "'^"^ whence this other tors trisect each other. bear to each other ^positive or a negative ratio. /3. adapted (by 10) to become the successive sides of a a. on this plan. ^^'2' ^="2' that the three bisec known theorem results. whence the known theorem follows.CBA = CAB = . for any three points. in this Art. the three vectors or oa.BAG = BCA = . 27 become. and c' bisects ab . .
[book I. (aa) + (ft0) + (y. ab. We shall have also the equation. on any as sumed pZawe. Fig. 20. — On Plane Geometrical Nets. we may next points a". the triangle OAD will have the property in It follows (by 11) question. A^. c" do the lines b'c'. 3. in Resuming the more general b. and accordingly. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. ca. so that . of the triangle a".. is the mean of Section 31.20 triangle. ease of Art. or o A &c. the sum of the three projected vectors. 27). B . 19. inquire. a'b' sides bc. B. b". o^. j3^. 19) the . into four other points. y^. o^A^ + o B^ + o^c^ = . and in fact it is evident (see Fig. (oo^ where = o\^ . c . A. 00^ . we shall have the new linear equation. B . c. that if we project XhQfour points o. if we complete parallelogram aobd. in what meet respectively the supposed to be unequal.7) = O. will be null. by transports loithout rotation (as in Fig. . = ^> or. y" of the points of intersec . c . or may seek to assign the vectors tion (comp. c'a'. + 7. «/ + i3. a^. Fig. /3".a hence OO^ ) + o^a) = AA^ ). A^.QA = (o A + AA a^. c are which the coefficients a. 27. by any system o^ parallel ordinates. = J (aA^ I BB^ + CC or the ordinate of the mean point of a triangle the ordinate s of the three corners. 20) that the projected »w^a«/?oiw^o^ willbethe mean point of the projected triangle.
7' a". j3'. ii. b"=c'a''Ca. And fol . respectively. first expressions in Art. b". c so that. 21. b. with respect to the three pairs of points. c"a'b'ab. 21 a" = b'c''BC. values of a. 25. and similarly for /3 and 7". and is a value for the We aa may bl5 there fore write. . a a. " the vector of a point on bc.aa c. 27. .chap. in the c. we have the equations. j3". b'. we see (by 26) that the points j3'. b notation of Art. the harmonic conjugates (as they are indeed known to be) of the points a'. c" are.] points and lines in a given plane. whence bbut (by 25) one c is (a + b) {c ^^ a) member the other of a point on b'c' each therefore vector a" of a". 7'. = (a + h)y' + C7 . y" conduct to the lowing linear equation between those three vectors. . because the expressions for a". (ba'ca") = (cb'ab") = (ac'bc") = I. 27 for give the equa \ Fig. The tions. . c'.a ^ b and by comparing these expressions with the second set of in Art. (c + a)/3' + ^j3 = 0. bj3cy /3" = Cy .
• • • the vectors of these three new points of intersection may be exwhereof the first pressed in either of the two following ways. I) = 6 j „ BA c CB a as beiore. for any triangle cut by a right line (comp.„^ ^ Ib^c^a b^ ^ . but the second is.«a + this (c + «) j3' + (a + ^) 7'. O = . that the three points a". with the relation between its {bc)+{ca) + {ab) = coefficients.. b". [boOK I. 21) we make. j3. is shorter.= . 7) we b'" = OB C"' = OC a'b'. 32. for some purposes (comp. 36) : more convenient T '" = «« 2a^b^c' or .m _ 2^/3 + C7 + flg 26 + + « <? + a a^b^ „. The line a"b 'c' rectilinear transver we have AC « AC' CB' . Eliminating j3 and 7 between either set of expressions (27) for j3' and 7'. arrive at this other equation. we arrive (by 23) at this other known theorem. as indicated by one of the dotted lines in the recent Fig. c" are coUinear. {bc)a"+{ca)l5"+{ab)j"=0. _ 2cy ^ '2c + a + b . 34. 33. a.22 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. connecting the three vectors 7' : /3'. . may represent any cutting the sides of a triangle abc and because . 28). we a.a" . with the help of the given linear equation. a'" = OA BC'. ba" cb' ac' a"c b'a c'b Avhich again agrees with known results.„^ 2c a + + b' ^ cy _ 2«a + 6j3 + C7 2« + 6 + c r. and t y . 2 1 . arrive at this other equation of six segments. sal. on the same plan as the given equation between Treating find that if (as in Fig.  . Avhile7. CV. . we .„ ^.
b"c"'a'". b". b'. because Ave have the two ^ (a + b)y'i. = we may write. namely. which will give. a'. six new points. in a notation already compared with c'.c)a". a". a'" are harmonically co?ijugate with respect to e' and c' . c' and then by a Second . Leipzig. . Mobh'S. . (bVc'a") = (c'b'Vb") = 34. a'. And the three equations. and twelve other lines. b'". of which some may be seen.„ Also. is 23 one. B.CHAP. A. c"a"'b'". a"b"'c'". might proceed to connect these with each other. derive from 18).(c Z>) + a)j5' ' „ (a + b) y (a + + (c + a) (c a) j5' ' (« + Z>)(c + «) \^  see (by 26) that the two points a". 1827). and c". the four dotted lines of Fig. by sixteen new" lines. (a'c'"b'c") 1. by their intersections with the former lines. F. c'". employed (25. If beyin^ as above. We points. we can (as in Fig. are not marked. a'. . in page 274 of his Baiycentric Calculus (dcr barycen trische Calcul. whereof three should be drawn from each of the four given points four : and these would be found to determine eighty points of intersection. of which the following (b.(2b+c + a)(5"'+ {2c¥ a + b)y" = with the relations between their coefficients w^hich are evident on inspection. of which o. 21). expressions. and with the given . b': so that. in the figure. A. 21. and similarly for the two we other pairs of points. we may connect these by three new lines. c. as indicated by three of the dotted lines in the figure. 0. connecting them two by two. show (by 23) that we have the three additional coUineations. d". so as to form w^hat has been called* a plane * By Prof.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. no three are collinear. II. by may we them six lines. with ^wj four complanar points. or lines of a Third Construction. Construction (represented in Fig. and with 31). they although But however far these processes of linear construction new may be continued. and intersecting each other in three new points. what be called a First Construction.
y . see (by 27. Ci . be any pencil. 33 with the corresponding equations of Art. from the nature of the calculations employed. we see that the harmowc group ba'ca". xaa + yhfi + zcy ' xa \yh + zc In fact coefficients x. — On Anharmonic Coordinates and Equations of Points and Lines in one Plane. the line More generally. a'. by the three sides of the triangle ABC. after a quotients. let oa. for points and lines in one plane. 21. [bOOK I. by a harmonic pencil of four rays. hitherto considered . . and similarly for the other groups. 33) that such expressions can be assigned for the ni?ie derived vectors. 35. for every vector subsequently deduced. y". we shall next proceed : any applications of the same theory reserving. oc. on the side bc of the triangle abc in Fig. z are some whole numbers. which alone have been where the we . that each can be represented by an expression of the form. 22. = y . for a subsequent Chapter. 31. and it is not difficult to perceive. we shall have the anharmonic quotients. as in Fig. bV'c'a". to which derstood. ob. Bj. to space. If we compare the last equations of Art. and their geometrical signification will be better unthis somewhat closer consideration of anharmonic and the introduction of a certain system of anharmonic coordinates. on b'c'. all passing through the point o .24 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Section 4. in the three points Ai. or briefly o. 31. with the point o for vertex . (ba'cai) ^ (ca'sai") = z . . od. y.abcd. geometrical net^ the vectors of the points thus determined have all one common property : namely. and let the new ray OD be cut. has been simply reflected into another such group. that a similar result must hold good. But and other connected results will become more completely evident. let also oAi = so that (by 25) ai + = yh^ zcy ^^ yo + zc — '.
with a view to determining the anharmonic ra and let tios of the groups on the two other sides. 2. (abcd) + (acbd)= Comparing this. = (bc'aCi) + (ba'cAj) = I. (cb'aBi) + (ca'bai) But not in general.— \zy)h + za . j3i and ^71. 25 us seek to express the two other vectors of intersection.W 2 . c. we y (bAC'Ci) = (ba'cAi) = y and we see that (as was to be expected from known £ princi . we have the relations. Avith the recently found relations. have.CHAP. for difficult to any four coUinear points AB BC AC a. I. whence by the definition (25) of the signification of the is sym bol (abcd). for Fig. it is prove that CD+ CB BD= da.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. then. b. whence we derive (by 25) these two other anharmonics. (27). {yz)c + ya _ = oc ^ oci yi {zy)b ^^zaa — T . d. the following anharmonic equations : (cab'bi) = (ca'bai) = . 22. the following identity derived. (cb'aBi) so that = y (BCACi) = / . II. The given equation shows us at once that these two vectors are.
to another such side. when we pass from one side of the triangle. in the points line. The expression (34). may We therefore speak (as usual) of such an anharmonic of a group^ as being at the same time the Anharmonic of a Pencil . xaa + yb^ + zcy xa^yh^zc may represent the vector o^ any point p in the given plane by a ^ suitable choice of the coefficients ic. a'. and to the definition (25). pb. considered as a transversal of the pencil. ^ . form pa + 6' . d\ by any one right 36. pies) the anharmonic of the group does not change. y with other resulting values.26 KLEMKNTS OF QUATERNIONS.cabd) = . . For since (by 22) the three complanar vectors pa. of the c' . od be cut.bacd) = ^. the rays oc. c'. y. b'. ob. cabd) = (c'a'b'd'). Z y (o. may denote the two last anharmonics by the two following reciprocal expressions : (o. pb + PC = 0. [bOOK I. or simply of their ratios. x. oa. is (o if . with attention to the order of the rays. when the order of the rays changed it being understood that . and. or transversal. PC must be connected by some a' . linear equation.
with respect to the given triangle and origin : while the point p itself may be denoted by the Symbol.0. 2 1 come to be thus symbolized: a =(1.0. =(0. or of which give groups. we shall have.0). 02.2). B" = (1. may be conveniently called the Coordinates of that pointy p.2. V BOCP) = (ba CPi) = .0.l. B' c =(0.1). =(1. 1. or any scalar s proportional to them. 27 Pi = PABC.y. a" = (0. z. and there appears that the three coefficients x. AOBP) = (AC'BPa) = X . y.1). An HARMONIC With this notation. a"'=(2.] rOlNTS AND LINKS IN A GIVEN PLANE. at (A .0).0). z).1.1. = (1. P2} P3 : yh^ + zcy ^ _ zcy + xaa yb+zc ^^ xaa + ybj3 xa + yb once the following anharmonics of pencils. of which the 5'?<o^2>w^a. expressions for of these three points or 0P3. P3 = PCAB.1).CHAP. P2 = PBCA. 0P2.0. the following the vectors oPi. /03. and the origin o are given . b"'= (1. (B . the thirteen points of Fig.1. v = (x. .thus represent the fore it anharmonics of those pencils. pi.1).0).1. 1).1). Pi. with the same coefficients xyz. when the triangle abc. €'=(1. Any two of these three pencils suffice to determine the position of the point p. 11.1). 1. whereof we see that the product is unity. c"=(l. €'"=(1. COAP) = (cBAPa) =  (C . 1). of intersection.1. a' B =(0.
yij z Zi 2n ^2? or. Z2). with the two former points. P2. Conversely. which. + . whereof the quotients determine the position of the right line A. if we make tXi\ x= and UX2. t {x^a + . . It is natural to call the equation^ which . in which (comp. . (tXi uXiy tj/i + uy2> tzx + uz^. x^aa + x^a + .y^  yiX2) . . ^i> Xz. n are three constant scalars. unless its coordinates admit of being thus expressed in terms of theirs. or (in other words) For. more fully. ^2. z^tz^^ UZ2. . its written. = (^1.v + my + nzy where Z. (giZ2  z.) 0 = . the point p cannot be collinear with Pi. m.If Pi and p^ be any Pi [bOOK I.) ^1 + w {x^a + . X. l. these vectors of the three points P1P2P are connected by the linear equation.y^) +y = {zix^  ^1^2) + z {x. !/l. y= tifx + w^2) . two points P2 in the given plane. It follows that if a variable point p be obliged to move along a given right line P1P2.)/02 (ara + . xaa + xa + . . x^aa + Xitt . or if it have such a line (in the given coordinates xyz must satisfy a homogeneous equation of the first degree^ with constant coefficients . = G'^2J and if t and u be any two p= + scalar coefficients. in the known notation of determinants. Zl). then the following third point. the sum of the coefficients is zero.28 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. 23). . g. which is thus the locus of the point p. . . . may be thus plane) for its locus. . 37. =x or briefly. is is collinear situated on the right line PiPg.
in like manner.3].1. z+ x3y=0. b.1. or of the locus of all the irifinitely distantpoints in the given plane. are respectively. or [1. [/. c"a"'b'''. for their equations and symbols. the Anharmonic Equation of the Line A. X \ y + z == 0.1. the lines [1. 29 thus connects the coordinates of the j)oint p.1]. yz = 0. Finally. and the line a"b "c" is [1. For example. are in like a"b"'c"'.0].0].1. and we shall find it convenient also to speak of the coefficients /. b"c"'a'".3. 1].0]. the three = ab of the given triangle have thus for their equations. 21. and \a. of Fig. 0.1]. of Fig. 20. sides bc. are y\zx = 0. . x\^y3z = 0.1.1]. [1.0. ca. ab'c".0.1. [1. 18. [1. [3.1.CHAP. y= 0. The three additional lines oa. of the same figure. xy=0. manner represented by the equations and symbols. we may remark that on the same plan. y+ z3x == 0. [1. [0.1]. [0. 1. The or lines b'c'a". [0.1].1. oc. II. the Anharmonic Coordinates also in that equation. as being of that Line : which line may be denoted by the Symbol. w. [1.1]. [1.1]. c] .] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. tw. zx = 0.1]. x + y z=0.0. ob. c'a'b". m. w]. ax \ by \ cz = 0. znxy = 0. the equation and the symbol of what is often called the line at infinity. have. A= 38. and for their symbols. a.
w. in which the line A. or the three given ab of the given i/=0. tw. considered as connecting the coordinates of a variable point thereof. ba" cb" ac" a"c b"a c"b bl cm an LC MA NB latter. z/.30 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. (cb"am) . n = (m. of any triangle abc. without any consideration of a variable point . whence that easy to infer. applied to any two transversals. I with the resulting relation. = (0. These anharmonic coordinates of a line. .1. this linear function vanishes. z of a point p in the plane. 36) be thus denoted 0.1). [bOOK I.0. n. when.  /. CA. although above interpreted (37) with reference to the equation of that 39. c" = (l. 36) for the vector p of that point: so that the point p is at an infinite distance from the origin o. 0. are capable of receiving an independent geometrical interpretation.m) . because the linear function^ ax^hy\. intersects the three triangle abc. may evidently (on the plan of L = (0. But we had A" also (by 36). x= z=0 : (38). is the denominator of the expression (34. this last equation is easily proved.cz^ of the coordinates c. or sides BC. 0).= (cb"am) ^ ^ n .. w].1). For the three points l.l. m= (.0). (ac"bn) = 1. lines [/. ' on dividing the former of which by the of the last article results. or & + my + nz = 0. 40. — = (ac'bn) ^ . — = (ba"cl) m . Conversely. and only when. we have ' thus the two equations. on the principles of recent articles. /) . have been led.1. m. with the help of the known and general relation between segments (32). it is b"=(. In fact. line. the last formula in this We might therefore way p. a"b"c" and lmn. (ba"cl) . n.
/. tni + U7I2']. 41. again 37). the three equations . (ac"bn) . the equation /. then any third right line through the intersection curs with A ArA2. n (or any others proportional thereto). may be repre sented (comp. 31 to introduce three auxiliary scalars. II. n be the anharmonic coordinates of the line A. 37) by a symbol of the form. y. m. ^2. mi. Ai = [Zi. 7i\ passes.CHAP. z). the anharmonic coordinates of that line. Z) be the supposed point commo?i to the three lines. the given point (ar. what comes to the same thing. y. ri] . W2]. A= \tli +UI2. where t and u are scalar coefficients. mi. Or. or else Ix + my + nz = that the variable line in some direction^ through [/. are suflScient to : determine the position of the right line A. as in 39. z) is situated somewhere upon the given right line [/. Ui 4. defined as having I TYl their quotients —^ . (cb"am). either that the variable point {x. 71 w. /i. to the three anharmonics of groups. or lmn. If Ai and Ag be any two right lines in the given plane. m. then (comp. tmi + w?W2. But although the anharmonic coordinates of a point and of a line may thus be inde pendently defined^ yet the geometrical utility of such definitions will be found to depend mainly on their combination : or on the formula of 37. and then it would have been evident that these three scalars. considered as a transversal of the given triangle abc so that they might naturally have been called. A2 = in the [/2) '^2. W2 satisfied because.] POINTS AND LINES IN A GIVEN PLANE. m. which may at pleasure be considered as expressing. m. if (X. ?2j. ^^QQ^?! respectively. as above. F. n 0= Z(wiW2must be = ^1^2) + &c. (ba"cl). on this account. /. which passes (in other words) which con^ them (at a finite or infinite distance). or same plane. m. w. . if Z.
&c. as initial. and A' = [/ . when its anhar monic coordinates are not thus all equal (or proportional) to it is clear that whatever four points we may assume and however far the construction of the net may be the netpoints and netlines which result will all be ra tional. or that it is irrationally related to the given system of four integers . now those plane geometrical nets.Z =(i.X + [bOOK I. respectively. m + ub. — On Plane Geometrical Nets. because then the anharmonic quotients. Conversely. because they concur at infiproblems respecting intersections of right collineations of points. in the given plane. initial points o. rational points and rational lines. IX+mY+nZ^O. m. which were discussed in the last Section. which were mentioned in Art. LX ^ m. resume. resumed.32 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. 34 and agree to call those points and lines. the consideration of . m. b. &c. in the given plane. of concurrence be sa For example. but to say that a point or line is irrational. because [a^h^ c^ has been seen (in 38) to be the symbol of the line at infinity (at least if we still retain the same significations of the scalars a. l. and the subsequent cZe we wa^eow^ (41) can never after . c. when lines two parallel all In general. in the sense just now defined.). + w«.. lines. are symbols of nity. Section 42. treated tions by this anharmonic method^ conduct to easy eliminabetween linear equations (of the scalar kind). ri] . must coexist. carried. which have their anharmonic coordinates equal (or proportional) to whole numbers . for a moment. on which : we need not here delay the mechanism of such calculations being for the most part the same as in the known method of trilinear coordinates: although (as we have seen) \hQ geometrical interpretations are altogether different.Y^n. In fact. If we 5.Y+n^Z =0. are rational . 6. and the three lines will have a common point (which may be infinitely distant). this coexistence will be possible. we begin with such. a. it follows that A = [/. c as in articles 27. if the recent condition tisfied. w + uc'] .
be so constructed. 44. so that it teral interstice PiPgPaPi. To prove this. 0). as in Fig. If p. Ai = show that every rational point on any one side bc of the given triangle abc. that (0. which can never coincide with netlines.z. can Making. which interstice of the net can be made as small as we may desire.] PLANE GEOMETRICAL NETS. from which c'Bi • it is easy to infer (by 36. which has already been constructed as a'. yet every such point can be indefinitely approached to.yz). that are of the contrary kind the right which connects two rational points being always a rational and the point of intersection of two rational lines being line The assertion made in Art. . every rational point of the given plane. x^a + yJb + z^c = Vg. we have (by 35. then writing lines in x^a + yj) + z^c = ri. 37). or can be included within a quadrilaeven within a tri angular interstice P1P2P3. and if p'be any ^wrM netpoint {x\ y\ z) upon the same line. 1). with respect to the four assumed initial points oabc. 34 necessarily a rational point. is therefore fully justified. z/  z. 43. P2 be any three colUnear points of the net. Ci=(2:. z) . Pi. BC = y. : 33 line wards conduct to any. in which the two whole numbers 7/ and z may be supposed to be prime to each other. it is evidently sufficient to (0. to depend on that of the point (0. 1. and Ci = oai*ab. 2r?/. and thus we can reduce the linear construction of the rational point (0. y.y). F . • b'Ci bc = (0. ^). Bi = (y. Analogous remarks apply to irrational the plane.CHAP. It follows that although no irrational point q of the plane ca?^ be a netpoint. 22. II. so that the formulae of 37 apply. by continuing the linear construction. Bi = OAiCA. Conversely. 0. y. 36) the expressions. but may always be indefinitely approximated io by such. is a point of the net which those four points determine. z).
b. which value depends only on the processes of linear construction employed. which had the . are such. on Anharmonic Coordinates. 45. in arriving at that group or pencil. or at least (by 43) as indefinitely approaching to coincidence. nine derived points d" for their vertices. were all harmonic pencils. it may be said that plane geometrical nets are all homographic figures* and conversely. 2 1 a' . every other point p of the same net related (42) to these . because (by 44) the three * rationally new anhar Compare the Geometrie Siiperieure of M. in any two such plane^^wre^. the nine pencils. disappear from the expression which results. c might be arranged. Bi. and is rangement of the four constants. 362. has a rational value for anharmonic function . shall [bOOK I. with points of which (in their reanharmonic coordinates (36) are equal the spective systems) : integers. . corresponding points may be con sidered as either coinciding. with similarly constructed points of two plane nets that is. &c. Ai. f See Note A. «.. In general. in Fig. in whatever manner the four points o. 5.34 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Chasles. p. . Hence ei^ery group of four collinear netpoints. if we may we select any four netpoints Oi. ^ _ tVipi tVi + UVzpz ' + UVz . a. and consequently also its every pencil of four concurrent netlines. whatever the constants abc may be. we have two expressions of the forms. of already see that which no three is are collinear. quite independent of the configuration or arinitial points : because the three initial It was thus that. Without entering heref on any general theory of trans formation of anharmonic coordinates. _ t'Vipi + W V2/O2 fvi + ' u'vi in which the coefficients tut'u' are rational. c. have therefore (by 25) the following rational expression We for the anharmonic of this netgroiip " 1 : \ * "2" / — 'f ^^ — tu {xyi — — — —— ^ ^ r J yxi) {x y^yx^) and similarly for every other group of the same kind. because the coor dinates xyz. Ci.
as intersections of known right lines. are rational . &c. b. 23). d". 46.. y. as the intersections oa' liary points a". z^ of the point p.CHAP. we may suppose that the four points oa'b'c' in Fig. in the expressions 34 or 36 for a variable vec= tor p OP. = 35 monies of pencils. For this purpose. &c. have been taken. as regards their substance (although investigated totally different analysis). yi. will enable us to return. Compare Note B. c". without ever reaching such points by any processes of linear construction of the kind here of its nitely considered. as well its old coordinates xyz. and therefore (comp. It follows (by 43) that every point p of the net can be linearly constructed. A = b'b" • c'c". as required. in other words. (Ai . 21 are given. that the whole net can be reconstructed. sions. 24) be known.] CURVES IN A GIVEN PLANE. because (comp. . p^ is supposed to be rational and integral. to the points a. such as fp{x. as b'c' and next the three other auxiafter which the forb"'c"'. it is only necessary to determine first the three auxiliary points a"'. and homogeneous of the degree. as above) or. When. z are connected by any given algebraic equation. are equal or proportional to wliole numbers. 37) it is cut * This theorem (45) of the possible reconstruction of a plane net. BiOiCiP) — . from any one quadrilaterals. and that it is required to recovj^r from them the three points abc. . c. and Vector Expresfor Curves in a given Plane. upon the Barycentric Calculus . z) = 0. which was referred to in a former note (p. — On Anharmonic Equations.. . upon nets in space. if any four such points be given (no three being collinear. b'". which had previously been among the data of the construction. by a from that highly original treatise of Mobius.y. • b ". &e. 1) of that vector a plane curve of the jo^'' order. &c.* if any one of its qua drilaterals (such as the interstice in Fig. the three variable scalars (or anharmonic coordinates) X. II. and the remarks in the following Chapter. : mulae. • b'c'. 36) the new coordinates Xi. then the locus of the term v (Art. and the theorem (43) respecting the possibility of indefiapproaching by netlines to the points above called irrational (42). Section 6. As an example.
be (as in Fig. /> the conic which touches the sides of the given triangle abc. In fact. tween the four equations. If the point o. c are all positive. cc' concur. + M+ ?. I). v are three which we shall suppose that the sum is zero. ^'^* a. 47. 18. namely. line^ and real or imaginary). or a' (36) : and similarly for the two other sides. For example. an inscribed ellipse . we are conducted to the following equation of the second ^ ^^^ ^ ^^ degree. in the given plane. c denoting here the lengths of the sides of the triangle. by the points a'. v can render such no values quently riable scalars '.36 in ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. &c. c' . we obtain a quadratic with that there is e^'waZ roots. b'. JC by < eliminating these be = ^% ^= M^. cir when c'^ a'M 6"M = s a : s b : s c . ^^' . [boOK I.) interior to the triangle abc. by for if a. then. p points (distinct or coincident. = 0. c' of contact with the conic so that in this case . in which the three right lines a a'. u. tions with the side bc. {yzy = Q\ which shows 1. 2=172. so that here it is ^f^z' 2yz  22a. of where t. b. bb^. = 2. 25. the sides of that triangle are then all cut internally. as in Fig. we seek its intersec making = (38). for any real values of the va and conset. b. by any given right lx^my + nz== 0. contact with this side at the point (0. w. at the points above called a'. (by 28) the ratios of the constants «.  2^^ . infinite that vector p. and the locus of p is a conic section. which becomes however the inscribed cle. b'. if we ^ write _ faa + u'b^ + uVy ¥a^v^hTv^' new variable scalars. and s being their semisum. and the denominator of the recent expression (46) for p cannot va^ nish. The conic is therefore generally in this case.
on the lines ac. are either. but each of the two others as > 0. For example. + ab> 0. is or =0. a' will oO. and s + sc + sb<0. be a point on the side b itself but the points b'. according as or + 6"^ + ci < 0. or on that side prolonged. . is or > 0. c'. c may be treated as Thus if we suppose that i>0. real and equal) or Ilird. so that two of its sides are cut externally. and therefore one of the three constants a. 6. ab. : = s : s c : s b . < 0. aa' prolonyed. 1st. real and unequal: that bc\ca is. circle. II. =0. if 37 tri 48.J ANHARMONIC EQUATIONS OF PLANE CURVES. More generally. {a ^c)f + 2ctu + (6 + c)?/2 = 0.CHAP.« : : c. then c c' : Ac' = cb' ab' = . a + 5>0. . or < or (because the product abc «! here negative). writing then the condition (48) of ellipticity (or circularity) . or an hyjj perbola^ according as the roots of the quadratic. such that cc^ is parallel to the chord b'c'. obtained by equating the denominator (46) of the vector p to zero. as in Fig. if the conic be what often called the exscribed the known ratios of 5"^ c"^ segments give the proportion. 26 a'b'c' will o and then the conic ellipse circle). will be. then tico of the three ratios oiseyments (28) are neyative . imayinary . b^ or Ilnd. if c^ be (as in Fig. a"^ . according as we have . 26) a point upon the side ab. But the point of concourse o be exterior to the angle of tally ents abc. 49. be an (including the case of a or a parabola. a+oO. and ab : ac' =a+^ 6 : . fl<0.
of that /= conic. a + 5+c<0. In that other arrangement or configuration. imthin the triangle ab'c'. for dis tinguishing the species of the conic. 1st. the curve is elliptic^ or parabolic. with respect to the point a. or llnd. the general arrangement of the same Figure being retained. touched in b' and c'. line « (6 + c) is + 6c <  (^>2 + 5c + c") < 0. Or. for the case when the roots are real but . op must be drawn from o. or which hyperbolic. whereof it is easily seen that one branch while the other branch is is touched by the side bc at. then according as the point d falls. The curve is also hyperbo either « + 6 or a + c be negative. according as c^c' in other still. with the corresponding equation ax + by + cz=0 (38) of the line at infinity . 6>0. [bOOK is I. or direction. (46). in which a right line conic at infinity. oO. by the sides CA and BA prolonged through lic. through prolonged a' is still . on that chord. by substituting those roots. — < —r—. express the same thing more symmetrically. the parabola. < or = or > ab . or hyperbola. that which is reprearrangement being to sented in Fig. we c see that the conic an ellipse. equal : for we shall thus obtain the directions. shows that the conic necessarily an hyperbola . while b tive as before.38 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. and c are posi 50. u. answers to the system of inequalities. if a. the point a'a upon the side bc itself. maybe otherwise obtained by combining the anharmonic equation. so as to meet the And the same conditions as before. then the directions of the asymptotes may be found. or Ilird. if we complete the parallelogram cabd. 26. under the form. or the values of t. so as to inquire (on known principles of modern geometry) whether that line meets that curve in tivo . respects. When the quadratic (48) has is its roots real and un equal. so that the conic an hyperbola. in the numerator of the expression (46) for 0 and similarly we can find the direction of the axis of the parabola. but o is on the a and then the inequality. a. v which correspond to them (or any scalars proportional thereto). beyond the chord 'b'c'.
yzx. In general. Thus at the point or evidently (by the form of/) a the the curve.] DIFFERENTIALS — TANGENTS —POLARS. z) of this curve may be denoted by the symbol. the usual significations of the signs d and d are sufficient. drawn at the point and regarded as the limit of a secant. in points which (alhere to be considered as real. as distinguished from (although including) that it will be found necessary to introduce a new definition of differentials. bol (37) of this tangent at p may therefore be thus written. X that is X'. or cuts it. or touches it. y. and if the differential* of this equation be thus denoted.y' y \z . . d^. on account of the non. are though infinitely distant) 51. then because. by the supposed homogeneity (46) of the function/.1). y. = d/(rc./. we have the relation Xx^Yy we if + Zz=^ 0./ d. the coordinates of the line may be replaced a'. F. [1. if/"(a. for the of vectors. d. p= [X. by any others proportional to them. (by 36) at (0. z)(i be the anharmonic equa tion (46) of any plane curve^ considered as the locus of a variable point p . z) = X^x + Ydy + Zdr . (by the principles of Art./] characteristics . II. present. 39 imaginary points.2. the tangent to y\ 2') be any point upon the curve. 0.CHAP. or that is side bc of the given triangle. when /has the form assigned in 46.z = diXidiy\^Z] if p'=(a7'. 0]. as usual.). y. zxy']\ in which. 37). d^ are known ofpartial deriva 52. \_xyz. whence the tangent at any point {x. y. or [d. 1. For example. shall have also this other but analogous relation. point upon tangent is the line [. we have Da/= 2{xyz)y &c.. . as answering to the conic lately considered. Z\. 0] (by 38). 2. which is * In the theory of quaternions. The sym(ic. Da.commutative property o^ quaternionmultiplication : but. 0. as the . where tion.
40 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. zx^ xy = Jiigher 0'. we may. were of a degree than the second^ then the two equathe. which passes through the three corners a. + cy = (27). c + «. Y. . first tions above written would represent what are called polar. a+ b). by 48. bb". in order that a point (. to the form. the point vector the point which it is therefore. consider that exscribed (or circumscribed) conic. which is (in a well known spect to the same given conic resense) the polar of the point (a. 2/. which is drawn through the extremity K of the vector k. the point (x. which has been the in this way be subject of recent articles. Conversely.. Instead of the inscribed conic (46). when this denominator is different from zero. z) of the curve* should belong to a tangent which passes through the point {x\ y\ zf). is bisected at that point k which point : would therefore seen again to be the centre. was otherwise found before (46). c of the given triangle. of the point (x'. z/. z). The anharis easily seen to be. witli respect to the given curve. with or that the line [X'.r. of which the OK aa + bj5 easily reduced. 53. which is is (by known principles) satisfies ihe pole of the line at infinity (38). the conditions a~^X = b^Y=c~^Z \ sent conic. And in general it is easy to see that the recent symbol denotes the right line. Y\ Z'~\ is . . when the conic is a parabola. [bOOK I. it can be shown that every chord of the curve. and the last or the linepolar. y. z) is (in the same wellknown sense) the poZ^ of the line [X. as another example. for the pre K = (6 + c. by the help of the linear equation. expresses (by 51) the condition requisite. y\ 2'). Z'\ so that the centre of the conic. 21. is «^a + ^»2j3 2{bc+ + Cy ca^ ab) ^ ' with the verification that the denominator vanishes. which for a conic may be written as X'x + Y'y + Z'z = 0. and monic equation of this new conic yz^ * If the curve /= touches there the lines a a". cc" of Fig. b. In the more general case. the polar of the point {x\ y\ z) : because the equation Xa!\Yy' + Zz=^0.
II. w] generally. {x^y\ zfthe locus of the point p is 2*Jxyz = . or in other words. passes through the point of concourse o of the three lines aa'. therefore. in this example. m. as before. are there fore ranged on one right line. k' it follows (by 19) that the three are collinear . X' = k' (laa + mb[5 + wcy). The vector of its found to be.lea . (37). or briefly a cubic curve. k. a parabola. if l be the pole of any given right line A scalar ratio to each other. bb'. and if l' be the pole of the same line A with respect to the exscribed conic of the present article. points o. bear a positive. it can be shown that the vectors ol.CHAP. . according as the denominator of this last expression is negative. or X. ^2 j^ ^2 ^ c2 _ 2hc .] VECTOR OF A CUBIC CURVE. or null. More = [/. as before. X = ^ {laa + mb^ + where k and k' wc'y). Making = <^ y = u^i z = r^ we find here by elimination of f. a curve of the third order. that the line of centres kk'. X'. As an example of a vectorexpression for a curve of an order higher than the second^ the following may be taken : OP=p = with ^ t^aa + u^b^ t^a + v^cy + u% + v^c a: + w +r= 0. K. w. ol'. cc'.lab ' and it is an ellipse. l. or an hyperbola. of the two conies here considered. v the anharmonic equation. 41 the vector of a variable point p of the curve may therefore be expressed as follows. The mechanism (41) G . 54. or And because these two recent vectors^ jc. t'^aa + u~^bf5 + v^cy with the condition centre k' is t + u^v = 0. l' are scalar s the three points o. of these two poles are of the forms. with respect to the inscribed conic (46).
. ^=1. is [book so I.C. »= t. and p = t Especially the excellent Treatise on Higher Plane Curves.D. y'. 19) the mean point of the triangle. in which origin of vectors o being a conjugate point in o becomes case (by 29) this origin (as Fig. it fol lows that if p= (x. 55. where * =^+ 7/ + 2* . ing three irifinite branches^ inscribed within the angles vertically opposite to those of the given triangle abc. sy'' sz'~ 02^ Answering to the values . 21 . George Salmon. for which the reader will naturally turn to other works. u=9.. c" in Fig. we xs z) be any two points shall have the zs xyzs * ^ or — ys . k denoting an arbitrary constant. s' =^oc +y +z. with the scalar equation = 27 kxyz. (Src. . on the present plan. hav Fig. It would be improper to enter here into any details of discussion of such cubic curves. the chord of inflexion a"b"c" line is then the infinity^ at and the the curve takes form represented in Fig. f But it may be remarked. F. that it may suffice to remark briefly here that the sides of the given triangle abc are the three (real) tangents of injiexion . 27. y. 27. where is one of the imaginary 0. that because the general cubic may be represented.42 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. when the origin is (as in 54) a conjugate point. and the * If fl=6 =c. 1852. of calculations with anharmonic coordinates much the same as that of the known trilinear method. b". by the Rev. in passing. which becomes equal to unity. Dublin. the points ofinflexion being those which are marked as a". z) if and p' = (x'. by combining the general expression of Art. 34 or 36 for the vector s^ p. v give x = y=^z. cuberoots of unity which values of «. of which the sides are the three asymptotes. we make = xyz s^.T. of the curve ^ and relation.
pap'a") = 1. II. or whatever may be the degree p of ihQfunctionfm 46.papa). and has the sides bc. we saw in 51 that the tangent to the curve at any point p = {x. homogeneous equation of the form. right line ?/. if Z= D^/. and therefore enable us to establish the system of the two following diiferential equations. we shall have the equation f(/. not difficult to 43 in vvliich it is prove that sx — = (a'. z which render the function /= (although it introduced by this may require to be cleared offactors. y. z) is the A = [/. and if any two points p and p' in its plane he such as to satisfy the anharmonic relation (a'. m = Dyf n = d^^. by elimination of the ratios of re. ^ the notation (35) of anharmonics of pencils being retained. b". relation.pcpc). of the third order. (c". 2\)hy any given rectilinear transversal a"b"c". ca. (b".pbp'b") . p' are on one common cuhic curve. from plane to spherical curves. Ix by the supposed homogeneity o^f give the \my^nz^ 0. which has the three collinear points a". m. x^l + y^m + z^n z^ 0. then these tioo points p.pbpb'). sz . If then. c" for its three real points of inflexion.] ANHARMONIC PROPERTY OF CUBIC CURVES. w]. with scarcely any modification. Whatever the order of a plane curve may be. ab of the triangle for its three tangents at those points . * This Theorem may be extended. lAx + m^y + wds = 0. we arrive at a new as one that is true for all values of ic. " obtain therefore thus the following Theorem : If the We — sides of any given plane* triangle abc he cut (as in Fig. 5Q. n) = 0." a result which seems to offer a new geometrical generation for curves of the third order. ^ ' ^=(b. pcp'c") .CHAP. w. ^ ^ sy' — = (c. . expressions which. y. elimination).
with the curve which pass (or return) from the tan= f 0. as \_l. Hence we can considered (as in 46) as the locus of a point p : since. marks (as before) the order of the curve. any one of its positions. y. the class of the curve to which that equation belongs or the number of tangents (dis: tinct or coincident. y. in all the positions which can he assumed by that right line. z) be. be necessary. n) = + ydm + 2d7i = 0. of foreign factors) as a conseof the quence homogeneous equation f = 0. differential equations. the anharmonic coordinates x. As an example (comp. And when w^e shall the functions /"and f are not only homogeneous (as always suppose them to be). [bOOK I. of the same curve is its envelope. where /. m. z. (cleared. it might have been expected to do). m. while the degree of the function^ or of the local equation. m = yz. z between the equations. l = xyz. an equation of the form 0=/(DiF. equation f method (as. above. to the local equation f= 0. to which they are proportional.F. 772. n. or of the tangential = 0. 57. y. we have only to substitute for these partial derivatives. 52). the degree of the other homogeneous function f. of a curve considered as the envelope of gential equation a right line A. then. icd/ dr (/. to and real or imaginary). n are the coordinates of the tangent to the inscribed . in this anharmonic from the analogy of other and older methods. if (x.44 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.X. if we obtain. And. X y z= line DiF d„iF : d„f.„f. D/F. by connparing the two 0. if we eliminate x. which can be drawn that curve. d„f). by elimination of the ratios of /. w]. we : see that : we may : write the pj^oportioji. is easily seen to denote. d„f). but also rational and integral (which it is sometimes convenient not to assume them as being). n^zxy^ Ix^my ^ nz=^. &c. and the symbol p = (d/f. as a condition that must be satisfied by the tangent A to the curve. d. from an arbitrary point in its plane. the point of contact p of the variable in m. if it D„..
&c. as I. or the set x. triangle abc are among the lines which satisfy Conversely. or cvrve of the second class. which we have so often had occasion to employ. m. round which a right line turns : according as we suppose the set I. 40). of Fig. equation = F(l. And + my +nz = 0. 1. to : ments cannot now more particularly refer different from his own. y= nvl. z/.CHAP. with the verification that the side considered before : now as an [1. z. 0]. with the verification that the sides [1. was * This name of " tangential coordinates''' by Dr. n. 45 conic of Art. 0] touches the conic. we should be brought In like back to the local equation. 0. n) = l'' + m^ + n^ 2mn  2nl 2lm = 0'.] LOCAL AND TANGENTIAL EQUATIONS. and so obtain by elimination the tangential equation. from the local equation /=yz + zx + xy = of the exscribed conic (53). y. Thus. we might (by 6Q) derive from it expressions for the coordinates of contact X. z=l¥m. z. but also as the tangential equation of a given point. appears to have been first introduced which the author of the present Elebut the systeyn of Dr. or [1.'^ I = iijcf= y+ z. II. along which a point p moves. tial we are conducted to the following tangenof that conic. f(/. 46. 1). 21. the very simple formula Ix local equation. 1]. in the envelope. as follows : X = BiF = m + n. we can derive by diiferentiation the tangential coordinates. 1. point (0. may not only be considered (as in 37) as the local equation of a given right line A. m. f= of 46. n. rn = zi X. from which we could in turn deduce the (comp. m. and then. manner. 0. Booth in a Tract published in 1840. namely. of the this equation. (38). if this tangential equation were given. Booth was entirely . or a'.m^n) = mninl+lm 0. as connecting two sets of anharmonic coordinates. to be given. while the right line a"b"c". by eliminating 0. n=X+ y. See the reference in Salmon's Higher Plane Curves^ note to page 16.
in the same Art. the and then (suppressing the common numerical partial derivatives are / = x% m = y^. whence and it is allowed to write Z=a. 1. by the lines OA. n of every which passes gree. seen exemplified. agrees again with 57. or the point (1. although homogeneous. so that a form of the tangential equation for this conic + nr^ + w"^ = . with equal ease. page 172. . 0. Avhich evidently. 1). the point o of the same figure. ob. return. 58. that is. 7n. that form of the last Article when the curve is a parabola .27"^ + ^^ + jt^ = . /^ n=z'h\ is. To give an instance or two of the use of forms. [bOOK I. as point o. which. factor i). oc. are yet not rational and integral (56). may be represented by the analogous equation^ l+m + n = because the coordinates through this I. must satisfy this equation of the first de may be we may follows : write the local equation of the inscribed conic (46) as xh + yh + zl = 0. + m^+nh=0 a form of the tangential equation which. line. 59 » For the cubic curve with a conjugate point (54).* * Compare Salmon's Higher Plane Curves. . from these tangential to these local equations. 38. For the exwe may write the local equation thus. agrees with the first with the verification (48). n= .46 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. touched (50) by the line at infinity (38)."% lh also. represented in 38 by the equation x + y + z = Q. when cleared of radiAnd it is evident that we could cals. when cleared of fractions.' 2r. rn^y"^. the local equation may be thus written. when a~^ + h~^ + c^ = : it is scribed conic (53).
n= is z'l . from f{x. is of which the biquadratic form shows (by 56) that this cubic a curve of the fourth class. when it is also cleared o^fractions.] LOCAL AND TANGENTIAL EQUATIONS. z= n~i. ?/ = wrf. 60.2m' nr'  2n' t' . its we may therefore assume for tangential coordinates the expressions.21' m' . The this inflexional character (54) of the.CHAP. 0]. points a". by making we might re X= /f .2mnH . turn to the local equation. when it is cleared of radicals ^ = /2 + m2 + or. 2lrren = F = w}n^ + nH^ + Pm^ . in order to find the four tangents from a" =(0. or the side bc. y. (56). and a form of its tangential equation thus found to be. so that the line [1.ny. if this tangential form were given. considered as expressing that the homogeneous equa f{nx. has three equal roots .4lm^. 0. 1. as indeed it is known to be.8.lDzf= nDyf. 4. 4]. counts as three. The tangential equation just now found becomes. Conversely. and is therefore a tangent of inflexion : the fourth tangent from a" being the line [1. which is obtained by eliminating z with the help of the rela tion Ix + my{ nz= 0. which touches the cubic at the point (.mDzf= may be tion.. that when = 0. as before. the resulting biquadratic. the two equations 0. c" upon curve is we make m~n here recognised by the circumstance.2nPm  . nnjcf.z^ = 0. and which we may . 1). b". Q m^. w2 . 0. 1. I  x't^ m= ?/!. II. och 47 + yh + 2^ = 0.1) (36). H + mh + nh = 0. which would give x^ + i/^i. lxmy) = 0. In general. z) = 0.
48 denote by still ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.l)y]^ + 27n^xy(lx + my). to find the equation of the reciprocal of a given curve.* we shall obtain the tangential equation 1 F=0. further reduction is however possible in the present case. : Ix. Conversely. as in fact the general A. then ¥(xyz)—0^ &ndf(xi/z) = are equations of ttco reciprocal curves. and when this division is effected. page 98. tions by eliminating x y between two derived and quadratic equa. m. 1) in Z. which will be in general of the degree p(p: ) . thus appearing to is imply that the curve cubic is well known to be. when the function /has the cubic form we are thus led to investigate the condition for the existence of two equal roots in the cubic equation. n . /w.my). as of tivelfth it is the dimension in the tangential coordinates divisible /. and so. by the rejection of the foreign factor n:P^P^\ introduced by this elimination. if the function f be deduced from /as above.0. * Compare the method emjjloyed I in Salmon's Higher Plane Curves. n be the coordinates of a tangent to the curve /*. by eliminating the ratio x geneous equations. which introduces (comp. in the first instance. from a tangential to a local equation. example. = (a. As an assigned in 54. = 0. = y between the two derived homo= Dj/0. 57) the quadratic factor. with respect to the conic. but found to be by n^. y) y. = (l>{x. it is reduced to the sixth degree. such being generally the known class (56) of the curve of which the order (46) is denoted by p with (of course) a similar mode of passing. m. we shall in general be Dj. on account of the conjugate point o (54). y) =f{nx. if we seek by the usual methods the condition of equality of two roots x:y of the homogeneous equation of the p*^ degree. = wP^Pi) F (/. w. if /. y) == l(n :  I) X + (m .. an equality which obviously corresponds to the coincidence oftwo intersec tions of that line with that curve. . has two equal roots a. reciprocally. 61. x2 imaginary y8 I jZ = 0. and the result presents itself. m. n) . : [bOOK I. In general. conducted to a result of the dimension 2p(pand of the Jbrm. ny. {x. of the sixth class.
c do not «/Z vanish. b. is that we multiplied the biquadratic function f only by z\ and not by z^. = D^i//. to the consideration and comparison of vectors ofpoints in space^ CHAPTER III. corresponding geometric depression of a cubic curve with a But it is time double point. III. the three scalars a. "We are therefore thus brought hack (comp. each tangent being taken The reason why we have not here been obliged to reject alio the foreign factor. or are not contained in any common plane. the tangential equation found to be reduced to the biquadratic form* already assigned 59 .w)2 Qx + wz t/)2 + 2hn {I + m) / : + my) z + ^2^. as we see.] VECTORS OF POINTS IN SPACE. however. 2»2^ as by the general theory (60) we might have expected to be. {Ix = 1^ (?. (/ 49 + m + 71)^ = . to close this Section on Plane Curves . When the expression aa + b[5 + cy cannot become equal to zero. three given and actual vectors oa. 2). for the sake of symmetry. in to the known the algebraic division. where /has the same cubic form as in 64. last performed. namely. we obtain a biquadratic equation in m. that form f not contained in any one and then change nz * If we multiply = Z : (59) by z^. H . denote by the symbol dS is : where the new (actual) vector S. which we may. 22) 62. tolx. real tangents of inflexion to that curve. then (by 21. and if ni) =(l. it must therefore represent 50?we actual vector (1). and to proceed. is and when this factor also is set aside. with the /ac^or x^y'^z'^^ which corresponds to the sys tem of the three three times. — On Linear Equations between Vectors not Com" planar. APPLICATIONS OF VECTORS TO SPACE. we then eliminate m between the two derived cubics. and when «j jSj 7. oc.^222 . = x'^y'^z^fix. from the sixth to the fourth class. ob. y. 59) from the tangential to the local equation of the cubic curve (54) complicated. we are conducted to the following equation of the twelfth degree. . as in the next Chapter we propose to do. Section I.my.ni^. = D. or od.CHAP.
oc ' . if d be situated in the plane boc two other given planes through o. by planes drawn parallel to the three given planes. or with the value of vector ^.50 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. 6). may inquire (comp. d (which last letter is not it is And here used as a sition mark of differ entiatio'ii) have a = will vary with the its po of the point d. Or we may given lines. &c. b'. in order that the point d shall for the . &c. aob. c. boc. For . evident that this construction will apply to any fifth D point of space. OB . three coinitial edges of a parallelepiped. sum. or aa d ' _b^ d ' cy d are the vectors of the three points a'. and then shall have oa" = ob' + oc' = " bfi + cy . boc. if \kiQfour points oabc be still supposed to be and not complanar : but that some at least of the three given. db". 28. by project d on lines da". coa. ob. shall thus have a linear equation between four . [book I. at least. dc" parallel to the three (comp. unless some one. We vectors^ aa + b(5 + cy + dB = 0. we and similarly We these scalar 0. which will give ^ ~aa b3 cy or CD = OA + OB + oc where OA . c. example. od or ^. 63. into which the point D is projected^ on the three given lines oa. b.. 23). h. whereof the Fig. c'. of the three given coefficients «. ratios of the four scalars a. what relation between coefficients must exist. of the three given and distinct planes. so that they are the . is the internal and coinitial diagonal the three planes. vanishes and where the new scalar^ d^ is either greater or less than zero. and g = OD = oa' + oa" = ob' + OB = oc' + oc". oc.
at a finite or infinite distance. b. 51 .abc . d. must intersect each other in some point a' of the plane. of the form comparing which with the recent and more general form (62). which are drawn from any common origin o. in this case of com We planarity (comp. may be situated in the fourth given plane abc or what is the condition of complanarity oi the four points. oc. 18 may serve for illustration. oB. or — — +—= OB oc OA oa' ob' oc' + .cda dab . it is DA and BC. III. 28). they must (by 22) be connected by a linear equation. c. a. 7. more symmetrically. a +^fc + c?=0. therefore be said (comp.+ 7=* d 1. This equation may be d d written (comp. so that the four coinitial vectors a. where Fig. with attention : : to signs of areas.CHAP. Since the three vectors da. it expresses a known geometrical property of a plane abcd. complanar. under this last form. and terminate upon the plane. 64. And there i no difificulty in perceiving. 1.d = i)Bc: dca : dab abc : . and. we see that the required condition is. the following proportion of coefficients and areas : a:b or. When we have thus at once the tioo equations. have also. and may be terminocomplanar. if we conceive o in that Figure to be replaced by d. that the vectors of the three . dc are now supposed to be. db.] VECTORS OF POINTS IN SPACE. 24) to evident that the tivo right lines. aa + b(5 + cy + dd = 0t and /3. a +b+c+ d=0. which connect two pairs oi the four complanar points. : aibic: d = bcd . on the plan of 31. again 23) as ^ c a b — 3. referred to three coordinate axes OA. S terminate (as above) on one common plane.+3. : c :.
j3. For. (2a + 6 + c)o"'. : ploy those processes of scalar elimination. = 0. (a" + ta)a + t (5" tb')f5 + (c" + tc)y + (d" + td')S = 0. and determine by the t condition. aa + 6/3 + cy = 0. a" + &c. = 0. S. which thus result.aa = . and will the two equaarticle will tions written at the commencement of the present and conduct to the expressions for the three vectors of intersection which above. b'. which were treated of in the foregoing Chapter. these last results hold good point D. A. As an Example. without its being necessari/ to em then both be satisfied. assigned vectors may thus be found. or ihe^ve even the^wr 31).. 33). coefficients. let the two given equations be (comp. c. [book I. between the yet if we form from + these another linear equation. B. or make 8 0.52 points a'. c' : ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. and which accordingly coincide with the cor responding expressions in 27. then exist tivo linear equations between those four vectors. y. aa + b3 — Cy + dd — a+b c + d expressions which are independent of the position of the arbitrary origin o. = y ' . when we place that origin in the = Indeed. (comp. a a + h^ + + d'^ = a' a"a + 6"j3 + cy f d"^ = 0. are the fol lowing for a' = bc*da. although there points o. without the relations. = a" + b"+c"+d" ' \ a +b' + c d' we shall only have to make a=a" + ta\ &c. when vectors a. + &c. b\c a^ d bj3 for b'= /3' cy + aa c + a + d^ b + d 1 for c'= ab'DC. 0. 27. of the form. are all complanar. D. . of intersection. ca'db. which may in general c'y be written thus.
EB + C. d. Hence = {aa + 6j3 + cy + d^) (« + 6 + c + ^. eg. £ a+ b + c+ d+ e = 0. c. the line A a'" intersects bc in and although the two other points of intersection here considered. of lines bc. relation. which we shall denote by . 21. 1. (2o + 6 + c) . /3. yet their anharmonie symbols (36). Fonning the combination.ED = 0. aa+bfi + cy + dd + ea = 0. and which do not terminate upon one plane. 6/3 (2a + and determining t b + c)a"' . B. in Fig. whereof wo ^wr are terminocomplanar (64). b.] VECTORS OF POINTS IN SPACE. where the^wr scalar s. Then the/owr coinitial vectors^ ea. ca'". 1) and (2. any such face prolonged and let Qo. ED.a + <(a + 6 + c) = 0.. whereof (by supposition) no three are complanar.£. and their sum. by Accordingly. S. must be (by 62) connected by some equation of the form. aa'" CA. d. if we denote by . with the a. e. Under these conditions. §1 and 0Di = the vector of the point Di in which the right line de intersects the plane abc. ba'" and by combining z = 0. if Di we write §i. a. a. 0).e. = a'.EA + 5. case. eb. (2.aa + t{aa + + cy) = 0. nor on given pyramid abcd. the point a' might have been otherwise found by combining the equations y = and x=2z for the two lines ca. and ab.CHAP. a: = 2y for the remaining pair of lines. we shall have that is. we may establish the following linear equation between five coinitial vectors. c.nj on of not situated point any one oi the four faces of the space. 7. by the condition. which gives f =— 1. its vector oe = e. also. nt. ba'" . : ^^. are all different from zero. we have 6/3 for the three sought vectors the expressions. because EA = a . which belong to what has been called (in 34) a Third Construction^ are not marked in that Figure. = DE'ABC. 0. c+2a 2a +h whereof the first . between the five scalars whereof no one now separately vanishes. Z>. e. let e be any ffih given a. 53 be required to determine the vectors of the intersections of the three pairs . &c. and let it III. c. &c. namely. In the more general . . D.EO + C?. pla7ie. + cy cy ' + 2aa ' 'jaa + 6/3 ' 6 +c 27. when i\iQ four given points in common are not A. Hence.
the same collineation gives EDi DDi = EABC : : DABC .a(ag0 + ^(i3^i) + c(7S0 = 0. the arrangement of the points. I. . in virtue of the given equations. the intersection of this line with that plane. and which have one common vertex. &c.EDiBC = DEBC.) = 0. I".) + e(e^. .b. by IP. . T. DEBC + DECA + DEAB + EABC = DABC. tion. its extremity Dj must therefore be.. For the three complanar substitute we may first proporwhich three volumes. . common these two expressions are equivalent. . We have therefore the two equations. this other aib:c = DEBC deca deab. : : Again. .54 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. pyramidal any has the opposite sign). and . 29. .. . or represent one vector. in the annexed Fig.. . ^ ^1 [bOOK I. and when therefore the remaining coefficient e is negative (or 67. wc may write proportion. triangles. and the second shows (by 25) that it terminates on the line DE . answering to the case where all the four coefficients a. . such as D or e and because the collineation .d(^S. a:b:c= DiBC DiCa DiAB d:e= EDii DiD : : . but the first shows (by 63) that this vector ^1 terminates on the plane abc. . DEDi gives DDiBC .d ^^* ' are positive (or have one common si^n). the proportion. we have But therefore. as required. ir..c. = aa + bj5 7 + cy dS + = 3 ee . In fact. 11". in the rest upon those triangles as their bases. wlience (by 28 and 24) follow the two proportions. dl e = EABC DABC. II. .
which has already been adopted by some modern geometers. : the ratios of all these five pyramids to each other being considered as positive. DABC = . generally. between coefficients and volumes . ABCD. therefore establish the following fuller formula of : proportion. the sum of these five pyramids being always equal to zero. a .CHAP. ang one of its vertices crosses the corresponding base. a:b:c:d:e = bode : odea: deab eabc : : abcd . 28) namely when. . have similar or opposite directions. With this convention* we shall have. and which indeed is necessary (comp. III. gave the proportion of segments. whatever might be the position of the origin o. a:b:c:d: e = DEBC deca: deab eabc dabc. one is that any two pyramids. sign^ or rather that it changes its algebraical character. may therefore be expressed in the following more symmetric. in the course of any continuous . when signs (as above) are attended to. aa + + c^ = 0.ADBC = ABDC = . «+6+c= 0. 5 : c= Bc CA : : ab.] VECTORS OF POINTS IN SPACE. may however be regarded as perfectly general. and with a given arrangement of points. the proportion III. change. in comparison with a give?i pyramid. We saw (in 24) that the 5/3 two equations. if we agree to say that pyramidal volume changes 68. . 28) for the estabUshment of general formula:. according as the two supposed to be seen respectively from the points A and a'. 2>. as righthanded or lefthanded. in passing through zero (comp. * Among the consequences of this convention respecting signs of volumes. 69. DECA = CDEA . . The formula III.ABCD. In like manner we saw (in 63) that the two other equations. a'b'c'd'. each other a positive or a negative ratio. BCD and b'c'd'. bear to rotations. . as po^ sitive or negative. DEBC = BODE. a\ 55 b + ci d = e. we may HI. but equally general form : Iir. for the particular arrangement of the points which is represented in the recent figure. : .
.BCDE + OB. . and subtractions are supposed to be performed according to the rules of vectors.. but employed here with . or volumes. : OA. D are any four complanar points . OA.* . by omitting the symbol of the arbitrary origin o and by thus writing. and for any five points of space. an entirely arbitrary remembered. • We should thus have some of the notations of the Bart/centric Calculus (see different interpretations. Note B). for any four complanar points. is. while retaining the meaning of these formulas.. CAB = 0. b. gave the proportion of areas. a+b+c + d=0.CDEA+ OC. a. which the equations while o in each of the three formulas. aa + bj5 \^ cy + d^ + ee = 0. that the additions point. It must.CA + . or areas. with an equally arbitrary origin. e are any five points of space . a:b:c:d= bcd . and in III.BC + OB. b[5 [bOOK I.CA+ OC.DEAB + OD EABC+ OE ABCD = . a. areas. being treated as coefficients of those vectors. we may establish the three general formulcB I.CDAf OC. c are a72i/ three collinear points . (in 68) a corresponding proportion analogous equations (65). c. where in II. however. And we have just deduced from the two of volumes. B. and volumes to be replaced by the scalars to which they are thus proportional. . be .cda dab . where again the origin is arbitrary. c.. A. r. and Iir. OA. in I. b. .BCD OB.BC + B.DAB OD. for A. We might still further abridge the notations. + Cy+dS=0. as stated in the First Chapter of the present Book the segments. indicate. a+b+ c+d+e=0.abc : : : . If then we conceive these segments..ABC = III.AB = II. any three collinear points with corresponding formulae II'.56 aa + ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. d.
z'. w'. 3/'. 71. x'a PA + y'b PB + z'c PC + w'd pd = 0. y'. the position of p . y. which may be written thus.0P=/> = of the xaa + vhQ + zc^ + wdh + vee . where i and v are two new and arbitrary scalars. v). w'. v\ to express that these two quinary symbols. z. also v'). have yet the sam^ geometrical signification. there necessarily exists (comp. . z. . v) . the vector p of any point P of space may. ^6 being still supposed to hold good. y. z\ w'. we are conducted to the form for /?. v') E {x. z'. de In fact. shall reserve the symbolic equatiott. be expressed (comp. . denoted by the Quinary Symbol {x. But we symbol. ?. _. v') I = {x.z' ~v'\w' v' = xv:yv:zv:w V.— On Quinary Symbols for Points and Planes in Space. the point p may be ..] QUINARY SYMBOLS FOR POINTS IN SPACE. writing. and we may write = {x. 65) a determined linear relation between the four vectors drawn to them from the point . in indefinitely many ways. be denoted by this other provided that the followbetween ing . we shall therefore write the following /ormw/a of congruence.CHAP. although not identical in composition. z^ w. _ x'aa + y'b^ + x'a + y'b\in z'cf^ + w'dh * z'g + w'd which the ratios of the/owr scalars x'y'z'w\ depend upon. III. ^4 the^ve in which the ratios differences of coefficients^ xyzwv. the equation^ p y. and remembering that aa + + 66 = 0. When the vector p is thus expressed. see that the same point p may (a. z. . y.'. x = tx' ^v. yty'vv^ V. assigned above. r). or denote one common point. because the four points termine the position of the point. . and « + + e = (65). And we {x'. The equations I. 57 Section 2. giving the expression. y.?ropor<iow differences of coefficients (70) holds good: x' v' :y' v^'. . kind. ABCD are not in any common plane. and z = tz' + ty conversely determine. 36) under the form: 70. = tw' + v. then. . w. w. of Art. oHhe same Under this condition. {x'. w. e .
58
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
.
. .
[bOOK
I.
to express that the Jive
separately
»'
equal to
v'
v\ of the one symbol, are coefficients, x' the corresponding coefficients of the other,
=
ar,
.
.
= V.
72. Writing also, generally,
(te, ty, tz, tw, tv)
(x'
+ re,
.
.
= t(x, y, z, w, v), = v' + v) {x\ v), &c., r') + (a;,
. . .
.
and abridging the particular symbol*
(Q),
(1, 1, 1, 1, 1) to
{U\
(a?,
while
. .
(Q0»
.
.
•
{x\
v')j
. .
"^^y briefly denote the quinary symbols we may thus establish the congruence (71),
•
v),
in
which
(0,
and u are arbitrary = 0,0, 0, 1) (1,1, 1,1,0),
t
coefficients.
For example,
1)E(1,
1, 1,
and
(0, 0, 0, 1,
0,0);
each symbol of the first pair denoting (65) the given point E; and each symbol of the second pair denoting (66) the derived point Dj.
When
may
the coefficients are so simple as in these last expressions, we occasionally omit the commas, and thus write, still more briefly,
(00001)
E (11 110);
,
(00011)
E
(11100).
/>, p' p'\ expressed each under the first be terminocoUinear form (70), (24) and if we denote their denomimust then (23) be x"a + tors, xa + ^ xa + , by m, m, m", they connected by a linear equation, with a null sum of coefficients, which
73. If three vectors,
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
may be
written thus
:
tmp +
t'm'p'
+ t'^m"p" =
;
tm + t'm' + t"m" +
0.
We have,
t
therefore, the two equations of condition,
.
. . . . .
{xaa +
+ vee) + V {x'aa + + v'ee) + V {x"aa + + v"e^ = t{xa^. + ve) + V [x'a ^ .\v'e)\ t" {x"a + + v^'e) =
. .
;
.
.
;
where
t,
V, i" are three
new
scalar s, while the five vectors a
.
.
e,
and
the five scalars a..e, are subject only to the two equations (65): but these equations of condition are satisfied by supposing that
tx
+ Vx' + V'x" =
.
.
= ^i? + t'v* + t"v" = u,
where u is some new scalar, and they cannot be satisfied otherwise. Hence the condition of collinearity of the three points p, p', p", in which the three vectors p, p', p" terminate, and of which the quinary symbols are (Q), (Q'),
equation,
* This quinary symbol
( {/) denotes
{Q>"),
may
briefly be expressed
by the
no determined point, since
it
corresponds
r/by 70, 71) to the indeterminate vector p
;h other quinar}'
=
;
but
it
admits of useful combinations
symbols, as above.
CHAP.
III.]
QUINARY SYMBOLS OF PLANES.
59
so that if any four scalars,
last symbolic equation,
t^
t\ t'\ u,
can he found^ which
satisfy this
then, but not in any other case, those three For example, the three points vv'v" are ranged on one right line. points D, E, Di, which are denoted (72) by the quinary symbols,
(00010), (00001), (11100), And three symbols is ( U).
SLve collinear ;
because the sum of these
if
we have
the equation,
(Q'0 = «(Q) + <'(QO + ^(^),
where
p'',
<,
f,
on
the right line pp'.
u are any three scalars^ then {Q!') is a symbol for a point For example, the symbol (0, 0, 0, t^ t') may
the line de.
denote any point on
74.
(Q)
in
By reasonings precisely similar it may be proved, that if (QO CQ'O (Q^'O be quinary symbols for a.ny four points pp^p^^p'^/
so that the four vectors pp'p^p'" are terminoan then complanar (64), equation, of the form
any common plane,
t{Q)^t'{a')^t"{Q")+t"'{Q:'^) = u{U), must hold good; and conversely, that \i the fourth symbol can be
expressed as follows,
{Q'") =
t{a)U\Q')vt^'{Q')^u{U\
if,
with any scalar values of
ated in the plane
points,
(1 0000),
t',
t", u,
ppV
of the other three.
then the fourth point v'" is situFor example, the four
(00100), (11100),
{t,
(01000),
or A, B, c, Di {^^^^ are complanar; and the symbol
t\ t", 0, 0)
may represent any point
75.
in the plane abc.
is thus complanar with three given points, therefore expressions of the following forms, for the five coefficients x, ..v of its quinary symbol, in terms of the^teen given coefficients of their symbols, and olfour new and arbitrary
Po, Pi, P2>
When
a point p
we have
scalars
:
X
t^XQ
+
t^Xy
+ Uj)C2 + w
;
.
.
.
v= toVo + tiVi + tzV.^ + u.
<o
•
And hence, by
elimination of these four scalars,
•
">
we
are con
ducted to a linear equation of the form
= l(xv) + m{yv) + n (z v) + r{wv)
which may be
called the
0,
P0P1P2,
Quinary Equation of
the
Plane
or of
the supposed locus of the point p: because it expresses a common property of all the points of that locus; and because the three ratios of the four new coefficients ly m, w, r, determine the position of the plaiie
60
in space.
It
is,
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
I.
however, more symmetrical, to write the quinary
equation of a plane
n
as follows,
Ix +
my + nz + rw + sv = 0,
connected with the others by the rela
where the fifth
tion,
coefficient^ s, is
l
+ m\n + r+s=^0;
and then we may say that [/, m, n, r, 5] is (comp. 37) the Quinary Symbol of the Plane 11, and may write the equation^
n=
For example, the
[_l,
m,
n, r, 5].
coefficients of the
symbol
:
for a point
p in the plane
v=m;
ABC may be thus expressed (comp. 74) z = t^ + a? = fo + «, y = ti + u,
u,
wu,
between which the only relation, independent of the four arbitrary scalars to.,u, is wv=zO', this therefore is the equation of the plane ABC, and the symbol of that plane is [0, 0, 0, 1,1]; which may
(comp. 72) be sometimes written more briefly, without commas, as [000 11]. It is evident that, in any such symbol, the coefficients may
all
be multiplied by any common factor,
76.
The symbol of the plane
intersected
we may next
plane
a;
.
.
PqPiPz having been thus determined, propose to find a symbol for the pointy P, in which that
is
by a given
line P3P4:
or to determine the
coefficients
or at least the ratios of their differences (70), in the quinary symbol of that point,
v,
(x, y, z,
w,
i;)
= p = PoPiP,P3P4.
Combining, for this purpose, the expressions, X = t^X^ + tiXi + U^, V= f^Vs + t^v^ +
. .
u'f
(which are included in the symbolical equation (73),
coUinearity PP3P4,) with the equations (75),
^a;
and express the
+ ..+5V=0,
^+.. +
5
= 0,
are conducted to the
(which express the complanarity PP0P1P2,)
formula,
<3
we
.
{IX^
+
.
.
+
SVs)
:
+
<4
{Ix^
4
.
+ sv^ =
;
which determines the ratio t^ t^, and contains the solution of the problem. For example, if p be a point on the line de, then (comp.
73),
CHAP.
but
III.]
QUINARY TYPES OF POINTS AND PLANES.
the
61
(75),
if it
therefore
be also a point in ^3^ = 0; hence
plane abc, then
ivv^O
and
(Q) = ^3(00011)+«'(lllll), or (Q)E(OOOll); which last symbol had accordingly been found (72) to represent the
intersection (fiQ), Di
= abc de.
•
any
.
77. When the five coefficients, xyzwv, of any given quinary are symbol (Q) for a point p, or those of any congruent symbol (71), whole numbers (positive or negative, or zero), we shall say
to the Jive given pointsj (comp. 42) that the point p is rationally related A E; or briefly, that it is a Rational Point of the System, which And in like manner, when the five those five points determine.
.
quinary symbol (75) of a plane 11 are either to or integers, we shall say that the plane is a Raproportional equal tional Plane of the same System; or that it is rationally related to the same five points. On the contrary, when the quinary symbol of a
coefficients, Imnrs, of the
point, or of a plane, has not thus already whole coefficients, and cannot be transformed (comp. 72) so as to have them, we shall say that
the point or plane is irrationally related to the given points; or it is irrational. right line which connects two rational briefly, that
A
points, or
the intersection of two rational planes, may be called, on the same plan, a Rational Line ; and lines which cannot in either
is
of these two
Irrational Lines.
ways be constructed, may be said by contrast to be It is evident from the nature of the eliminations employed (comp. again 42), that a plane, which is determined as containing three rational points, is necessarily a rational plane; and in like manner, that a point, which is determined as the common intersection
of three rational planes, is always a rational point : as is also every point which is obtained by the intersection of a rational line with a rational plane ; or oi tivo rational lines with each other (when
they happen to be complanar). 78. Finally, when two points, or two planes, differ only by the arrangement (or order) of the coefficients in their quinary symbols, those
points or planes to be syntypical.
may
be said to have one common type; or briefly For example, Xhefive given points, a, e, are thus
. .
.
syntypical, as being represented
;
by the quinary symbols (10000), and the ten planes, obtained by taking all the (00001) ternary combinations of those five points, have in like manner one common
.
type.
Thus, the quinary symbol of the plane abc has been seen
(75) to be [OOOlT]; and the analogous symbol [iToOO] represents the plane cde, &c. Other examples will present themselves, in a
62
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
I.
it
But shortly subsequent Section, on the subject of Nets in Space. seems proper to say here a few words, respecting those Anhar
monic Coordinates, Equations^ Symbols, and Types, for Space, which are obtained from the theory and expressions of the present Section, by reducing (as we are allowed to do) the number of the coefficients,
in each
symbol or equation, ivovafioe
3.
to four.
Section
79.
— On Anharmonic Coordinates
in Space.
When we
we may)
space:
that the fifth
adopt the second form (70) for />, or suppose (as we get this coefficient in the ^r5^ form vanishes,
other general expression (comp. 34, 36), for the vector
of a point
in
ov = p=
xaa + yh3 + zc^ + wdb ^^ —J—', xa + yo+zc + wd
and may then write the symbolic equation (comp. 36, 71),
7^{x,y,z, w),
and
we
the Quaternary Symbol of the Point p: although shall soon see cause for calling it also the Anharmonic Symbol of
call this last
that point.
Meanwhile we may remark, that the only congruent symbols (71), of this lastform^ are those which differ merely by the introduction of 2i common factor : the three ratios of the /owr coefficients,
the point;
X .w, being all required, in order to determine the position of whereof those four coefficients may accordingly be said (comp. 36) to be the Anharmonic Coordiriates in Space.
.
80.
When we
p,
IT,
.
thus suppose that v = Q, in the quinary symbol of
the fifth term sv, in
;
the point
of a plane
we may suppress
lx+ .+sv =
the quinary equation
also (as
(75)
and therefore may suppress
here unnecessary) the fifth coefficient, s, in the quinary symbol of that plane, which is thus reduced to the quaternary form,
n = p,
This last
m,
n,
r~\.
may
the Plane, of
hethe Anliar'inomc Symbol of which the Anharmonic Equation is Lc + my + nz + riy =
also be said (37, 79), to
;
the /owr
coefficients,
Imnr, which we
shall call also (comp. again 37)
the Anharmonic Coordinates of that Plane n, being not connected
themselves by any general relation (such as /+ + 5 = 0): since their three ratios (comp. 79) are all in general necessary, in order to
among
.
.
determine the position of the plane in space.
81. If
we suppose
that the fourth
coefficient,
w, also vanishes, in
CHAP.
III.]
ANHAHMONIC COORDINATES
IN SPACE.
63
the recent symbol of a point, thsit point P
is in theplane abc ; and maythen be sufficiently represented (as in 36) by the Ternary Symbol And if we attend only to the points in which an arbitrary {x, y, z).
plane
the given plane abc, we may suppress its fourth cobeing for sucli points unnecessary. In this manner, then, we are reconducted to the equation^ Ix+my + nz= 0, and to the = [^, m, w], for a right line {37) in the plane abc, consideied symbol, A here as the ti^ace, on that plane, of an arbitrary plane H in space. If
intersects
efficienty r,
H
as
this plane 11 be given
by
its
quinary symbol (75),
we thus
obtain
last
the ternary symbol for coefficients, r and s.
82. In the
to the plane
if
its trace
A, by simply suppressing the two
more general
abc,
case, when the point p is not confined we denote (comp. 72) its quaternary symbol by
(Q), the lately established formulae of collineation and complanarity (73, 74) will still hold good: provided that we now suppress the
symbol
(
U), or suppose
its coefficient to
be
zero.
Thus, the formula,
(Q)=«'(QO+«''(a'o+^'''(Qn
expresses that the point p is in the plane p'p'^p^'^ ; and if the coefficient vanish, the equation which then remains, namely,
f
thus complanar with the two given points v', v", and with an arbitrary third point; or, in other words, that it is on the right line v'v"', whence (comp. 76) problems of intersections of lines with planes can easily be resolved. In like manner, if we designifies that p is
note briefly by [i2] the quaternary symbol n, the formula
expresses that the plane
planes,
Ti',
\l,
m, n, r] for a plane
n
II",
W"
;
and
if
passes through the intersection of the three we suppose t"^ = 0, so that
the formula thus found denotes that the plane II passes through the point of intersection of the two planes, 11', 11^'', with any third
plane; or (comp. 41), that this plane 11 contains the line of intersection of n', n'' ; in which case the three planes, 11, 11', 11'', may be
said to be collinear.
sions,
I.
.
Hence
+
it
appears that either of the two expresII.
. .
.t'{ QO
as a
1" ( Q"),
t'
[7^']
+
V' [i?"],
may be used
Symbol of a Right Line
in
consider that line
A
either,
1st,
as connecting
Space : according as we two giien poirits, or
64
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
I.
Ilnd, as being the intersection of two given planes. The remarks (77) on rational and irrational points, planes, and lines require no modification here; and those on t^pes (78) adapt themselves as easily to
quaternary as to quinary symbols.
83.
From
it
planarity, sects the plane cdp through
the foregoing general formulse of collineation and comfollows that the point p^ in which the line ab inter
CD and any proposed point p = (xyzw)
: •
of space,
may
be denoted thus
p'
for example, e
=
(1
1 1
1),
= AB CDP = {xyOO) and c' = ab cde =
•
;
(1 100).
In general,
if
ABCDEF be any six points of space, the four collinear planes (82), abc, abd, ABE, ABF, are said to form o, pencil through ab; and if this be cut by any rectilinear transversal, in four points, c, D, e, f, then
called also the
(comp. 3o) the anharmonic function of this group of points (25) is Anharmonic of the Pencil of Planes: which may be
thus denoted,
(ab cdef) =
.
(c'd'e f').
Hence (comp. again 25, 35), by what has just been shown ing c' and p', we may establish the important formula: X (cd aebp) = (ac'bpO = .
respect
;
so that this ratio of coefficients, in the
symbol (xyzw)
for a variable
point p (79), represents the anharmonic of a pencil of planes, of which the variable plane cdp is one; the three other planes of this pencil
being given.
In like manner,
(ad becp) = , ^
.
and
z
(bd ceap) =  ; X
.
so that (comp. 36) the product of these three last anharmonics is
unity.
On
.
the same plan
we have
.
also,
1J
=— (bC AEDP) ^ ^
X
W
,
(CA BEDP) = — ,
W
(aB
.
CEDP)
=
z
W
;
so that the three ratios, of the three first coefficients xyz to the fourth coefficient w, suffice to determine the three planes, bcp, cap, ABP, whereof the ^om^ p is the common intersection, by means of the
anharmonics of three pencils of planes, to which the three planes reAnd thus we see a motive (besides that of analogy spectively belong.
to expressions already used iov points in a given plane), for calling t\iQ four coefficients, xyzw, in the quaternary symbol (79) for point in
21.
space, the
Anharmonic Coordinates of that Point.
Pq,
. .
84. In general, if there be any four collinear points,
P3,
so
CHAP.
III.]
ANHARMONIC COORDINATES
IN SPACE.
65
that (comp. 82) their symbols are connected hy two linear equations, such as the following,
= (Qa) t'{Qo) + w'(QO, (Qi) KQo) + u{Q^), then the anharmonic of their group may be expressed (comp. 25, 44)
as follows:
(PoPi>2P3)
=
=
ut'
,;
—
as appears
AB
(83).
And
[i?i]
by considering the pencil (cd PoPiPsPs), and the transversal in like manner, if we have (comp. again 82) the two
. . .
other symbolic equations, connecting four collinear planes Hq
n^,
= <[i?o] + w[i?J.
= [^3] «'[i?o] + t*li?J,
is
the anharmonic of their pencil (83)
similar formula,
expressed by the precisely
(n„n,n,n3)
as
=
;
may be proved by supposing
the pencil to be cut by the same
transversal line ab.
85. It follows that if f{xyzw) dindfi{xyzw) be
any two homo
geneous and linear functions of
collinear planes IIo
.
.
re,
y, z,
w; and
if
we determine four
Xlg (82),
/=0,
by the four equations, /, = 0, A = kf, f=f,
:
where k is any scalar; we shall have the following value of the anharmonic function, of the pencil of planes thus determined
(nonin2n3)
= ^' =
is
4
important in the application
Hence we derive
this Theorem,
which
of the present system of coordinates to space:
—
" The Quotient of any two given homogeneous and linear Functions, the anharmonic Coordinates (79) of a variable Point p in space, may of
be expressed as the
Anharmonic (rioninalls) of a Pencil of Planes ;
while the fourth passes through the variable
whereof
point
p,
three are given,
and through a given right line
A
which
is
common
to the three
former planes.''^
86.
And
Theorem:
—
in like
manner may be proved
this other
but analogous
" The Quotient of any two given homogeneous and linear Functions, of the anharmonic Coordinates (80) of a variable Plane n, may be expressed as the Anharmonic (P0P1P2P3) of a Group of Points; whereof
three are given
and
collinear,
of their
common and
and the fourth is the intersection, given right line A, with the variable plane
A
'
fl,
IT."
K
^Q
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
I.
if
F
More fully, if the two given functions of Imnr be f and f,, and we determine three points P0P1P2 by the equations (comp. 57) = 0, Fi = F, Fi = 0, and denote by P3 the intersection of their comline
mon
A
with n, we shall have the quotient,
^
For example,
if
=
(PoPiP.,P3).
we suppose
b'2
that
A2=(I001),
A'2
B2=(010l),
C2=(0011),
c'2
= (1001),
= (010T),
and
=
(001T),
so that
(da2Aa'2)= 1, &c., n to r, in the symbol IT = Z, m, \^lmnr'], may be expressed (comp. 39) under the form of anharmonics of
&c.,
A2 = DA*BCE,
we
find that the three ratios of
groups, as follows:
=
where
q, r, s
(DA'gAQ)
;
=
(DB^gBR)
;
 =
(cCgCS)
;
given right lines, da, db, dc.
denote the intersections of the plane n with the three And thus v/e have a 7notive (comp.
lines in
83) besides that of analogy to
(as above)
a given plane (37), for calling
for
ihe/bur coefficients Z, m, ?i, r, in the quaternary symbol (80) & plane n, the Anharmonic Coordinates of that Plane in Space.
87. It may be added, that if we denote by l, m, n the points in which the same plane 11 is cut by the three given lines bc, ca, ab, and retain the notations k'\ "b", c^' for those other points on the same
three lines which were so
marked before
B^^
(in 31, &c.), so that
we may
now
write (comp. 36) A^' (0110),
= (T010),
c'^=:
(llOO),
39, 83) these three other anharmonics of groups, with their product equal to unity:
we shall have (comp.
— = (ca'^bl)
n
;
=
I
(ab'^cm)
;
— = (bo'^an)
on
;
and ihQsix given points, A.", b'\ &\ A'2, b'o, c'g, are all in one given plane the equation and symbol are: [e], of which = = 0', x\y + z + w [e] [11111].
The
six groups of points, of
which the anharmonic functions thus
represent the six ratios of the four anharmonic coordinates, Imnr, of a variable plane 11, are therefore situated on the six edges of the
given pyramid, adcd
;
tivo
points in each group being cornei^s of that
CHAP.
III.]
GEOMETRICAL NETS
IN SPACE.
67
intersections of the edge with pyramid, and the two others being the and n. the tivo planes, [e] Finally, the plane [e] is (in a known modern sense) the plane of homology,"^" and the point e is the centre
of homology^ of the given pyramid abcd, and of an inscribed pyramid
A,BA^b where
Ai
Ai
fication {QQ, 76),
= ea'BCD, &c.; so that Di retains its recent and we may write the anharmonic symbols,
Bi
signi
= (OIll),
if
= (1011),
Ci:(1101),
Di
= (IllO).
the harmonic conjugates to these last points, with respect to the lines ea, eb, eg, ed, so that
And
we denote by a!{b!xQ'xT>\
(eaiAA'i)
=
.
.
= (ed,dd'i) = 
1
,
we have
the corresponding symbols,
A^=(2111),
B^ = (1211),
c'i
= (1121)
d^ = (1112).
Many other relations of position exist, between these various points, lines, and planes, of which some will come naturally to be noticed, in that theory of nets in space to which in the following Section we
shall proceed.
Section
88.
4.
— On Geometrical Nets
in Space.
When we
have
(as in Q5>) five given points
a
.
.
e,
whereof no
four are complanar, we can connect any two of them by a right line^ and the three others by a plane, and determine the point in which these last intersect one another: deriving thijs a system oHen lines Aj,
ten planes IIi,
Po,
and
ten points Px,
from the given system o^ five points
by what may be
called (comp, 34) a First Construction.
We may
next propose to determine all the new and distinct lines, Ag, and planes, 112, which connect the ten derived points p^ with the five given points Pq, and with each other; and may then inquire what
new and
ivith
distinct points P3 arise (at this stage) as intersections of lines
planes, or of lines in one plane with each other : all such
new lines,
planes,
and points being said (comp. again 34) to belong to a Second And then we might proceed to a Third Construction Construction. of the same kind, and so on for ever building up thus what has
:
been calledf a Geometrical Net in Space.
trical process
To
express this
geome
(71, 75, 82) appoints, planes, and lines, and by quinary types (78), so far at least as to the end of the second construction, will be found to be an useful exercise in the
by quinary symbols
* See Poncelet's Traite des Propritte's Projectives (Paris, 1822).
t By Mobius,
ia p.
291 of his already
cited Barycentric Calculus.
68
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
:
[BOOK
I.
the subject of the present Book. And the quinary form will here be more convenient than the quaternary, because it will exhibit more clearly the geomeis
application of principles lately established mately in that Method of Vectors, which
and therefore
ulti
dependence of the derived points and planes on the five given points, and will thereby enable us, through a principle of symmetry,
trical
to reduce the
number of distinct
types.
89.
Of the
five given points, Pq, the quinary type has
been seen
(78) to be (10000); while of the ten derived points p,, of first construction, the corresponding type may be taken as (00011); in fact,
considered as symbols, these two represent the points a and d^. The nine other points Pi are AVc'AiBiCiAoBaCz ; and we have now (comp.
83, 87, 86) the symbols,
A'= BC ADE = (01 100),
•
Ai = EA BCD = (10001), = = DA •BCE A2 (10010);
•
also, in
any symbol or equation of the present form,
a, b, c to b, c, a,
first,
it is
permitted
to
change
provided that
•
we at the same time write
the places of the
&c.
first,
the third,
and second
coej6&cients, in
second, and third: thus, b'
= ca bde = (lOlOO),
The symbol
(xyOOO) represents an arbitrary point on the line ab; and the symbol [OOwrs], with 71 + r + 5 = 0, represents an arbitrary plane through that line : each therefore may be regarded (comp. 82) as a symbol also
of the
line
ab
itself,
and
at the
same time
as a type of the ten lines
A^; while the symbol [000 ll], of the plane abc (75),
(78) as a type of the ten planes
IIi.
may betaken
Finally, the five pyramids^
BCDE,
CADE,
ABDE,
ABCE,
ABCD,
and the
such as abc, whereof each is a common face of two such pyramids, may be called pyramids Bi, and triangles Ti, of
ten triangles,
the First Construction.
90. Proceeding to a Second Construction (88), we soon find that may be arranged in two distinct groups; one group con1,
the lines A3
sisting of fifteen lines A2,
nects two points Pj,
section of
such as the line* aa'd^, whereof each con

and passes
IIi
also through one point Pq, being the inter;
two planes
through that point, as here of abc, ade
thirty lines A2,
2,
while the other group consists of
such as
b'c',
Po,
each
connecting two points Pi, but not passing through any point being one of the thirty edges of five new pyramids R^, namely,
C'b'AzAi,
*
and
A'c'B^Bi,
BVC2C1,
A2B2C2D1,
AiBiCiDj:
AB1C3, ABoCi, DAAi, ea'aj. are other lines of this group.
CHAP.
111.]
GEOMETRICAL NETS
IN SPACE.
69
•which pyramids R^ may be said (comp. 87) to be inscribed homothe centres of homology for these logues of the five former pyramids i?i,
five pairs
ofpyramids being the five given points A
five planes
.
.
e ; and
last
t\iQ planes
of homology being
[a]., [e],
whereof the
has been
a third conalready mentioned (87), but which belong properly to struction (88). The planes ITj, oi second construction, form in like
o^ fifteen planes Ila, i, such as the plane of the five points^ AB1B2C1C2, whereof each passes through one point Po, and ihioM^ four points Pi, and contains two lines Ag,!, as
manner two groups; one consisting
here the lines AB1C2, ACiBg, besides containing /owr lines A2,2, as here BiB^, &c. ; while the other group is composed of twenty planes Ti.^,2i such as AiBiCi, namely, the twenty faces of the five recent pyramids i?2»
whereof each contains
three points Pi,
Pq.
and
three lines A2,2,
but does
not pass through any point
It is
now required
to express these
geometrical conceptions* of the fortyfive lines A2; the thirty five planes lis; and the five planes of homology of pyramids, [a] [e], by qui.
.
.
nary symbols and
types,
before proceeding to determine the points Pg
of second construction.
91. An arbitrary joozrz^ on the right line aa'Di (90) may be represented by the symbol (ifwwOO); and an arbitrary ji?Za/ze through that line by this other symbol, [OwTwrr], where m and r are written
(to save
commas) instead
ofwandr;
hence these two symbols
(comp. 82) denote the line aa'Di itself, and may be used as types (78) to represent the group of lines Ag, j. The particular sym
may
also
bol [01111], of the last form, through the lastmentioned line,
of the
112,1.
which contains
represents that particular plane also the line AB1C2
as a type for the
A2,2,
same group
;
and may serve
group of planes
The
line b'c',
and the group
may
= agreef to write s t + Uf the plane b'c'a^, and the group 112,2, i^^y he denoted by [11112]. Finally, the plane [e] has for its symbol [11114]; and the four
(stuOO) and [tttus^, if
we
be represented by and s = s; while
other planes [a], &c., of homology of pyramids (90), have this last
for their
common
92.
The points
type. Y^, of second construction (88), are
more nume
Miibius (in his Barycentric Calculus, p. 284, &c.) has very clearly pointed out the existence and chief properties of the foregoing lines and planes ; but besides that his analysis is altogether different from ours, he does not appear to have aimed
at enumerating, or
even at classifying,
all i\\Q
points of what has been above called
(88) the second construction, as
the plane symbol [OOtus']
their
we propose
shortly to do.
f With this convention, the line ab, and the group Ai,
may
be denoted by
pointsymbol being (^mOOO).
70
rous than the
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
I.
lines Ag 2i,i[idi planes II2 of that construction: yet with the help of types, as above, it is not difficult to classify and to enumerate them. It will be sufficient here to write down these
which are found to be eight, and to offer some remarks respecting, them in doing which we shall avail ourselves of the eight following typical points, whereof the two first have already occurred, and which are all situated in the plane of abc
types,
;
:
A''
= (0lT00); A^' = (02100);
A^^^
= (21100); A"" = (12100);
a'^
=(21100);
a^
=(02100);
a^"'
= (32100);
a'"=:(23T00);
the second and third of these having (lOOll) and (30011) for conIt is easy to see that these eight types repregruent symbols (71).
sent, respectively, ten, thirty, thirty, twenty, twenty, sixty, sixty,
and sixty
distinct points, belonging to eight groups,
1,
.
.
which we
shall
mark
of the points Pg is 290. If then we consent (88) to close the present inquiry, at the end of what we have above defined to be the Second Construction, the total
as
Po,
P2»8;
so that the total
number
number of the n£t points, p^ P2, which are thus derived by lines and planes from the five given points Po, is found to be exactly three hundred: while the joiiit number of the netlines, A^, A2, and of the
netplanes,
(1.)
111, Yl^,
has been seen to be one hundred, so
far.
To
the type P2,i belong the ten points,
A"b"c",
A'2B'2C'2,
a'iB'iC'iD'i,
with the quinary symbols,
a"= (OllOO),
.
.
A'2= (lOoTo),
.
.
a'i
= (10001),
AiBxCiDi,
.
.
d'i
=
(00011),
which are the harmonic conjugates of the ten points
A'b'c',
Pi, namely, of
A2B2C2,
with respect to the ten lines Ai,on which those points are situated so that we have ten harmonic equations, (ba'ca") = — 1, &c., as already seen (31, 86, 87). Each point
;
P2,
1
is
the
common
intersection of a line
Ai with
three lines
A 2, 2
;
thus
we may estafor
blish the four following /ormM?«
of concurrence (equivalent, by 89, to ten such
A'2
;
mulae)
:
a" =BC*b'c' 'Bid '6202;
a'i
= EA •DiA2" b'Ci
*
C'Bi
d'i
= DA*DiAi'B'C2'C'B2; = DE A1A2 •BiB2'CiC2.
'
Each point
group
112, 1
P2,
;
1
is
also situated in three planes ITi
112, 2
;
;
in three other planes, of the
is
and in six planes
for
example, a"
a point
common
to tlie
twelve planes,
ABC, BCD, BCE;
b'c'Ai,
AB1C2C1B2,
B2C2A2,
Db'BiC'Ci,
b'c'A2,
Eb'B2C'C2
;
BiCiAi,
BiCjDi,
B2C2D1.
Each
line,
Ai or A 0,2, contains one point
?>, i;
plane, 11 1 or 112,2, contains f^ree such points;
but no line A2, 1 contains any. Each and each plane 112,1 contains two.
CHAP.
III.]
GEOMETRICAL NETS
IN SPACE.
in
71
that plane,
which are the intersections of opposite sides of a quadrilateral Q3
whereof the diagonals intersect in a point Po
of the quadrilateral B]B2C2Ci,
:
which
is
example, the diagonals B1C2, B2C1 (by 90) in one of the planes 112,1, intersect'
for
;
each other in the point
a
;
while the opposite sides CiBi, B2C2 intersect in a"
and
the two other opposite sides, B1B2, C2Ci have the point d'i for their intersection. The ten points P2, 1 are also ranged, three by three^ on ten lines of third construction
A3, namely,
on the axes of homology^
A"b'iC'i,
.
.
a"b'2C'2,
.
.
a'iA'2D'i,
.
.
A"b"c",
lli,
of ten pairs
of
triangles
of
Ti, 72,
which are situated in the ten planes
:
and of
which the centres
a"b"c", in Fig. 21,
homology are the ten points Pi is the axis of homology of the two o
homology.
example, the dotted line triangles, abc, a'b'c', whereof
for
the latter
is
inscribed in the former, with the point
in that figure (replaced
by Di
in Fig. 29), to represent their centre of
The same ten points
P2,i are
also
ranged six by
six,
and the ten
platies Us,
namely
in the
:
last lines A3 are ranged four by four, in five planes of homology of five pairs of pyramids, i?i, H^y
already mentioned (90) for example, the plane [e] contains (87) the six points a"b"c"a'2b'2c'2, and the four right lines,
a"b'2C'2,
b"c'2A'2,
c"a'2B'2,
A"b"c"4
which
latter are the intersections of the four faces,
DCB,
of the
DAC,
DBA,
faces,
ABC,
pyramid abcd, with the corresponding
DiCiBi,
DiAid,
;
DiBiAi,
AiBiCi,
besides, in the four other
of its inscribed homologue AiBiCiDi
planes,
A2B'c',
and are contained,
C2A'b',
B2C'a',
A2B2C2
:
the three triangles, abc, AiBiCi, A2B2C2, for instance, being all homologous, although in different planes, and having the line a"b"c" for their common axis of homology.
We may
also say, that this line
a"b"c"
is
the
common
;
trace (81) of two planes flojo,
namely of AiBiCi and A2B2C2, on the plane abc and in like manner, that the point a" is the common trace, on that plane IIi, of ^i^o lines A2,2, namely of BiCi and B2C2
:
being also the
common
trace of the
two
lines b'ic'i
and
b'2c'2,
which belong
to the
third construction.
(2.) On the whole, these ten points, of second construction, a". . ., may be considered to be already well known to geometers, in connexion with the theory of transversal^ lines and planes in space but it is important here to observe,
:
with what simplicity and clearness their geometrical relations are expressed (88), For example, the colby the quinary symbols and quinary types employed.
linearity (82) of the four planes, ABC, AiBiCi, A2B2C2, and [e], becomes evident from mere inspection of their four symbols,
Compare the Note to page 68. t The coUinear, complauar, and harmonic relations between the ten points, which we have above marked as P2, 1, and which have been considered by Mobius
also, in
*
by Carnot,
connexion with his theorv of nets in space, appear to have been in a Memoir upon transversals.
first
noticed
72
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[OOOllJ,
[bOOK
I.
[III2I],
[11112],
[11114],
which represent (75) the four quinary equations,
wv=0, x + + z2w — v=0,
i/
x+i/ +
z
— w2v=0,
with this additional consequence, that the ternary
+ y + z + M; 4i; = symbol (81) of the common trace,
a?
;
of the three latter on the former, is [111]: so that this trace is (by 38) the line A"B"c"of Fig. 21, as above. And if we briefly denote the quinary symbols of the four planes, taken in the same form and order as above, by [i?o] [^i] [^2] [^3]) we
see that they are connected
by the two
relations,
;
IR{\
=
[7?o]
+
[i22]
[i?3]
= 2 [i?o]
4 [
K2]
;
whence
denote the planes themselves by IIi, 112, n'2, Ha, the following value for the anharmonic of their pencil,
if
we
we have (comp. 84)
(UiU^U'^Us)
a result which can be very simply verified, ramid, and E (comp. 29) is its mean point
:
=2
;
for the case
when abcd
lis,
is
a regular pyin this
the plane
or [e],
becoming
case (comp. 38) the plane at infinity, while the three other planes, abc, AiBiCi, A2B2C2, are parallel ; the second being intermediate between the other two, but twice
as near to the third as to
(3.)
\ihQ first.
We must be a little more concise in
:
our remarks on the seven other types of
points P2, which indeed, if not so well
quite so interesting
in space
although
it
known,* are perhaps also, on the whole, not seems that some circumstances of their arrangement
may
deserve to be noted here, especially as affording an additional exercise
(88), in the present system of symbols and types. The type P2, 2 represents, then, Sl group oi thirty points, of which a"', in Fig. 21, is an example; each being the intersection
of a line A2,
1
with a line A2,2, as a'"
is
the point in which aa' intersects b'c'
:
but
each belonging to no other line, among those which have been hitherto considered. But without aiming to describe here aZZ the lines, planes, and points, of what we have
called the third construction,
we may
already see that they must be expected to be
and that the planes 1X3, and the lines A3, of that construction, as well as the pyramids i?2, and the triangles 2^2, of the second construction, above noticed, can
numerous
:
only be regarded as specimens, which in a closer study of the subject, it becomes neT2,x. Accordingly it is cessary to mark more fully, on the present plan, as lis, 1, found that not only is each point P2, 2 one of the corners of a triangle Tz, 1 of third
. .
lines A3,
is of a"'b"'c"' in Fig. 21), the sides of which new triangle are passing each through one point P2, 1 and through two points P2, 2 (like the dotted line a"b"'c"' of Fig. 21) ; but also each such point P2,2 is the intersection
construction (as a'"
2,
of two
new
lines of third construction,
A 3, 3, whereof each
connects a point pq with a
* It does not appear that any of these other types, or groups, of points
hitherto been noticed, in connexion with the net in space, except the one
P2,
have
which we
have ranked as the fifth,
the type Pg,
struction
line
:
P2,
5,
and which represents two points on each
line Ai, as
has been seen to represent one point on each of those ten lines of first conbut ihai fifth group, which may be exemplified by the intersections of the
1
DE with
the two planes AiBiCi
and A2B2C2, has been indicated by Mobius
(in
page 290 of
his already cited work),
although with a different notation, and as the re
sult of a different analysis.
CHAP.
point P3,
III.]
GEOMETRICAL NETS
a"' is
IN SPACK.
73
V.
For example, the point
ea's
:
two new
lines, da'i,
because, if
the common trace (on the plane abc) of the we adopt for this point a"' the second of its two
congruent symbols,
we have (comp.
A"'= (loOll)
73, 82) the expressions,
= (d)  (A'l) =
• •
(e)

(A'2).
first
We may
therefore establish ih^ formula
of concurrence (comp. the
•
subarticle)
:
A"' = aa' b'c' da'i
E a'o
;
Avhich represents a system of thirty such formulae.
(4.) It has been
remarked that the point a!"
may be
represented, not only
if
by the
quinary symbol (21100), but also by the congruent symbol, (1001 1);
write,
then
we
Ao = (11100),
these three
Bo = (iriOO),
Co
= (11100),
must be considered to be syntypicaU in the quinary sense (78), with the three points a"'b"'c"', or to belong to the same group P3, 2, although they have (comp. 88) a diflferent ternary type. It is easy to see that, while the triangle a"'b"'c"' is (comp. again Fig. 21) an inscribed homologue Ti,\ of the triangle a'b'c', which is itself (comp. subarticle 1) an inscribed
in the plane of abc,
new points AoBqCo,
horaologue To, 1 of a triangle Ti, namely of abc, with a"b"c" for their common axis of homology, the new triangle AqBoCo is on the contrary an exscrihed homologue
But from the syntyTi, 2, with the same axis A3, 1, of the same given triangle Ti. pical relation, existing as above for space between the points a'" and Ao, Ave may expect to find that these two points P2, 3 admit of being similarly constructed, when
the Jive points Pq are treated as entering symmetrically (or similarly), as geojnetrical elements, into the constructions. The point Aq must therefore be situated, not
only on a line A2, 1, namely, on aa', but also on a line A2,2j which is easily found to be A1A2, and on two lines A3, 3, each connecting a point Pq with a point P2,i which latter lines are soon seen to be bb" and cc". We may therefore establish the formula
;
of concurrence (comp. the last subarticle)
•
:
Ao = aa' A1A2 bb" cc"
•
•
;
and may consider the three points
:
Ao, Bq, Cq as the traces of the three lines AiAo,
while the three new lines aa'', bb", cc", which coincide in position B1B2, C1C2 with the sides of the exscribed triangle AoBqCo, are the traces A3, 3 of three planes 112, 1, such as AB1C2B2C1, which pass through the three given points A, b, c, but do
not contain the Hnes A2,i whereon the six points P2,2 in their plane IIi are situated. Every other plane IIi contains, in like manner, six points P2 of the present group ;
them and every plane 1X3,2 contains three ; each through two such points, but each line A2,2 only through one. But besides being (as above) the intersection of two lines A3, each point of this group P3,2 is common to two planes Ui, four planes 112,1, and two planes 1X2,2; while
every plane
112,
1
contains eight of
;
line A2,i passing
is also a common corner of two different triangles of #AiVd construction, of the lately mentioned kinds Ts,! and 23,2, situated respectively in the two planes oi first construction which contain the It may be point itself. added that each of the two points Po, 2, on a line A2, 1, is the harmonic conjvgate of
each of these thirty points
that line
one of the two points pi, with respect to the point Pq, and to the other point Pi ou thus we have here the two harmonic equations,
;
(aa'dia'")
=
(adia'ao)
a'"
=
1,
by which the
positions of the
two points
and A© might be determined,
L
2 in which that point contained. [a]. and six by six on the ten planes ITi. since two of them can be deduced from the two : others. PojS. 1. 1) these two last planes intersect each other. 2 thus. : the other double point of this involution being 1 a point P3 of third construction ticular point Po as centre. with the help of the two analogous equations of the fourth subarticle (aa"'aV^) = (AA'AoA'') = (AAoDiAi'^) = (aDiA"'Ai'^) =: And 1. i.) of thirty points.2. on any line A2. meets that to the par one of the five planes of homology which corresponds (comp. is the harmonic conjugate of a point P2.2. . as (comp. [bOOK I.2 contains three of them . that each of the two points P2. [c] . and A0B2C2. each plane 112. and because the is lines b'co. so that A'' = (1 22) = aa' • BC'" Cb'" • • Bi'^Ci"'. . (aa'a'^di) = (aa"'a^Ao) = (aa"'a^Ai''') = is 1 . ITa. 3. namely by (211) and (311) and may be exemplified . of which these • last ai'e the ternary • * symbols : A'^ = A a' a"b"c" = AA' AiBiCi A2B2C2 Ai'^ = aa' •d'ia'2A 1 = aa'. 1 . or A2. We may also say that the point A\^^ is the trace of the line A'iA'2 . 2) the line a'^'b'^c"^ or a"b"c" is the common trace of the two other planes of the same group Ha.1. new triangle. but the three points Ai'^ . The three points of the first subgroup a'^ . P2. with respect to the same point Po.3. and to one of (6. with respect to the point Pq.) It the two points Pi on that line . 91) the trace on ABC is the line [ill].1 contains /oMr such points. which are in the plane abc.2. on any such line A2.2. ranged two hy two on the fifteen lines A 2.z. are represented (like the corresponding points of the last group) by two ternary types. will be found (comp. . o{ second construction. 26) to compose an involution.74 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Ai'' = AA' • a'ia'2 b'Co c'bo. and each plane 112. as well as to the two triangles AiBiCi former points being their gle. subart. [b].1. consists (like the preceding group) (5. third group. 90) of homology of pyramids. in the present example. of the new trian being the traces of the three planes (comp.3. Tz.The six points P2. may be also remarked. we shall have the three harmonic equations. 3. with the given point Pq on the line for one of its two double points (or foci') . P2. by the two following points. which are not however all independent. 90) Thus. of the second subgroup are the corners of a to the triangle abc. of which (by 81. we may write the fonnula of concurrence. namely. namely of [d] and [e]. are coUinear . in two planes 112. but so that each is common to two such planes . being also the harmonic conjugate of this : last point. and the other point Pa.1 in which (by sub art. the point in which the line A2. which is homologous and to all the other triangles in its plane which have been hitherto line of the three considered. the common axis of homology and the sides . which express that this new point A^ the common harmonic conjugate of the given . each is also situated A and on one line ^3. on the line aa'di.b'ciC2c'biB2. 1. we have the four harmonic equations. 1. and two of the five planes ITs. and therefore is (as has been stated) the side Bi''^Ci'^ of the lately mentioned triangle T3. in two planes 112. c'bo are the traces of the two planes 112. the three pairs of derived points Pi. Ai'^Bi'^Ci^^. if we denote by A» the point in which the line aa' meets the plane [a]. but no point of this group is on any line Ai.
a'di. and the two points Po. Ar' = (0r2). II. Attending first Po.5 and Ilnd. on the trace of the plane c'biB2.. 6) an involution.] GEOxMETRICAL NETS IN SPACE.2set of lines. common to three such planes common to three planes 112. in two (comp. c'. . (021) and each point P2. P2. o=(001). and the resulting harmonic equations I. but not on six in the ten planes IIi. to the 5. on a line Ai. a"'ao. and three others on lines A2. one such plane while each of these last planes If we attend only to points in the contains three points P2. = (012). the point Pi. to Ao and a"^' is which on the same trace Bi^". observe that each of the two new types. that these three pairs form (as has been said) an involution. with respect to the three pairs of points. if we attend only to points on the line bc. a^' a'=(011). we can represent these two new groups by the two ternary types. P2. and represent them by ternary symbols.) It will be we have now exhausted all . on any such line Ai. besides the point Po. to the other point of the same group. contains thus two points P2. • = BC*c'AiA2'DiAiBi*DiA2B2 A^' . found that (7. while the two other pairs are of the common form. of each of the two last new groups. of the plane c'aiA2 and that with respect to c' and Bq. which are situated upon lines A2. which as symbols denote the two typical A^ points. = (bA^CA'^O = (BArCAi^') = — I.4. B=:(010). = BC • c'Ao DiC" Ab'". with A and A* for two double points. Piriform one pair of conjugates. is the harmonic conjugate of one of the two points Po. And it is easy to prove that these distinct modes.CHAP. c'Aq. III. with two of them for the two double points thereof. each point however being also each point P2. former we may . 1. (a'ba'c) = (aVa"ai^) = (a'a^'a"ai^') = 1st. subart. 5. obtained by pairing the two points cf each of the three other groups. 4. be so arranged as to form eight points can. on any line Ai. I. . (ba'ca") . we may write. plane abc. • • It Bi^''. Aiv Av=(021). where Bi^ denotes (by an analogy which will soon become more evident) the so that we have the two equations. but only one point P2.. and to the point Pi on the same line thus. i But there are still to be considered two new groups such points on each such line. of points P2 on lines Ai. will then suffice to show : that the two points Pq. which had been previously considered it contains therefore eight points in all.2. are the double points of an involution. situated any line A2 and therefore six by : by two on the ten lines oi first construction. with respect .4 is . 4. = (021). intersection of that trace with the line ca harmonically conjugate to : (aoc'bi'^a^) (8. may be noted that A^ last point is is the harmonic conjugate of with respect . . we have also the concurrence. A"=(On). A^'= BC c'BiB2 = BC c'bq . 5 is situated in and (021). that the . two points Pi and P2. the types of points of there being only four second construction. are the double points of a second invoAlso lution. ttvo ro. 1. each of the two points Pq. Each line Ai. if we still abstain (88) : from proceeding beyond the Second Construction. a'^Ai"'. Thus. and 75 therefore its point A. . represents twenty points. in which the points Pi.) = (boBi^C V') =  1. j on that line.
2.Each point P2. &c. P2. Ai"^".6. and denoting them by their ternary symbols. with the harmonic equation. A^"' = (321). as is expressed by line A2. &c. r2. of the same three types. = 1. ^vni _ . of the P2. on the thirty lines A2.6.? is in one plane IIi.1. subart. contains twelve points P2. besides the six points : mentioned in the last sub article. P2. the harmonic equations..8: with which may : A« = (23T).2 hut. Each plane 112. Ai« = (213). along with one point of each of the two former groups..1.2. on each such two points of each of those three groups are situated .1. and in three planes 112. and one other plane . 8) oi Sinew involution. P2. (coa'ci^a'^) = 1. the line b'c' contains. (bV'c'a'") = (b'a^'"c'a^''") = any line A2. 2. c'=(110). the three points a^". while every plane 112. which are situated. in which the two points of each of the four other groups compose a conjugate pair. (10. (a"b'a"'c') = (a"a^«a"'ai^") = (a'V"'a"'ai^"') = (a"a'»a"'ai«) =l. The line b'c' thus it intersects one plane ITo.) The line. And each point P2. Ai^". again subart. whereof the two points P2. in is two and in four planes 112. 2 (b'ai^"c'ai^'") =. or with planes 112 (in which latter character alone they belong to the second construction).8. may be thus denoted : = b'c'*bb"*cb"''Aa"^'=b'c' •BC1A2A1C2 — b'c' DiCiAi D1C2A2 g'(. 8). and six by six in the ten planes TIi. . the two last mentioned. Each point Po. eight points and eight points P2. namely the points and P2. on that line show that the two points Pi on are the double points of of another invo lution (comp. in two planes 112. the three new typical points. i (or its trace bb" on the plane abc). 7. Confining our attention to those which are in the plane abc. a"'=(211). each group containing sixty points. points of the three last groups are situated onlg on lines A2. whereby the line itself is determined.2 form . 1 Of these ten points. in three planes 112. P2. A"' = (121).2j and with the two points Pi. and nine points Pojs.2. And the analogous equations. which. two by two. Ai^"' = (312).) It remains to consider briefly [bOOK I.7. make up a system of ten points upon that line. be combined these three others. " } * • * .6 is contained in one plane IIi . and with analogous expressions for the three other points.2 (or their common trace Dib") in A"^"" . .2 (or its trace a'co) in a'^ : and similarly i for the other points. of the three remaining groups. same three groups. we have thus. the four others b'=(101). on the line b'c'. For example. twelve points P2. n2.2planes 112.2 contains six points P2.1. and on the Ai^" same line b'c' = (112). Considered as intersections of a line A2.6.2 with lines A3 in the same plane Hi.i. groups of points P2. .8 situated in one plane ITi. 2 upon the are the double points (comp. a" = (011). (ba'ai''a^»)= (ca'a"ai") three other (9.' j5^b" ab"'av A** = b'c' a'CqBi'^Ci^B^' BA'^Bi^^Bi'^^ = b'c' a'CiCs A^" . 1 and P2.7. &c. and in two planes n2. P2.76 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. in the point a'^^ intersects two planes 112.
Snpe'rieure of M. find. . A2B0C2. and the seventh and eighth rays forming one involution. which have the same common trace A3.2 of twenty new planes^ exemplified by the two following. with the five given points Pq for the corresponding centres of homology. of the groups 1X3. and points of second construction. as serving to establish the completeness of the enumeration above given.2 and lis. In general. we were to apply this the value. which are the exscribed homologues of the five old pyramids Ri (89). on the plane abc. which are immediately obtained from them. only two hundred and ninety * Compare page 172 of the Geom. But it would lead us beyond the proposed limits. and three points P2. planes. of the lines. besides those which have been incidentally noticed above for example. we should But if N = 10. of Po. and each of these new planes 1.11 = 30030.CHAP. 7 while each of the two points P2. is easily seen to be. the fifth and sixth. by what might (relatively to them) be called a First Construction (comp. (11.3 when n = 6. or the number of points of x\iQform ab'CDE. to a system of more than thirty thousand points. 2 would be found 3. as before. to contain one point Po. while the first and second. we should find many remarkable lines and planes . formula to the case n= 15. = [11103]. In fact. for that case. the number JV of the derived points. to pursue this dis cussion further : although a few additional remarks may be useful. whereof the first and second are the as its conjugate.2. and the two planes [d]. whereof the double rays are the third and fourth of the pencil. that from the fifteen points above called Po> Pi. 1X3. if there be any n given points^ whereof no four are situated in any common plane. 2. eightrayed pencil (a c'b'a"'a"a^™A^°Ax^Ai^") coincides in position with the pencil (a . namely the line a"b"c". the two double* rays sixth . Chasles. and the and eighth rays compose another involution. 93. 88). third construction (88).6 paired with one of the points .l4. Yet it has been lately stated (92). in this way. 1. 13. i\r=/(i5)=15. the fifth and seventh. as the two planes AiBiCi. IN SPACE. as intersections drawn through two of the and each three plane through given points. we should have a group [E„] 1X3. six points P2. A n • of line with plane (each line being _ ^"•^'^^" so that n{n\){n2){n^){nA) 2. three points P2.) If we and with the points Pi and proceeded to connect systematically the points P2 among themselves.] GEOMETRICAL NETS pair. 1) which have been considered in former subarticles . It tioenty faces oifive might be proved also that these twenty new planes are the new pyramids B3. the third and fourth. [dJ= [11130]. [e]. there can be derived. and thus fifieen given and independent points of space would conduct. others). bca Wa^'Ai^Ai^O> ^^d may be said to be a pencil in double involution . III. is 77 one conjugate P2.
but all such intersections are also points of the form A* IT so that no generality is lost. and it was. . among the 105 binary combinations of points : and there remain only 30 combinations of this sort. when they are not already points Po or Pi . and in two planes 112. were investigated. intersections A'A of corn planar lines. and therefore do not (determine any plane. and each two planes 172. on the^i^e points would be found to be so considerable.2. might not perhaps have been anticipated. and these are represented by the 20 planes 112. and in two planes ITo. 1. connected by two collineations.!. indeed. A2. Pi. or groups. as intersections of the [bOOK I. IIi 1 contains three lines of each of the three groups. In fact. and therefore /ezcer number of derived points. That this reduction of the form* A'll.Again. in each of the ten planes IIi. Ao. at the tion for the net in space. there are 29 (=35 each of those planes contains 7 points Pq.!*.6) triangles T\. by confining ourselves to this last form. with the 45 planes • Hi. (2. the completeness of the foregoing enumeration. Pg.2« planes IIi .8) of points of second construction for space. in that way that the eight types. study of the manner in which the types of points result. and found to be sufficient: yet it may be useful (compare the last sub. but these are far from determining so many distinct lines and planes. and it only remains to verify that the 305 points. without going beyond the second construction. . Aojzj each plane contains two lines A 2. which are represented (as above) by lines. 2). ness of the enumeration of the lities and planes of the second construction is therefore main therefore only verified. of the 55 lines Ai.P2.2 contains three lines A2.1. those 15 points are connected by 25 collineations^ represented by the 25 lines Ai. which are constructed by the 30 o^^er lines. 1. each o{ the fifteen planes 112. that some other tyi^e of such points has been omitted. connected by 6 relations of collinearity. Po.) Each plane ITo. and each plane rro. Pi. Ha.78 points P3. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. A2. it may appear possible.2. at this stage. represent all the intersections A 11. In like manner. arising Pi end of what has been called (88) the Second Construcfrom the dependence of the ten points Pq. Pq. each line A2. there are 25 ternary combinations of points. 1. there are 240 (= 30 + 30 + 30 + 30 * The definition (88) of the points P2 admits. . T2. Az.) Th^ fifteen points. because it contains 6 points Po. would indeed decide this question . Ai. from those of the lines and planes of which A they are the intersections. which lines therefore count as 75.) to verify. as below. (1. . and although the foregoing examination proves that all the eight types (92) do really represent points P2. in Hence (or because each line Ai is contained in three two planes ITi.2.1 contains 8 (=10 — 2) other triangles To. than three hundred. in fact. Pi. above considered. as in the present discussion we propose to do. P2.i in jine A2. There re 20 (=455 — 25 — 290120) ternary combinations of points to The completebe accounted for. art. Pi. and four lines A2. admit of 105 binary^ and of 455 ternary combina tions. 2 in one plane IIi. it follows that. because Also.
states the number of the points for each type . each of the nine typical derived points. so that the to 79 number of cases + 60 + 60) intersection (3. 1 ITi. and column XII. to IX. Ai'iia. of the form A • IT. thirtynine (= 12 + 12 + 12+3) intersections of line with plane.sfor .CHAP. or inquiry. lated in the preceding columns sections. Again.240). each plane containing two of those four lines. Ai'iii.) . A2. III. of the form Ai IIo. Pi. Ain2. contains ihQ product of the two last numbers. for each point. contains. Again. each of the five given points is to be considered as representing. .2*n2. are thus found to represent the 2040 intersections which were to be accounted for.3*TIi. to be accounted for (in the present verification) by the 300 derived points. from 65.2. 2235 (= 2475 .!. and to six planes Hi. for example. each point Pq is common to three lines Ao. 1. each common to three planes 1X2. of common Each point Tq represents twelve intersections of the form AiITi because it to four lines Ai.2. P2.i'n2.IT.) is and plane. the two lines. the nine columns.i. . constructing. 1.i. hereby. presents no other intersection. . headed as I. Column X. and second constructions.i'n2. A2.2. ad and ae. of the nine groups Pi. Finally.] cases is GEOMETRICAL NETS o/ coincidence of line IN SPACE. . remains to be discovered.i'ni. Finally. P2. reduced. A2. (4. 1. of points P2. within the limits of the present Thus. A2. it represents therefore a system of twelve other intersections. • contained in two of the six planes ITi.i"n2. but being intersected by the two others in that point Pq . the stim of the numbers in each of the two last columns is written at its foot . and there remain only 2040 (=2235 — 195) other cases of such intersection A.) For this purpose. . in the following Table. . A2. and it reeach of Avhich is • . point Po lines is is intersected in A by 1. the verification is seen to be complete : and no new type. the sum of the nine numbers. and expresses therefore the entire number of inter which anyone such jsotn^ represents. Column XI. 1. of the form A2. no one of which contains any of the four Ai through that point .2*n2. and because the 300 derived points. . of first (5. thus tabuPo. A2. each of the points Po represents three intersections. A2. a' A'^. or the number of intersections A 11 which are represented (or constructed) by t\\Q group. but intersects the four others in that point Po which therefore counts as twelve intersections.45 = 2475. as the plane ABC. contain the numbers of such intersections which belong respectively to the nine forms.
) to 9'^) a double inEach line Ao. are the seven following [100]. F = (43210) E (01234). as follows. whereas a quinary tjpe. eb'b2c'c2. as . [iioli]. represent the seven BC. on the plane abc. 1 the given point. to which the three derived pairs And each line A^. are arranged in upon the fifty five lines A^. that the ternary types (comp. : lines Ai. (as every such point being evident from what has been shown) to three such planes. Siny points "which can only he determined by intersections of three planes 02. Dia''. with all its. A^. we do not regard the traces aa". on the same line belong. new Again. And any present themselves early in an enumeration of the lines A3 of the third. in passing. on account of this last congruence. aa". points space. whereof nine are (comp. forming on it a new involution. namely volution. a'co. 38) [111]. which are found to compose a system of only twentytwo distinct lines in that plane. is common 94. be remarked each plane 112. not regarded as a point P2. [211]. Po.)) to be a double point oi another involution. tains ten points. namely. represents a neio group of sixty points of space (and of no more. [Oil]. although this new point f is easily seen to be the intersection of three planes of second construction. and with reference to the same definition. and which. as belonging to the second construction : nor have we counted. to investigate the expressions for such intersections and for that reason it may be noted here. p. lis. lines. Each line Ai contains eight of the 305 points.. For example. forming on it what may be called (see the subarticle (8. It [iiTio]. 1 : which all belong to the group [oiITi]. b'c'. point in the plane abc. remembered that we have not admitted^ by our definition (88). a"b"c". although they would construction. of the three foUoTAnng. it is however to be not useless. Pg. 1 considered in recent subarticles.) aa'. that may. which. 112. that point. 1 : contains twelve points P3 of this new group From Po. represents generally a group of 120 distinct points). cc'diBiA2. ["iuj. or aa'diCiB2. which may be denoted by either of the two congruent quinary symbols (71). (7. however. (6.80 (G.) It is ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. while eight of these ten points. has been seen (in the earlier subart. [Oil]. whereof one. and in 1\\q fortyfive planes Hi. A2. which can only be determined (at the present stage) as the intersection of two such traces. and the the foregoing discussion it appears that the Jive given three hundred derived points Pj. with a different oj^der of succession. &c. [211]. Ilo. 81) of the fortyfour traces of planes ITi.^ conPi. . as among the lines of second construction. as lines A2 of that any lines which can only be found as intersections of two such planes. say f. to be [bOOK I. as a quinary type (78). of certain pZanes A2. IIi. contains seven points. as ternary symbols.^. compose still another of points. on the same principle. five coefficients unequal. A student might find an exercise. is not regarded by us as a point P2.
DED1E1E2. belongs to a. on the same line de. ha7monic progression . for then base abc DiD is the altitude may . the two following harmonic equations. 2. (2. = (00012). (10. 2. or on the trace of the plane BC1A2A1C3.ins fortyseven points. 92. whereof one. are. by mean point. but the two others are of the group Po. that on each line of the group A3. the two points on the line de : and consequently. and two points P2. and the half of that altitude they compose therefore (as the formula expresses) a. and 45 points points^ namely Each plane IT.!. But it would be tedious to luultijly such instances. E2 = DE ' A2B2C2. in addition to one given point po.] GKOMETIIICAL NETS IN SPACE. taken must be one of the two points d. each plane 11.i (92. and that E is its (comp.CHAP. if we El consider (compare the Note to page 72) the two intersec = DE • AiBiCi . by comparison of the symbols of these ^t>e points. e on two last of that subart. (baob"co) = (ba"'b"ci^") =  1.) Oo and ei'^ are the double points of an involution. 3. have been noticed under other forms by Mobius to wliom. above mentioned. we have the two harmonic equations. o[ second construction. we soon derive. the conception of such : a net tions. to which the two last pairs belong : thus. four are points Pi. DiEi. (Corap. the quar the third part. (DiEEiEi) = 1 . Again. there are two points P2. and the three segments DiE. Di is the mean point of the of the pyramid . (8.) ). 8 : 1 (D1DE2E1) = . respectively. again the recent Note to page 72. e . E2= (00021).))Again. the with respect to the other and to the point Di. 8. therefore. and 42 are points * These theorems respecting the relations of involution. by the theorem that stated at the end of subart. As an example of an involution on a line of third construction. and do not seem to have been previously noticed. although some of the harmonic relations. for a net in space. : be illustrated. wherein a' is conjugate to cr and a'* to b^'.. or Di and Ei are conjugate points. above called d'i. Tiius. of given and derived points on lines oi first and second constructions. but these two equations have been assigned (with notations slightly different) in the formerly cited page 290 of the Barycentric Calculus. 1. four points ofjirst. Accordingly.)). P2. contains ^^^. known group P2. on the trace a'co of the plane a'ciCj.) The geometrical meaning conceiving that abcd is of the last equation a regular pyramid.! conta. and that the two first points are the double points of an involution. M . 81 involution* (92..). line. subart. v/hereof o«€ is a given point. (2. 5 they are. III. by Art. and one derived point P2. we easily find that they may El be denoted by the quinary symbols. are perhaps new . or on each of the sides of any one of the ten triangles T3. (which latter trace is a line not passing through any one of the given points. as has been stated. on the side Aqbco of the exscribed triangle AqBoCo. indeed. 92. is due. it may be remarked e and it subart. with respect to But in order to exemplify the double involution of the same E2would be necessary to consider three other points P2. which belong to the same type as tlie harmonic conjugate of each.i6'o three given points. DiEo ter.
on the line prolonged. by o. And because the planes oi first construc tion alone contain specimens of all the ten groups of points. subart. The first therefore. and Di. in that plane. whereof 40 are points of second construction. as well as the arrangement of the nine lines A. it has been thought convenient to prepare the annexed diagram (Fig. P2 in a plane Ilj. and o^ all the three groups of lines.2 passes through no given point. to be the equilateral hose of a regular pyramid abcd (comp. A^. Pi. 38 are situated on the six lines A2 in the plane. 1 with/owr other lines of second construction. Finally. the triangle abc is suppposed. P2: of which last.2). each plane 112. being designed to suggest that .82 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. the arrangement oi the fifty two points Pq. ^a i> ^2i 2j at the close of that second construction (since the • P214J P2>5j ITg. Pi. types Ai are not represented by any points or lines in any plane nor are the types Pq. which may serve to illustrate. A2. bisects the three sides . A.. View of the Arrangement of the Principal Points and Lines of First Construction. namely. a'b'c'. and the traces A3 of other planes upon it. by some selected instances. Pq. is supposed to be its mean point (29). but four are intersections of that plane 11^.!. and the axis of homology a''b"c" c'b' is the line at in finity (38) : the number 1..i represented in a plane 112. • ^218? P2»i> given or derived. A^. 30). (2. [book I. for simplicity. again replaced inscribed triangle. in a Plane In this Figure. in the plane abc .) to 92) . but cont^m^ fortythree derived points.
5'. is of the type P2. to remind us that this corner also belongs infinitely distant. by any but it admits of being inde. 44). 43) every point. marks the position of the point Ai". or planes of the net. to which that Hue tends. every irrational point. respecting thepoints of second construction (92). a«". Hence (comp. a^. which is thus rationally related io the system of points ABODE. pejicil of or of netplanes. These general properties (95) of the spacenet are in substance taken from Mobius. or plane.CHAP. 4'. for which Fig. again 44) that all geometrical nets in space are homographic figures. Ai"^. a''. lower down. unaccented or accented. a"'b"'c"'. line. or configuration. and of every netplane. 2. are equal or line. by points. or that it must be i^ationalhj related to the system o^ th^ five given points : because the a/iAarmom'c coordinates (79. whether of a group of netpoints. or plane of the net. in the generation of that group or pencil. 8. Every anharmonic ratio. all relations arrangement. again 43). are sufficient (comp. above be verified by inspection of this Diagram. lines. to parison with the analogous property (42) of the plane net. proportional to whole numhei'S. any five points* of such a net. denote the places of the ten points. 5. is processes of the kind above described finitely indeed incapable of being rigorously constructed. Finally. 2'. 6'. is a point. in space. has a rational value (comp.i. or belongs to the ^rs^ group of poiuts of second construction. of collineation. 80) of every netpoint. the ten other numbers.] GEOMETRICAL NETS IN SPACE. 83 the point a". group of points P2. 8'. Ai^". is indicated (by a syutypical relation in space) to the group P2. now while the same number with an accent. Ai% A'*. line. may be 95. a^"* the principal harmonic relations. Ai^'. 7. we may now regard it as evident. to be : new as do also . of the five given points in space. of which no four are in one plane. m. which those five points determine. which by the number 3. by a change of the given system of points: so that it may be briefly said (comp. is placed near the corner Aq of the exscribed triangle AoBoCq. Also. or plane (77). or of a. Finally. that every which such constructions can conduct. although (as has been remarked before) the analysis here employed appears most of the theorems above given. to suggest that this bisecting point a'" belongs to the second 2. The same number but with an accent. Hov^ever far the series of construction of the net in space continued. are p>reserved. 7'. and of complanarity.The point A'^. and is entirely independent of the netlines. i of ten such points which (as already stated) have been known comparatively long. 4. at least after we pass beyond the Jirst group po. or plane. 6. A second inscribed triangle. Conversely (comp. is only indicated by the number 2 placed at the middle of the side b'c'. And may mentioned. at least on com point. approximated to. which depends only on the processes of linear construction employed. must necessarily be rational (77). 21 may be consulted. a^". and relations of involution. in the passage from one net to another. on the dotted line at the top is . line.
from these new data. (EAA1A3) = 3. .. (p') = a. such as AiBiCi and for of the three pyramids. . as those by which the rived from the five points ABCDE. is from is ABCDE .84 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. admits of being replaced by the following equainvolving one such quotient of pyramids. drawn through the construct one corner called A of tlie exscribed pyramid. v^) such as to satisfy the symbolical equation (comp. [boOK I. Let p' be any sixth point of space.) It may be briefly added here. the point As an example.a'(Pi) + y& found that this (P2)+ ?c'(p3) + wd'ivC) + ve{y^^u\ last point p' U) . scribe another homologous pyramid.4y + z+ tr — 3r. we are permitted (comp. that the an harmonic tion. . as the point p = (30001) . P5 by precisely the same constructions. . thus . A = EArwiA'^. so as to have A3 = eai'BiCiDi. (3. symbols Pi = {xi . as follows.) As regards the general passage from one net in space to another. that instead of anharmonic ratios. and then should have this other formula of intersection. of which the quinary symbol satisfies the equa tion. we might find the point were only required to above a" as the connnon intersection of three planes. P5 — (ajg are complanar and let a'b'c'd'e denote any Jive given points. E. then point p {xyzwv) . + . (fee. .«'( U) + evt =  : or the five ordinary equations a'xi which e'xs includes. just referred to. 45) to irt. Or the point A might be determined by the anharmonic equation. let the five points AiBiCiDi and e be now supposed to be be required to derive the four points abcd. these/owr lines of intersection will be in the common plane [e]. it may be homologous thereto. (2. 71. so that point E for their given centre of homology. we are now required to exscribe a pyramid (1. by linear constructions. from A . then it will be can be derived ixora. by the same constructions as (xyzwv) itself may be constructed from Ai . or indeed generally in relation to spatial problems. . . . «'. + = . as a specimen of which substitution. whereof no four and u be six coefficients. A3B3C3D3.) . . B which would conduct anew to the anharmonic equation of the last subarticle. of homology and will be the traces on that plane of the/owr sought planes. v{). to determine the intersections o^ corresponding faces. In other words. it may be remarked. let the which for a regular pyramid is easily verified. including the five given ones. . If it ABC. the five points Pi . with the An obvious process is (comp. namely. 68) to substitute products (or quotients) oi quotients of volumes of pyramids. As an Example. a" = AiBiCi AiUiE • • A3B3C3 . as con nected with a net in space. = a'vi + . four given points Dj. A derived from AiBjCiDjE. &c. 72). = {xyzwv) is deif »' = a. 45) for the determination of the ivlwle net: or for the linear constrnc tion of all its points. and then AaBsCa . . of which the five ratios are . &c. but introducing no auxiliary point : relation. a'(Pi) + b'(Fd + c'(P3) it + d'(Pi) + e'(P5) = . let it given and ABCD to a given pyramid AiBjCiDi.
III. lows. m{aso that the general = n{vpoint. that these vectors are equal to the m successive m sides of a closed polygon .] MEANS OF VECTORS. Ilnd. of the m + n = s points obtained by combining the two former. vectors. 5CT mfi=^a. space. and divides .. while V and a may denote the vectors. . + (a. — On Barycentres of Systems of Points Vectors.. = ("i . mmn b„. a). 83) the anharmonic coordinates of a point p in write. . : In general. is said to be the Simple Alean this is m of those m m vectors . point. that if n be the mean point of another system. system of the points. and of which the position (comp. of the mean point m. KA : 85 AiA = 3eBiCiDi AiBiCiDi. is the mean point of the projected system : and Illrd. . 71 J/. and the point m. and on Simple and Complex Means of 96. of coinitial = OAi.SN. 30).. s. And hence (comp. = 2a + 2/3 = 771/4 + 7/i.MS =?z. in which mean vector terminates. 18) easily seen to be independent of the position of the origin o. Ow — 0A. a^^a'^. if xi/zw be (as in 79. mean is situated on the right line mn. divided (16) by their number^ m. . common tion. sum of the m vectors. In general. also. on any assumed plane (or line). Ai.y") + or that the . on and os. . . . = 2^.. Ai b„. a = OM = — 2a = — 2oA.. we may x 1/ pbcd ebcd pcda'ecda' with other equations of the same type.„. of the otJier ordinates. to the points A of the system. on which we cannot here delay. is equal to zero. 11. is said to be the Mean Point (comp. dravvn/7'07?z the mean point 1.„  /t) = 2 (« . m ./*) = 2ma . by any parallel ordinates. that if the system and its mean point be projected. of the It is evident that we have the equaA. It folBj. and if s be the mean point of the total system. M and n. considered as partial systems . . the resulting vector. the projection m^. of these two last mean points wi/ iii) : then we shall have the equations..CHAP.1. 29). which connects the two partial mean points. 10. is the mean of all the AjA'i. it follows. ai is when the sum 2a of any number . Section 5. 1st.. . that the ordinate mm'.
determined on the foregoing principles. f(4) = 9. in the same mean point .) In this of the derived lines. /(4) = 6. the follow ing: £ = ^(a + 3ai) = . and the three latter may be said. : represent the entire 0(4) 7. by grouping the given points into three such partial systems let (s) denote the number of nontriple planes. ms and sn. 1. A2. because each contains only two lines through that point. 5). three lines A2. of pairs of opposite edges. contains the lines aai. intersect and bisect each other. with notations lately used. . . the present connexion) be called triple planes. through the ^e«era/ mean point s of a total system of posed into partial systems given points.. . for instance. into two segments inversely proportional to the (I. intersect and quadrisect each other. here denoted by pyramid abcd with the mean And these conduct to the seven equations between segments. . b'B2. let abcd be a gauche f quadrilateral. . in the equations of Art.= i(5+3^i) = K«'+ «2)=. OA' = a'=(/3 + y).) two whole numbers^ let m and point or . e . or As an Example. that the four right lines. ofthe^z^o diagonals. n. of the four successive sides ab. for certain derived points di. each determined by grouping those s points in two dif»// ways into two partial systems and let f(«) =f(s) + ^ («) number of distinct planes through the point s so that ferent . let («) denote the s . . the number s of the points A which thus cross each other in their general mean point E is seen of the derived planes through that point is nine : used for the net in space. and the number namely. AE = a'e 3eai. to h^non triple planes.. to be seven . a'. point of the opposite face. . Then. = Kr + ^). . which is thus. C2. more fully. c'. 65. . if we write the vector formulcB^ = ai = i(/3 + y + OA3=a2 = (a + ^). such as BC and da. c'c2). that line (internally). because each contains three lines (as six planes mean the plane abe. ^i=i(a + /3+y)..) In general. c'ca. are situated in one the common bisector. = eA2.1. of bisects also the gauche quadrilateral abcd. obtained . b'bo. whereof each connects a corner of the point. the six former may (in IIi. . mean vector. OAi 5). is otherwise known) DDi. in one common e and that the three common bisectors a'ao. by contrast. number of the lines. . : so that the /our middle points. and three planes 112. in all possible ways. &c. = H« + i3 + y + that is to say. which prove (what AAi. [boOK which are I. . . the number example. common plane. (2. let a=6 =c= rf. (3. which AC and bd. .=i(r' + r2). &c. decomlet/(s) denote the number of the triple planes.86 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. in the notation lately Of these nine planes. and let E be its mean OE = ^ (oA + OB £ oc + od). y2 r'=K«+/3). . D being ybwr. DE = 3edi c'e=ec2. bbi. we shall have seven different expressions for the namely. all passing through the point e. . . four lines Ai. »//(4) = 3.
these general expressions give. conducts to the general expression.] MEAN POINTS OF SYSTEMS. ^(«+1)4. /(s) + 0(«)=x(«). . will furnish three new triple planes. 0(sf if l) then we write. or a system offve points A . besides.2SI. which jointly make (4. f(5) = 55. by grouping a new point c with each of these in turn. Then 111. so that f(s+1)4f(s) = 3«12«i. (Af) (iV) (P) be any three partial systems. ferences : We l) have. 80 that if /(5) = 25. up the old or given total system (^S) and if. (6. (0(0 = (2'l) (221). /(3)l. CKL : nor can any new triple plane be obtained in any other way. = x(* + l) Also. if 87 it is easy to perceive that nishes two new lines. 0(2)= 1. while each old line.) Again. which. : we introduce a new point c. each treated as three. e. for a moment.//(«) and = 3/(*). = 20(s) + l. therefore.) For instance. will give one new triple plane. then each . drawn through the mean point s of the whole system. each old line mn furwe group the new point with one or other of the (M) aud (A') and that there is. l. because the triple planes. we have this other equation in finite differences. namely cs we have. 0(5)=15. l) clear that we have 3/W + ^(*)=i0W. mnp . which last equation in finite difierences admits of an independent geometrical inter pretation. . and the wontriple planes. Avith the particular value above assigned for 0(4). (M') (iV) (P). 3xW + = 3. 0(3) x(3) = 4: 2x(«) and 2/(s) (5. in space. each treated as one. MNP. must jointly represent all the binary combinations oHhe lines. this new equation in dif /(« + But we have seen that = 3/« + 0(*). one other new line. according as two old partial systems. we form three new partial systems. 24/(«) = 22»2+ 3. old triple plane such as mnp. the relation. = 3«»2*+l.) Finally. <p(s) if = 2^^1. the equation infinite differences. or even with the simpler and more obvious value. therefore. . and = f(s) 22«3+2*23«>. Hence. therefore. ^(5) = 30. we assume a gauche pentagon. it is = 3»»l. kl.3» 1 . mn'p.CHAP.
d. b. then that new given a^he any system of m given scacoinitial vector ^. like that of a simple mean point (96). A and B.a. and determine the inean point F of this system. may be said. . a. a . is the Barycentre (or centre ofgravity) . under the lately supposed conditions. the thirty others being of the nontriple kind. if "i and coinitial vectors. or areas.a + + a. m given vectors «. of kinds which have been already considered anharmonic coordinates of a variable point p. b.) As an Example. as coefficients^ or as multipliers (12. all passing through this sixth point f and these will be arranged generally in fiftyfive distinct planes. of the given system of points Aj . It may also be said may be said to be the Complex Mean pendent of that of the origin . zc. or harycentre^. comparison and theorems of partial and total systems.. or OB = 2aoA 2a . and lars (17). assigned in 34 or 36. while. . . there will in general be a set oi fif: teen lines. 2a .. d the expression of 79 for the vector op be adopted. . or and what we have called the volumes. cases. have some of the principal notations of the Barycentric CalcuCompare the Note to page o6. b. c. or by the equation 2a(a/3) = 0. 97..«„.. and c. in order that the point p of space may be their barycentre. system of m if a^. or ob. yh. with the equations of 65. + . . . the origin is the barycentre of the three points A. . . b. and therefore to write' simply.88 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. o in the case of Art. 96) the position is indeo. of arise. B= . vf'hereo{ tiventyfive will be what we have called triple. then xa. considered as loaded with the intersections of lines and planes . under the conditions of 27. c. * lus : We should thus but used mainly with a reference to vectors. wd are . or 2aBA = of those 0. given weights ai of these from the complex means. that the derived point b. from these by the formula. be. c . of which (comp. which is deduced . the weights are d must all these thus proportional (by 69) to certain segments. with the three weights a. equal (or proportional) to the weights with which the same four points a In be loaded. for simple means of vectors and of points. the same three loaded with xa.. of the kind above considered. with the weights a. or in space (79). c. . with the weights a and 6. to be quotients of quotients of weights.) point. might induce us (comp. have the point p in their plane for their barycentre. (1. The circumstance that the position of a barycentre (97). tre of the we when if use the formula for p. on the same plan. zc as weights. . 14). and if Again. as before. e is the barycensystem of the /bwr given points. a. . A. given points A. — = 2aa a. More generally. the point c is the barjcentre of the system of the two points. in a plane (36). 69) to suppress the symbol o of that arbitrary and foreign (2. yb. is independent of the position of the assumed origin of vectors. + a„. b. [boOK I. affected (or combined) scalars. which are entirely analogous to those lately considered (96). or with that system of given as considered OA. 24.
0A2. tliat the sum of the three vectors. 1) respecting the geometrical signification of the symbol b denoting the vector from A to B together with the rules for multiplying such vectors by scalars (14.a. ) Without any reference to ordinates. that the ordinate of the harycentre of any given system of points is the complex mean (in the sense above defined. 7. and with the same system of weights). 8. may be interpreted as an abridg ment of the equation. when mul. And similarly in tions bt'ing here regarded as more complex cases: the legitimacy of such transformaa consequence of the original interpretation of the (1) symbol b . 6) the parallelogram A1OA2O'. which are (15) the products of such multiplications. and therefore also the given line A1A2. or that they are equal in length. from b to the three points Ai. OBi = J (OAi + OA2 + OA3). OB = (oAi 4 OA2) which implies that if o be any arbitrary point. ai bai. in such a manner that can be made (10) the successive sides ofa closed polygon. . we may indeed interpret it as an abridged form of the equation. that the system of the . if 6 = a. For we have only to write the formula as follows. so far as as they have been hitherto established. : be comes (generally) a new system of vectors with a null sum these last vectors. which is here the other diagonal. which expresses that the point B trisects the diagonal 00' of the parallelepiped (comp. N .CHAP. or to any foreign origin. by B bisecting A1A2. which (by the earliest principles of the present Book) expresses that the two vectors. from B to the two given points Ai and A2. But we may also regard the formula as a mere symbolical transformation of the equation. BA3. and if o'be the point which completes (comp. on any such plane. (or coefficients) of the given system ai. A2. B = ^Ai f A2). (3. the barycentric notation B = be Da may interpreted. (a3b) + (aib) = 0. tiplied respectively . then b is the point which bisects the diagonal 00'. III. by principles already established. the formula. a^. which has OAi. in order to perceive that it may vectors from the barycentre B. by means of our fundamental convention — A. 62). considered as (Art. with reference to any given plane : and that the projection of the bary centre. and for taking the sums (6. by transports without rotation. be considered as signifying. A2. But the same formula niay also be considered to express. and of the rules for operations on vectors. . in full consistency with the foregoing interpretation. 9) of those (generally : new) vectors. by the scalars . ao. It is easy to prove (comp. 17). have a null sum. .] BARYCENTRES OF SYSTEMS OF POINTS. 2a(AB) = 0. B 89 = or bB=^aA. 0A3 for three coinitial edges. Bi = i(Ai + A2 + A3). but opposite in direction : which can only be. vaA3. (4. 96). of the ordinates of the points of that system. as before. to the system of the given points Ai.) Again.) Thus if we meet the formula. . nishes : which is the characteristic property (30) of the mean point of the triangle A1A2A3. (5. is the harycentre of the projected system.
w) = 0. xyzw. the four variable scalars. z. n. and homogeneous of the j^''* dimension. to indicate (82) that p is collinear the resulting algebraic equation \at\u is of the p*^ degree . which is who/It/ external thereto. the preceding Note to the present Article. Section 6 On Anharmonic sions. For fp{x. that no interpretation is here proposed. r) =0. may be consulted. m. with be ho its enve f= uri. with two given points. ior imaginary intersectio7is of this kind. or briefly F = 0. + As regards the unijiterpreted character of such imaginary contacts in geometry. of the form. as the language of algebra requires that and even that they should be enumerated : exactly we should count what are called the imagi nary roots of an equation.90 KLEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. from the outset. 82) that the variable plane right line rio'Ili. X= tXo + UXly . n passes through a given we which gives q are conducted to an algebraical equation of the (real or imaginary) values for the ratio t:u. 56) to be the local equation. or briefly /= 0. and real or imagi And in like manner. to where f denotes a rational and integral function. resp icting imaginary intersections. .. such as those of a sphere \vith a right line. surface of the p*^ order whereof /= may be said (comp. W= tWQ + Wl^i. supposed to be rational and integral. 46) by a given algebraic equation. the four anharmonic coordinates Imnr of a variable plane 11 (80) are connected by an algebraical equation. . [bOOK I. or anharmonic coordinates. with those square roots terpretation. the surface may be said to be cut in p poitits (distinct or coincident. by any arbitrary right line. and VectorExpresand Curves in Space. r = ?ro + to express (comp. then this plane 11 has for lops (comp. are connected (comp. a dfinite and real innaries.w. (real or and thereby assigns q * It is to imaginary!) tangent planes to the sur be observed. then the point p has for its locus a. Surfaces of When. PyPi. so that (according to a received modern mode of speaking). . 'Fq{l. Pi. The language of modem geometry requires that svch imaginary intersections should be spoken of. supposed mogeneous of the q*^ dimension. q*^ degree. for which it will suon be seen that the Calculus of Quaternions supplies. of this sort. expressions of the forms. Pq. 6Q) a surface of the q*^ class. ^ if we substitute instead of the coordinates x . in the expression 79 for the vector /> of a variable P of point space. y. when nary*). . 98.. Equations. for its tangential equation: because if we make I = tlo + w^i. But it would be an error to confound geometrical imagi of negatives.
and bc. E. z. two pairs. (see the R= (OyzO).) In fact. y] a symbol for the tangent plane. C.CHAP. .„f. . because xz = yw. cd./. 3 = (OOzw).f) in like manner. d^.) = . qrst.=: 10yf= — w. D. fcuce^ III. so that [z. c'. y. so that plane to the sur then. d„f. which gives. is the tangent face. whence follo\v3 the proportion.] ANHARMONIC EQUATIONS OF SURFACES. Q = (oryOO). . n=i>zf=x. has for its local equation. 91 drawn through any such given but arbitrary right We 51. . being charac As an Example.my — my + nz=nz + rw = rw + lx. I = T>xf= 2 . line./. at the point p. that if the functions /and f be only homogeneous (without necessarily being rational and integral)^ then may add (comp. — y~^ I : : 2~' : — u? r i . are the hues. a symbol for the point of contact of the plane . at the point (x. d. the surface here considered is the ruled (or hyperbolic) hyperboloid. through that point their plane. of opposite sides of that quadrilateral abcd. by differentiation. drawn through p to intersect the two generating . ab. is on which the gauche quadrilateral abcd through the point E.) At the same time we see that (ac'bq) (dcocs) . rn. to). superscribed. D.w. or generatrices. is D. d^. [d. . If. A2. the surface of the second order. then Qs and et namely. and that (d^f. which passes through the nine points called lately A. : l:7n:n:r = x^ or. B./. at the point (xyzw) . equations of condition. we denote that tan gent plane by the symbol [Imnr']. D. is r =D„. a'. 0=f=xzywt. with its enveloped surface^ f teristics of partial derivation. (2. is d. [/mnr]. (3. (1. and which passes also And if we write P= (xyziv)./=y: X. we have the = lxr. as before. C2. m:n: w:x:y./] the anharmonic symbol (80) of the tangent plane to the surface /= 0. 56). da. the lines annexed Figure 31).
(s. . anharmonic symbols of the forms. combined with Compare p. 0. tu. Conversely. 0. locus. .2. between these three symbols. t(0. 2) of the form.) As regards the if known double generation of that surface.2). 26) two given right lines in space. And these two symbols repre common point (comp. t =y. t=\. t\ «'. by the same comparison of symbols. w'). 31) which may be thus denoted a'a2 p" (6. c'co. y «==. giving so that the same hyperboloid is also the locus of that other line bt. an hyperboloid intersects with those three lines A • similar analysis shows that QS : a'a2. (p)=tt(R) + s(T). of one system. is generally which intersects three given right for generatrices. 0. in a point (comp. when we suppose . and c'cz being three of Con were proposed to find the locus of the right line QS. xz = i/w. should be conducted to the equation xz =yw. section line. which we shall have again the expression.) The symbol of an arbitrary point on the variable line rt is (by subart. uw) while the symbol of an homographically c'c2 being still same gauche quadrilateral abcd and the lines a'ao. rt. and ad. (p) if then we write p = (x. p= as before : {st. which are generatrices of the other system. cd. c'c2 (with the recent . ba. 0). s = (0. tu^ tt». and for any arbitrary point p eollinear with them. so that the variable generatrix QS divides (as known) the two fixed generatrices its positions. for points on the two lines o'c2. ^ X w Hence the known theorem results. in like manner. fy. uv. y. in tersects three fixed lines. R=(0^»0). again Fig. divides the other pair of opposite sides bc. 31). its positions . 13 [bOOK I. p' Fig. ad. «). rt and we . as the condition for their interand thus should obtain this other known theorem. T = (<00«). we should have. y. which thus divides take homographically (com p.) = QS = (xyyx). tz. so that the whether of the line qs. for the two variable but corresponding (or homologous^ points Q. = RTc'c2=(y. may suffice to observe that we write. by 82. (4. meanings of the and then should have. vs). bc. for three given positions of the variable line Q= because. is (as is known) a it ruled surface of the second order. ad of the . «'). 0. bc. 2.y. s themselves. or of the point p. we have the anharmonic equation xz = yw^ as before . . arbitrary point on the given line c'c3 sent one is (f. z. that the locus of a right lines in space. M. As another example of the treatment of surfaces by their anharmonic and we may remark that the recent symbols for p' and p''. that a variable generatrix. 0) + u{x. (5. «. for those we might AB and dc letters) two given lines.92 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. if it . u z. = <(Q) + f(s): p = (s*. w). »s) . a relation of the form. 298 of the Geometrie Super ieure. BC. AB and DC homographicallg* versely. or (wic.. ad. local equations. and a'a2 being three of supposed to intersect each other in the given point e.
z = d„f = Z . five times. 1 for the coordinates Imnr of the tangent plane. [0010]. 87. for c'. 87.„p =  r . the symbols of 83. (p") = y (A) + x (as) = (q) + (s) f whence ratios it follows (84) that the two points lines p'. .] AKHAllMONIC EQUATIONS OF SURFACES. Ca. l. those of subart. q.why the formulae. r. (ca'br) ' ^ = —= r : . CDc". [0110]. y = d. 2 for p. III. divide the four generating : through p and e in the following anharmonic (cECaP') = (qp"sp) = . . which second be interpreted as expressing. . we have in the present example the formulae X = DiF — n. again 86. the co ffficient 1 occurred. that this hyperboloid is the surface of the class. 93 k.) More generally. . t. (a'eA2P") so that (as again is = (rp'tp) = (CC2DS) . known) the variable generatrices. 66). and therefore also (8. as well as the Jlxed ones. And as rea double generation of the hyperboloid thus showing itself in a new way. of the . by the expres(7.* Or we may interpret the same tangential equation f = as expressing (comp. for the plane of homology [e]. and f. [0100]. [0001]. then whether we derive I . + (C2) = (a') (P') = y(c')+^(^'2)=(R) + ^CT). to be the follow ing: = F = Zn — mr may which touches the nine planes. are all divided homographically of the present surface is easily found. when presented under rational of the second class. gards the passage (or return). [1001]. when the surface is of the second order. which satisfies either of the two connected conditions of homogrnphy : (bc'aq) = = m n = n = (cciDs) (DA2AT) . * In the anharmonic symbol of Art. r.r from x . 86 s. [0011]. . ABC. BCA'2. give the expressions : (p) = (q) + (s)=Cr) + (t). through inadvertence. from the tangential to the local equation (comp. and [e]. with and with the equation xz = yw. BCD. are both homogeneous of the second dimension. DAB. p'. [1111] or with the literal symbols lately . employed (comp. whence xz — yw as before. a'. and the sides of the quadrilateral ABCD.CHAP. [1000]. (e) = (c') + (A2) . 86. q). ABC'2. DAa". w = DrF = — m . that the surface is the envelope of a plane qrst. = 0. [1100]. where q. hyperboloid. so that the two functions / and integral forms. n are now replaced by t.) The tangential equation sions in subart.= (ba'cr) = (aa2Dt) = =y (bc'Aq) . CDA. 87). A2. .
. b. and p' a new point. again 62) the pole of (what is called) the plane at infinity . z" =^2e'uv — aw\ 0. and any chord of the hyperboloid. = ast + btu + cuv + dvs . for abridgment. tu. so that acbd=0. 6". 3. ax^hy+cz^dw — 0.6). DjFo) .) it. for the centre of the hyperboloid we have Fo = ac — bd. And because the centre of a surface of the second order is known to be (comp. w' u =dv at. the four constants abed have still the same significations as in 05. e' t' = cu\. is where «. [bOOK I. while { = bt+ cv. distant plane \abcd^^ : or in other words. if also we write. 6.. DftFo. . for abridgment. 79. d]. p= subarts. w from Z . the mean may be denoted by the svmbol. — t'u\ uv\ = v's'). with reference to the system of the denote this centre by the symbol. With the same meanings d. ac. what is usually called (comp. or in other words. and the anharmonic symbol becomes thus. stant. W = DrF. ax" + by" + cz" + dw" = pp' be That is to say. to" x" = 2e'st — cw'. if e'(p)(p') = (p"). the fixed point then this conjugate point p" is on the infinitely K bisects all the chords pp' which pass through (10. where Fq denotes. rfi). 79) of the constants a. or X. (65. wherever in space the point P and plane IT. c. the plane 11 is the polar of the point p . with respect to that variable chord. Z = J>nF.94 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. d'] . and d is still a scalar con (9. X=I>iF. MP. we shall then have the symbolic relations.ds. y = D. relatively to that surface. the function F^abcd). if ci. of which the coordinates are. a. if if point K. . i' v are any four scalars. Accordingly if . if and [a. M=(ai. 38) the equation and the symbol of this last plane are. &c. »' = as + 6m . point (96) of the quadrilateral abcd. b.„F. = 2e'v3 \bw'. while (comp. t. DcFo.) In the recent example. may be situated.hd. 4). five given points abcde : it follows that we may K = (DoFo. and therefore. it is infinitely distant: so . p' (st.d. c. u. e'(p)+(p')=«''(K). respectively. K = (c. p" = {x"y"z"w"^ be that new point. and is therefore (as above asserted) the centre of the surface. then this mean point be on the svrface. thus related to each other. we assume (comp. r by the converse formulae. the point p = (xyztv) is. y" = 1e'tu\ dw. = (s't'. which passes through the fixed p" be the harmonic conjugate of that fixed point. the centre K is on the plane [a. or of the system of its comers. c. and conversely. so that (pkp'p") = 1. 52) the pole of the plane 11 = IJmnr] . 70. vs).
8). . as satisfying its tangential equation. 50. tion of that single we may regard this vector p scalar. Instead of other system of w variable anharmonic coordinates. fts the edge of regresnamely of the locus of the . In the 1st case. if Fo = 0.p=(p{t). into an expression of the form (comp. 41) 99. in it is which cut by . 96. p. And then its order. ral (comp. (12.) It is evident that a curve in space may be represented by a system of two anharmonic and local equations . . an arbitrary plane^ is obviously the product of the orders of those two surfaces or the product of the degrees of their two local equations.. u). two tangential equations. subart. the surface of the second order is a paraboloid of some kind. . or because (comp. 1) of the variable vector p has * Compare the Notes to page 90. may and itself he represented tions if same thing) details it is the product of the dimensions of the is which the curve . F (11. II. (on this plan) symbolized. which pass through an arbitrary point of space. func But if the n scalars t variables. for example. because it may be regarded as the intersection nf two surfaces. . And then. which enter into the ex.. .i. by a system of two anharmonic and tangential eqaa. be functions of and we may write accordingly. in this case. III.] VECTORS OF SURFACES AND CURVES IN SPACE. as being itself a. by their tangential equations. 95 In genethat the surface becomes. we may consider any scalars.the class of such a curve be defined to be the number of its osculating planes. and are repreIn this view. as that employed in the dinates.) A curve of double curvature tangents to the curve to may also be considered sion (or arete de rebroussement) of a developable surface. p = <^{t. a curve of double cursented. then this class is the product of the classes of the two curved surfaces just now mentioned: or (what comes to the vature . a. 97). if those n sc'dars x be oW functions of one independent t. I. or the number of points (real or imaginary*). by But we cannot enter further into these of quadriplanar coor the mechanism of calculation respecting which would indeed be found to be the same. a ruled (or hyperbolic) paraboloid. 68) the plane [abed'] at infinity is then one of its tangent = 0. because its centre is then at infinity^ in virtue of the equation hl>b (aDa + + cT>c + dud) Fo = . planes.CHAP. and variable scalar. tivo independent and scalar then p becomes a function of those two scalars. pression of a variable vector. p= xai+ x_a^ + . and may write. x. . and u. = Ixa. supposed to be rational and integral. . the term P (comp. and this surface may be supposed to be circumscribed at once two given surfaces^ which are envelopes of variable planes (98). as such. known method (comp. Xy.
that it is the vector of an for their common centre. or OA.) The equation (comp.96 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. is the vector of a cone of the second order with o for its vertex (or which is touched by the three planes OBC. b'. and having tangents at the corners of that triangle respectively parallel to the opposite sides thereof. .)). oii\ie sides of that triangle. u) . (3. p = ara + y/3. . of inflexion. which is inscribed in abc and the middle points a'. that p is the vector of the plane abc. c'. and with OA. according to the may form of the vectorfunction cp and p may be said to be the vector of this line. whereof the sides of the triangle abc are at once the asymptotes. the expressions. = f3a + u^^ + v^y. (4. (Jo. 98. double curvature. o still expresses that p the vector of another cone of the second order. ob. with for vertex. ' l. or that it is the vector of that line itself. 25.p=____. for conjugate semidiameters. oc for three of its sides (or rays). I..p=. with the origin o DC. and therefore the right line oo'. considered in like manner as the locus of an arbitrary point P thereon.—. of which the vertex is still section (comp. In the Ilnd case. subart. that p is the vector of an ellipse. p = a. or .) The equations.) The equation (comp. or curve. p = t'^a^^ «2/3 + (< + uy y. 1st. which may be plane or of become a even right line. 46). or to the manner in which this vector p depends on the two independent scalars that enter into its expression. with i + m + r = 0. cab .. 63)... plane generally for its locus a curve in space. signifies that p is the origin . according to the form of <p (^. Fig. OCA. ob. signify 1st. 25). . and Ilud. 53). may be said to be a conjugate ray of the cone. being . Il. p 54). the section of this cone^ the triangle made by the plane abc. but with OA. the points of contact of those sides with that conic. (5 J The equation (comp. or curved.. circumscribed to the triangle abc.) As Examples (comp. I for wth a. ob. ellipsoid. and Ilnd. (2. while the mean point (say o') of that <na«^Ze is the curve. 27) by the plane abc I)eing a cubic curve. = r^a + «"' /3 + p is y'l y. (3. and the three (real) tangents a. that p is the vector of a variable point p on the right line ab . from the vertex o conjugate point oi to that mean point. II. The section its by the plane abc is a new ellipse. its the vector of a cone of the third order. (1.) The equation (comp. being an ellipse (comp. Fig.a + y/3 + zy. 1st. signify. p is the vector of a surface.» 4 y2 = 1 for the and x"^ + y'^ ^ z^ = the Ilnd. with t \u\v = 0. ^ expresses that p centre). [bOOK I. considered as the locus of a point. .
t' = cu + ds. and which passes through the given point e is assigned in 65. the common bisector ofthe two diagonals. whereof the vector (7.v's'dd + u'v'c — v's'd u where s'=zbt + cv.)). which bisects every chord pp' that K is the centre of The three vectors. infinitely scribed.) it or in other words (comp. and presses that p is gauche quadrilateral E. passes through the centre k. or when we have the sta equation. or the other pair of opp^» site sides.CHAP.) In general. And this surface passes through the mean point . M of that quadrilateral. 96. s'taa s't'a t'u'hfi  t'u'b + u'v'cy .) When ac — bd. v' = as+ bu.c^ rf which andu V a. III.) If but p is still a variable vector. (1. + tuji + uvy + vsS T st + f tu uv ' \ vs or simply. y+ c). " . passes through the surface. rt +y ' ^^^ ' 2 2 are terminocollinear (24) . 98. p p is = sta^ tu[3 + uvy vsd. subart (9. /* = i(a + /3 + from line. exy. but upon which the quadrilateral abcd is still super(10. 97 sta in + tub^ + uvcy + vsdd + <t«6 + uvc + vsd a. art. . 52). the last vectorexpression for p. when = t = u = v = ^.] VECTORS OF SURFACES AND CURVES staa IN SPACE. are two variable scalars. AC. of which the centre (comp. subart. it is easy to prove. bd. d are four constant vectors. /3. and 98. (10.h. (8.)). bc and ad. or s of the system of the four given points A . that this point fixed point k. and because last vectors is constant. it follows that k is : the vector oi z. then the vector of a ruled paraboloid. the vector of a ruled (or singlesheeted) hi/perboloid. tho variable vector p takes the value (comp. subis distant. with s +u = t + v = l. on wldch the abcd is superscribed.) ). . =dv + at. (9. d because. that this paraboloid is the locus of a right which divides similarly the two opposile tides AB and dc of the same gauche quadrilateral abcd . while are still four constant scalars. then p' it is = op' is found that the suvi of these two the vector of another point f' on the same hyperboloid . 52. if then a gauche quadrilateral abcd be superscribed on a ruled hyperboloid. we make (comp.
^(t): so that the variable will te?id to coincide with the fixed point p. or and ff„. Q of the P + Ap=(p{tiAt). part of a new vector. on thetangent to that curve at p.. Suppose now that the scalar. t and u being. pt. And if this number n be indefinitely increased. manner (comp. 7iA0(i). or (say) t. i7i space. the two differences Ai and A/). for the vector oq of another point same curve. of the form = pT = lim. other finite dif ference. <r„ = pr.)> in = op is generally the vector of a point p of a. in other words. Fig. two given * and {generdXXy) finite Principia. to the curve: or. an expression of the form which . tiple. . and the origin o. is in like . which vector pt will evidently definite vector. the vector p and the point p will he fixed: but the two points Q n^P. Section 100. the variable (in general) tangential to a fixed position t. 32). ff„. t and u. and that the chord r^^ A/). But point Q. will tend (generally) to definite limit. and of ^{t + n~^u) . but the number n as variable (the/orm of the vectorfunction (f). or pr so that we may nAt = u. if we treat the two scalars.* depending on the supposed continuity of the function 4>(^). tend will R point be We shall thus T have a limiting equation. The equation I. u . 7 On (99.98 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. curve /> gives evidently. to a certain or o„. or made to tend to infinity. PR = £ra5 = lim. of the curve although the chord pq will thus be indefinitely shortened. Differentials of Vectors. as constant. Then. PQ . [bOOK I. Ta=Ap = A(p(t) = (p(t + At)(p{t). such being the common limit. the write. namely. Bo that the chord p% regarded as being itself a vector. comes thus to be repre sented (4) by the Jinite difference. of n^u. and ?iA/> = w pq = . then each of the two diflferences A^. A^. is the n*^ part of a new or pq. r. as above. its n*^ mulPR or <r„. if n= 00 nAt=u. And Compare Newton's . and the multiple vector will (in general) vary together. A/> will in general tend to zero . being given). scalars.
a and independent scalars. u = dt. both genew and finite vector. is the (corresponding) differential of the vector />. whereby the old oi former or (p (t). if III. we may write. * Compare . = atu .l^c+f)^' the Note to page 39. on those two according to a law expressed by the formula. considered as a Function (p of a Scalar t^ by the following General Formida d/) : = d<f>(O = lim. making A^ where a is a given vector. where a is still a given or constant vector. depending vector. we may express our Definition"^ of the Differential of a Vector />. = .] DIFFERENTIALS OF VECTORS. and shall denote it by the corresponding symbol^ d/>. and /(<) denotes a scalar function of the scalar variable. t we now define that the differential scalar function of two independent scalars. 71 n = 00 / ) ) in which t and . t given vectorfunction have the form. so as to have. we shall de ^/?ethat the vectorlimit. r or o». u where « is any given scalar^ and n is a variable whole number. fif). and finally. and derived from that given law. dt are two arbitrary is. let the p = ^(t') = ^t^a. t. is a new and dt. and not necessarily supposing that p is appoint of a curve. determined by the precisely d/(() i'f. p the single scalar. we have a ff m\2 ^ aul u \ CTn = nAp = au{t\—\.nJ0(if+ )<(>(m.) As an example. and to denote it by the symbol d«. under the supposed conditions. dp provided that = d0(O = d.CHAP.a/(O = ad/(O. Then because a is a common factor within the brackets { } of the recent general formula (100) for dp. to call the second of these 99 scalars the dif we then agree two given ferential of the first. era.. in general. similar formula : of a scalar function. writing dt and dp for u and dp = = dl d(p(t) ^\ = atdt. Then. depends upon (1. let (p(t) =af(t).) In general. Or. (2. eliminating the two symbols u and t. nerally finite and dp scalars. (Ta. and t = dp.
if t denote the time. however..100 which can ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. And if again we denote the n"» part of this h. and for d0 (t) that. 16) the not less actual (or finite) vector. as a derived function of the former variable. we shall thus have the equation. or of the moving point.. dt. and not merely as a differential coefficient. The the vectorfunction. last scalar by by the finite scalar. were a scalar function. differential dtp (ji) In the theory of Differentials of Functions of Quaternions. to represent thus the velocities of a point moving in space according to any supposed law.* <p(f). which the : first member is here considered as the actual quotient of two finite sca "We may. . A= !^ « 7—^^ . [bOOK I. p or tp' {t). as such. In fact. dt f (with our definitions) a particular but important case of the differential of a vector.=o /(^ + ^)/(0 h . (Compare again the Note f The subject of the Hodograph will be resumed. 3^ = d^ in lim /. this derived vector p' may be called the Fector of Velocity : because its length represents the amount. either of the two usual symbols. we conrection struct a p' new curve = ^'(0) vw . (3. a definition of the which is expressed by an equation of precisely • but it will be found the same form as those above assigned. again Fig. dt. may be called the orbit of the motion. t and may denote it. where A is a new variable scalar. work. of which the corresponding equation may be written as then this new curve has been defined to be the HoDOGEAPH. * will be proposed. so that the derived vector particular value. if we write d^ = nh. dp exactly as (5. and its di And if. from the expression of which the differential d< disappears. for d/(«). as df(t) d^. usual. 82) from one origin. to connect mode. curve PQ. which is by dividing (comp. consider this quotient. by setting off vectors ov = p' (comp. for quaternions. is the direction of the velocity. (4. it to page 39.) in at a subsequent stage of this it.f as the old . forms denoting that actual and finite vector. In applications to mechanics. dp or d^ (t). = 1. dt = (b'(t) . . <10(O = vt<p (0 . gives thus dp = p'. p or 0. .) For example.) p' is if = Dtp . for the derivative of a vectorfunction. expressed by the equation p = 0(<). f'(t) and Dtf{t). with the equations. the n*^ part of the given and (generally) finite differential^ d^. by lars. namely. or derv)ed. the formtda these two last obtained. with Newton's Law of Gravitation. we shall thus have the equally general formula : vtp = Dt(p (0 = hm. what appears to be the best almost requires the assistance of Quaternions. and if the term p of the variable vector p be considered as a moving point. easily be proved to agree^ in all its consequences.) In like : manner we may write. such as 0'(9)» . with the usual rules for dij^erentiating functions of one variable. the quotiefit d0(g): dq is not generally independent ofdq and consequently that it cannot properly be called a derived function. d* = p'dt . of the quaternion q alone.
is. Dj. p = (0 + d^ (t). be said to be the Vector of Acceleration. by an equa be remembered that u. \h& finite differential dp. represents.p. (9.t  p". dyp. whereof the former are connected with the latter. of the Vector of Position p. * (8. 2). come products of vectors.) The mechanism of all such differentiations of vectorfunctions is. in the finite interval of time dt. if p = ^(f) garded as the edge of regression (comp. differentiate 101 its We may a vectorfunction twice (or oftener). then the equation of that surface itself.) If any other curved surface (comp. and with the two arbitrary (hut fnite) scalars. because the most general form of such a vectorfunction. 01^ simply. where p" = T>tp' ^''Ot'^p. or generally those new functions of which can only be expressed (in our system) by Quaternions. dent and scalar variables. II. then some few new rules of differentiation become necessary. ifaX the end of this time t all foreign forces had ceased to act. we obtain a result of tbe form.) p" may We may also say that. may be any arbitrary scalar.) : p if it = ^ (0 + «^' (0 . y). being treated as constant factors (comp. we differentiate the derived vector p'. (6. . T>yp. by the relations. In applications to motion.] DIFFERENTIALS OF VECTORS. the right line (suppose pt in Fig. and so obtain what may be called two partial (hut finite) differentials. (10.) In geometry. which has been consi dered in the present Book. (7. with respect to either variable separately. and where it is important to observe that. in length and in direction. 'imvci%(imiQ\y following the time t. the definitions adopted. . or as p itself. subart. precisely the same as in the usual processes of the Differential Calcu lus. or this <f) expression for p. dxp = Dxp • da. x and now denotes a vector function of two indepenwe may then differentiate this equation. or at least two vectors parallel to two tangents to that surface at the point p so that their plane is (or is parallel to) the tangent plane at that point. the vectors a. where a is a constant vector. dp' = [)"d^. as those which have been established in the present to consider quotients or vectors Section. . where d<2. second differential of the vector p d2p = ddp = d p'd< = dp' . although deduced from the same (or nearly the same) definitions. 6y. 99) of the form xa. . * As is well illustrated bv Atwood's machine.) be represented tion of the form. And these two differentials (or derivatives) of the vector p of the surface denote two tangential vectors. d^p denotes (dty . But when we shall . at the : present stage.. re) of a developable surface. (12. and two partial derivatives. where y. again 99. dx. may be thus written (comp 99. d^p = Dyp . and if we suppose that the second differential.CHAP.) be the equation of a curve of double curvature. and a. is that of a sum of products (comp. if < denote the time. with is as finite a vector as dp. by an obvious extension of notation dd^ or d^^. d^p. by the tisual rules of the calculus. dt^ . 32) which woidd have been described. by a freely moving point P. 98. in mechanics. considered as the locus of the tangents to the curve. For example. is a variable scalar: so that we have only to operate on these scalar coefficients x . and so obtain if sticcessive differentials. dy. p = ^(x.) III. as usual. 6. of the scalar t is zero^ then the . II. or At.
) As an example of partial differentiation (comp. in p = 0(a:. subart. 2p = XD:rp + y^yp so that the three vectors. along be proved. 99. boc and COA. of the right line ab. that the same cone is touched by the two other planes.. which holds good for vectorfunc. 1).102 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. d^(pt=adt'i. d^(pt where a is dH 0. D^p. (3.) ) is the vector of a certain cone of the second order.) = ^{t + dt') When — 0(i). [bOOK I. a constant vector. (13. when we shall come to conyiect recent remarks will perhaps them.+ 0. tions. the finite difference. p. and the 9) the right lines oa and ob are parallel to two of the tangents to the . subart. 6).p and therefore. And in like manner it may . the vector of owe sheet of such a cone. is A^{t) the first term of the development so obtained. (12. and that (comp. passes through the origin o character of the locus of ihaX point p. = atdt. under the : form. if drawn (18) from one common origin. at any point p. = xa + (x + 7/)y. of any such development. by an extension of Tai/lor's Series. nor even suppose the conception. we make p = i(a + ^). we have d(pt <pt= ~at^. in the same example. in which the variable vector p. does not postulate the /Jossi6i7tVy. . and (pit+ dt) = a (< h dty = \at^ + atdt + ^adfi. any supposition that dt is small. a: D^p = a. &c. and develop e d^. + y) y . say . d2 . to which we next proceed. . Dyp. are con: tained (22) in one common plane. the values. and ob' t which again agrees with former results.1. we have Dyp = ^. rigorously. (comp. which implies that the tangent plane to the surand thereby verifies the conical face. y = . the two partial derivatives of p are the following : real scalars. at a later stage. oa' surface at that point so that the cone in question is the side (or ray) oc'. with that theory of Quaternions. again the subart. which p (comp. if it being supposed that d'^t= (as in subart. which we prefer. may generally be developed. as well as for scalar functions) the first differential d<pt of the function but we do not choose to define that this Differential is (or means') that first term : because the Formula (100). or more precisely. &c. Many appear more clear. 9). or op. at the middle points a' and b' of the two other lines BC and CA and therefore along the two other sides (or rays). of a vector (11. whence it follows that the middle point. %p = y/3 + (a. 3 to Art. Thus. we thus suppose At = dt.) If. and df. 99. c'.) It will be found that a vector function of the sum of two scalar variables. " vector" being here used as an adjective) of two scalar variables^ function (the word let us take the equation.)^(<) = £^V>(0. if x and y be supposed to be Here. .y)={a:2a+y2/3 + (x + y)2y}. — d3 + . or the term of first dimension relatively to hence (by a theorem. = 0. is one of the points of the conical locus recent subart. = 1. terminates. i>:. touched by the plane aob. without (14. 0(< + dO = 0(O + d^(O + i(lV(O+^d3^(O + =(i + d + .
&c. Section 1. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES RESPECTING QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS. 16.BOOK II. AND AS INVOLVING ANGULAR RELATIONS. Scalar quotients lar or opposite. CHAPTER I. and or ob. Vector quotients^ of vectors divided by scalars. III. have been those of parallelism between vectors (Art.= a ic in the last cited Article. relations^ considered in the fore going Book. 15). tion — m II.) and the only quotient s^hXthQvto employed. . with jSwo^ll a (comp. Art. — Introductory Remarks The only angular . have been of the three following kinds : I. as —= a in Art. Scalar quotients of scalar s^ such as the arithmetical fracin Art. a or oa. ON QUATERNIONS. shall not only both be /3 each of which tlie the Dividend (or numerator). as we shall also call them). such as — =for = q. 101. 14. First Principles adopted • from Algebra. as of vectors. CONSIDERED AS QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS. Divisor (or denominator). But we now propose to treat of other geometric Quotients (or geometric Fractions. with directions either simi . . 2.
on the other hand. but shall also be inclined to each other at distinct (In general) an Angle. We shall = 5'. of a General Quo of Vectors. without reference to It was. any part of the present work . becomes a Factor. that of which the possession was assumed. and from two'^ right angles. perhaps. to what we have called (provisionally) quotient. q. with Angular Relations in a given plane. Indeed it is hoped that a very moderate amount of geometrical. More generally speaking. from zero. but it was thought that it might interest one class. and from a given dividendline their geometric j3. fully and easily any attentive reader. as in algebra. may be learned. of the Vectoe. t Such as homology. at least. [bOOK II. and trigonometrical prepasufficient to render the present Book. involution.. in several of the foregoing Sections. it will be to and useful possible suppose a much less degree of acquaintance with many important theoriesf of modern geometry. ration will be found algebraical. It i proper to premise a few general principles respecting quotients of vectors. than pose of the former Book. or in space. Vectors. /3 * j3. &c. 102. 103. which the First Book was designed to develope. a. may be evident that the supposed operation of division (whatever its full geometrical import may afterwards be found to be). 25. not strictly necessary to introduce any of these modern geometrical theories. but are here adopted by definition. may (or rather must) be conceived to correspond to some converse act (as yet not fully known) oIl geometrical multiplication: in which new act the former quotient. from the definitions incidentally given. so as to produce (or generate) the line therefore lorite. or simply. and operates on the lineu. treatise. . In introducing this tient new conception. q. from every even multiple of a right angle. in Art. for any other in the applications subsequently made. of students. it is algebra. by which we here conceive ourselves to pass from a given divisorline a. as intelligible to well as the early parts of the preceding one. homography. which were not wanted for the purBut. j3 = qa. it will obviously be necessary to employ some properties of circles and spheres. and generally whatever depends on anharmonic ratio : although all that is needful to be knoAvn respecting such ratio. when /3 : a= $.104 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. to see how they could be combined with that fundamental con ception. which are m(^QQdi suggestedhy And 1st.
suggested if by algebra. As a Ilird principle. importance of this very natural and obvious assumption will soon be seen in its applications. 105 to even if the two lines a and /3. in the opposite order also. then q = q' . a J \13 .] FIRST PRINCIPLES ADOPTED FROM ALGEBRA.. q and q\ are equal to each other in one order. 16) will then allow us to treat as identities the two following formulae 13 a a=)^a=(5. 33. divided by equal vectors. in any case. 105. that we shall never admit that any two geometrical quotients. t It is be seen. foj' the present. that unequal The vectors. we shall next lay 3' it i3 down. then j3' = /3 * . a a = a q. be supposed be inclined to each other. give unequal quotients. principle. of EQUALITY as existing quotients. P . at a later stage. As a Ilnd general principle. without at the same time admitting that they are equal. j3 still denote tivo vectors. what is indeed included in this Ilird in virtue of the identity q = q^ that if q' = q. without being at the same time equal to each other: or in symbols. although we shall. in the development of the Quaternion System. that if * q = q. and under a slightly varied form. and q" = q. that these two formulae are permitted. 104. a a a = a. and without adopting which we could not usefully speak. notation (comp. however. we shall between any two geometrical next assume that two such quotients can never be equal to the same third^ quotient. which indeed may be considered to pervade the whole of mathematical language. that and — =. and q denotes their geometrical quotient : because we have not yet even begun to consider the multiplication of one vector by another. I. or oa and ob. scarcely necessary to add. then q" = q. It will and even required. as in Fig.CFIAP. : And this very sim ple and nvLinvoS. or in words. or the division of a quotient by a line. abstain from writing also such formulae* as the following: *— = j3. where a. or in words. — a qa = q.
.1.
104). therefore (by the Ilnd principle of the fore going Section. it is thus. abstain from writing also — = X. to the case of remembered that we have proposed (15) to extend the use of this two vectors which are (in the usual sense of the word) line. at least. which is either similar or opposite in direction to a. whether of the positive or of the negative kind. posed. zero. in as the quotient In passing from a to Xa. By an actual scalar. whether acute. such as j3. 103) to write. 109. to 1 and we preserved or reversed . we mean here one that different from An (15) a null vector . it is vectors cannot be a null scalar. or : right. which = j5' xci in neither case. according as the scalar coefficient. or zero. a NonScalar. For let x denote any such (actual*) scalar. is positive or negative . Whatever else a quotient of two inclined vectors to be. we a Z^erec? generally (15) the length of the line a. then. in the ratio of + a. . But we have agreed — = x. multiplied by a null scalar. it 107 cannot generally be equal to any of tlie (socalled) reals of algebra. two parallel^ vectors (17). stated in Art. we took into acof count not only relative length. in proceeding to form. parallel to one common even when they happen to be parts of one and the same right line. LAR : or in other words. is or in other words (comp. more definitely than we have yet done. a we must. Now. the equation impossible. actual vector. or obtuse /3. the direction of that line. And in like manner. then we have seen (15) that the product xa denotes another (actual) vector. or ratio of the usual kind. is inclined to a. x. has for product therefore unnecessary to prove that the quotient of two actual t It is to be terra parallel. 2). say j3'.] QUOTIENT OF TWO VECTORS A QUATERNION. the conception of the nonscalar quotient (108). as by an actual vector (comp. under a the same conditions : x still denoting a scalar.CHAP. under the conditions here sup(16. * is which for simplicity may be supposed (18) to be co1). ov factor. I. under the form o^ similarity or opposition. or Xa = j3. can it represent any vector. optica inclined : : vectors. and let a denote any (actual) vector. but also relative direction. according as the scalar coefficient x was positive or negative. at any actual angle. $' = j3 a = Ob oa. may be found forming the conception of the scalar itself. as in algebra.
or below the plane of the paper. which we shall presently call the tensor of the quotient. we ought to know not only how many degrees. 104. or by a number* expressing that ratio the latter element of the same complex relation is now represented by an Angle. without any reference to directions. but also its since otherwise. for the purpose of distinguishing one quotient of vectors from another. and to call all rotations positive when they * This number. Or. we must its magnitude (or quantity). for its axis. Again in estimating this angle. to a positive scalar : although it might perhaps more pro. then the positive axis of the rotation aob. . which the rotation is performed . towards which the rotation is directed. 33. : braical sign. we have 5^7/ to take account both of the relative length. in violation of the principle stated in Art. ob in space. in Fig. aob and not simply (as it was before) by an alge. f If righthanded rotation be thus considered as positive. the angle b aob contains. must be conceived to be directed downward. [bOOK II. or other parts of some angular unit.33. as being derived solely from comparison of lengths. may be whole or fractional. But while the former element of the complex relation here considered. Fig. 111. if we agree to select some one fixed hand (suppose the right ^ hand). perli/ be said to be a signless number. and of the hand (as right or left. in calculation. of the two lines compared. when viewed from a known side of the plane). 33) the direction of the rotation from oa to OB including a knowledge of the plane. 110. in ^^""^ o^'S. we must attend also to the contrast between two opposite angles. For a similar reason. we should have ob': oa = ob : oa. with oa which case (by 2) they would necessarily be unequal vectors. of equal magnitudes. or even incommensurable with unity but it may always be equated. in and in one common plane. is still represented by a simple Ratio (of the kind commonly considered in geometry). and of the relative direction. In short.108 initial^ ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIOiNS. between these two lines or vectors. for the purpose of know mg fully the relative direction of two coinitial lines oa. + or . if ob and ob' consider not only Plane: were tivo distinct rays or sides of a cone of revolution. but : also (comp.
or the aspect of bears to a right rotation direction of its positive axis. or elongation. And then the rotation aob may be considered to be entirely known. that for the complete determination. w^e find (as indeed is well known) that the determi nation of such a direction. we may speak q{ one "perpendicular oc to that plane aob as being the positive axis of that rotation and of the opposite perpendicular oc' to the same plane as being the . depends on polar coordinates* i or other angular elements. I. round which a rotation through that angle is to be performed. But whether we consider the direction of an Axis. by suggesting an appeal to results. and llnd. 1st.] QUOTIENT OF TWO VECTORS A QUATERNION. of these three latter elements. negative axis thereof: the rotation round the positive axis being zY^e//* positive. then. and therefore in the plane of the two Vines) from the direction of the divisorline. It appears. 109 are directed towards this selected hand. of the two lines . for any given angle aob. supposed for simplicity to be less than two right angles. and vice versa. a System of Four Elemerits.CHAP. for the purpose of passing (in the simplest way. with which his previous reading can scarcely fail to have rendered him familiar. Again. perpendicular to their common plane. to the direction of in a sense previously selected as the positive * The actual (or at least the frequent) 7ise of such co ordinates is foreign to the spirit of the present but the mention of them here seems likely to assist a student. or the magnitude (or quantity) of the angle while the two others serve to determine the direction of the axis. and considered as representing a rotation in a given plane from oa to ob. one (or towards a fixed and previously selected hand). the but not without a knowledge of these two things. from the foregoing discussion. System : . two 112. in order to determine^//^ their relative direction. oc : a Plane. or of such an aspect. is generally required. Of these four elements. but all rotations we^ative when they are directed towards the (dher hand. one serves (109) to determine the relative length of the two lines compared . admitting each separately of numerical expression. and the other three are in general necessary. of what we have called the geometrical Quotient of two coinitial Vectors. between them . or the ratio which it if we know. one represents the mutual inclination. then. or of some data equivalent to them. its quantity. .
in such a manner that each ' Several other reasons for thus speaking will offer themselves. in the course of the present work. which may be imagined to be an edge of the table. then. —Additional Illustrations. hcd and gcf. that ternion. a horizontal angle (supposed to be one of thirty degrees) repre The hcd sents a (lefthanded) rotation^ whereby the Fig. On the/ace cdef of the desk are drav/n two 5^ milar and similarly turned triangles^ aob and a'g'b^ which are supposed to be halves of two equilateral triangles . when own is merely turned about. which is com the angle which they form pounded of a relation of lengths. in its of this essential connexion of On account. In that Figure. The angle gcf (supposed here to contain forty degrees) represents the slope\ of the desk. of a planet or comet in astronomy. additional light may be thrown. and inclination of orbit. or the amount of its inclination to the table. And no more than four numerical elements are necessary. [book II. t These two angles. with a System o/'FouR numerical Elements. and of a relation of directions^ and to which we have given (by an extension from the theory of scalars) the name of a geometrical quotient." is generally a Qita Section 113. 3. 34. we have already a motive* for " the Quotient of two Vectors saying. plane. . for our present purpose: because the relative length of two lines is not changed. on this first concepby the annexed Figure 34. the dividendline. that complex relation (109) between two lines. the letters cdefg are tion of a Quaternion^ Some designed to indicate corners of a prismatic desk^ resting upon table. horizontal ledge cd of the desk is conceived to be elongated (or removed) from a given horizontal line oh. when their two lengths are altered proportionally^ nor is their relative direction changed. may thus be considered to correspond to longitude of node.110 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
and requisite to distinguish it from others. because or OB — OA and . is expresses that the length of the dividendline^ OB or double of the length of the divisorline. without being turned over (comp. Example. tion of the slope or aspect of the desk. from OA to ob. namely 60. merely turned about. " Quaternio. I. which is (in the same view) the Quotient of the two lines compared although (as the Figure is in part designed to suggest) no such 116. 1st. We m by its it * As to the mere word. The Ilnd numerical element. OBiOA and ob':oa. what has been above supposed). 115. Quaternion. o^b' — — . ber two to one. by that angular quantity. such as an alterawould make (in the view here taken) an essential change in the Quaternion. we consider the two quotients. o'a^ and o'b^ OB. or the two geometric fractions. as each Quotient. in a known direction (which in this case happens be towards the left hand. being removed from to it. namely 30. : Now change its when the triangle AOB own plane. 112). OA or o'a'. the IVth element. like Latin original. and 40. namely 40. Fig. The Ilird element. and the same relative direction. Ill rotation^ one aob or a'o'b' is one of sixty degrees. or Fraction." or the Greek noim reTpaKTvg. in or when the sides of that triangle are lengthened or shortened proportionally. for all that is essential to its conception. Finally. or as the numside o'b' as the angle. as seen from above). in this four numerical elements (comp. expresses here that the angle aob or a'o'b'.CHAP. Under these conditions of construction. which hand hand. is one oi sixty de grees. 36) is conceived to take place. so as to preserve the ratio (in the old sense of that word). . may then briefly refesay. which four numbers. of any one to any other of those sides. is . 2. 114. is to wards a known hand (in this case the right is face CDEF of the desk). in one trilengths alone be attended to. Of these four elements (to recapitulate 2. expresses here that the desk has an elevation oi forty degrees as before. and is directed towards common hand (namely the right hand in the Figure) while if : the side ob is to the side OA. having And we consider and speak of as the two other lines. in this mode oi illustrating the notion of a Quaternion* geometry. or from o'a' to o'b'. is to the side o'a'. as seen by a person looking at the the same for both of these two equal angles. while the corresponding rotation. a Set of Four : but is obviously used here. oa and relative the same length. expresses that the horizontal ledge CD of the desk makes an angle of thirty degrees with a known horizontal line oh. 30. as a Quaternion: because its complete construction (or determination) depends. on a system of are. in XhQ other. as being equal to each other. an alteration in any one of these Four Elements. and elsewhere in the present work. the 60. it signifies primarily (as is well known). in a technical sense. o'a' we regard the two lines.] ADDITIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS. th« namely the number o'b'.
equal.aternion. from the simple comparison of the tioo lines. 35. oc. AOB and COD. but are not im7nediately obtained as such. direct similitude. lar (and even. shall call tude. although not equal (110). Under the same conditions. and in angles. aob and although otherwise simi inverse simili and a'ob'. Fig. That is to say. will be conjugate quaternions. or a'ob formula of two triangles. an immediate consequence of the foregoing con regarded that two quaternions^ or tiuo quotients ception of a Quaternion. annexed Fig. respects the same as the relative length and the relative direction then in all of the two other 118. are * Fig. are as being equal to each other. rence to an angle on a desk. 36. and" the two the of lines. and on the Plane of a Qy. Angle. although the two latter elements are in fact themselves angles also. Section 4 117. we shall quotients : : write also the formula. od. It is On Equality of Qiiaternions . and ob' OA.* on account of their having a common side. lines. that the Four Elements which involves are the follow ing : Ratio. A which we AOB oc' aob'. it [book II. reserving this other formula. to denote that the aob'. A a'ob oc' a'ob'. and Slope. when the two triare similar and similarly turned. . Under the same conditions. oa or oa'). for simplicity to be all coinitial vectors^ supposed of (18). of which the Quaternion is the Quotient. A Aon'a'coD. 35 : the relative length relative direction (109). or o. Ledge. ob. in this case. oa. we shall write the following A AOB oc formula of COD . S ~ 3 CD oc ~ OB oa' y is a' by us considered and defined to hold good. as represented in the j. The two soon be defined to OB OA. one common plane. equal in absolute amourit of area. being (110). but with opposite algebraic signs (28). or that the equation.112 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
. can be reduced ' to a common denominator without chanoje ° of the valuej.. in each case. the line oe also in the plane cod. We situated at once in the plane aob. then let oe be any assumed of intersection of the two planes is : so that. merel}^ changed in position. and can then always conceive two other og. as if one were the reflexion of the other in a mirror or as if the one triangle were derived .2). And any two quacommon which have a ternions^ plane (through o). and similar directions. but if they be diplanar (see again 1 19).CHAP. When the vectors are thus all drawn from one com ihQ plane aob oi any two of them maybe called the Plane of the Quaternion (or of the Quotient). however. may therefore write. by a rotation of its plane through two right angles.] CONDITIONS OF EQUALITY OF QUATERNIONS. which is a quotient of two such vectors. convenient to extend the use of this word. ob. so the quaternion. 113 oppositely turned (comp. trans the new or transformed quaternions will be respectively equal to the old or given ones. to be Diplanar. to be different planes {intersecting therefore in a right line through the origin). by contrast. or quaternions part of the line . may be said. t That is to say. Aeogoccod. Fig. OF. (or generated) from the other. We OB OD = OA OC — — . I. mon of course also the plane of the inverse (or reciprocal) quaternion (or of the inverse quotient). Any tioo quaternions. ob: oa. may be said Complanar* Quaternions^ or complanar quotients. to be determined so as to satisfy the two condi tions of direct similitude (118). lines. are equal (. A EOF a * It is. by angles in parallel planes. when either vector port without rotation. or fractions but any two quaternions (or quotients). 36). II A AOB ^ OC COD. which have . ought not to be considered as vectors is undergoing any change. considered as geometric fractions (101). as include the case of quaternions represented all which have equal lengths. let oe be any line in their common plane.. oa. as follows. AOB. complanar. and complanar (119). so as to Indeed. and origin o. hy a.of either of them. 120. Let if OB — and OA they be — be the two given fractions. Q . 119.
g) in this case coinciding. to which in this case each (comp. cod are not only but similar planar directly (118). so that we may write of evidently = tioo neio lines of. og if are the OB OF ' OH ~0A~ OE and therefore. : : may comshall two triangles aob. drawn through the new denominatorline oe. of. 105) of the two given : equal and complanar quotients.1 14 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. (or 121. gives there(120). considered as a quotient (17). by 106. we a eof have A eog. and therefore quotient. and therefore 118). and one new quotient. OF OE ~ OB Oa' OG OD OC ' OE is and thus the required reduction effected. It may be added that plane aob. even equally long. but must be considered as complanar with every geometric . then the two new numerator lines. But if these two latter symbols (or the fractional : : forms corresponding) denote two diplanar* quotients. in be represented (or constructed) by the quotient of two simiany proposed plane whatever. between quotients (117. oe being the com mon denominator sought. also the tioo equations [bOOK II. fore here only one new triangle. as a consequence of their diplanarity. while numerators. 122. of and og. are quotients. If now the = og new The general construction points f. so that A aob oc cod. for the reduction to a common denominator. (by 2) unequal vectors. as being situated in two different planes. unequal. 107. without having either the direction of that line itself or the direction opposite thereto they are therefore . of OK. * And therefore non scalar (108) for a scalar. have different directions. ob oa and od oc. has no determined plane. such that A hoe oc OE new or reduced h be a new point in the aob. og (or the two F the G. by 20). is equal. we shall have also. OD OB OG + OF OD OB OG ~ ~ OE OC OA OC*OA~Of' ' OD OB OC OA ~ OG OH ' whatever two geometric quotients (complanar or diplanar) be represented by ob oa and od oc. . if they should happen to be whence it follow^s (by 104) that the tivo new also (by 105) that the two old or given quotients. since it may larly or oppositely directed lines. eof.
We shall also employ the notation to express that the vector the quaternion q. that a Quaternion. 8. that diplanar quotients of and therefore that Diplanar Quaternions (119). a all being impossible. be made) coinitial (18). y. /3. a y to express that the two quaternions. and which we had sought to illustrate (comp./3. then. Fig. ^ quotients are unequal. denoted here by q and q'. 7a. 110) of its constitution. 7lll«. as an essential part (comp. It results. considered as the quotient of two mutually inclined lines in space. whether of lines or of quotients thus we shall write the formula. vectors. a. and as necessary to the completeness of its conception. are situated in one supposed to be (or to plane . y is in (or parallel to) the plane of . /3. propose to use the We mark III as a Sign of Complanarity. the four lines —=— one y . 34) by the consideration of angles on a desk : namely. to which we had arrived by general considerations. 123. are always unequal . are complanar And because we have just found (1*22) that diplanar (119). unless from o be in common plane.CHAP. I. and S  a. and therefore that ihefour vectors a. involves generally a Plane. 115 from this analysis. /3. and in (what might be called) a popular way before. we includes two complanarities see that one equation of quaternions of vectors. a new and comparatively technical process thus confirming the conclusion.^> to express that the three vectors. and the analogous formula.] PLANE OF A QUATERNION. y. q\\\q. . =^. or^iir^. in such a manner that we may write. if the equation of quotients.
by combining inversion with = ^. A it a'ob' oc aob. a'b' or a"b". 13 and Fig. a a"ob" cx aob . inversely. whence easy to infer that for quaternions. because. points o and a a and : For a similar reason. \1) xa = oa'. ob. whence (comp. It if is ./3. j3 being any two vectors^ and x being any scalar . of a triangle aob. to the base ab. or those sides way prolonged. . then A aob a cod. If the sides. y a 7 p h C alternately^ = ^ p 7s'> being permitted now to establish the converse of the mula of 1 18. we may write generally. for quaFig. the general ^' equation.116 124. then (by 15. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Fig. . ternions as in algebra. . xaa. w^e have also this other equation. o nation. . and Aaocc/bod. ts . oa. then. = y 4. we have evidently the relations of direct similarity (118). 37. o CL a . where a' is some point on the indefinite right line through the so that the plane aob contains the line oa'. 7 either 126. whatever two scalars x and y may be any two vectors. or to say that II last for OB OD — =— OA oc . and . as well as for ordinary or algebraic quotients. 35) that COD. a and /3 still denoting evident (comp. if jS a it ^ . 125. alter Under the same condition. if a = OA and j3 = ob as before. A AOB a it is then Aboaocdoc.. . 37) by &UJ parallel. follows that 12) we may write. or identity. we have generally the ibllowing formula o^ complanarity of quotients. be cut (as in Fig. [book II With the same notation for complanarity.. Art.
128. that the rotation. is supposed (112) to be the simplest possible. : or (as we shall the directed towards righthand. 112). or fixed. line OA. of this axis ox. that the axis shall be usually supposed to be a line the assumed origin o and llird. to the dividendline ob. and supposed length so that the term to be equal to some assumed unit of length . that the to of this line shall be be given.] AXIS AND ANGLE OF A QUATERNION. we have the product (comp. is positive henceforth assume) motion of the hands of a watch. where x is Xq ^ =—'— p a =z — = —— — — a X~^a a —— — x ^a • qj. 15). merely conventional. and any scalar x. of any quaternion (or geometric quotient) 127. in the multiplication of a quaternion by a scalar (as in a scalar. the order of the by factors is indifferent. In this manner. of course. and therefore to be in the plane of the two lines (or of the quater To render still more axis of a quaternion. and a. j3 are ani/ two vectors. here spoken of. has been already said (111.* like the definite this conception of the add. or more fully that the to define led naturally ob : oa. 117 xa a ' again ani/ scalar. and the reader may (if he pleases) sub stitute the /e/Vhand throughout. we are that the Axis. and on Index of a Right Quotient^ or Quaternion. 107). It is easy also to see. for every given nonscalar quotient * This is. . which surface we may call the surface of the unitsphere. Ilnd. ox drawn /rom : X.CHAP. 129. the multiplication of a vector SO that. from the divisor. From what is and a right line perpendicidar to the plane aob of that quaternion is such that the rotation round this axis. Section 5 the On the Axis and Angle of a Quaternion . I. 1st. positive axis. being also generally less than a semirevolution in that plane. we may nion). . that for any quaternion q. is situated (by its construction) on a given spheric surface described about the origin o as centre.
we may now write. Denoting then. when the quaternion reduces itself to as well as the axw. for any two vectors a. j3. ordinary geometrical sense. Employing then the usual sign of perpendicularity. the notation in the text may suffice. but for the present. of a quaternion q. with us. which : Ax. length. . then the axis (like the planeX) becomes entirely indeterminate in its direction." like the word of quaternions. where tt is Lq<Tr. J_. by the less arbitrary (or more systematic) symbol^ UVgr . the may be called an on its account of assumed UNITVECTOR. any such scalar by x. 131. the two inequalities^ following Z<7>0. or right. shall simply be." may thus be restricted. as above. Ax. q. We . reasons will be assigned for denoting this axis. the general quaternion. X determinate. or for every given quaternion q which does not reduce degenerate) to a mere positive or negative number. itself (or (108). a or briefly. for the present. q^ used as a symbol for two right angles. The Angle of a which the quaternion : by Euclid) and therefore being acute. of is the quotient this angle being supto one of usual kind here be the posed (such as are considered . by the symbol. such as ob oa. The angle. becomes to in zero . or obtuse (but not of any class distinct from these). t In some investigations respecting complanar quaternions^ and powers or roots it is convenient to consider negative angles^ and angles greater than two right angles: but these may then be called amplitudes and the word "An" Ratio. Ax . generally. unless we happen know a law. according as the scalar is positive or negative. at least for the present. in the transition from  to .^± a : R [<^ quaternion.118 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. [boOK II. and which we shall denote*. Compare the Note to page 114. When degenerates into a scalar. Ax. either zero or two right angles for its value. according to which the dividendline tends to become null. the formula . axis will be an entirely definite vector. the angle aob between the two lines. and the angle takes. L q and thus : shall have. .^±a. a 130.5. w^e have : * At a later stage. to its gle. at the same time. by the symbol Ax q.2±j3. x. when the quaternion is a shall denote this angle of a quaternion nonscalar (108).
128.) The system of the two equations. a a expresses that the point p is situated. lar).] CASE OF A RIGHT QUOTIENT. if a? < 0. where o and a are two given {or fixed) points. — OA OB . > A the quaternion q may Quotient .) . p is which contains all the points the given plane aob . but p is a variable pointy the equation a expresses that the locus of this point p line is 2 the plane through o. but not through o so that the locus of p may in this case be said to be the indefinite halfline. a = = an indeterminate unitvector Z re = tt.^ = Ax. a a expresses that the locus of the variable point indefinite halfplane. or ray. (1. for equating such a quotient. or "" Lq = . a a ^j^^ either . Ax. instead of the equations assigned above. with o for vertex. and are also at the same side of the indefinite right line OA. and passing through the point b because it implies that the angles AOB and AOP are equal in amount. to * Reasons will afterwards be assigned. if X > . /3= ob. Ax.) The equation (comp. is . or rather the p that are at once complanar with the three given points o. b being any third given point. ic> vector OB or /3 (cc being . .CHAP. for it is equivalent to the ybrmttZa More generally. the annexed Figure 38 q= . the equation. b.* or sometimes.^ = Ax.^. the most im.) If then then be said to be a Right Fig. if ofperpendicularity p j_ a (129). (4. P a ^ a expresses that the locus of p one sheet of a cone of revolution. ^ . or quatera Vector. which sets out from o in the direction of the understood to be a scaand we may write p = x/3.B as in portant are those of which the angle is right. 129). but not necessarily in one common plane. perpendicular to the OA (2. and when we have thus. . and OB _L oa. or on that line prolonged through /£. . I. a = OA and pop. and OA for axis.?. (3. nion. on the^wiVe right line OA. 132. 38. l'=L^. a Eight Quaternion. 0. . Oi' nonscalar quaternions. A. OR QUATERNION. namely to the line which will presently (133) be called the Index of the Right Quotient. as the point b. 119 Ax Z a: .
^. BO (1) or that p =aj/3. 118) of combined Index. a which is dendline. will be found to be supplied. situated on the prolongation of the revec y' pX Fig.Hjw and the diviand in thus passing from any nonscalar quaterevident that the angle (as lately nion to its reciprocal. from this definition of such an with our general definition (117. 119) of a quaternion. comp. that two right quotients are equal or unequal to each other. a a is * the opposite ray from o . bis. such as is that other quaternion. as serving already to show that even geometrical conceptions. and on Null Quaternions. several useful by the Calculus of Quaternions . in great abundance. oa. Opposite. be drawn in the direction of the ox of such a right quotient (and therefore perpendicular. a a expresses that the locus'oi p or that tor Ax. proper to point out these. Equality heticeen Quaternions. This other system of two equations. ) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. according as their two indexlines (or indices) are equal or unequal vectors. very simply and concisely. (or the Inverse. when considered as Characteristics of Operation on quotients of vectors. bears to the length of the divisorline. ob) and if the length of this new line oi bear to the length of that axis ox (and therefore also. by 127. and Norm of a Quaternion. 134. to each of the tioo given rectangular lines. 133.e=Ax.) Fig. Ax. then the determined. at the two symbols of the present Section. If a third axis line. for representing these and other geometric loci.) Other notations./3.. oa . 33. by 128. to the assumed unit of length) the same ratio. The Keciprocal =— ^^ . thus OB.^. [boOK II. Quotient. and Z. enable us to express. formed by interchanging the divisor. Section 6 On the Reciprocal. if /8' = ob' = . p is . (Comp. (6. which the length ofthe dividend.120 (5. oi. Conjugate. is said to be the Index of the Right And it is evident. or that p = x(3\ x>0. line.33. but it seemed the present stage. bis. it is . ^e=^_. line 01. a: < . 129.
is also permitted in the present Calculus. 1 q yet entering on the general \X\QOxy of multiof quaternions. 120. 107. it may be here remarked that if any two quaternions q and cq be (as in 134) reciprocal Xo each other.q =q '\ because tor a. p a product of two reciprocal quaternions is always to equal positive unit?/. 7/3770 137. because we have. a B a a a ^ a p p It is therefore unnecessary to introduce any notation. and \f q be any third quaternion. A A = Ax. pa 135. unitt/ .* q. \f one be denoted by the may (in the present System. by 106.^7. until its legitimacy shall have been established. : or . aob'. R . to express the symbol quaternion and its q. 107). as in Alge1 : bra) be denoted by the connected symbol. We have thus the two general formulae (comp. and each is equal to the quotient of divided by the other. we shall have (by the definitions in 106. When two complanar triangles aob. The B a a B a a . since. beyond what has been and division plication done in Art. then (as in algebra). the other new or peculiar mutual relation existing between a reciprocal. so Without that (by 135). but we defer the use of it. 134) 1 L=Lq\ ' q 136. 121 defined in 130) remains unchanged^ but that the axis (127. „ . I. if (by 120) we reduce q and q" to a common denominaand denote the new numerators by /3 and 7. with a com * The symbol q'^. we have the general formula. Ax. for the reciprocal of a quaternion «/.CHAP. in connexion with a general theory of powers of Quaternions. qq^ 1 q :q = 1 q .] RECIPROCAL OF A QUATERNION. 128) is reversed in direction: so that we may write generally.
and in all other re But the conjugate K^. jugate and the reciprocal. are (as in Fig. soon be seen that these two last equations (138) express.. 36). the /meon'mavbe ^ called (118) the rejkxion of the line ob (and conversely. the line OA (prolonged pendicularly the line bb'.' 122 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. of a speCts related to x as in algebra. then OA OA ° . are said to be 1 1 Conjugate Uuater />« r\ and if they^r^^ of them be still denoted by q. X having the same algebraic sign. 1st. man side oa. it follows. simply another scalar. .* ^ A aob' a' aob holds good. or x''^. 135) have equal angles. is denoted by the new sym.Ax . some point a' (as represented in Fig. of any proposed quaternion although they have in general unequal tensors. bol. and therefore! (by 135).. Xkvo^latter line the reflexion of the/ormer). 36. conjugate of that j^r^^. Ax K^ = . again Fig. aob and aob'. comp. 134. as may be seen l)y supposing the two equalhut opposite angles. 139. Thus. then the is thus the which second. that. . Ax. [bOOK II.Ko = Ax. 36) and any two conjugate quaternions (like any Uvo reciprocal quaternions. in Fig. q . to tend together to * t Compare the Note It will to page 112. so that the formula Quotients. is equal to that scalar x itself. in if necessary) bisects per. scalar x. we may write. . that the conq. 36) inversely similar {I IS). or of any other which is quaternion equal thereto. OB OA 138. x. with the construction above supposed (comp. with respect to the line oa Ilnd. Z K^ = L q. considered as a limit of a quaternion. generally. K^ : in which the letter K may be said t^ * to be the Charac teristic of Conjugation. that so that we may write. under the same condition. but opposite axes: Ilird. is The reciprocal of a scalar. then the hvo unequal OB OA NiONS — and — OA OB' • . ^ ob' OA x^ob OA From if this definition of conjugate quaternions. that the equation ^ — = K — holdgood. have always equal versors. zKa^Z.
gives always a Null Quaternion as the quotient. or to rally. when the angle aob is right. I. of the tioo conjugate fractions (or gate quaternions themselves ^ + Kq = 0+ ^ ^^ = Kg 2oa' oa . 123 write. two right angles. 140. b. but the zero on the rz^^^hand side quaternion). 141. * Somewhat later as will be seen that the equation is ^q = q may also be written ¥9 = 0. a a a a the zero in the numerator of the Ze/J^hand fraction representing here a null line (or a null vector. because then (by 104) we must have ob = ob'. or quaternions). is equal to the double whence (by 106). K^* = q . the sum of those two conjuis.CHAP. ob and tients. quoand K^' (137). if a. in geneopposite vectors^ will be found useful. but negative if that angle be obtuse. ob'. (for consistency yf\i\\ former definitions). and therefore each of the two (now coincident) points. the interval oa' between the origin o and the line bb' vanishes . =a scalar. In general. to equation. we have (by 106) the the usual symbol for Zero. and to denote this null quotient by In fact. divided by admit that a null an actual vector. b'. q of the line oa' . ob'). become two of which the sum is null (5). this sum is therefore always scalar.2). ob. q. by the construction represented in the same Figure. ral. gene zero. being positive if the angle Z ^ be acute. 1.] CONJUGATE AND NULL QUATERNIONS. We may therefore be any scalar if . . In the intermediate case. it necessary and the two lately vector. Now. must be situated somewhere on the indefinite right line oa. 5 and conversely*. Kx = x. and that this last another mode of expressing that the quaternion. 6) of the tivo numerators (or dividendlines. or rather and is natural. mentioned numerators. "of And it the equation denoting a null quotient (or thus we are entitled to infer that the sum. degenerates (131) into a scalar. the sum (comp. bb'=0.
to establish the three following cow verse formulae (which indeed result if from the three former) then : 9 + K^' > 0.. have. ^ + K(7 then Lq=\ IT Iir. that sum q + K^' cannot vanish. ing that is. may be denoted as follows (comp. cannot become equal to its zero unless dividendline vanishes. ob' becoming opposite vectors. because (by 104) the equation /3 L = a if a = . We are therefore entitled r.. of a rightangled quaternion^ or right quo(132). as andj3. we may infer. thus obtained are Opposite Quaternions. I . if ^ q < ll.q + Kq = III. is always equal to zero. the be any actual and finite vector. . .. without the lines ob. . . conversely. therefore.\i qV l^q < 0.requires the equation a j3 = 0. or geometric quotient. . and therefore the quaternion q becoming a right quotient {1^2). 0. so that Ihe opposite of any quaternion q.</ + K^' > IT 0. 142. 4) : P 0^0/3 ^=0^=^. if And because a quaternion. the three following formulae. 143. then Lq>.. and of its conjugate. if = 0. we shall say that the two quotients. Kq. ^q > ^' id . or q + [bOOK II.124 K^* + 5^. a. II'. 5' + K^. without the line oa' also vanish. are both divided by one common (and actual) vector. . if lq=l.< 0. j3 When two opposite vectors (1). ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . Lq <. with an actual and Jinite divisorline (as here oa). or of any quotient j3 : a. whereof the second exhibits a continuity in the transition from tient We the^r^^ to the third : !.
7) by the symbol + q. q 11. and IF.) ) the two following general formulae. (5. or of a rightangled (or right) quaternion (132). K^' then Kq ^Lq = ^. as before). that the It will be seen at a later stage. and their quotient is negative unHy. and therefore = OA. again 7). because. of 142. 126). = = (^) + ^ (+^) + (^) 0. 132. a a >ve shall know that p i a . . the conjugate of a right quotient. if Z^ = Z TT and conversely* (comp. In words. or + q.] OPPOSITE QUATERNIONS. so that we may write. may also now write. under this last form. or g + K7 = be transformed to this other equation. 125 while the quaternion q itself maj. a a a (^):^ = l. the equation. and p = op. 33. L{ = Tr. =IF'. reciprocals of opposite quaternions are themselves oppoor in symbols (comp. as in algebra (comp. 138). bis) . be denoted The sum of any two (comp. q q) because a a a = q. a or a ^ a (if + K^ = 0. so that we may establish (comp.Lq'i Ax. that the equation K^ = — 5.= 7575 (5 15 j5 Opposite quaternions have opposite axes. if an actual quaternion (that is. Ke = ^. a a a p The site . in full consistency with the recent formulae II.( q) = . q.' CHAP. is the right quotient opposite thereto . Sg = and that. (1. and conversely.) If then we meet the equation.. by 106 and 141. it expresses that the scalar part of the quaternion 7 vanishes : or that this quaternion is a right quotient (132). and supplementary angles (comp.q. on the same plan. * may . Kq = q. . Fig. . opposite quaternions is zero. if . it must be a right quotient. ^ = (1)^.Ax. one which is not null) he opposite to its own conjugate. 144. — = . We IF. I.
the plane through o. where x is any scalar. a expresses (by 139) that the quotient p a is a scalar . briefly. as a relation aob' . is easy also to prove. of any quaternion. / we may Figure 36. so that. ob'. and this last equation (comp. as in the annexed / bis.= 1. between the /our points o. or that K^ . conceive that. b. K' : or a ^K^ = 0. procal^ so also the conjugate ofthe conjugate. 137). a determined. p is [book OA II. and therefore (by 131) that or tt . As the opposite of the opposite. in Fig. K . A BOG a' AOB. we may write K2=KK=1. that It I. is that quaternion itself. or K^+K(^) = 0.. either on the line new point c OA itself. by abstracting from the subject of the operation. 'K. line bb'. or 1:%.126 locus of the point ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. 145. Fig. P procals are reciprocal.K=1. the equation. or the reciprocal of the redor in symbols.) The equation K(—q') = formula.) To prove that conjugates of reci«. (2. so that in this case. c. the formula. as in the former Figure 36. and 11. K^. A b'oc oc aob . 143) in this more general (1. A aob' a' AOB is (] 18. that the conjugates of opposite quaternions are themselves opposite quaternions .. while we have still the \ relation of inverse similitude. . 9 — Kq is included (comp. so as to satisfy either of the two following connected conditions of direct similitude : A bog a or simply.) On the other hand. by simply conceiving that the two lines ob. (2. the locus of p is the indefiits mtgle L (p a) is either : nite right line through the two points O and A. A. I . are multiplied by any common scalar or that they are both cut by any parallel to the . 36.K(g) = K(?. 36 or on that line prolonged through A.(^xq) = xKq. and that the conjugates of reciprocals are reciprocal: or in symbols. perpendicular to the line (as in 132. 126) may be proved.
127 OA 1 K. if j3. the formula OA ob' = K (oA : : ob). or* the reciprocal of its conjugate. =— OB OC 1 Jvg itself. the three vectors a. oc. y. the reflexion of the point b. a. subart. Pa we still suppose that y <x' = a^a. as a definition (137). between the two other (or inverse) fractions. we may therefore write. (5. or OB OB — = K OB — aob . under the same geometrical condition.K. have the transformations. /3 where a is some positive scalar. that equal to the versor divided by the tensor . the quaternion q and the conjugate of its reciprocal. bisects at right angles the shall we know that the point b' is Figures 36 (comp. Ug : Tq. I. 2) with this scalar and with the vector ^^ . c. : L^=lq. and the vector of b will be connected (comp. that is to say. d falls between A and c also let the vectors we shall then have expressions of the forms. and proportional between the lines OA. Ng . and it this last formula expresses the in verse similitude of triangles.= Ax.and — q . and ob oc.) Since : : 1 Ax. hythe right line OB . (^covnp. are conjugate qua(5 ternions. B.) Under the recent it follows from the most ele mentary principles of geometry. a > a.). (4. in length. 138. oc. . in some point a'. whereas it had only been previously assumed. as in either of the two tions. by the formula. (6. conditions of construction. with respect to that 138. and the same axis . which passes through the three points and that this line is. .) Conversely. A.= K— = K— q (3. metric fractions. that the common value of these two equal quater nions. OB oc (7. we meet. y .^ OC . II. that such conjugation exists. have the same angle. a mean Let then od be such a geometric mean. j3' being supposed to be all coinitial (18). = a^a. For then I. 1 a pair of conjugate quotients. with respect to the li?ie OA . that ang two geo — and — . and also to the quaternion itseU divided by the norm. common numerator — a and — a . OA or a^a ^ R — = K . OA ob and OA ob' have thus been proved (by subart. let it be set off from o in the common direction of the two last mentioned lines. d. if the denominator of the second be the reflexion of the denominator of ihQ first. which have a common numerator /3' a. The two quotients.CHAP. in any investigation. . so that the point symbols. that the circle.] vfe shall GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. = —. A boc expresses nothing more: or in other * It will bo seen afterwards.) Ob' OB : OC OA OB = —. 2) to be we can now infer this theorem. prolonged if necessary in either of two opposite direcline bb'. or that this line. generally. oD be denoted by the d = aa. OA. or q : K .) Conversely. or in words.5. ob OA. is touched at B. if — = K OA — . Kq may be represented by either of the two it is new symbols.).
should be equally long: or finally. how much geometrical meaning* is contained in so simple a formula. commentator. exactly as OP of the sphere is is a tangent. and with the vector aa for a radius and also that if is this spheric locus of p a we determine a common orthogonal to point c all the circles : described. but. (3 [bOOK II. Norm. which gives that inverse simili purpose it is only requisite that the length of ob should be (as above) a geometric mean between the lengths of OA. the similar triangles show (by elementary If then princi of ples) that the length in the simple ratio of bc is to that of ab in the subduplicate ratio of oc to OA . a a p in which a . which has been preserved through a citation made by his early A 9. OD (subart. in any re search. Page 11 of Halley's Edition of Apollo ni us. so as to pass through the two fixed points. where on the surface of a sphere. by which we can pass from any one to any other these last equations respecting p. 6). is . without (at the time) constructing any Figure. and any ratio of inequality (as here that of 1 to a). oc or that the two lines. If then we meet an equation of the form. it will be already. such that the (lengths of here ab and cb. 3G.) The product of two conjugate quaternions is is common NoRM. (Auo do9svT(ov arjfxiiiov. while the recent interpretation of the same equation gives this other relation of the same kind : length of p —a x length of a. of the point P p = op. which is described so as to pass through the point D for its centre. the\' will not each other in the given . of a celebrated local theorem of Apollonius of Perga. or ap and cp). tude. \. k. it is possible : to construct a circle in the plane (as here the circle bdb'). (11. or OD to OA . by the equation oc = a'^a. which can be A and c because every radius apc. we shall know that length of(^p — a^a) = a x length of(p — a). At a subsequent stage. (9. we shall know that the locus a spheric surface.t and denoted thus : qKq = N5. or as the scalar a to 1.) In the same Fig. bis). by the vector of every point B.OA. 8. 36. it is satisfied  ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. * student of ancient geometry may recognise. and to have the origin o (8). (10. in the present work. mdccx. we meet. t. and a is a scalar. and may be thus enunciated Given any two points (as here A and c) in a plane. the recent equation in p (subart. and the corresponding characteristic. to the circle ob to ABC in the recent Figure. which are inflected from the the) two right lines (as two given points to any common point (as B or p) of the circumference. a'^a — = K. shall be to ratio. apc. that b should be situated some But for this . into the language of vectors. (immediately) appealing to Geometry: but it was thought useful to point out. in the two equations of subart. his. at the variable point P. ob. (in Fig. a sort oi translation.128 words. are here adopted. pa p or p K=a. as suggestions from the Theory of Numbers . with its centre at the point O. N. Oxford. 8).) supplies Rules of or shown that the Calculus of Quaternions of Transfoimation. Eutocius. as before. as that said to be their of the last subart.) f This name.
and the vector aa for one of its radii. ob. and may all be said to be UnitVectors (129). AC. I. (asvectors) the quaternion itself is the quotient (112). (12.) "With this notation. 2. may be called a Radial Quotient. or sometimes simply a Radial. they are all radii. 4) that any AB.] RADIAL QUOTIENTS. was early seen (comp. N0 = 0. although it may occasionally be convenient to employ them. or iu symbols. which has the point o for its centre. and the of the characteristic. of a quaternion. RIGHT RADIALS. On the other hand. and by the definition of a norm. Ty. 129 It follows that NKg = Nj . For Tensor. but of which it will be proved that this norm is simply the square. It two radii. . or sphere. aud Fig. because their directions differ. but are also equally long. 8). qKq = 'Sq = (Tqy. 6. . assumes the shorter form : N? = a3: Section 7. we shall soon introduce the conception. we may suppose that all the vectors compared are not merely coinitial (18). and on the Square of a 146. or generally the ^'^' ^^" quotient of any two equally long vectors. inpare the Note to subart. which is of greater geometrical utility than the Norm. Quaternion. (Compare the annexed Figure 39. — On Radial Quotients. Art. And then the quaternion. oa. the transformations : OB _ OB OC OB OB' _ OC OB _ OC OB OA a OA OA a OA OA &:' j a \lengthofa As a limit. when we are attending only to relative direction (110). the equation of the spheric locus (subart. so that if their common length be taken for the unit.) be often wanted. we may say that the norm of a null quaternion is zero. and that the norm of a quaternion is generally a positive scalar: namely. of which In fact we have. the square of the quotient of the lengths of the two lines.Sphere (128). of any one circle. . are necessarily unequal vectors . by subart. described round the origin as centre. 3. or N^=l. of what we have called the Unit. which is the quotient of any one such vector divi ded by any other.CHAP.
a Right Radial. 132) a Right Radial Quotient. are equal (comp. or simply.q=qq = q\ and call this product of two equal quaternions the square of as in Fig. then the two right quotients. the resulting quotient. (11. his. to the negative of the square of the number. OA' OB OaJ OB OA OA OA mutually rectgenerally.130 147. as in algebra.Scalar s^ namely. which represents the ratio of the or to zero lines compared lengths'^ of the two rectangular Square (132) is equal . For if. with o for cen each of them. in the whole theory and practice of Quaternions. The most important general property of the quotients last mentioned is the following that the Square ofevery Right Radial is equal to Negative Unity . 117). the Fig. namely. [book II. will be found to be of great importance. may be called (comp. 107) \\iQ product. More of every Right Quotient to a Negative Scalar.). tre^ : and oa' : ob. and therefore their common square OB is (comp. orZ5'(131). we describe a semicircle aba'. g^^Ny. where oa and ob may represent any ttvo equally long. of the tients^ corresponding to the two extreme values^ tive ^ The two angle aob. The consideration of such right radials Fig. if Lq =  . case^ In the intermediate when aob is a right angle^ or Lq = ^ as in Fig. and with ob for the bisecting radius. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Positive and Negaconsidered as limiting cases of radial quobe Unity may and tt. 41. q. Unit. 41. but angular lines. ob oa. * Hence. 40. or quaternion. 40. 148. it being understood that : we write generally. by 145.
has (in the Calculus of Quaternions) indefinitely many Roots. bis.] GEOMETRICALSQUAREROOTSOFNEGATIVE UNITY. that is unity. Roots of of Negative Unity .I. h be ani/ three right radials. by Quaand of ideal contacts. of a purely symbolical character. but metrical reals alone. . o/obV ^.* which are all Geometrical Reals : besides any other roots. if q be any real quaternion. 131 minus the square of the number which denotes (comp. obV — 149. or at least of which of indetermination.j. to geoto page 90. 41. of ideal intersections. what has been above called a Right Radial Quo yet the Plane of that Quotient is arbitrary. . in the present System. = ix \jy + kz. so that a. of meaning in this theory. and if i.'t Conversely. which if ic.... for we have OB thus.and is therefore one of the geometrically real values of the symbol V— 1. and which may be called Geometrical Imaginaries. for the present. on account we shall not often employ it. in three mutually rectangular planes . of the semicircle aba' . or in other words the Equation. 07ie = oa' —= (length . For although it thus admits of 2i perfectly clear and geometrically real Interpretation. only Fig. 133) the* as appears from length of the Index of that Right Quotient in and not (as beob is an which ordinate. the sum of the squares * It will be subsequently shown. as denoting tient. of which + y2+22 = i. which the same equation may be conceived to possess. in geometry. we Compare the Notes confine our attention. and may thereSquare the one Values of the Symbol ij \\ which fore be said to be of the Thus celebrated symbol has thus a certain degree of vagueness. z be ani/ three scalars. pA/ OA everi/ •^. denotes another right radial. \lengta oj oaJ Right Radial is. then q the expression.2 y. which satisfies {as such. .CHAP. in the treatment by what will be called Biquaternions'). and by symbolical laws to be assigned) the equation q^ =—l. if ± OA. and therefore the symbol itself must be considered to have (in the present system) indefinitely many values. : fore) a radius. f Such imaginaries tertiions (or rather will be found to offer themselves.
we meet the equation. we suppose that A aob a OC OA must be a right radial. as in O Fig.) In general. it [book II. by the line ob being at right angles to the line oa. 41. negative unity^ except by oc being = or = oa' in Fig. while the plane of the circle is* perpendicular to that and p as before. must be considered to have (in the present system) indefinitely many geometrically real roots. and its opposite (143). the origin and the given point A. is one of the poles of that circle. we shall have oc OB ^ ' \OA and this OB OA square of q cannot become equal to . 42. 40.1. . where a is any (real) scalar. are the same. of that right quotient or quaternion (comp. = op. = oa. expresses that the locus of the point p is a (new) circular circumference. of a right radial (147). requires (2. the equation q^ that the quaternion q (if real) should be some right quotient (132) the number a .) Hence the equation. is a great circle. and Fig. and that its reciprocal (i3i\ its conjugate (137).) If then Fig. that the axis of a circle its is a right line perpendicular to the plane of that circle. if the reciprocal of a given quatermon q he equal to the opposite * It being understood. Art.)=• which we may suppose that a>0.) where a know that the locus of the point p is the circumference of a circle^ with o for its centre. (. is In other words. are all equal to each other. Conversely. and passing through centre. (. It may be added that the ijidex (133). 148. and with a radius which has the same length as the line oa . denoting the length of the index (133). we shall given centre line. boc.oa.132 satisfies ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. = — a^.* and with a radius of in which the length =ax the length of oa. and being j\. as in Fig. bis). 1. with the line OA for its axis. which it includes. But the plane of q is still entirely arbitrary . for if.t the same time equally long. and therefore the equation like the equation g'=— 1. 4 1 . (1. that is. (3. 150. on the same spheric on a sphere of which the surface. and the axis (128). the locus of p . the equation q^ = . 42.
considered as a Factor (103). Hence. 151. by an equal arc ab'. j3. or if qKq 1. in the notation of norms (145. in the . 152. or of a Vector and on some General Formulce of Transformation. wherein two radii of one sphere (or circle) are * compared. t In a slightly metaphysical mode of expression it may be said. 39. that the radial quotient is the result of an analysis. an axis. if Ng'= 1. as regards their relative direction . Kg' = oa — =—= OA ob ob' 1 . 5 And conversely. and therefore (by 143) to negative unity. : the effect of this quaternion q. in general. the norrn of a radial quotient is always equal to positive unity. is the imtru generated. and conversely. then the quaternion 5' a radial quotient. Section 8. q^. ob' are equally long. because its square. wherein owe radius is conceived to he a certain rotation. q> plane. And shall we now say that every Radial Quotient is a Versor. in the plane of g (119). namely. 136) to the quaternion itself. or a quaternion 5' = j3 a is thus a radial quotient the lengths of the two lines a and /3 are equal. and that the equal versor m€nt of a corresponding synthesis.] RADIAL QUOTIENTS CONSIDERED AS VERSORS. into that of the productline with reference to this conceived operation of turning. Versor has thus. is 133 of that quaternion. divided hy its opBut the conjugate posite. is simply the turning of the multiplicandli7ie a. those of the Radial (146) to which it cor A responds. by . ob.)). from the other. then 5 is a radial . On the Versor of a Quaternion. or is equal : the only difference between them being a difference in the points of view'\ from which they are respectively regarded namely. of every radial because if. — . we prolong the arc ba. and an angle . 36. the radial as the quotient. (11. I. in Fig.CHAP. in the equation qa = j3. a new direction : namely. quotient is equal to the reciprocal of ^Aai quotient . in Fig. . or if. then equal (comp. When when (146). we have the equation. through the angle denoted hj Lq (130) so as to bring that line a (or a revolving line which had coincided thercAvith) into . and towards the hand de termined by the direction of the positive axis Ax q (129).* if K5'= is . then q is a right radial. q. we conceive that the three lines oa.
but ivith such uses of V . Fig. we have the equation. formula. q. and the Notes to page 90). no versor. to denote Geometrical ImagiReals in Geometry. as applied to the theory of versors. In the first case. effect sor. 5' = j3 a . under the same condition. /3. [bOOK II. that it differs only as factor differs from quotient).qa = a'. that a rotation or 2 through the double of the angle of q itself. is equiLq. a and 153. On last equation. again Art. in 152. q. natural to write. we are led to consider every every right radial. we may say that 1 is an Inversor is b. it becomes negative unity : each of these two unitscalars (147) being here regarded as ti factor (or coefficient. in the converse formula.a. which is not rightangled. — 1. Fig. can he a value of 42 may the other hand.134 : ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. For it is included in the meaning of this serve to illustrate. 149. 41). 149.1 ^6 have. and in the second its angle case. cannot degenerate into ascalary A versor^ like a radial (147). it becomes positive unity . 12). as Fig. and with ideal contacts . so that. is to turn that line. of the * This word^ " semi inversor. . whence it is as in 149. which operates on a line. If then q be such a verand if 5'a=/3. when regarded as denoting a certain important class (149) of symbol V There are uses of that symbol. 41). if a be any line in the plane of a right versor q. at present. right versor (like For the same reason. are equally long. but the introduction of it seems adapted to throw light on the view taken. ^/ \. In fact  1 . . in the present work. In this view. comp. navies (comp. conplane). considered as connected with ideal intersections. in passing. and the versor as the {Qqvxdl) factor. (3 = q. nothing to do. we shall have also (comp. where it is still supposed that the two vectors. from which indeed we have just seen. through here. except by acquiring ona or other of the two limitvalues^ and TT. through a iHght angle. q^ = u. to preserve or to reverse its direction. or can satisfy the equation q^a a. we may observe that the sidered as operating on a line (in its own of a right versor. towards a given hand. as being one of the squareroots of negative unity : or as one of the values of the symbol y' 154. and that every Bight Versor (or verit sor with an angle line = Semiinversor :* because it Aa//*mv6rf5 the on which it operates^ or turns through haJf of two right angles (comp." will not be often used .
We propose to call the quotient. 155.^ as well as the direction. according to which the symbol Ta will denote what has been above called a . and therefore to a rotation through two right angles. OR OF A VECTOR. rally) be a Versor (or at least not simply such). will not in general be simply to turn that line (151) but will (generally) alter the length.Vector in the direction of a. unitvector by the symbol. * We or T. . a and j3. at one time. when operating as a factor (103) on a. in the sense lately defined (151). this We shall denote . Ua if .CHAP. But if we reduce the two proposed vectors.] VERSOR OF A QUATERNION.. whether Such a Quaternion will not (geneequal or unequal in length. t By what we shall soon call call an act of tension. the Versor. . Ua = that is. or briefly. the versorelement. or the quotient ofany two vectors. the same ratio as that which the length of the line a bears to the assumed unit of length (comp. 128). In general. the. generally. 1. and so shall write. but are unwilling to introduce more than one new characteristic of operation. we shall then have taken account of relative direction : and the result will therefore be a versor. if : quaternion. to the two unitvectors Ua and Uj3 (155). 16) a new vector. thus obtained. 135 valent to an inversion o^ direction. which bears to positive unity. the number (commensurable or incommensurable. such as K. but positive) which represents that length. so that a is or to the scalar + here a positive scalar. &c. according to the definition lately given . with reference to some selected standard. but : has 1 length equal to that assumed unit the Unit. then the quotient a a denotes generally (comp. a and /3. or U. which will lead us to the consideration of the tensor of a quaternion. of the Quaternion q . 156. 46) its : so that it is (comp. Suppose now that 5^ = j3 a is (as at first) 2^ general more fully. and shall find it convenient to emshall soon propose a general notation for representing the lengths of vectors. as above supposed. which has the same direction as the proposed vector a. if o be any vector^ and if a be used as a temporary* symbol for the number expressing its length. a = length of a a be. or the versor. quotient : alone of these. because its effect. I. and iovm.
More generally we may write. in a plane perpendicular to that axis. as here a and q. on the same plan. to denote the operation of taking the versor of a quaternion. as symbol Ua as to speak of every such vector as a versor. to its ver only changed (in general) the lengths of the two lines compared. . by reducing each to the assumed sor. and also the versor JJq derived from a quaternion q^ may be regarded as established here by arbitrary definition. it appears that there will be no inconvenience. But we shall further find that several important analogies are by anticipation expressed. which is (in the sense lately defined) the versor of that right quotient. considered as the subjects of these rise two operations U. may be called. as that employed above to denote the operation (155) o^ reducing a vector to the unit of On this plan. namely. in our already reading the ^^ versor of a.136 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. of which it is (133) the index . Ua and Uj3. 156). 128). or at least suggested. *^ versor ofq. without directions. to assist in denoting Ua derived from a given line a. and the angle (130). In thus passing from a given qiiaternion. and the foregoing enable us to establish the General Formula : a de Va in which the two unitvectors. making any change in their plane (119). [bOOK II." t Compare the Note immediately preceding. U. ploy the same* Characteristic. both the unitvector * For the moment. the axis (127. without any change of its direction. \]q. remain unaltered in this passage so that we may establish the two following general formulae i\iQ . equated to that right radial (147). but as permitted. by analogy. the Note to page 119). which serve for the present to denote vectors and quaternions. the versorsf of the vectors. will prevent such double use of that characteristic from giving to any confusion. 157. and that then the unitvector \] a may be. but rather a prospective advantage. a and /3. we have unit of length (155. because the difference of the symbols. which will supply another inducement. that every vector a may usefully be equated to that right quotient. : Hence L\]q = Lq'. this double use of the characteristic U. of the quaternion. the length. q.'" just as we may read the analogous symbol Vq. Ax U^ = Ax . . On the whole. Thus it will be found (comp. q. and for other reasons which will afterwards appear. when the proposed notation is employed. We shall also find ourselves led to regard every unitvector as the axis of a quadrantal (or right') rotation. symbol Uq will denote the versor finitions will ofq .
or in symbols. same time. q. as we have U. Compare the Note to Art. Versor. it follows that any two quaternions.] EQUAL AND RECIPROCAL VERSORS. denoting both the Unit: and one common Vector characteristic. from this dependence of the versor \]q on relative direction'^ alone. For example. 137 . * The unitvector Ua. to lately done. or the axis and angle of the rotation. and Ax = <][ Ax . while those two operations agree f in this essential point. if U^' = JJq . T . Again. have also equal versors. f 158. of absolute or relative length. must also have equal angles.CHAP. of which the angles and the axes are equal. but conversely being sufficient to determine. as is expressed by the last written formula. and Ax.Vectors. and equal (or coincident) axes. REVERSORS. it follows. that the versor of the conjugate is always equal to the versor of the reciprocal. that each serves to eliminate the quan titative element. the relative direction (156) of the two tient lines. which exclusive reference^ in each of these two cases. one common name. depends in like tional motive for employing. the Note to Art. that \Jq'=\]q. because it at the follows that the versor of the reciprocal oi ^nj quaternion is. if Lq'=Lq. the versor of a quaternion depending solely on. 156). which are respectively the subjects of the two operations U . to Direction. which we have recently proposed (156) to call the versor manner on the direction of that vector alone. employed to denote the vector and the Ua itself and the Quotient of two such Unit. from the divisor to the dividend that any 28) : so two quaternions. by the difference of the two symbols. may serve as an addi of the vector a. Lq = Lq. in the plane (1 of those two lines. a and q. I. we saw (in 138) that the conjugate and the reciprocal of any quaternion have thus their angles and their axes the same . the reciprocal of the versor .^' = Ax. TJq . therefore. of which (as vectors) the quaternion itself is the quo(112). which have equal versors. assist in describing or = U/3 Ua all danger of confusion being sufficiently guarded against (comp. 138. Conversely.§'. so that we may write. quaternion. so that we are permitted to establish the following general for mula.
the conjugate of the versor of any quaequal to the reciprocal of that versor^ or (by what has just been seen) to the versor of the reciprocal of that quaternion. it may na 159. whence also. we have UK^ = =i. regarded as the limit of a quaternion (131. = = . or an opposite direction of rotation : so that. NU^ = U^.= :^. 1. or \]xq + U^'. or. . it is (by 150) the conjugate of its own reciprocal . to the versor of the con For the same ternion is jugate. and therefore also (by 157). we have generally (comp. as the old or given versor \]q. 139). the reciprocal of its oion conjugate. turally be called a with respect to that given Versor. reason. in the first case. \]xa = + Ua. Re versor. because (by 15) the scalar coefficient x preserves. As regards the versor itself.) ) their common Norm. 143). is equal to positive or negative unity (comp.Uq. is always equal to positive unity . so that the j5roc?wc^ of tioo conjugate versor s^ or what we have called (145. which has the same plane. the formula : summary of re each of these four symbols denoting a new versor. [bOOK II. 150). 147. 145). or = . so that we may write generally. but has an opposite axis. q \Jq or U^. Hence.UK^ = Also. or in symbols (comp. but reverses. U. 126. the definition (155) of Ua gives. (H. because the versor \Jq is always a radial quotient (151. in the second case. k The versor of a scalar.Ua. by the definition (156) o^JJq. U^. whether of a vector or of a quaternion. and the same angle.U=1. and therefore at the same time (comp.KU^=1. according as rc> or < .138 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. generally. as a cent results. ^ q also. 152). by the recent result (157). the direction of the vector a. according as x> or < 0.
according as the scalar itself is positive or negative in symbols.1 . generally. unless we happen to know a laio. that is. the symbol itself denotes generally.'^ according to which the quaternion tends to zero. U(Ax. one of the square roots of negative unity (149). or =  1.vector may. although the direction of this unit. being (as we have already seen) indeterminate. 131. 139 or 153). and its opposite are all equal to each other. V 160.J GENERAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF A VERSOR. while values of the symbol (by 150) the axis and the index of such a versor coincide . as such. whether the subject of such successive opewe have therefore the rations be a line. if a given vector a be already an unitvector ^ remains the same vector. as The versor of a right quotient limits deduced from that law. in certain questions.7) Ax •5'. the plane. we have assumed is an unitvector . \Jx = + 1. he come determined. and therefore is. . in this case. by the number one. considered as versors (153). in the sense of being a radial (146). is t When the zero in this symbol^ UO. we (128. in the no tation of 155. the operation of taking its versor (156) produces no change. as a limit resulting from a law. or one of the . The versor of a null quaternion (141) must be re garded as wholly arbitrary. . . its conjugate. or a jnght versor (153) . or of a rightangled quaternion (141). It is evident that if a proposed quaternion q be already a versor (151). before actually reaching that limit in which latter case.CHAP. that the axis oi every quaternion may therefore write. * two Compare the Note to Art. and in like manner its reciprocal. is always a right radial (147). considered as denoting a null vector (2). the axis. according as aj > or < . the plane and axis of each of these two unit scalar s (147). when it is divided (155) by its oivn length . by the foregoing principles. or a quaternion. and in like it manner that. an indeterminate unitvector. 129). (132). I. For example. and the angle of the versor] UO may all become determined. tion A second operation U leaves thus the result of the^r^^ opera* U unchanged. the equation.
of the recent equation. whether we interpret it as denoting the square of the versor. whence. as instruments of expression. . Avhich all (or nearly all). because (as will soon be more fully seen) the st/mbol Vq^ denotes one common versor. = a. Hence. generally. of q. however. It is. q:Kq = (Vqy.s of) this elements oi Symbolical Language in Geometry: and generally. like the foregoing. q Uj \Jxq. briefly and symbolically. if ^ ^ ^ 'Uqf= Uxq^ > . 161. [boOK II. or as the versor of the square.m proof. 159. following general formulas. We may also write.) assist. are often useful. we may write. although it may be well that he should satisfy himself of their correctness. perhaps. at the present stage. notwithstanding (or rather. the parentheses being here unnecessary. by no means necessary that a student of the subject. The present Calculus will be found to abound in General Transformations of this sort . a. but which. with the help of 145. on account extreme simplicity of their origin. To give a geometrical illustration^ wliich may also serve &. 145) from the subject of the operation. JJ\Jq = \Jq. in doing which the following remarks will perhaps be found to (1. 158. < 0. in all those mathematical or physical of a new kind researches to which the Calculus of Quaternions can be applied.140 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. we easily deduce the following (among other) transformations of the versor of a quaternion ^ Kq ^ q if a. should make himself familiar with all the recent transformations of U^'. depend ultimately on very simple geometrical conceptions . differing only in the symbols of that subject : UUa = Ua. by abstracting (comp.
(5. (5. In 132. Uy. by an unitcircle (or is by a circle with C a radius equal to the unit of length). for a moment. a a expresses that the locus of the point (4.* but not in the opposite direc tion . (4.)). for the sake (3. Up = Vp. although seen (135) that it is not necessary to invent any new or peculiar symbol.CHAP. notation. these three lines be called a. (4. it we have also (by 160). RK = KR. line. are cut (as in Fig. whence easily follows that U = RUR = RKU = RUK = KUR = KRU = KUK = URK = UKR = UKUR = UKRU = (UK)2 = &c. and as a merely temporary if. y. we have only to conceive that the three lines oa.) The equation U ^ = U 2. bols. 141 we may employ by 146. p is the indefinite right or ray (comp. U2= U . Fig. 42. have the symbolical eqtiations (comp. 42. 149). regards other recent transformations (161). a'. a a expresses (comp. or shall then of the operation of taking the reciprocal.U^.) I or p = x(3. 36. RU = UR = KU=UK. b'.). U^ = . of Fig. c'. 132. p. 145. 148.). On the other hand the equation. and in their common plane . 158) : R2 = K2 bat = 1. x>0. ob.) OA Ob' Ob' \ODJ \ OA j As regards the equation. yet of present convenience. we write employing thus. origin o as centre. the letter R we as a characteristic of reciprocation.vectors denoted by the symoc'are common if (by 155) Uo. (2. bis. the three unit. 42. 132. which their described about for then ob'. ^e have Kq (2. . . OA and a ought to have been ob and b.) As we have A' A Fig. which is drawn /rom o in the direction ofoiR.)) that the locus of p is the opposite ray from o or that it is the because it may be transformed to indefinite prolongation of the revector bo . bis) in three new points. and we have the transformations (comp. or simply. U/3. the three new lines oa'. to represent the reciprocal of a quaternion. in which. 119. bis. oc. because it is equivalent to or .] GEOMETRICAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 1.=i. p. = 11(52) (JJqy. orUp=U/3.
with a plane containing a. \ /^pV^^y a' a) .) bis}. considered 9. (12. if supposed is of the point P to be satified by a real* vector . perpendicular to the line OA . so that the last equation takes the particular form. or z. or that it is is the system of the two last loci both ways prolonged. 42. — 162. terminates have called the unitsphere (128). and reciprocally. (as in 132. ("^Ithen U must be (by 154) a right versor . as Representatives of Vers or s of Quaternions . and the Notes page 90. Since every unitvector oa (129). or oc.) If a. (3.)) the plane through O. 42 (or of Fig. and may be said to represent. 41. therefore. y denote (as in subart 2) the three lines oa. and the recent equation itself. [boOK < 0. every right versor. that term a (1) may be considered as a Representative Point. or p= x/3. the direction of the line oa in space . and in another view a Versor (151). then this other \a j equation. a. (2. expresses ^cweraWy that the locus of p the whole indefinite right line.Arcs. and in one view a Radial (146).^ = 7r. (6. or of 41 (or in Fig. so that (bv 149) we have the equation 3Y = ( a . like oa' in Fig. and on the Multiplication and Division of any one such Versor by another. p. has the direction opposite to that of I oa. (7. or in 144. But if it happen that the line y. may p be put under either of these two earlier but TT equivalent /orwis Section On Vector. y  a.)). drawn from the in some point a on the surface of what we origin o. which connects the terms of the two * to Compare 149. of Fig.142 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. (2. And or of that line multiplied then the Quaternion which which the quotient (112) of any two such unitvectors. will be (by 153) a value satisfying the equation. U^ = l. . of which the position on that surface determines. bis). (1. the Zooms In this case. AB. oc II. 144. ob. r)\2 1. upon the unit sphere. and VectorAngles.) . through the two points o and B (comp. may be said to have the arc of a great circle.). (1. also the second Note to the same Article . 17) by any is is positive scalar.
without any change of In fact. the condition of the equality of the quotients (that is. or with what may be called by analogy the Revector Arc ba (comp.CHAP. are thus complanar. it and the conjugate (137). if. bis^ to the conception may in which two equal angles are supposed to be traced here be derived from the inspection of Fig on the surface of one com . We shall arcs. again 1) this latter arc represent: of its having a definite direcindicated (for example) by a ing. upon the unit sphere. of the former versor. (Compare the annexed Figure 35. We may also call this arc a Vector Arc. the two isosceles and length. and the earArt. define. sometimes denote this sort of equality of two vector ab and cd. do. would obviously be very imperfect. that (by 117. tion (comp. 39 and as being thus contrasted with its own opposite. plane triangles aob. 1). 118) we may qc here write. Art. ab. and rest upon the chords of these two arcs as bases. 35. cod. 163. because represents the corresponding Reversor (158). or reversal of direction. is equal to every other vector arc cd it. on the present plan. by simply causing (or conceivown great circle. '^BA=^DC. 'A. by the formula.. for its Representative Arc. / o^Fig. these two other formulae of arcual equality. 3) that we shall also have. such as is curved arrow in Fig. A aob cod. * Some aid 34 . and then lier it is clear (comp. that a as it to vector is natural otherwise arc. represented by the two arcs. at once the reciprocal (134). 125.] REPRESENTATIVE AND VECTOR ARCS. which have the origin o for their common vector. OB CD = OA oc — — . and similarly turned so We which can be derived from ing) it to slide* in its . here. similar. This mode o^ representation^ of versors of quaternions vector arcs. of the versors). ^AC = BD. unless by shall therefore equals were to be represented by equals. being thus satisfied. ^ ab = ^ CD. I. by what may be called inversion and alternation. on account . 143 vectors.
105) not to write also. as in the modification of that Figure. Ilnd. and the corresponding reversor. and accordingly.* (as has into the conception ofa vectorarc. 1st. oc. considered as the representative of a versor (162). may now be conceived to be equalli/ long. to be been said) unequal vectoi^s. 164. then. in general. as entering. we purpose to regard any two such arcs. the two arcs may belong to different . In this manner. as follows. in Fig. as being. or to be cut by a circle with o for centre. (146) in different planes . But even without expressly referring to versors. great ab and bc in Fig. here again the arcs. 43 radial quotients two they represent circles. for the present purpose. a vector arc ab. then (comp. 119) two diplanar versors. like in which latter case. : oa. 35. reOr. may a sense in which all be said to be equal to each other. so that in a recent notation (163) we may establish the arcual equation. unequal (comp. unequal versors ought to be represented (on the present plan) by unequal vector arcs . 165. even when they agree in quantity. ab and bc. we suppose that b is the middle point of an arc aa' of a great circle. a little lower down. . or contain the same number of degrees^ provided that they differ in direction : which may happen in either of two principal ways. that diplanar quaternions are always unequal: we consider therefore. the corresponding revector arc For.144 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. we may see that if. essentially. 2). : and 00 OB : . Conversely. 122) to the a or of i\\Q conception of plane. for it will soon be seen that there is great semicircles^ considered as vector arcs. ^ AB = ^ ba'. ob. arcs of one great circle. or (comp. [bOOK II. we ought mon desk. which is given in Article 163. od. and so may represent (162) a versor. ob oa. 43. but it has been shown generally (122). in general. Or * We say. as. they may be opposite for example. of Fig. themselves. and ba . regard position of a great circle on the unit sphere. ^ AB = '^ BC. oa: ob. ob spectively. the four lines oa. we may be led (comp.
123) rally. the circle as distinguished conception of a plane. in 163) that any two complanar arcs. which terminate to be. is coarcual with the two other points. 35. For ^ ab = cd. although situated in different planes: namely. and thereby to reverse (like the factor . cle of the unitsphere . upon the present plan. 166. 1) the shortest or the origiri A and the term b. u . in the way of change sphere^ of position of a point. but we have seen (159) that such a versor has in general an indeterminate plane. 163. of which it is here the representative) the direction of the radius which is drawn to that point of the unit sphere. includes geneexample.] ARCUAL EQUATIONS. however. every great semicircle. as apart '^ And hence that the four points a.1. indeterminate. whereas the initial and final points. aa'. c. as vectorarcs^ differently. considered as one limit of a versor. in the present view. We are then thus led again to include. are in ge neral sufficient to determine the plane of that arc. we as existing under any circumequality between vectorarcs like larly (not oppositely) directed. c and D. There is. as a' to A. when they are both great semicircles. or of one great from another. I. must be coiiLudered (comp. the direction of this path becomes. 112. in the particular ca^e when one of the two given points is diametrically opposite to the other. to transport a point from one position to the opposite. 2) On the other hand. by a conceived vection {or motion) upon the we are permitted to say that all great semicircles are equal vector arcs. a and b. as an element in the conception of a VectorArc. a remarkable case of exception. considered as a vector arc. his. d belong to or\Q common great ciror that each of the two points. of Art. represents an inversor (153). ba' and bc. if equally long. 128) from the one point on the sphere. and simiab and cd in the recent could not usefully speak of Fig. If then we only attend to the effect produced. the equation of its signification. COARCUALITY. of a vector arc ab. Accordingly. considered as the to the other most direct path (comp. if we should refuse to admit (as unequal. the assertion (comp. stances. each serving simply. are equal vectors. in which two vector arcs may be said to be equal. or (comp. on the contrary. 145 because the two co'initial arcs. generally. or it represents negative unity (oa' : oA = a : a= 1).CHAT. an equation between two such arcs must in general be conceived to include two relations of coarcuality. b. In fact.
the former quotient multiplied by the latter will give for product ^'. where a. and its plane is again indeterminate (159). aa' =n bb'. and n AB = '^ a'b'. satisfies evidently the general conditions of coarcuality (165). which is drawn from the initial point of the first to the final point of the second. unless some law be given. = 5^' 7 j3= oc : : ob. with the alternate equation. considered as another limit of a versor (153) . from a given point A. as producing . as in 107. rk [bOOK II. c are corners of such a triangle on the unit sphere. n AA = r> bb = 0. and elsewhere. In fact. principal use of Vector Arcs^ in the present to assist in representing ^ and (so to speak) in con structing^ by means of a Spherical Triangle^ the Multiplication and Division of any two Diplanar Versor s (comp. can easily be reduced (by the general process of Art. on the present plan. namely positive unity.) Every such null vector arc AA is a representative. be called (on the same plan) the transvector : we may now in the multiplication of any one versor (of a quaterthat say nion) by any other. 2) that all null arcs are equal. so that r\ n (2. any two such versors of quaternions (156). . to an in definitely near point B upon the sphere. we write the symbol of the multiplier towards the lefthand. according to which the arcual vection may be conceived to begin. We may also say (comp. of inversion and alternation . 164). no on the position of a point upon the sphere and thus may write generally. 5. It is evident that the same arcual equation admits (as in 163) which it is here supposed that a' is opposite to a. of the (3. or identity. and then (by 107). in and b' to b. The equation. If then (on the plan of Art. other unit scalar.) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. 1) any two successive arcs. 120) to the forms. be called (in relation to each other) vector W[id provector . b. 167. and if the multiplier q be in like manner shall * Here.) effect a'a = b'b.j3 :a = OB : OA.146 (1. because the /ottr points aba'b' are all on one great circle. The is theory. considered as radial quotients (152). as ab and Bc in Fig.5' : = 'y : a= OC : OA. 119. if the multiplicand* q be represented {IQ2) by a vectorarc ab. <^ ab = r> ab. 43. and that of the multiplicand towards the right. while that third arc ac.
and therefore (by 166. Ilnd. then one or other of the two following alternatives will hold Either. 168. of the same two versors taken in the opposite order. . which are supposed to bisect each other in b. 43. will be satisfied. therefore. but not the equation (1. will indeed both belong to one great circle. because it is the Jiew transvector arc. I. a' and c' will be diametrically opposite to a and c. 147 ?i represented by tion is provectorarc bc. as Fig. qq'. but the former has been seen (167) to represe?it the product q'q. the arcs aa and cc'. 1st. The two products^ and ba' (= ab) . ac and c'a' are unequal vector arcs. so that we have the two arcual equations (163). bisecting each any other in the point b. then the product q. vector arc. in of two arcs great circles. in which case the two new arcs. and therefore unequal. or q'q. but will have opposite directions therein because.CHAP. Or. as is indithe curved arrows in Fig. the transvectorarc ac corresponding.] CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLICATION OF VEIISORS. so that they will be diplanar. For let aa' and cc' be unless q be complanar (119) with q.) ^ ) the equation '^ AC = a'c'. namely to that of which B is a pole. the other product. when c'b (=bc) is treated as the new cated by as the neiv provector arc. different planes. by what has been already shown. when considered as vectors. and ^ bc = '^ c'b . q. be semicircles. the arcs AC. at the same time. which mode of representa always possible. or that c[q and qq are unequal. (Compare the 1st and Ilnd cases of Art. and the latter represents.) In each case. is represented. in this case. 164. c'a' will belong to two distinct great circles. the two mutually bisecting arcs will both good. ^ AB = ^ ba'. in like manner. and in this case. struction by One of the most remarkable consequences of this con: of the multiplication ofversors is the following that the value of the product of two diplanar versors (164) depends upon the order of the factors . ac and c'a'. 43 is designed to suggest. '> AC = '^ c'a'. even if one of them happen to be such . will not both be semicircles.
until the spherical angle cb a' vanishes. which is commedial therewith (comp. and there we may fore also the arc ad. bis. . 35. §' =7 : a= oc : OA. qq and are therefore themselves unequal. 2. and the second Figure 3 of that Article) . bisecting the arc bc. [BOOK II. On the other hand.148 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. will be represented by the arc ac. ^:j3 = 7:a. in several different ways. 43. ac and cV. or quaternions. §'</. in Fig. without re versor . AE. ec. are. in the sense of Art. in this last process of reasoning. ference to vector arcs. cle. without assuming that these two . q and q'. q and q\ the two following reciprocal relations : It is evident that. q'q and qq\ are equal. 169. that qq—qq '\iq' \\\q (123). as above asserted. any three complanar and equally long right Us) for thus we have only to determine a fourth line. and then. qq'. if we represent the one versor q by either of the two equal arcs. 00 being lines (see again Fig. are versors. under the supposed condition of diplanarity. factors. 35. . and it will then immediately follow* (by 107). OB. complanar factors. we may at the same time represent the other so that q' by either of the two other equal arcs. when the two Thus we may conceive turn round its that the arc cc'. Art. as being similarly directed. we make no use of the supposed equality of lengths of the four lines compared so that we might prove. that S i3 ^ a ^ 7 a p a y We may therefore infer. of the last cited Articonceive a point e. and then the two neiv transvectorarcs. is made to middle point b. be the one product. and being now Or. as in algebra. and in the same = plane. that their products. * for any two versor s of quaternions. Or. in Fig. will evidently become not only complanar but equal. OA. S or od. of the same length. ED. 163. in exactly the same way. q and q\ are complanar versors^ it is easy to prove. which shall satisfy the equation S:'y j3:a (117). q'q. by the equal arc bd. and the other product. and therefore also (by 125) the alternate equation. still equally long. 5^ we may suppose : that the two factors = =j3: a OB OA.
that these two products are at once reciprocal (134). qq=Kq'q^ and 11. q^=^l. 162). generally. to each other. \kvQ factors q and q* are both rigU versors (153) and because we have seen that then their two products^ q'q and qcf are versors represented hy Qq^xoMy long but oppositely directed arcs of one great circle. or that they are related as versor and reversor ( 58). q'q Ax. . in two opposite orders. in the conjugate products are represented by two quadrants^ one great circle. then (?'?)^=(^??=i. q. in which the bisecting arcs aa' and cc' are semicircles. . The Ilnd formula may also be thus written (comp. in a third plane. . may always be represented or constructed by a Figure such as that lately numbered 43. . then factors (as regards their places in the product) convertibility of a consequence and 2^ proof oi complanarity.] MULTIPLICATION OF RIGHT VERSORS.. qq'=j. but last equation is not an identity. 171... that if 5^ = 1.qq^qq\ ll.CHAP.qq'^4Kf'. under the supposed conditions^ q'q. 168. We may therefore write. follows (comp. In the 1st case of Art. . therefore. . q'\\\q{\Q^)'.qq+ \\ and under cause it this form evidently agrees with ordinary algebra. and = q^\ J Ax. because the multiplication of any two such versors. In q^q J~ Ax. and Ax. as in the 1st case of 164.l^q'q=qq\ if /k(123). rectangular to the two former. q q'q u Ax. or in symbols. If the two bisecting semicircles cross each other at right it will be found that this angles. q. he multiplied together in two opposite orders. be expresses that. and conjugate (137). we have what would be {qqy = g'\q\ in algebra a paradox. if q and q be any two right versors.. namely the equation. It follows that if two right two mutually rectangular planes. 135. 1 I. I. in the of general theory quaternions. 154): III... if 2'2 = l.. and q'^=~\^ then it q'q .. Ax. . it . thus at once being 170. 149 l. g'. oppositely turned^ of versors. this case. the two resulting products will be two ojjposite right versors.
establish the if two converse formulae: $'M!I?(123). is not represented by : . q' [bOOK II. may be said to be the meaning of this last equation. again 167) of these two will represent. according to the order in which cular the tivo component rotations are taken. by means of represeiitative arcs (162). AC. for reasons already assigned. in the next Section. 107. . q" be still represented by the arcs AB. 43) that the vector arc ab represents a given divisor. for diplanar versors. namely or 7 : /3 (106). we have only to conceive (comp. {q": q) sors. plan. q{q'''q)=q". as their resultant.150 if ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. if q. q and be any two right versors. or y a. . 172. = q". but also the division. ceases to he true.q) 11. qq'^q'q. : : for then the provector arc bc (comp. so that one shall be successive to the other. or j3 a. we may now . In fact by 169. in two rectangular planes . to the consideration of such a System of Right Versors. iiq{q'''. as that which we have here briefly touched upon but desire at present to remark (comp.q. we must not employ. in planes perpendicular to each other. BC. under the same conditions. . in a plane perpendi to each of them : and that this third or resultant rotation has one or other of two opposite directions. propose to return. or the versor lately called q since we have generally. . than the equation which exists. by 106. And when we come to ex amine what. the two identities = q"\ : for quaternions. such an equation = q^' \ = as q. or qq'. in Fig. the quotient versors. as in alge qq'q q'' {q".q 173. not only the multiplication. of any one of two diplanar versors (or radial quotients) by the other. 43. on the same q" '. but is we see that this result not more paradoxical.q). 120. for such ver ordinary algebraic identity. It is however to be observed that. Accordingly. in the last analysis. say 5'. the because we have found (168) that. In fact. suppose 7". we find it to be simply this : that any two quadrantal or right rotations. and that the transvector arc AC (167) represents a given dividend. selves into compound them a third right rotation. 167) that a spherical triangle ABcm?ij ser veto : We construct. bra. then q. q'. the product q {q" q). q" \\\ I. Fig. in appearance.
CA. which as a vector arc has been seen to be unequal thereto: although it is true that these two last and therefore subtend arcs. of the former triangle .Angle . new Angular Representative of the same versor or ob : OA. respecting the multiplication and division of versors. Lq{q'':q)==Lq". 151 but by the different arc c'a' (168). bc. may be briefly noticed here.frst spherical trianto construct gle ABC. . a determined pZane (110). q. b'. by taking for b" the point diametrically opposite to b'. and that then we pass to a third triangle a'b'^c'. replace or that may by the equal Spherical Angle ac'b. the formula. Or we angle aob at the centre. considered as radial quotients (151). the of the unit. 33). so that we may write. where oa. 1st. and may say that the Representative Angle of. in the passage to the corresponding operations on quaternions. q and q" . c' shall be respectively (in the sense just stated) the positive poles of the three successive sides. or by the as being what may be it represents. considered as general quotients of vectors (112).sphere. as part of the same lune b'b'' with the second. equal angles at the centre o two quaternions)* versors two for (or indeed for any any generally. we form a second or polar 175. : called by analogy it is a Vector. ^^i^ called the Positive Pole of the representative arc at this pole c^ and o^b are quadrants. Another mode of Representation of Versors.CHAP. has the direction which has been selected (111. as indicated in the annexed Figure 44: and then we may consider this spherical angle as a W C' Fig. by any other given versor q'. but also when sphere. or rather two such new modes. require little or no modification. so that b'' shall be • It will soon be seen that several of the formulje of the present Section. I.] REPRESENTATIVE AND VECTOR ANGLES. Conceive triangle. are always equally long. 44. by one of the curved arrows in Fig. AC and c'a'. We may consider the angle aob. from the first of these two quadrants to the second (as seen from a point outside the sphere). and a given direction therein (as indicated arrow in Fig. (as in 167) the multiplication of any one given versor q. at the centre o of the unitconceived to have not only a definite quantity. are radii ob Vei'sor OB oa. this rectilinear Ilnd. and the rotation. although intimately connected with each other. AC. now that after employing Q. so that c'a at what may be ab. 127) for the positive one. as before. of which the corners a'. 174. of the unit sphere.39. AB. .
152 ELEMENTS OP QUATERNIONS. ox its initial point (1). be drawn (as . V wards the same sides of those arcs as the points a' and b' respectively and let two other unittangents.. his) at the points b'^ and A^ so as to be normal there to the same arcs c'b'' and c'a'. will be equal to the : : two versors. on the plan of 174.) 176. Lq'q = Q. equal to these. Let also two other unit. q'q = ob'^ but shall have the equations. 129). q = oc'. be drawn at arc the two last points b" and a'. Ax . q and q\ which were lately represented (in Fig. on the surface of that sphere.tangents. Then we may not only write (comp. q'q. Let a and /3 be now conceived to be two unittangents* sphere at the two perpendicular respectively to arcs c and c'a^ and drawn toc'. 45. and to fall towards to each b' Fig. the mul Fig. these three spherical angles^ baseangles at c^ vertical namely the two and a\ and the external angle at b"^ of the new or third triangle a'b'V/. the same sides of them as before. (comp. the multiplier^ q\ duct. as follows. and each denoted by 7. connect this last construction of multiplication ofversors (175) to the with the general formula (107). so as to be both perpendicular to the Then a'b'''. also Ax ^ = oa'. and not (as we have usually supposed) at the centre thereof. we can Without expressly referring to the former triangle abc. equal other. and to fall towards the same side of it as the point c'. . and denoted by the same letters. will therefore represent^ respectively. bis. in like manner. * By an drawn . and to have its origin. in the annexed Figure 45. 45. [book II. the negative pole of the arc ca. 174. the point opposite to c' on the unit sphere. 45) by the unit tangent is here meant simply an unit line {or unit vector. 129) so as to be tangential to the unitsphere."v>"A'\ Z^ = b''c'a^ Z^'=c'aV. Ax . /3 a and 7 /3. II. tiplicand^ q. and the pro(Compare the annexed Figure 45.11) the two quotients. or the positive pole of what was lately called (167) the transvectorarc ac: also let c^' be.
T. so as still to have a common origin o. of the angle of the product. will be di rected (with our conventions) towards the right hand. or (as we may briefly express it) result which is easily seen to be a general one. and has the same axis his. ir . is whence it follows that the rotation round the axis Ax. 178. Ax. and to look towards the it would appear to him to have a righthanded direction. and it is important to observe that the corresponding roat a" is tation at the vertex b'^. is therefore (by 107) equal to the third a and consequently it is represented.CHAP. Ax.* the multiplication gle. ^om the point a' to the point c'. q' of the multiplier. as before. q'q. of these : .5'=OQ.] r3EPENDENCE OF two base angles.g=0P. to express the q'q of the product. generally. a the foregoing Article. q to the projection of Ax. by the quotient. for the spherical triangle pqr. two last Figures. let exhibiting the inequality of the two products^ q'q and^g'. to the axis Ax. we may say that if the two latter axes be projected on a plane perpendicular to the former. PRODUCT ON ORDER OF FACTORS. of two diplanar versors (168). that when of any two versors is constructed by a spherical trianof which the two base angles represent (as in the two last Articles) ih. when taken as factors in two different orders. from the projection of Ax. rotations hitherto since the considered more only thing fully. 177. the internal vertical angle thus equal to the Supplement. same Or. then the rotation round the axis (ob") of that product q'q. &c. Ax. 153 c' and a'. by prin* If a person be supposed to stand on the sphere at b". at duct^ q^q. may assist to show.). X . have hQQM plane ones (as in 128. while the external vertical angle represents i\iQ product. and the same direction of rotation. 5'. oW. Then. We may by the reasoning of then infer. In each of the as the arrows in Fig. We have therefore thus 2(. then the rotation round Ax. 7 external vertical angle c'^b^'a' of the same triangle.l q'q. 45.new mode of geometrically For this purpose. which is the one arc a'o'. which is evidently equal in quantity to the an^le of this third quotient. q of the multiplicand.qq = OR\ and prolong to some point s the arc pr of a great circle on the unit spliere. is also positive. of the spherical triangle a'b'^c' . is positive. from the axis Ax.Q factors. from the side b'^a' to the side b'^c'. from the positive: axis (oa') of the multiplier q'. to the axis (oc') of the multiplicand q. here adopted as positive (127). the pro two versors.
so that tivo angles. also prolong pr' to ' some point s'. as it ought to be . 73) the general formula. and qrV = z$'^'. from PQ to pr' will be righthanded. parallel to these. at r and r'. yet as vector angles (174). r'qp = Z^'. they must be considered to be unequal: because they the tangent planes to the sphere different planes.154 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. these equal in quantity. from the side qp to the side qr Let fall an arcual perpendirighthanded. For the rotation at p Fig. Division of Versors (comp. we shall have (comp. QPR' = Zg. no doubt. or' = Ax. or rather to represent such division (162). We shall triangle pqr'. 175) the followof internal base angles at p and q. which are drawn through have . from the vertex r on the base pq. and the rotation at q. as well as by representative arcs Thus to divide q" by q. And although. namely. obtained from a different order of the factors. and therefore as representatives of versor s. : RPQ = Lq\ PQR = Lq \ SRQ = Lqq . as the old angle srq represented the old versor. and of the two values ing the external vertical angle at ii ciples lately established. RT. Lqq = Lqq. and prolong this perpendicular a manner as to have /^ will be to r'. which will be a sort of reflexion (comp.^^'. so that the new external and spherical angle^ qr's'. we shall have the equations. will represent the neio versor. [book II. similar to that last employed for geometrically^ on a plan entirely . 172) can be constructed by means oi Representative Angles (174). or the two planes respectively the centre o. at the two vertices R and r'. 179. 138) of the old one with respect to their common base pq and this new triangle will serve to construct then have a new . 1 are always we may establish (comp. the new product^ qq. cular. 46. qg'. in such RT = '^ tr' . q'q.
ca. then the rotation (comp.Z 2'^ the rotation round p from PR towards pci being positive. b'. we may imagine it to be an arc of an arc And its positive pole (comp. 179) round a! from b' to c'. such as K and U. \lo) from the versor 9". and conceive that a ncAV point c" is determined in that Figure by the condition ^ a'c" = ^ c'a'. 174. 46. initial point describes the double of that arc Ab. II. that if. they admit for the most part of geometrical interpretations. the representative arc of 9" is made to move. or qq\ is geometrically performed by a Conical Rotation of the Axis Ax. I. or that round b' from * In a manner analogous to the motion of the equator on the ecliptic. ^. . In connexion with the construction indicated by the two Figures 45. we have only OP = Ax. from A to (3. . and which it is useful to be able to express. occur in the present Calculus. Z (^'^ : ^) = pcir. with pq for their a great circle.<^'^ and then to find a third point RPCl =Lq^ q by the two angular equations. L q (9" :q) any so that '. again 173). so as to preserve a constant inclination * to the representative arc in passing AB ofq. as before. (1. c' be (as in 175) the positive Vw precession. ab. it may be spherical triangle. employ the construction of multiplication and division by (2. with so in Art. the general =L q".). we have.] CONICAL ROTATION OF AXIS OF VERSOR. multiplication.) representative arcs. that the dotted line rtr'. without change of length. Ax. (Compare the remarks 161 .CHAP. and the subarticles to 132. which Fig. represented by c'a' or by a'c''. 5. such as 9(9": 9). which cannot well be dispensed with. perpendicularly bisected by that of a small circle. QRP = TT . after which we shall have. passage (comp.) It maybe seen. round the axis Ax. by luni here remarked. which connects is the vertices of the two triangles. bc. that if abc be any a'. which : is represented by AC.) Instead of conceiving. while tfs a'. 46. without then we may say that : i\iQ {(quantitative') change of the angle Lq" formula (comp. or q'q. (^'^ : ^) = oq. in Fig. of an easy and interesting kind and in fact represent conceptions. to the versor 9 (9" 9). 177.) 180. 5". 145. q. new combinations of old symbols. much simplicity and conciseness. by these few Examples. in Fig. even independently of some new characteristics of operation. through an angle = 2 Z. to the unequal versor q (5" 9). described with the point P for common base (178). 0R = Ax. which are not wanted in Algebra. in astronomy. and if poles of its three successive sides. 43 was designed to illustrate. to determine the two points P and by the two conditions. we may Or if we prefer to then say that in the passage from the versor 9". 155 r. base.
a species of Transvector. that it is sometimes convenient. will be positive also and we shall have a = Ax. by an extension of the same analogy. 45. of seeing the truth of this assertion. 176) . as being the which represent (on the same plan) to Vector : the factors. 46). perhaps. taken in a suitable order of summation (comp. y were given to be negative. as being the Spherical Sum of the two Base Angles of that triangle. the Angle which represents (174) the Multiplier being then said to be added (as a sort of the Multiplicand. y be ant/ three given unit vectors. (3. derived from these by the equations. by the consideration of the bis. to y'. a. (3'. when the vectors to be added were right lines.) Let then (1 75. from motives of analogy (comp. (/3' : a'). the Product. Fig. product of two versors. we arrive without any difficulty at the conclusion stated above which has been virtually employed in our construction of multiplication (and division) of versors. boc. j3 (a': y'). (5. /3'=Ax. aoc. is positive. it may be briefly noticed. : a) . by passing to the diametrically opposite triangle on the sphere. 1. o as the common vertex of three For then we may angles aob. [bOOK II. y would all require to be changed. from j8' = Ak.) we assume the centre becomes perhaps a little more clear.) We may also speak occasionally.Q3 .) Before closing this Section. which has been seen to represent o. which will not change the poles a'. as has been proved.) This conception of angular transvection when (on the plan of 174. : by means of Representative Angles unittangents of Fig.) If the rotation /3 = Ax. Provector being said to be added but the Order of such Addition of Diplanar Arcs being not now indifferent (168). y' being still deduced from those three vectors by the same three equations as before. (3.156 c' ELExMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. j8'. to speak of the Transvector Arc (167). whilst Angular Provector^ to that other VectorAngle which represents what is here called the sum of these two angles (and is. b'. is positive (in the sense of Art. such that the rotation from the second to the third. then the signs of a. Art. we make it such. in the three last (or recito round a from procal^ formulae . y' a' = Ax. 5). but the rotatitm round a'. 177) . c'. from /3' to y'. situated generally in three different planes. would still be positive. (1. Arcual Sum of the two successive still vectorarcs. of the External Vertical Angle of a spherical triangle. y = Ax . then the rotation round the converse formulae. as the corresponding order had been early found (in 7) to be.(a:y). 13.(y':/3'). The easiest way. to a'. a'. and which may be otherwise justified (as before). round the first.Angle) represents. (2.. (y:/3). y' be three other unit vectors. . is to conceive that if the rotation round a from b to c be not already positive. Assuming then that these poles are thus the near ones to the corresponding corners of the given triangle. &g. and let a'. a'. (4. with respect to them.
Let the three new symbols i. Ax. 157 conceive a revolving radius to be either carried by two successive angular motions. g and q'. and on Laws of the Symbols.] SYSTEM OF THREE RIG^T VERSORS. may be ang given spherical triangle. k. k denote a system (comp. it may . 181. are any three given and coinitial but rectangular unitlines./ = oj. the rotation round the first from the second to the third being positive. II. be defined to be the two versors.^ = 0K. be well to remark distinctly hero. Suppose that oi. (6. J=oi:ok. J. in gents instead of radii were employed. in three mutually reHangular planes. in that Figure. that a'b"c'. without necessarily referring. ok ok' be the three unitvectors respectively opposite to these. from the^rs^ to the third position. Ax. while the three respectively opposite versors pressed : may : be thus ex  = OJ = J OK . so that ok'=ok. by one such which tan motion. to any other triangle (such as abc). oj'^oj. and let oi'. as regards the construction indicated by Fig.^ = OI.ight Versors. : : . q'q. bis.^ = 01 z : OK = 01 ok' oi' : : = : : OJ = oj' : oj = oj' ok' = ok ok = ok' oi' = oi oi = oi' oj' = oj : oj' . 176 will prove. with the three given lines for their respective axes . oj. in the Three Rectangular Planes. of which the internal angles at c' and a' are (in the sense of 174.) Finally. for which the rotation round b" from a' to c' is positive (177) and that then. 45. oi'. as Figure 47 We shall then have these other expressions for the I may serve to illustrate. if the two factors. that the external angle at b" is (in the same sense) the representative of the product. or to be transported immediately. A=oj:oi. same three versors : = K' Fig. and thence to oc . even in thought. 172) oi' = or.) the representatives. — On a System of Three B.CHAP. Section I 10. I. : : ok' . of three right versors. and 2 = ok:oj. the reasonings of Art.j. as before. 47. oj. so that Ax. from OA to OB.
or versors. 2 = (01 : ok) . as might indeed have been at once inferred (154).. &c.s of quaternions. since J .^^ = l. according as the multiplier precedes or follows the multiplicand. may give some help towards . denoted by these three neiv symbols. in the cyclical succession. ij=k) jk^i. ral from the comparison of these different expressions seveimportant symbolical consequences follow. denoted here by versors J. which it will be worth while to enunciate separately here. . . when taken ik as fac . [book ii. But in the third place (comp. = j. we have the following values for the products of the same three symbols. tors with an opposite order : III.ji==k.. again 171). In the second place. circumstance that the three radial quotients (146).158 element. 182. remembering. : oj' : oj. (ok : oj) = oi : oj. : : oi. his. 47. / = l. 168. h i? • • • which the annexed Figure 47.. . ki=j.. Hence. is equal (154) to negative unity. we deduce (comp. his. for the binary products of the same three right versors. the product of any tioo of them is equal either to the third itself. &c. since = (oj ok') (ok' oi) = oj ij : . 148) the following squares of the new symbols L. /^ / \l Fig. although some of And them are virtually included in the results of former Sections. while the square of each of the three right versors. : equal values for the ^^ = 1. we have these other and contrasted formulae. 171) : II. when taken Uoo hy two. k. since i^ = (o j' ok) (OK oj) = : . In the j^r5^ place. are all right (181). from the z. &c. or to the opposite (171) of that third versor. h j\ k. kj = i. and in a certain order of succession (comp. ijk.
by the addition of k'j. on the other hand. i . or the equation ij be arcually constructed. . k'ij. 154. I. Figs. It is therefore important to observe. 41. as of ij) as the new transvector . and the multiplicand. . 42) of an arc. since the Commutative Property of Multiplication. or the convertibility (169) of the places of the^c^or^ without change of value of the product^ does not here hold good: which arises (168) from the circumstance. represents the same product. 174) to an inversion of direction.) The contrasted multiplication of hyj.) I. of their The squaring = l. structed.qq in see that the laws of combination of the neio symbols. Since we laws in algebra. so that the angle at i represents now the multiplicand. I. back of the Figure. Arts. as reA.CHAP. respects the same as the corresponding 183. 176).i'. or to a passage from the radius OJ. k with the theory of representative may regard any one of the four quadrantal arcs. 47). or geometrically represented. jk. presenting the versor i' angles. multiplications of ». as a provectorarc (167). Or the same multiplication may he angularly conor arcual'Sum (180. K. or o. comes thus to be geometrically constructed by tbe doubling (comp. 159 (L) To connect such arcs (162). in not are all ifj. that the factors to be combined are here diplanar versors (181). either by the addition of the arc ki. in Fig. * multiplicand is said to be multiplied by the multij)lier while. : A although it is not needed for algebra. a. which new process gives Ji (instead K (comp. and Figs.] LAWS OF THE SYMBOLS. which is a representative of A. we have thus ji = . sum or negative unity considered as being the great semicircle sj' which (by 166) represents an inuersor (153). and similarly for^ and or the equation i^ with the introduction of the point opposite to (2. (3. (4. as the transvectorarc.)). and the resulting angle at the neio pole k' represents the new and opposite product. that there is a respect in which . which is to be conceived as being at the i. J. j'k'. j'ik'. j. ji = — k. or any one of the four spherical right which those arcs subtend at their common pole i.) The midtiplication of j ly i. giving ij. or of^ into* i. i (4. k. 148. kij'. to the arc jK as a new vector. or of an angle. to ik' as a vectorarc (162). with the help of the spherical triangle ijK . to the opposite radius oj'. for quaternions. 175. as a new provector. we may conceive the quadrant kj' to be added to the equal arc jk. a multiplier is said to be multiplied into the multiplicand a distinction of this sort between the two factors being necessary. 46. equal angle jiK. which rotation is equivalent (comp. jik.)).ij (as we had qq = . i. as we have seen. 47. in which the rotation round i from j to the new vertex k' is negative. and so obtain a rotation through two right angles at the pole at the centre I. k'j. 154. in which the baseangles at I and J represent respectively the multiplier. or with the aid of the new triangle ijk' (comp. Or we may add the right angle kij' to the factor. Thus. 171). k. may in like manner (3. and of representative angles (174). = k. we k. j. the rotation round i from j to K being positive : while their spherical sum (180. may in like manner be constructed. or the ex~ ternal vertical angle at before.
the only peculiar sym bols of the calculus in question.k = k^ = \ \ or briefly. 9). or suppressed. ijk = 1." and shall find to contain (virtually) all the laws of the to a and therefore be symbols ijk. &c. It also thought to be instructive to establish the principles of that Calculus. by the present writer. j.) where w. in any such symbol of a ternary product (whether of equal or of unequal factors).k = k. k A direct proof of the equation. and in titled : . 181. to the Royal Irish Academy in * 1843 . be reduced to the Qiiadrinokz. Lectures on Quaternions (Dublin. as to (A) " Formula A. y. or in the pro perty that the new symbols always obey the associative for mula (comp. in virtue of may be substituted for t. whichever of them i. Property of Multiplication. scalars. on a more geometrical (or less exclusive)}' symbolical) foundation than at first which was accordingly afterwards done. [bOOK II. ifk = \. and for X which equality of values we may omit the point. for representing Operations on Quaternions.160 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. and write it simply as lkX. tions In fact. although with many differences in the adopted plan of exposition. Formula to which : therefore. We may. . may be to derived from the definitions defini of the symbols in Art. in the volume en. z compose a system offour same three right versors as above. by 182. and the letters. for k. while i.2 = 2*2 = _ 1 . sufficient symbolical basis whole Calculus of Quaternions :* because it w^ill be shown that every quaternion can mial Form. x. the applications brought forward. j. establish the following important P=f = k' = ijk^l we which we for the .). for some time. ij .jk = 2. q=w + ix ^jy + are the (1. A. k agree with usual and algebraic laws in the Associative : namely. continued to be. In particular w^e have thus. shall occasionally refer. 1853) and is again attempted in the present work. But was it porate with these a few other notations (such as was gradually found to be useful to incorK and U. we have only remember that those were seen to give. This formula (A) was accordingly made the basis of that Calculus in the first communication on the subject. i. J. the laws of i. .
ji = ij. X. we have always. and jik =+ 1. I . J. if each of the four letters i. or for multiplication of ijk in the present Article. by mere cyclical permutation of the letters.) In general.). \ . : we have these two other ternary products : jki = (ok' = (oi' kij (2. symbol . . k. any multiple (or complex) product of the symbols ijk. ij . tions (I. as for addi of lines in' Art. the symbol ijkkji may be interpreted in either of the two following (among other) ways . * = oi' : OJ and to observe that. For example.) Hence. the saine exists for kind. K.) 1. on the plan illustrated by Fig. as in algebra.kji=l.1 oj') (oj' ok) =1 ok') (ok' oi) = oi' oi : : .ji = i. his.] LAWS OF THE SYMBOLS. kk. 9. : : • On the other hand. whatever four /3. which can be performed without commutation. ikj= + (3. t =u= 1 . ^. with one definite result^ by any mode of association. 161 . \. i . and combinations of the same For example. P a y' a jS'a y/3a' 7 /3 a a : the point being thus omitted without danger of confusion so that = oj' ijk Similarly. ji = i j2 . The equations in 182 give also these other ternary products. (II. (which iu the with the help of the associative principle of multiplicatioa may be suggested to the memory by the absenceof the jpoi/i^ ijk). but taken in one given order. k . we have /i . 47. it gives. The formula (a) of 183 includes obviously the three equaTo show that it includes also the six other equations. and in like manner. : OJ =  1. as before. I I. (4. ijk . = tfcX n = ikXh (5. k\/li = t . f.) of 182. in any manner repeated. we may observe that 184. by the general formula of multiplication (107).l=l. . may be interpreted. k (but not necessarily the same one). or of reduction to partialfactors. obeyed .>k = ik=j= ki = ij . fi denote some one of the three i.[t = tK . the formula. = +j w=« . in which the is still law of association offactors i . j = OK : Ol'.) oi) (oi : : oj) (oj : = ok' ok = .)> of the last cited Article. = Oj' : OK.CHAP. any^?<r (or more) symbols of the same class. kji  (oj : oi) (oi : ok) (ok oj) =oj oj = + : : 1 .1 = ^J = ifJi » •i/= ij « • iij . lines may be denoted by a.1 = . symbols j. (III. iji = j. with others deducible from these. and for a given mode of combination. or change of place of the given factors. a y' r briefly. y. X/i = IK . : = ik = j = iy = a j. I. if the Associative Law of Combination exist for any three law symbols whatever of a given tion class.
so early as in the First Article of these Elements) of a vectorarc (162). . kji =jik = ikj =+ 1 . have been concerned and shall therefore : henceforth mean again. denoted in it by I. Vector.jk=fk = = «}'2 = _ i .i. by that word '' vector. a Note to page 131). in connexion with those laws. jk = i. t One of the chief uses of such vectors. And because we have already considered and expressed the Direction of any such line. or because (. of the conceptions (alluded to. . 185. On the Tensor of a Vector. has been to illustrate the noncom'v. ~ij . ki = i ij = Pj = j = . (4. 2V'F = (iy=l=(z}%V.ijk ^ = + = k. Compare 180.). the noncommutative cha7'acter(\ S3). that we have also. with which alone the . Having now sufficiently availed ourselves. hibiting a corresponding property of what has been by analogy to the earlier operation of the same kind on linear vectors (3. values of the because they also are right versors (153). ji =j . the addition of arcs and angle$ on a sphere. And then it is easy to prove. it will be proved. and of a vectorangle (174). ^' . ^'. by excalled. — . Section 11. (5). at a later stage. —h are also^ on the same principles. —j. in the two last Sections. jki = kij = as otherwise if the  1 . that tisfy the condition x^ \.).utative property (168) oi multiplication of versors. cannot he subject to all the ordinary rules of algebra: because that formula gives. exclusively. kj ij j .lck = . by * It is evident that . being thus put in evidence. y. [bOOK II." a Directed Right Line (as in 1).162 ij ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. z be any three scalars which saz'i = 1. without any reference to geometry^ foregoing laws of the symbols be admitted.y'i \ symbol V — 1. and geometrically shown in recent subarticles.Jc'j = ji^ = +j. First Book. It may be added that the mere inspection of the formula (a) is sufficient to show that the three"^' square roots of negative unity. \ix. of the multiplication ofsuch roots among themselves. or of a Quaternion and on the Product or Quotient of any two Quaternions. in illustration\ of the laws o^ multiplication and division of versors of quaternions we propose to return to that use of the word.qy=q\ More generally (comp.ijk = \i\ ih . h. at sight. . and the first eight Sections of this First Chapter of the Second Book.
161. or Unit (128). a. we now propose a. t Compare the Note to Art.J TENSOR OF A VECTOR. oc. . Number (comp. we may remember that when we employed (in 155) the letter a as a temporary symbol for the number which thus expresses the length of the line a. and these three scalars may then be considered as factors. Length (or on the extension^ of aline. 186. c = OA oa'. and which we have proposed (156) tor. on the their directions. and of the scalar. may be said to be an Act of Tension . We * Compare the Note to Art. 15. without any change in But such an exclusive Operation. in page 135. To connect more closely these two conceptions. the same line neio symbol. with the construction of Fig. on each other. or oa'. Uj3.'^ of that Vecand express the Length of by introducing the new name Tensor. or OA. and the to consider latter to call the Versor Ta which : symbol we shall read. Ua = a : «. by expressing the Ratio which that length bears to some assumed standard.Ua. oc' (in the cited Figure). c be thus the three positive scalars. of the versor and the tensor of a vector. and on what has been called (156) the versor. we had the equation. as the Tensor of the Vector a the and shall define it to be. ob. to express the dependence of the vector. . we may : write the three equations. a = a:Ua. Ua. as one form of the defini denoted by Ua. b. 151) an act of version. 42. fl his (comp. or to denote. which has the same direction with the line a. by which the three unitvectors Ua. if a. oB. 156. again 155) which represents the Length of that line a.) ). y. /3. which denote the lengths of the three lines. oc. For example.t as an operation on direction alone may be called have then thus a motive (comp. a. 155. 163 introducing the conception and notation (155) of the UnitVector^ Ua. a=«. in order to change them into the three other vectors a. = oc:oc'. or as coefficients (12). Uy. are to be respectively multiplied (15). by altering their lengths. tion of the unitvector 16). (2.CHAP. We might therefore have written also these two other forms of equation (comp. oa. I. ob'. a . 6 = ob:ob'.
145. for the sphere through o. find ourselves able to pass to the other. expresses that the locus of p is the plane through o. we see that (instead of a) is employed may write generally. = a (160). where p = op. whatever vector may be denoted by a. . a= Ta Ua = Ua Ta. T((0 geometry (cova^. perpendicular to the line oa because it expresses that if oa' = . 145.) lines. Compare the first Note to page 128. expresses that the locus of at a. from each of which we shall T0=aTa.) The equation Tp = Ta expresses that the locus of p the spheric surface with o for centre. again 160) the equation. two points A and a'. then the point p is equally distant from the .^) = (1.)).164 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.vector. for the introduction of the name. + a) = T(. under either of the two following forms : p is the spheric surface through b. Tensor. we have always.) l. (2. we reason. without appealing (6.). 16) Ua = a Ta : . the equation. (5. may be written T(pa2a) = aT(0a). which passes through the point a. Ta = a : XJa . T(pa) = Ta. (9.oa). so that Ua Td = 1 and therefore. . which has its centre at a. T(pa) = T(/3a). if a be an unit.). which has its centre (8. w^e have the equation. TUa=l. whatever quaternion may be denoted have always (comp. by T(Ax. /(?r awj^ : vector a. expresses that the locus of the variable point p is is the surface of the unit sphere (128). For the same q. It represents therefore the same locus as the equation. the equations (compare again 15.) The equation of the Apollonian* Locus. [bOOK II. which expresses that the lengths of the two (4. then For example.oa. ap. generally. (10. at a later stage. Hence the equation Tp = l. . . ao. to by general Rules of Transformation. More generally. as applied to the positive number which line. are equal. (as above) represents the length of a And when the notation Ta we for such a tensor.) On the other hand. (3.) The equation.
calculus of quaternions.) If a and be any actual vectors. of 144. will be seen. 2 a of 132. in particular. (1. case. And in fact it will be found by General Rules of mulas into any other of them .) it expresses that p The the plane which perpendicularly bisects the line ab .OA = AC (4) for thus we shall usual.3 + Ta.a) = Ta T(/3 . tensor.CHAP. 1 6o or as the equation. or a and jS. equally distant from the two points A and b. j3 (10. thus. and there fore the length of the side sides OA and in oc is less than the sum of the lengths of the two other AC. but vanishing (as a limit) is is with a.) (°3 possible. U^ = Ua. c are corners of a triangle. by the point A falling on have one common the finite AC. the three points o. by rules of the . on the contrary. and therefore jS = oc . but in the mean time it may be geometrically proved. eg^waZ to the latter sum.) In like manner. Z^=^. to be a symbolical consequence from the rules of the present Calculus . which when the OA and triangle vanishes. and if their versors be unequal (Ua not = U/S). .1 GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. being generally a positive scalar. = 1. but not otherwise (a and /S being any two actual vectors). Ta. is zero. the former length becomes. we have. in the particular case line oc . this Calculus. then T(/3 + a)<T. at a later stage. . see that while. by conceiving that while a = oa. T (. and TOa = TO = if (9.) or as the simple geometrical formula. to these ^»e fortransform any one of or into this sixth form^ a which expresses that the scalar part* of the quaternion this quaternion is a right quotient (132). ^ + k!^=0. we make /3 f a = oc. in general. p Ja (129). 1. * Compare the Note to page 125 . direction. Txa = + xTa. the equation T(p/3)=T(pa) expresses that the locus of p because (8. as the equation Ua = U/3 implies. (7. and therefore that (7. of 161. and the following Section of the present Chapter. according as x> or < 0. an inequality which results at once from the consideration of the recent triangle OAC but which (as it will be found) may also be symbolically proved.).) That + a) = T/3+Ta. A. as .(1.
or f5: a. whereas the new characteristic. Compare the first Note to page 137. as well as relative direction. serves on the contrary to retain that element alone. Compare It the Note to Art. as the Cha of the (corresponding) Operation of taking the Tenor of a Quaternion. an essential element into the very Conception of a QuaAccordingly. . in Art. quotient. T.= l. 187. so racteristic sor. The j3. enters as ternion. in page t has been shown. like Tp = Ta. in page 108 . of absolute or relative length. .166 (11. of the two vectors. = . of absolute or relative direction. in Art. so the tensor Tq depends on and determines the relative length] (109). any two quaternions. a tient. that the tensors (as well as the versors) of equal quaternions are equal. Uj3 : : Ua. 156.Ta). according as T/3 < Ta . by means of the characteristic U. an agreement of relative lengths (as well as an agreement of relative directions) was made one of the conditions of equality between . tors. l^q. ex presses that the locus of p the sphere with for centre. 117. (1. of the versors of the two vec has been called (in 156) the Versor of the Quoor quaternion.) If U/3 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. then T(/3 [bOOK > or II. as we have the called the letter characteristic of the operation (in 156) U of taking the versor. 112. U^'. we propose now to Ta. We shall (156) : thus have. which was eliminated from a. 109. as such. we may now speak of T a. : as we had U(i3 : a) = U3 : Ua and may say that as the versor U^ depended solely on. as regards what was there called the quantitative element. and that to Art. or from q. o to which it is equivalent. of the tensors of the same two vec tors. + a) = + (T/3 if . q. the Tensor* of the Quaternion q. q = [5 a and has been denoted. of which the quaternion q is the quotient (112). * 135. called and to eliminate what may be by contrast the qualitative element. U/3«o?=Ua. considered as quotients of vectors : so that we may now say. the relative direction (157). and by the symbol. but T(l3+a)>±{T(5Ta). but conversely was sufficient to determine. And then. which passes through the point A. Tj3 On : the same plan. and to denote it by the corresponding symbol. T(j3 : a) = T/3 Ta. and in the Additional Illustrations of the third Section of the present Chapter (113116). of the present Section. a and j3. generally. call the quotient. whether of a Vector.Ua.) Hence the equation is T. thsit Relative Leriffth.
(8.) T(/3 : < 1.) Hence.) Again.. =. (6. T (comp. 160). . TTa = Ta. or qua ternion. (9. the tensor of a scalar is that scalar taken positively. Hxq = + xHq. The tensor of a radial (146) is always positive unity l. 188.) Because the tensor of a quaternion tensor is its own conjugate (139) : . or in words.) = + X. is (10. from the subarti(3. = T/f=l. thus. (11. if Tq' = Tq. Ti and in particular. that q' = q.) nerally.Ui3 ^Tj3 a T tT Ta. ge by 156. of the reciprocal of a quaternion equal to the reciprocal of the tensor. according < . (comp. and its versor (159) is positive unity or in symbols. finition (12.] TENSOR OF A QUATERNION. . ^ ^ ^ .9) = Tg^. or is < Ta.Ua ia. .)). 126. we so that. = T^^ a p l. by abstracting from the subject of the operation may establish the symbolical equation. (6. by introducing the notation (187) a) >. thus we have. we may establish the two following general formulae of decom . and equal versors. TT^=Tg. that any two quaternions which have equal tensors. 145. TUg = by 181. are equally long. VTq=l. expresses that the locus of p is the plane through o.) I. T (.) thus. the tensors of conjugate quaternions are equal. KTq^Tq.Ua U0 T/3 U^^U0 T Ta la 'Tt \Ja Ua =Ti^T^ Ua la Ui3 ' . =.^.) (5. as £c> or (7. 36. The tensor of a right quotient (132) always equal to the tensor of its in dex (133). since the two Imes. as additional to that for the tensor of a vector (185). is T(l:5) = T(a:/3) = Ta:T/3 = l:T9.) or in words. Ta.) Other examples of the same sort may easily be derived cles to 186. (2. in Fig. according as T/3 >. > or < . 1G7 The equation comp. (137) of a conjugate gives ob and ob'. the de TKq = Tq. and Vq'='Uq. the tensor /LTq = 0'. or for the tensor of a quotient. 186.) It is scarcely necessary to remark. (13.CHAP. according as a. perpendicular to the line OA. Since /3 we have. its angle is generally a positive scalar. (4. or the tensors of opposite quaternions are equal. such a zero (131) . in particular. = T. = Ti3 /J_ = T/3. are themselves equal : or in symbols. generally. T^ = TT = T. 186).
W. In words.Ta. 189. TJq T^ = U(oB oa) = oa' oa = ob ob' = T (ob oa) = ob' oa = ob oa' : : : . . by the general formula of multiplication of quotients (107).U/3. . q. 5^ = OB = ob : OA = (ob : oa') ob') . . whence. on the contrary. but the direction of oa and that therefore . ^^ : OA = (ob . but oppositely directed arcs. to begin by turning^ from oa to oa'. as above. OA' = 65) Ta. or from the line to the line ob. and II. 1st. \Jq . q=Tq . .168 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. while ob'. of the versor and tensor of a quaternion.Ua. or OB oA. . mio factors of the same two kinds namely. if we wish oa to pass from the vector a to the vec tor are at liberty either.Ua. as in the annexed Figure 48 . . : : : . and then to end by stretching. we . : oa) = IJq Tq. but the direction of ob. into factors. . by what {\ has been defined respecting versors and tensors oi vectors 156. which are exactly analogous to the formulae (186) : for the cor responding decomposition of a vector. has the length of ob. [bOOK II. . and on the shorter of them prolonged. To decomposition of a quaternion. by the definitions in 156. I. . 187. or rather on the longer of those two lines itself. (oa' (ob' : oa) = Tq . position of a quaternion into two factors^ of the tensor 2CDidiver' sor kinds : 1. which illustrate this last : terminate respectively on the two lines OB and oa. /3. we may conceive that aa' and bb' are two concentric and circular. a = Ta. . 186). r. a = Ua. Tq . Uq. q = \]q . we may write. 0B'=T/3. 11. Then. . 185. . so that oa' has the length of oa.
(2. or in words. (12. 169 from oa' to ob. his. yet when the recent construction (Fig. 190. qYiq * = 1q' = l^q'. qKq of two conju(H. the II. and we saw (161) that in it ihQ parentheses might be omitted. 161. In like manner (comp. and denoted by the symbol >ye may V. formula had occurred before. . ob. we see again that the product called (145. in either of two orders of succession. and these two acts may be performed.Vq'. .. represents geometrically the square of the quotietit of the lengths of the two lines. as we have lately done. to Art. we see. in which the lengths of oa. .] TENSOR OF A QUATERNION. This last {Tqy=T{f)=Tq\ parentheses being again omitted . .qA^q = {\Jq)\ . generally.) ) their common At the same time.) ).OA ^^'^^ )•=«! \T. by 158. from oa to ob'. positive scalar. to begin by stretching. of which (when considered as vectors) the quaternion q is itself the quotient (112).OA.! . 42. . or. . any quaternion and its conjugate. which affects hoth length and direction (109). we have also . 109. and UK^=1:U^. for : by 187. division. Ilnd. therefore write generally. whence. I. and propose systemati cally to do. factor (103). if we attended merely to lengths. by either of the two resulting expressions (188) for Tg. gate quaternions. by multiplication and III.CHAP. . Since TKg = T^. that there is 2k propriety in treating this tensor as 21. which has been '^q. at pleasure. may thus be decomposed into two distinct and partial acts^ of the kinds which we have called Version and Tension . Compare the Note VI.q = Tq. Kg = T^:U^. t Compare the Note page 108. Tq= y/^q^ V(^K^). in in . two connected expressions I.).^ expressive of a geometrical ratio of magnitudes. The act of multiplication of a line a by a quaternion q^ considered as z. page 129. . and e7id by turning. 48 may serve to illustrate.f— Y=T— OA \OAy ^'^^ T. from ob' to ob. because (U<^)^ = U(^2). And although. . whence T. 48) is adopted. oc form a geometrical progression . we might be led to say that the tensor of a quaternion was a signless number. the tensor of the square of a quaternion is always equal to the square of the tensor: as appears (among other ways) from inspection of Fig. ? K^ = (T^)2 . Norm. lY. as Fig. we may write.
Tqq^T(y:a) = Ty:Ta={Ty:Tp). . . : may now be thus expressed ~ ~ Vq' Tq Tq' Vq' q~Tq2~^q~ Tq q (4. 168.a. and the versor of the product is the product of the versor s . the tensor of the quotient of any tAvo quateris equal to the quotient of the tensors . T{q : q) Tq' : . "We may also write. . the versor of the quotient is equal to the quotient of the versors.) The reciprocal of a quaternion. . And because multiplication and division of tensors are per formed according to the rules of algebra. generally.(Ui3:Uo) = U^'. or rather of anM»z^* Compare Art.. . . instead of : be thus expressed T(q'. sion of U In like manner.. and the conjugate* of that reciprocal. y. the order of the factors being generally retained for the latter {Q. and similarly.Kq=Tq. 145..U^V = U(7:a) = U7:Ua=(U7:U^). .). Tg = U? Kg .q) and Hence. by II.Tq = Kq. we have the analogous formula = JJq'lJJq. . . the ($'. of which the geometrical significations might easily be exhibited of by a diagram.) Also is suflSiciently proved by what precedes. for the diviany one quaternion q\ by any other q.) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. V : nions or in words. IX. be considered as multiplicand and multiplier. which is (by 107) their product qq. tensor of the product is th. although it may be varied for the former^ on account of the scalar character of a tensor.JJq] VIII. may L. (3.§'). and let them be reduced (by 120) to the forms /3 a and 7 j3 then the tensor : : .170 (1. q and^'. 191. &c. (comp.) % Tg2 Tq Kq '. .(yay^. 158). In general. where Tqq and Uqq are written.U^.. but which the validity (2. . for simplicity. and versor of theit third quaternion.Q product of the tensor. (q' q) Tq : .(T^:Ta) = Tq\Tq. III. and the Note to page 127. KUq = ^q q. : [bOOK II. = IV. the followhig other general transformations for the tensor of a quatemion VII. We have also. in any such multiplication. II. let ani/ two quaternions.
V. 192. a positive number)^ we see that the difficulty (whatever it may be) of the general multiplication and division of quaternions is thus reduced to that of the corresponding operations on versors : for which latter operations geometrical constructions have been assigned. right quaternion. a third they be both scalar. product or quotient degenerates (131) Whether q and q' be complanar or diplanar. 151. and • q' = y: • (5. according as those .) If because such equality (169). in general. • as before = . qq. q'. and is changed to its own opposite. (5' : 9) . 5 iAx.CHAP.) round Ax q. (1. q'q J A^ q {171) is ] of two right quaternions. . q[{q' 5) and same angle. ^.) Under the same condition. positive direction) (6. in two rectangular planes. are always conju gate quaternions. we have always as in algebra quaternion complanar with both but (7. then this into a scalar. g to Ax q'q. 80 that the product Ax . . and this new axis. and Lqq= L (170) . (5' . and qq\ of any two quaternions taken as factors in two factors are compla nar or diplanar proved to exist. is a quaternion with the same tensor. (5. : . 107. in a plane rectangular when the order of the factors is reversed : as we had ij=k=ji (182). axis.] PRODUCT OR QUOTIENT OF TWO QUATERNIONS. the norm of the product 5' equal to the product of the norms. are equal or unequal. Tq'q (2. by a angle = 2 Lq..Ng. . Ax . is or in words. g = g' . two complanar quaternions if is. taken in opposite orders. Ax g{q' g). g) : 9 = q'. . by 190. conical rotation (in the The product or quotient of . VI. (8. 9'? Ax . Ax. or both right.) In general. (3. 136) the two identical equations: V. for the case* when each tensor (comp. Lq = Lq —> TT then qq' = Kq'q SO that the products of two right quotients. : may be derived (179. a third to both . or right quaternions (132). from Ax . as q'. the rotation round .) (comp. . tic I. .) The two products. we have this other general formula : N5'5=N9'. by what precedes. . gV= 1 (7 of two the the so that any quaternions is product reciprocal of = (« «) =« 7 * O Compare the Notes to pages 148. Lqq'=lq'q = ^. through an Ax q'.y. and 191.) If Lq= Lq' "= —t and Ax. if q and q' be any two diplanar quaternions. q'q two different orders. .) Also. has been already is unity but we have always : = Tqq.. I. or inequality (168). 178). in the ninth Section of the present Chapter. but with a different axis . is positive (177). 106. i then qq' = — q'qi . (1. VII. (4. 17 1 (a tensor being always.) ) from the old . Let : • = j3 •• : a. then • • = (1 ^) (1 1 /^) t) :^').
KUg'. ^ K\ \ / / /3 a' /3' Fig. the conjugate of the versor of any quaternion q is equal teristic same KU (158) to the versor of the reciprocal of that quaternion . . %= Tq by 191 . Kg' = — g' : (by 144) .) Fig. 43) the arc Ac then representing q'q.) In general. (of 192) may be thus written III. may be illustrated. or in subarticle) the symbolical equation. by : 190.^q\ is represented by the inverse arc CA.)) as a (temporary) charac of reciprocation.g. \\ verse simi'/iYwde of triangles (118). Rq'q = Rg .Kq'q==Kq. 49. R^'. for versors (Tq = Tq' = 1).Kq'. and Tq'q = Tq Tq = Tq. then Kq = . (1. AB and Bc (comp.. as in the annexed Suppose (4. . For then the ncAV multiplier Eg. taken in an inverted order : or briefly. And because we have then (by the = UR. words. and the . then that. equal to the product of the reciprocals. . . . I. . becomes. KU^. q'. . if R be again used (as in 161. ABOEa'DOB. K^ = K^. and the new multiplicand Kg' = Kg' by CB whence the new product.^q =^q. (3.Tq\ we arrive then thus at the following other important and general formula 11.. or in words. y may B^ y^'j "^^ ^ 1^^^^^ ^"^.) If q and q' be right quateinions. taken (still) in an inverted order.K^. i^^""'^^ ' IiAt) and therefore (by 137) the two equations. IX. 49.172 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . while the versor of a product is equal (191) to the product of the versors : we see that KU^'^ = UR^'^ = But UR^ UR^' = KU^ . we have the two following relations of ina. /3. (2. (3. and the recent formula II.) These two results. I. . . . the conjugate of the product of any two quaternions is equal to the product of the conjugates. and is therefore at once the reciprocal "Rq'q. Aaoboc'bog. of the old product q'q. that formula II. II. Kq'q = qq% as in 170.= 'Kq (158) is represented (162) by ba. [bOOK II. 167) may represent q and in which the sides Fig. ^/a/^"""^ . by the consideration of a spherical triangle abc (comp. conjugate Kq'q. Bq. a a 8 where denote ang three vectors.
j3'. 7':/3' = t:^. (7. U(y:3>U(7:^). is easy to see. so that this third formula of inverse similitude a consequence from the other two. from the last inverse similitude. let /3 . whether in one plane or in space. . We shall thus have the two complanarities. and = q' y:a. easily established by means of the equations. from the equality of the two rectangles.). 173 shall have. y. . oed be drawn. in the fourth Section of the present Chapter : so that we may write the equation of quotients. on the common tangent bo. is or U7 : = U7 : UjS. A. to and as an example of the consistency of the which calculations with quaternions conduct. then these three sphere. although only owe is drawn in the Figure but that if the two triangles abc and verification of the recent formula III. T/3' = T/3 : T7' = T7 : Ta. 7 (comp. any two circles.. circles.) ) . E. Considering division first. length. = a . In fact. taken in connexion with ihoiv Index. /3' j3. which may serve as an instructive results. T>^E.] CASE OF by III. touch one another at a point b and if from any point o. :  III . &c.CHAP. to these two circles the four points of section^ (5.) If then (comp. two secants OAC. will be on one common circle : for such concircularity is an easy conse quence (through equal angles. because the four lines /3.) It may be noticed that the construction would in general give three circles. q [5 a. 145. Ave have (by 133. that these four lines form a proportion of vectors^ in the same sense in which " ) i3? 75 S did so. ye K 4. and . and of course i\iQ five points abode. and employing the general forand y be each _L a and let j3' and y be the = respective indices of the two right quotients. y and within their common plane it are all perpendicular to a tor s^ or Indices (133). 187) the following relations of Ta. AOC and doe. is to the case of Right Quaternions (132). . 185. we I. c. 123). D. or A DOC a aoe is . are situated on one common An important application of the foregoing general of theory Multiplication and Division. 1 mula of 06. while the relation of directions. T (7' UjS' : /3') = T (7 : /3) .Vec193. TWO RIGHT QUATERNIONS. and y j3. (6. y.) may be otherwise and geometrically drawn. expressed by the formula.\)Q &\i\x3iiQdi in different planes... &c. from definitions already given. each being equal to the square of the tajigent on .) The same conclusion (respecting concircularity. (6.
and —j = oj' oi' = A = OI : &c. the transformation. (7 P) (" i^) whence it is easy to infer that 'Hhe Product^ q'q. because we have. between right qua their indexvectors. q^ It follows that the plane. \\iQ product y a = (y j3) (j3 a) is equal (comp. Z(y:y) = ^((3':/3) Ax . — k : are Oj'. it may here suffice to observe 194.) . at this general Theorem (comp. is equal to the Quotient of the Index of the Multiplier. oj. connexion with their indices. ok' . oi'. arrive. if Z 5' = . In fact. oj'. and shall find it convenient subsequently to interpret the product f3a of any two vectors. q. then. (Compare the Notes to pages 119. 186. the indices i : of . —j. J : i = OI : oj' = A = OJ : oi. of which those two lines are the indices (133): after] . II. 150. [boOK . generally. and the sum (or difference) of their indices . the lines oi. whether of the product or of the their indices quotient of two right quaternions. we shall soon prove that the index of the sum (or difference). 136) to the quotient. the abovementioned assumption of equality will appear natural. that. and be found to be useful. of any two Right Quaternions. of equality between the former and the latter. of any two right quotients (132).) For example (corap. or of connexion. the indices of the right versors i^j. is equal to ternions. in As regards the multiplication of two right quaternions. : : . q\ divided by the Index of the Reciprocal of the Multiplicand. * We have thus a new point of agreement. namely.i. is (3. as the theory of representative arcs. by 106 and 107. &c. Ax . ok . coincides with the plane of . as being the quaternionproduct (194) of the two right quaternions. may easily serve to illustrate. = . 159.174 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. : • • • . (2. by principles already established.) In like manner. and of their poles.) In general the quotient of ant/ two right versors equal to the quotient of their axes . again 133): that ^^the Quotient of any two Right Quaternions is equal to the Quotient of their Indices y*' (1. tending to justify the ultimate assumption (not yet made). and therefore also with the plane of their axes . and we have the We equal quotients.(y' :y) = Ax (/3' :/3) = Ua. Jc are the axes of those three versors. which. 181). then Index of q = 'Yq .
od be b'. bb'. . so that we have always 7 + j3 = j3 + 7. 137). considered other given a as geometrical quotient or fraction (101).— O71 nions . and if they be not already given as having such. considered complished by the first general formula of Art. oc. (1. when these two fractions have a common denominator . and consequently the new figure ob'd'c'. 106. or at least known. 175 Section I2. like that old one OBDC.) is sum is equal to the sum . 120. oc. I. when it presented under the following form. that I. b. Let c. becomes geometrically evident. reflected (in the sense of 138) with respect to the same line it OA. or definite.] SUM OF TWO QUATERNIONS. to any can a as also fraction. c'. 9). as does bb' in Fig. parallelogram.CHAP. we content ourselves with two. to that line oa. .q + q=^q+q'. and therefore also the whole jaZanej^^wre obdc. . which their Order : and which (by what precedes) of independent must be considered to be given. + j8'. must be a. of any two* Quaternions has a Value. dd'. and the recent formula IL * It will be found that this result admits of being extended to the case of three (or more^ quaternions . we have tion od' = oc' + ob'. but. they can always be reduced so as And because the adto have one. by the process of Art. ^'=:y' is justified. 5': a = (y':a)+ (]8': a). It is easy also so that the is Sum to see that the conjugate of any such of the conjugates^ or in symbols. The Addition of any given quaternion q. when the two summand quaternions are given.. od. into tbree new points. Then each of the lines ob. always be acquaternion ^. which thus bisects at right angles the three joining hnes. 106. dition of any two lines was early seen to be a commutative operation (7. the three other corners. for the moment. 36. but not generally in its plane. d. may be considered to have simply revolved round the line oa as an axis^ by a conical rota through two right angles . last written The important formula line. or in symbols. be any right Let obdc be any parallelogram. the Sum or difference of any two Quater the Scalar {or Scalar Part) of a Quater 195. d' .K(^+y)=K^' + K^. that II. cc'. be reflected (in the sense of 145. (5. Thus (comp.) ) with respect or let the three lines ob. and on nion. and let oa drawn from one comer of it. it follows (by 106) that the addition of any two quaternions is likewise a commutative operation.
) Simple as this last reasoning and unnecessary as it any new Diagram tions. is multiplied by x. One of two conjugate summands. . we shall also quantity. or simply the Scalar.) . are stated in the present Calculus: and are thereby kept ready for future application. 196. (6. a. 137. if q^q. the Characteristic of the Operation of taking the new ^caZar of a quaternion. . . 187. . thus writing generally. 8^ = 88 = 8. . and . 132. respecting properties of an oblique cone with circular base. but that lLq = q. For reasons which call this will soon more fully appear. S=i (1 + K). 2Sq. SK5 = S^ . if be a scalar now write (comp. Sq. have equal scalars . .SK = S. . but that the scalar of a right quaternion is zero. Compare the remarks already made in 132. (2.SS^ = ^q.(6. 192.176 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.S^ = i(^ + K^).. ^q. of the Quaternion. if z^ = . we may write. but also conjugate quaternions. 8*7' = S^. . 160): VI.). 36 multiplied thereby. and IV. q and K^ of which seen (in 140) that the sum is always a scalar. Saj = X. and shall therefore call the letter S. I. 145. q + Kq = Kq + q = or briefly. and some of the shortly following subarticles 196. . thus used. . or defining the II.). (6.8^ = 0. because oa' in Fig. III. 11'.) . q . . and for easy combination with other results of the the great simplicity of expression.). if 5' be a scalar (139). or briefly. IV'.(3. . . with which same kind. when ob is Again. . . 161. VII. is. or in symbols. new symbol Sq by the formula. respecting to illustrate it. 131) is equal to that scalar itself. . the scalar part.) It follows that not only equal quaternions. 179. generally. [bOOK II. of the most important cases oi addition ^ is that it has been We propose now to denote the ^^Z/" of this sum by the symbol. the reader's attention may be appears to be to draw once more invited to many important geometrical concepspace of three dimensions. (Comp. therefore V. We may . And because we have seen that K^ = + 5'. 156. to (10. . we find that the scalar of a scalar (considered as a degenerate quaternion. if ^^ be a right quotient (144).
XI. we compare that definition I.T. by 158. . . equations which will be found of great importance. S^^ >.SU^. . S^ = S(T^. . 2 a .= 1. or < 0.U^)=T^. . Sxq = xSq. . S^ = To^si = %. . SU^ a ' . z 5 <. In . .. combined with the recent or enable us to extend the recent formula VII. SU^ = cosz^. fact. . p whence.Lq=Lq. ^ The II. I. q also. S (oB oa) = oa' oa. XII.. XV. =.Sui. in particular (by 188). . X. . =. $' xir.). or XI. if SU^' = S U^. . while KU'5' = SKq=Sq. according as Z y <. IV. . by U. : : we may write. Also because . or XVI. or > . . . . =..SUq = SV. and therefore . S^ = N^. with the formula of and with Fig. so as not to and tt whence also. results of 142. by WTiting. XIV. =. SU@ = SU ^ a . generally. according as Sg >.. 36.S. (V.. S^ = T^.CHAP.S a a definition " /3 I.] SCALAR OF A QUATERNION. 9 or X'. as serving to connect quaternions with trigonometry . by IX. we have the general equation. a p and therefore by 190.S^ = T^. and which show that XVII.. we see at once that because. XIII. in that 140. if X be any scalar. or > . and conversely. fail the angle Lq being still taken (as in 130). outside the limits . IX. .. since T^. or < q. . if Figure. 177 VIII.. .cosZ^. S9 = T^.
Lq'=Lq. J ^ XXIV. (1. Tj3 . Finally because. : 15. S^' = S^. with other transformations deducible from principles stated It is scarcely necessary to remark that. a result which . US^ = ±1. . in investi gations respecting geometrical written thus : and which may be also * XX. above. 8^ is = 0. but TS^ vanishing.178 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Avill be found to be of great loci. (8. XXL while. by 131. . in the line. 131. . or = TT. .. a . KS^ = . XXII. in . by 159. or known. . the expressions. by VII. XVlll. the oa' = (oa' = oa) oa oa . .). when the scalar and the tensor of that quaternion are given. the equa. S (ob : oa). XXIII. tion (comp. p J and therefore to denote the * Compare the Note in page 118. we may establish this other general formula : XIX. TS^ = +S^.). SU ^ a . = by 159. on account Sj'. for the . and. same Figure 36 (comp. of the scalar character of we have.) 187. may be said to be the projection of ob on oa. . . which last case S^^ :* terminate 0. IV. KS = S . . and therefore L Sq is inde\]Sq becoming at the same time indeterminate. generally. the anple of a quaternion being thus given. to Art. since a is the foot of the perpendicular let fall from the point b upon this latter line oa. we have always. same reason. aS — = S — a = projection off3 on a a a • . Z S^^ 0. unless Lq = . 103). .. . or XXIir. The equation. and 187. . if [bOOK II. S^ = . now seen to be equivalent to the formula. = Projection o/ j3 ow a Ua . by 186. and T^'=Ty. utility. by 139.
T^^ = (2. j that the projection of op on oa is the line oa it^ self. )3' expresses that the projection of ob on op is op itself or that the angle opb is right . 179 of the four other same plane locus which is represented by any one equations of 186. (8. of 187. with plane (5.) ) that vertex. sue=su5. XIX. or SU^=T. with o this other equation. equation.CHAP.).). S^ = l. a (6. represents * Historically speaking.). for and passing through the point B.) On the other hand the equation. in whose great work on Co . (4.) Hence the system of the two equations. S^ = a expresses that the locus of p is l. a a oa . or that S = 0. perpendicular to the line OA.] GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. for p. I. with OA for the perpendicular let fall on • ob it for a diameter. as that . and oa a and both sheets jointly by the equation. a expresses that or se=s?. sP::^=o. a (6.) or by the equation. P or SU? = T^. a S^=l. p represents the circle. from Apollonius of Perga. the oblique cone with circular base may deserve to be named the Apollonian Cone. (2. a obtained by multiplying the two p the Cyclic* Cone (or cone of the last. perpendicular to the line OA j expresses (comp. in which the sphere (6. is cut by the from o. bp j_ oa is or that the locus of p (3. p is on one sheet of a cone of revolution. 132.) or that the points b and p have the same projection on the plane through b. The equation. or that the locus of p is that spheric surface.) And therefore this new equation. (7. or that the angle oap is right . (6. which has the line ob for a diameter. a a expresses (comp. a p because it the plane through A.) The other sheet of the same cone is represented by for axis. P .) The equation. (2.) The pa l. . S^=l.
is known to be a cyclic cone.) is. or of the second degree : now although these phrases also have their advantages. which has oc for the perpendicular let fall upon it. second order. for the purpose of seems more natural. /3 "Mil Note sJs? nics (icojvtKuiv).. at once remove this last restriction.) The curve (or rather the pair of curves).) The equation : (8. be represented by the system of the two equations. already referred to in a to page 128. (9. must be a point of the locus.180 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. the length of the radius of the sphere being here. to speak of the abovementioned oblique cone marking its connexion with the circle. on the foregoing plan. if it be thought useful or con venient to do (12.). which rests on this last circle (7. the equation (8. in which the cone (8. every plane ellipse (or other conic section) in space. by XII. re presented by the equation (8.). as is usually done.) as and has the point o for its vertex. O and consequently it can p is . and tion had been studied by Euclid. has come. where a may denote any constant and positive scalar. theresome conical surface. denoted the two equations (7. cone appear to have been first treated systematically although the cone of revoluBut the designation ^^ cyclic cone" is shorter. under the form (comp.) Conversely. for simplicity. . may be represented by a system of two its base. when lar circumference. its base.) and has its vertex at any given point o. 191.) represents a conic section . in geometry. a (in writing the first of p y namely that section. (10. but not generally of revolution). . in which an oblique but cyclic cone (8.) are so. the properties of such a . it thus. in mo dern times.) is cut by the new plane. which above) on the given circular base (7. supposed to be the unit of Lngth. by writing Tp — a.) p or briefly. And any snch conic may. S^ S^=l. (11. of this last form (9. [bOOK II. But. a cone of the second order. the locus (8. x being any scalar . of which the plane does not pass through the origin. which the point may be omitted.) may be written. In fact. we can so. a p Tp=l. essentially. when be none other than that particular cojie (both ways prolonged). than to call it.) is evidently satisfied.) is cut by a concentric sphere (that is to say. VII. and therefore every point of the circuby those two equations. But the latter equation remains unchanged.) rests (as The system of the two equations. because the cone which rests on any such conic as equations. fore. from the origin of vectors o. a cone resting on a circular base by a sphere which has its centre at the vertex of that cone). at least changed to xp. to be called a Spherical Conic. with its vertex at the origin. or XII'.
so that a and /3' are here the lines oa' ob'. the equations (7. (5. if a' 181 = /3T^ = Ta. S^'=l.) and the cone (8. of Art.) In the particular case lar. (15. 188. which (for any actual cone) would be absurd.) In the same case. the cone is one of revolution.) give.] GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. (13. (3' \\ (3. and 186. nor even a' tion (or \\ «. f3' = f3.) . a = a. on the contrary.) Conversely.)).). in which he says. /3' = (3. — a^a f3 vanishing.) Hence the cone on the sphere (8.) is cut. (S and all the points of the base would be situated plane passing through the vertex o.) or to two new planes. N^ = S:S=l:S. see that such a cone is cut in two distinct series* of circular sections. (8.CHAP.U/3. or i by our having = a'^a. ) or To = aTa. (12. t By M. then. S this = 1. I.) in the circle (7. p — a^a. by XIV. in which new plane cuts the (generally) new sphere. appear to sition of his First two series o^ sub. the equations by XII. of the circumference thereof) being at one constant distance from the vertex o. and therefore that the circle (7. every point p of its circular base (that is..).) must conduct to a result of the form.) Supposing. namely at a distance = aTa. (5. a a p p (5. ^ s'^^I^^O. namely.).contrary (or antiparallel) hut circular sections of a have been first discovered by Apollonius see the Fifth Propo: Book.= a2:S^=a2. l. by planes parallel to the two distinct (and mutually nonparallel) planes. and and /3' = aT^=T^. and we see that the cone \\ therefore not a' = a.. Chasles.) positive which must be may may be real. in the (generally) neto circle. in the case supposed.Q cyclic cone. and the circle a>\.).= a (14. 48. For. the two following : * 1\\QS. KuXeiaOuj ^i i) roiavTr} rofxri vwivavria (page 22 of Halley's Edition). not only by the plane which is (6.) is not a cone of revolu what is often called a right cone) . if the cone be one of revolution. an oblique (or scalene) cone.(2.). we may write ^ = a'^a. and Fig. drawn through the vertex o. but that it is. p (Compare 145. but also by the (generally) new plane. p 1 when /3 a (15). (7. T(/3:a) = a2.) coincides with the circle (7.) (really) cut the sphere (6. And we . S^. p j3 which can only be by the (14. in order that the plane (5. or in the circle which is represented by the system of the two equations. .). that as in (14. we have not (H a. which have been calledf the two Cyclic Planes of the cone. so that the quotient /3 : a is a sca and greater than unity. (17.). (16.) and (13. although still a ct/clic one. a=^=N^ = a S^S?=S^:SV a p p p line (comp. as in since othftrwMse we should in one have. S —=1 .Ua . (13.
it cos Z^ . in which the concentric sphere called the two Cyclic Tp = 1 is cut by the two (11. or of the^rs^ cyclic normal (17. S which touches the second cle. (18. of which (by (12.182 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. which Sive perpendicular to these two planes respectively. namely to tions. and the diameter of this new sphere is the line ob'.. or direction of the line a.) the tangent plane at the vertex.). S£^ = l. X.). Chasles.). (19. = a 6'. of the inclinations. . that the product of the cosines viable side (p) the two cyclic planes.) is /3'. to i\xdX first circumscribed is sphere (6. is represented by the equation. S^. ^ p ) therefore cuts the cone in a circle.) for its base .) may in like manner be said to be circumscribed to the cone. which touches the first cyclic plane. a and /3. P cyclic plane at the vertex. in cyclic planes. namely to the two cyclic normals (17.)) t\\Q first cyclic plane second circumscribed sphere (13. p) expresses. to two fixed lines (a and /3). to the Any other sphere through the vertex.) therefore the tangent plane at the vertex of the cone. (20. (22.). and is therefore /)ara//eZ to the first cyclic plane.) in a cir of which the plane has for equation. is constant . to two fixed planes.. (23.) In like manner any sphere. a •while the fi two lines from the vertex.). where 6 is any scalar.= b a 80 that the perpendicular from the vertex is b'a this \\ /3 plane of section of sphere and cone is parallel (21. and which therefore has its diameter from the vertex =b'(S\ where b' is some scalar coeflScient. such as h to the (comp. —= •? 1.cos = T^. XVI. OA and ob. so that (comp. the second has been seen to be a diameter of (8. or l.) Of these two the sphere (6. . p it or S2' = i. or as terminated by that circle as its which has by (12. or that the product of the sines of the inclinaof the cone. intersects the cone (8. of any vaof an oblique cyclic cone.) may Zg also be thus written : SU^. Arcs* of the Spherical Conic * Bv M.).)> which lines. of the same variable side (or ray. [bOOK II. the second cyclic plane (17.).) The sphere (13.) the equation of the plane is S^. have been thus a constant quantity. or. (5. may be said to be circumscribed to the cone when that cone is considered as having the circle (7. therefore.) The equation of the cone (by IX. may be said to be the two Cyclic Normals.) ) and consequently second cyclic plane (17.) is The two great circles.SU^ = T^. (18. . if the latter be considered as resting on the new circle (13.) the new base .
for any the formula : quaternions.J SCALAR OF A SUM OR DIFFERENCE. XIX. c'. is constant. we have L. or in symbols. the similar projections of equal lines being equal . &c. It follows let fall (by (22. .) 3' expressions. the last parentheses may be omitted. then. . if S(S"+ (2+ ?)) = 8/+ S (j'+ ?) = S/ + (S</+ Sq). g' = y+j3'. with their respective scalars q be a third arbitrary quaternion. cut by the cone. . on account of the scalar character of the summands.. or construction. where S is used as a sign of Summation * and may say that Comp. where.). c. the scalar of the sum is equal to the sum of the scalar s. or problem. generally. and have been here deduced with sufficient facility. y = aSq.CHAP. It is easy to extend this result to the case of any three (or more) quaternions. S(^'+9) = S^' + S^. d' are the feet of perpendiculars let from the points b. or in words. of which some be clearer. and suppose that b'.) These properties of cyclic cones. = aSq. (10.. are not put for(24.q). . the =. SS = 2S : . II. 11) the sum of (ob' the projections of the lines /3. hence (comp. thus. can be translated into several others. on its from ani/ point v of a given spherical two cyclic arcs. oa. or more elegant. 146. generally. y tion of the sum. But also OB = CD. 7 be any three coinitial vectors. than the one first proposed. j3. Hence. od' must be equal to the projecS': = oc'+ob'. ward as new. and therefore ob' = c'd'. 0D = S = 'y+/3. I. so that obdc is a parallelogram (6). q and q. to show that we are already own Rules* of Transformation. fall y:a = q\ and ^: a = q" = q' + q (106). SS^ = 2Sg. d on the line oa. tivo a = (7': a)+(j3': a). we shall have. by 196. with its yrhereby one enunciation of a geometrical theorem.) ) that the of the (arcual) perpendiculars. and let Let a. ^ = aSq" = aS (q' 4. may 197. if we write (5:a^q. is 183 product of the which that sphere sines conic. and of spherical conies. &c. but they are of importance enough. We may therefore write. we may write . or simpler. or briefly. in possession of a Calculus.
SA^ASg. a Dis tributive Operation tion (comp. the scalar of each separately wherefore the scalar of their sum vanishes also. . or one from (1. (^': ^) S^'. by 196. that in vircase of diplanarity (168. .). 13). symbols. having thus always equal scalars. II. sum consequently itself. for the general It may also be noticed. In fact. there is no difficulty in reducing it. that the Addition of of Quaternions. (1. (2. VII. and 191. we have always. (16.).S(^'^) = S^'S^. III. . 9. ternions. is used as the characteristic of the operation of taking a difference.. . to the second gene As to the general Subtrac ral formula of 106 is rence^ nor in proving that the Scalar oftheDiffealways equal to the Difference of the Scalars. scalar. respecting the quotient. the two products.. (3.^{qq) + q = q\ 198. (5. and therefore also the sum of any number of such quaas in algebra. and in 194 • Examples have already occurred in 196.) ) y. .). Yl. 191). . XV.184 the Operation ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. by 196. the sum of any two right quapendicular to the plane of j3 and y is : . ternions is a right quaternion. which . 120. is any number an associative and a commutative operation (comp. S ^ . a right quaternion a result which it is ^ L. 9). 178. and that vanishes. (5. qq' and q'q. . I. or briefly. that the scalar of the sum of any such set of quaternions has independent oftlieir order. In . Sqq' = Sq'q. see. XIV.). SA=AS. . because a is then a. of taking the Scalar of a Quaternion [bOOK is II.)). IV.. and of the mode oi grouping them. when A another. 191. y". by subtracting one quaternion. 173. we = are at liberty to write generally (comp. by 106. . g'. tue of what was shown in 193. .) It has not yet been proved (comp. already.) Whatever two quaternions q and : q' may be. if j3 y perhence. + q) q the two identities (comp..a and L a. . the scalar of a quaternion depends only on the tensor and the angle^ and is independent of the axis.) If the summands be all right quaternions (132). by the method of Art. although they have been seen to have unequal axes. of any one quaternion from any other. (7. we may observe here that because. by 196. is But we a value. then y + /3 easy to verify. o^ scalars of Without yet entering on the general theory products or quotients of quaternions. (q' = q. (2. . 195).
^': Ax. we see that while we have always T (^2) ^ (Xg)2. (^^^ = Ax. . II. proving these results otherwise. and U(^^) = U(^)2. . by 196. . . XVI. . . ^q^q = S (?' £) = S f !$': I i = j Tg^V. (Ax. however.cos L (Ax. OR SQUARE. III. VI. SU(g'':^)=+ cos z ( Ax. (. we have therefore also these other and shorter formulae : V. . Ax. I. With the same supposition. q)\ where the new symbol Iq is used. upon the 199.CHAP. ^) . q). : . in con nexion with their indices (133). . we have also. SU(^2) = cos Z 2 B = cos 2 Z ^ . . for any III. There is no difficulty in them by the consideration of isosceles quadrantal surface of a sphere. be interpreted as expressing the same condition of rectangulariiy of q and q'. by constructions such as that employed in Art.5':Ax. as in 161. QUOTIENT. of any two right quaternions (132). VII.cosZ(Ax. triangles.7^) g. VIII. 5^) ^^q'q = cos Z. 42. On referring to Art. In each case. . . q' Ax.. and Ax.S(^':<?) = S(V:I^) = T(?':j). to the the Angle of the Quotient of two Right Quaternions is equal Angle of their Axes. we may {q^) write. as a temporary abridgment. ^. 185 respecting the product. 128). IV. such quaternions.z(/) = 2(7rZ5). if z^>. . 149. and of Ax.. I.g= . Lq'q = 7rL (Ax. : which may. . 193. Z(g)^ = 2z^. under . but the Angle of the Product^ of two such is equal to the Supplement of the Angle of the Axes. and to Fig.^). that. .Ax. XVI.] SCALAR OF A PRODUCT. . q) . by the adopted definitions of z^(130). to denote the Index of the quaternion q^ supposed here (as above) to be a right one. : In words. . ?': Ax. 5' Ax. Another important case of the scalar of m product. (127. by 196. nor in illustrating quaternions. . is the case of the scalar of the square of a quaternion. the formulae : we may now establish.L{q:q)^L (Ax. if Z^<^.. q' Ax. as in 190. but. .
.). generally. them. l\'q=^ Lq. [bOOK or . S . shall therefore write. S(^2) = T5^cos2z ^. : VII. where we see that it would not be safe to omit the parentheses. SU(^0 = 2(SU^)21. . and which gives. . like . be understood by S^^. S ((72) =2 (Sg)^ T^^ . and the employment often written for (cos xy. however. in the Differential Calculus. . We . without some convention previously made. * or Sj. Ax. . and that which •we shall denote by the symbol Vg. occurring rather oftener than the appears convenient to fix on it as that which is to . _ X.. and not obtuse. the^r*^ Still every calculator will of the notation S^^ for (87)^. of course use his as cos *x is own discretion . A qnaternion. But of these two roots the principal (or simpler) one. . or the second versor. while the other may occasionally be written with a point thus. Sq' = (S^)^ VIII. so it seems safest not to denote the square of Sq by the symbol S^q.186 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. so that we have generally (coAp. II. 160) being equal to the second scalar (like the second tensor. IV.. VI. or i\\Q square of the scalar of q: these two things being generally unequaL The latter of it former. . and shall call by eminence the Square Root of 5. is that which has its angle acute. a formula which holds even when z. signifies SSg.) ). may sometimes cause a saving of space. Hence. 187. which properly . q As. and to write simply this last symbol shall be Sg^. or tt. tions respecting notation* we may write . \/q= Ax. as in 196. . the scalar of the two following forms : q may be put under . g is 0. VI. or Vg.x^. square roots a positive scalar. with these conven. IX. II. it is usual to write dx^ instead of (dx)But as d^x denotes a seco7id differential. S ^^ and then. without first deciding whether understood to signify the scalar of the square.) site K^^ = K {q^) = {KqY = T^2 . . 190.) the . either of V. (1. . while d(x2) is sometimes written as d. u^2. generally. . . (3. g^ = S {q% But the square of the to be the conjugate of the squqre formula: conjugate of any quaternion is easily seen . (9. may be said to have in general two oppobecause the squares of opposite quaternions are always equal (comp.
In any plane tri angle AOB. scalar. or II. be. &c. 42. a point b' is determined by the equation ob' =bo for then we shall have (comp. qKq' f %.N(^1)=%2S^+1. . is here a perfectly general quaternion.SV9 = VU(Tg + S9)}.. .). the formula becomes (by in .. . as in algebra. N (<^ + to = %+ 2a.. if x be any VIII. .) . in Fig. . (T. an = (qy "^ ^ I — 1 = —= OA <7^. . if Z5'<7r. by VI.) Hence. or = tt.). Fig. + g)^ = 1 + 2S^ + easy to T^^ IV. (2. I. . . S ^\ %+ g) S q'Kq = S qKq^. V<^^ / 200. . Lq = 7r. XIII. is identity. : . &c. when I q = 0. . (9)2 = 92. we easily infer this other general formula. T (1 and write.. Another useful connexion between scalars and tensors (or norms) of quaternions may be derived as follows. ab)2= (T. may be illustrated by conceiving that. . . .] TENSOR AND NORM OF A SUM. . but if we still write q = OB: oa. bis). . 33. 187 axis of q and with the reservation that.S^ + x\ * Compare the first Note page 162. we have q\ = ab OA dividing therefore by (T oa)^. 196. t By the Second Book of Euclid.. oa) (T. . oa)2 2(T. denote (by 185.SV5>0.CHAP. &c.t) .. a formula which holds good. while may VI. oa. And since it is prove (by 106.(' whatever two quaternions q and i) q' ?=?'+?. 107) that + v.. 186) the lengths of the sides oa. or by plane trigonometry. The principle* (1. be thus trans formed : XII. common Vg be XI. which gives.. N . ob)^. the equation. even at the limit (3. that in quaternions. we havef the relation. while this scalar of the square root of a quaternion may. ((?' =%' + 2S . we may + ^) = 1 But q change III. VII. ^ because A aob' a b'oc. which the symbols T. this comes (by 131. ob) cos aob + (T. . therefore its sign^ . . 149) an indeterminate unitline. N ( 1 + 2S^ + %.
_ 1^ % which last is the = a2. (1.. in former subarticles.) . the former.) Conversely. 8^=0. Take.).. to represent a certain locus.). T where a is (p . namely. and to observe that the first or second form. (10. (2. or N(9 + 1) =N (9 1) . 1) = T(51). to the equation ^. (5. and IV.) . of the kind which has been alluded to. Tp = aTa.) of its equation. (5. T(g + or finally.1 Uni ^+ 1 \ = T (p + a). (6.= 0. as has been seen. by II. which has been plane through o. (9. and is thus deduced from the first. some other powmode of expression to another. and partly exemplified. (3.). we can return. and therefor the same locus as that which is represented by the equation. Np = a2Na. T(p + a) = T(pa). or.). and III. we have only to denote the quotient p: ahy q. seen. and gene rally. T^=l. 1) . by rules* of transformation. without any immediate appeal to geometry. if we take the Apollonian Locus. by VIII. Sq = gives T (ql) = T(q+l). a of 196. transposing. or the construction of any diagram.) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. or to by I. as required.) Again. involve. 1 .28^ + or. T^^=l. bi/ second form 186. by calculation. and employ thejirst of the two forms 186. becomes then. We are [bOOK II. and IV. Compare 145.a^a) = aT (p  a). and dividing by a^ or..= or pa 1. as above . of 186. in turn. of 187. on geometrical grounds. or or as N(ga2) = a2N(9 1). to ^ t(  1 = t[ ^ + 1 \ j or to \a T (p a) T ^ —. after 2a^Sq. and several subsequent subarticles. S. p~a or the equivalent formula. from S  a N"[  = 0. which gives the third form of equation.) To pass now from the former equations to the latter. 145. (8. sages from one now prepared to effect. for example. namely the perpendicular to the line OA . (2. while the latter equations. we may write it as T(«7a2) = aT(5l). by the same general formulae or II. calcu lation alone. as just now cited. a given positive scalar different from unity. the fonnula. suppressing %   2a^Sq + a* = a2 (Nj .188 (1.
). is 196. or T^=a.) and has its centre at a . T (p  a) = Ta. I. to discourage attention to the geometrical interpretation of the various forms general rules of transformation. involves the other. as follows IX. or which has on = 2a By changing if q to 5 f 1 in (8). this ^r«^/orm of that subarticle being thus deduced /rom the second^ namely from Tp=aTa.and conversely. not necessary that we should continually recur to the examination of it.N(^%) = N(52g).) Conversely if N^ = a2. by calculation . N (9 . it is. as above. foun dation has once been laid. we may write it as this other identity X. we take the equation.1) .) If . and write it as ISq = a\ we can then by calculation return to the form or N(ga2) = a2j^(5l). considered as a spheric surface.) Hence. T (qr  = %= (9. . of 189 (4. and reciprocally. . on the contrary.. in 186. . . the sphere for a dia which passes through meter. each of these two equations expresses that the locus of p o. But when such a. then S .). but it is interesting to inquire what is the meaning of this result and in seeking to : interpret (6. : be expressed under the form of an identity. for all such forms and rules. by 191.) Or. of the Apollonian Locus. N(g%) = Ng N (^ . which q be any quaternion. 1) 1. That each of the two forms. a U5. T (9a2) = aT(gl). . and (5. (7.) ). (12. and reciprocally. which was there seen to represent the same locus.a2a) = aT (p . (8. may hQ proved. la then S —= 1.) It is far from being the intention of the foregoing remarks. in building up the superstructure. if 2Sg. (5.).a). the former equation follows I q from the latter. or finally.] GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. then S = 0. because it will soon be seen that may q{q — '^) = q'^ — q. 196. XII. : as in algebra.a2) = a2N {q . that it. as we see. because each may be put under the form (comp. a of expression. we find that Tg = 1. VIL. (10. with o for centre.) we should be led anew to the theorem The result (4.= .). may in if N^ = a2. which thus offer themselves in working with quaternions .CHAP. In fact (comp. T (p . (6. as in 186.1).) of calculation. and aa for one of its radii. (5. one main object of the present Chapter has been to establish a firm geometrical basis.
of which one shall be. in one but in only one way. — On the ternion and on Right Part (or Vector Part) of a Quathe Distributive Property of the Multipli of Quaternions. 129) the conditions. and drawing ob" = b'b. 6. which 202. and reciprocally because (bv ^ . 50.) expresses that the locus of pis the sphere through a.190 Hence ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. it is evident tions of a and j3. of which it is the sum (6) and of which one^ as ob' in Fig. . two other coinitial vectors. it is always possible to deduce from them. when /3 _L a and /3" being null. and j3' which shall satisfy (comp. two parts or summands (195). 0. when j3 a. (11.) +a a a \a o . so that ob'bb" shall be a rectangle. can always be decomposed. by letting on oa. and coinitial vectors. Section cation 13. is is always one. if [boOK : II. into two component vectors. decomposing given quaternion.) Tp=Ta. actual. „ lar bb' namely. of the elementary geometrical theorem. and j3".  that /3' is that /3" o. and corresponding j^ro/ec^eow of [5 on the plane through perpendicular to it is a. of a one but only way. P_ then S^ —^ = a. but both being (what we may call) determinate vectorfuncAnd of these two functions.106) p^ p (12. 15. if a and j3 fall the perpendicu pj ta be any two given. In other words. in one definite way. that there q ifito = 0B : 0A = j3 : a. which need not however both be actual (1). . is the the orthographic projection of j5 on the line a . while the other^ as ob" in the same Figure. is parallel 201. . is perpendicular to that given line oa . which has centre at and agreement is a recog nitio% by quaternions. that the angle in a is semicircle a right angle. A given vector ob (15) to another given vector oa. ]3' vanishing. as in . /\« their proved / Each of these two equations its (11. Hence easy to infer.
or. because. 191 Of these two 196. of the Scalar and Right kinds : III. we may write also. =7r. * the tify Vectob. II. reciprocally. V(/3':a) (4.CHAP. 188). the right part of a scalar being zero. ihQ former has been already called (196) the scalar part. will come to be also called the Vector Part. . a scalar^ while the other shall be a right quotient (132). + v^ y^ = + s^.^=s^ . with reference . and Vj = .Yq = V(oB : oa) = ob" : oa . 136. . peculiar to the present Calculus. and has been denoted by the symbol Sq so that. by construction. Yq.) .. . such part with its own Index. V(/3:a) = 0. b'b = ob". or simply the Scalar of the Quaternion. 50. V (ob: oa) = b'b: OA. 1 = S + same V = V+S. for Fig.3":a) = 0. with the converse. (6. if or  a . we have the equation. The System of ing general Formula of Decomposition of a Quaternion into two Summands (comp. (5. it is = 0. . I.) Also Sg' = Sg'.) In general. .) In like manner. 174. or simply of the Quaternion because it will be found possible and useful to iden. and to denote it by the new symbol writing thus. More generally. will thus have been completed and we shall have the follow. IV. and S(. briefly . Y (oB (3. C2. or Zg = 0. Sg' = 0. Y([5 a) = : jS" : a. . (1. Compare the Notes to pages 119.] UIGIITPART OF A QUATERNION.V9 = 0. . and symbolically. S3' = S(oB : oa)= OA . Under the recent conditions. in connexion with the same Figure. if VI.^''=5'.. 36.. VII. or. And we now propose to call the Z«^^er part the Eight Part* of the same quaternion.. S (j3 : a) = j3': a. This Right Part. parts. g= 0. and if V5r' = V5' /3 .) In connexion with the Fig. Notations. . YIII.) : oa) = a'b : OA. we have ob': .. or. and evident that if V.Vector (133). I. to the recent Figure 50.
) that 196. a right quaternion being its if lq='^i oum right part. although at liberty.. we must write that factor as a multiplier. or j3' = Sia. .) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.) ).oa. this perpendicular being here considered with reference to its characteristic T of the tensor implies. We had I. as to be observed that because thefactor^ is V— a . The equation. a a . III.i3' we were = aS2(196. lX.ob" = Y(ob:oa). It follows (by 186. v£=o. Tf^" = TY—'Ta= perpendicular distance of b from oa.. (1. for the projection /3". and .) is the indefinite right line oa. On the other hand. v^::^=o. II. the analogous formula.).) : a formula which may now be written thus. (196. 203. ob'= S(oB oa). or of the vector /3 on a . respecting the multiplication of vectors and scalars. which drawn so as to be perpendicular to a . &c. is not a scalar. . a to express the projection of ob on oa. the It length alone. by the definition of the new symbol Yq.a.XIX. . and iiot as a multiplicand .) The equation. and we have evidently. . a is to express the projection of (5 on the plane (through o). in consequence of a general convention (15). expresses that the locus of p (2. [bOOK II. . r. . considered in several former subarticles (comp.). a or ve = v^.. OA. to denote the other projection j3' under the form. in the recent formula II.192 (7. 186. XIX. (1.Yq = q. or /3" = V^. and which has been (6.
and ob" for radius : of the right cylinder. (7. y made by the (generally) elliptic section of the cylinder (5. p"^«. the equality p the coincidence. takes at the same time the form. is 1^ is expresses that the locus of p the indefinite right line bb". 142 . by III.). whenceUV*/ 2 c is a right versor (153). (8.) The system of the two equations. or as a consequence from each system. of . stZ^ = o. from this latter line. that the perpendicular distances of p and B. 20) p= b. on the plane through o perpendicular to oa. the plane through o.).) The equation b. in Fig.) Accordingly.). a a p is ofl96. ^^ p ^ a p is ^^ a expresses that the locus of the point the cylindric surface of revolution.. through 202. VI. the plane through b. I. (4. which last equation expresses that the projection p" of the point p. and in the second case by inferring. or finally (comp.). whether we take first or the two last of these recent forms (2.) = /3.). which passes through the point b. p" = /3". The equation. whence jo . TV^ = TV^. by . Tp" = T/3". a a expresses that the locus of p is S^ = 0.CHAP. 104).). a a infer this position of the point in the first case by inferring. as in (4.)./3= 0. perpendicular has been seen to express that the locus of OA .. namely.) The equation of the cylindric locus. P'll«> (2. a p : or V^ = V^. (5. through 202. (2. if is then we combine it that the point it p situated at the intersection of the with the recent equation (2. for it expresses. the three rectilinear or plane briefly written : (1.] GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. which drawn through the point (3.). falls somewhere on the circumference of a circle.).. = S^^ a to the line 0. we shall express two last mentioned loci .) If we employ an P analogous decomposition of p. or op = ob . From the mere circumstance that Yq is always a right quotient (132). in the subarticle last cited. a we can v. (6. by supposing that = P'+P"> loci. which is perpendicular to the line oc. may have p' their equations thus p" = 0. that =— so that we have in each case (comp. with o for and this circle may "accordingly be considered as the base centre. or that the two coincides with the point B. parallel to the line oa. ve^=0. or S^ = S^. 50.). (5. 204. = ^': while the combination of the two last of these gives p = /3. and has the line oa for its axis . (3. p3 .= that  — a 0. are equal. (3. a a se = S^.
. .) . 132.* because.). IV. VV^ = V^. or V^ = . 196.V^=Ax. . IV. . V= l . K = 2S. I.159). V^ = TV^ UV^. . S.UV^ = Ax. and by the construction of Fig.). III. we have = this other general formula.). (V^)^ = (TV^)^ = and therefore. it XIV to . .. or (202. hence not only. . IX.^K^ = 2V^. KV = . by 202. (1 19). and . or 1 + ^ + K^=2S^. . by the general decomposition (188) of a quaternion into ^c^or^. of the Operation of taking RightPartofa Quaternion may : be defned hj (comip. (comp. Ax. 156. . . N V^. . or SV=0(196. VK = V. X. we have VII. . whereof the former connects * with the characteristic page 130.) . = 0.. Characteristic. VI.. or . V. by the definitions in 137. = S^ + V^. coincide with those we have : by principles ah'eady established. K^ S^V^. asin or 196.194 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. the whence the 196).(UV^)2 = 1 (153. VI. . = 0.y. but also. XII. . VS^ VS = IX.V (144) VII. XL . .VK^ = V^.. . or 1=S + V. .). 202. and Compare the Note . 137. (6. . . 187. of q^ several general consequences easily follow. 36. by subtraction.zV^ = ^. which the plane generally. either of the two following symbolical equations XIIL . the relations 11. We have also VIII. VII. Thus and the axis (127). V V = V (202. V = i(l K). 1K = 2V. I. For the same but we had y reason. III. . . by addition. IV. . or KVq = Yq. because conjugate quaternions have opposite right parts.S (202.SV^ V. [boOK II. or K = SV..
if x be any scalar .TVU^. in the XVIII. and by 196.. 11'. ^q = Tq^=^q^Yq\ . generally. V^ = T^ VU^. V^' = (Yq)\ but that XXIV. shows that triangle. under the form. 50. we have . . 191.sinLq.. . connecting quaternions with trigonometry anew XIX. . by 188. SUg = co3Zg(196. sin aob .CHAP. I. ..ob . The same important relation may be expressed in various other (T . is K on S and V while the dependence of K . V. and XVII. Yxq . XV. + (T b'b)2 = (T ob)2. . ways . (SU^)2 + (TVU7)2 = I. as an abridgment oi notation (comp. ob')2 . that XXIII. . . VII. we arrive then thus at the following general and useful : for mula. IX. . be multiplied (15) by any scalar coefficient. . TV^ = Tq .) be written thus XXI. and that of S on by 196. 195 the latter with the characteristic K . expressed by the recent formula XI. if the line ob.oa. : which may also (by XVII. XXII. . But the consideration of the rightangled same Figure. without sines and cosines. from the rightangled triangle. j^ = Y{q% . = xYg. VIII. and therefore.. II. and T.TVU^ = sinZy. .ob"= T. XVI. . TV^ = T(ob":oa) = T.TYq^Tq.). . by 202. we arrive at the general relation : XX.(S^)^+(TV^)^=(T^)'. for example.).ob":T. .] PROPERTIES OF THE RIGHT (OR VECTOR) PART.. . . and might have been immediately deduced. Again. . the perpendicular bb' is evidently multiplied by the same hence. XVI. . by combining which with the formula. because. in Fig. ob'b. we may write. 199. where it is assumed. by the property of the square of the hypotenuse.
9. (^^«T=(fI' like the corresponding . a \ a like the equation of 203. a ] \ a] or (by XXVL). which passes through (3.. write also. represents generally an elliptic section of but if it happen that y a. [bOOK II. we may (by XL) establish this other general formula : XXX. expresses that the locus of p is the right cylinder. VIII. XXVIII. a result which is . any scalar. % = N(S^ + V^) NS^ + NV^ indeed included in the formula 200. .Yq\ . the opposite of the sum of any two quaternions being thus equal to the sum of the opposites. Sg] and therefore that Tq'=Tq^ which two last relations Ax. X being. as usual. the identity.) The system of the two equations. .).K^ = V^S^. . . 5'= Ax. if ^^ = ^.) From the last formula if it may be inferred.) The equation.(^'+^) = ^'^. . . . the opposite of the conjugate of any quaternion q having thus the same riff ht part as that quaternion. the section then becomes cir^ the same right cyhnder cular. XXIX. as in algebra.. but Lq' = Tr. XXVII.). And because. NS^ = . and then Yq' = + Yq. (6. (1. without the introduction of the characteristics S and V. by the definition of a norm.•  system in 203. and by the properties of S^ and Yq^ XXV..) = % It + Naj. since that equation gives. that but Sq' = q=Kg. (2. (by 106. (5. we may . cylinder of revolution.N(^ + a. or the point B. . S^^ but XXVL = . but an opposite scalar part. the import of this last symbol remaining to be examined. 143) may be added that because we have. NV^ = NV^.V96 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. (v^Y=fv^Y. generally.Lq\ might have been deduced from 138 and 143. NV^ = . with oa for its axis.
* in (1 fv]=a. a. for axis..). 145. in one constant direction. written. or by S^^^ = 0. VI. however. and thence to to 1.) first . and in like manner. to ad mit (comp.. (1.) ) of being represented by the equation fore.) — a. in which if we x variable scalar those equations S . and therewith o for centre namely. by rules of calculation already established.) .). while the position of the centre of the circle varies continuously. (11. or to the third. p but which +a of200. is usually meant a circumference. under the recent form (6. and then decreases the connected scalar V(l — ar^) at first increases from from 1 to . by the first through a. and ^^ = p \ 0. stated in 145." cylinder. : as in the of the two equations (4. the last equation (6. and " " " .] GEOMETRICAL EXAMPLES. if and then again diminishing to zero .2l. (11. « By not an area . (2. is perpendicularly cut by a plane at a distance = + xTa from o the vector of the centre of this circular section being xa. we recover the second of and thus might be led to consider. (5. fore The locus of all such circles is the sphere. with o for centre. (4. maximum = Ta. or by T^ = 1. which the cylinder of revolution. equations. equation Tp = Ta of 186. with x>l. are usually here employed to denote surfaces. Ne=ii a whence T^=l." in these pages. for radius.). and thereto denote the by XXII. from ajirst limitpoint a'. under the form. [^ih(^^h' obtained by eliminating x between the two is recent equations (4). N=1 a write .) at the same time enlarging from zero to a + 1. or by the ge neral relations between the symbols used. might already have definition and property of a norm. a of 187. (12. the sphere in question the word " circle. In fact. to return from the last form to the second..) Conversely. by 200. the radius of the circle (4. to the point A. the sphere been seen. oa' = (6.). x<I. (11. as in (6. a and therefore also by 190.. now presents itself under the new form. as a second limit.) may be by XXII. and thence to the first. S Tp = Ta. (8. 197 The system of the two s^ represents the circle. (7. and not volumes.) While the scalar x increases (algebraically) from — 1 to 0. the sphere which has alieady been represented by the .) ." cone." &c.) I.) It easy. with oa and with — x^yTa . by 187.).CHAP. with aa' for a diameter. the words sphere.
by XXVII. the centre of this new surface being the centre o.198 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. ^t=x. while the radius of the sphere = Ta. . by XXVII. + byl90.). the centre of the circle and the axis of the cylinder re  maining unchanged. + = l. have its equation written thus. Nfs^ Ve^ (10. the scalar x be still treated as a va (14. a (13. or NS^ + NV^=1.) =aTa. NV^=1.) The locus of these new circles will evidently be a Spheroid of Revolution . (11. new circles are in the first case greater. namely new equation. . (3.) this The result of the elimination of x between the two last equations. as the locus of a variable circle. XXVI. (v^Y = ^^l. of the sphere lately considered which sphere is therefore either inscribed or circumscribed to the spheroid. which envelope : The equations of the two coaxal cylinders of revolution. a p by XXV. if with /3 M0< II a. TV^=1. (9.. or that of the variable cylinder.VL. or Tfs^ V^] + = l. we conceive circle. The system of the tAvo equations. t[s^ v'J=i. 8^ = 0.) aa j NV^ TV^ = a. [bOOK II. or finally. because the radii of the less.) The same sphere may also. respectively the sphere and spheroid (or are circumscribed thereto) are v5Y=i. represents (comp. but in the se cond case than the radii of the old circles . with a variable is (as above) the intersection of a variable plane perpendicular to its axis.. the radius of the in each variable plane represented^by the first equation (4. or Nfs^ + vM=l. to be multiplied by any con stant and positive scalar a. (v^=a.) ) a variable ellipse.2l.) If. according as the constant a > or : < 1 . represented by this new system of equations. or because the radius of the equator of the spheroid (12.. which cylinder.. riable. and the axis of the same surface being the diameter aa'. we shall pass thus to a new system of circles.
XXXII. &c. (9. (19. and will be found to be an adequate representation. .) this ellipse of contact is represented by the equation. I . which may be called its two Vector.) In referring briefly to these.] QUATERNION EQUATION OF THE ELLIPSOID. Sg2 = T52 f V52 .) ) the vector a. of the scalar Sq. a right quaternion. for the central to may occasionally be used with advantage. &c. 149. V52 = S53 _ TqK (17. VI. the two folfor the squares.) In pursuance of the same analogy. ellipsoid. which enter into the usual algebraic equation (by coordinates) of such a central ellipsoid. it may be somewhat safer to write. that other pairs of vectorconstants. .).) With this form of notation. or of Operations (comp. through quaternions. may be denoted by the gene V'O. however. because scalars are the only quaternions of which the right parts vanish. upon occasion. It will be found. of any quaternion q : XXXI.) The equation (comp. by XXII. and 204. 199 of all such ellipses (13.) Postponing ellipsoid (14. circumscribed to the ellipsoid. and the Notes pages 90. (T)2 = (S)2(V)2. or on. S2. (S)2 = (T)2 + (Y)2. 187. or (•ST. than S2t=T2 + V^. and touching it represents a cylinder of revolution.).). or Notation of the Calctdus of Functions. 134. I. . . have been otherwise interpreted already. and since (comp. and the six scalar (or algebraic) constants.). 196.Constants* (15. (12. .. being here virtually included in the two independent vectors. (V)2 = (S)2  (T)2. generally.) In like manner. in (13. because these last forms of notation. 204. NV=1. or the axis of the lately mentioned enveloping cylinder is (3.) the right part of any quaternion. establish this general symbolic transformation of a Quaternion : we may ^=vio + sio. t Compare Art. IX. (16. sym • this includes Si . any scalar ral symbol. at least for realf quaternions. lowing useful transformations and of the right part Yq. . the inequalities. so that the plane of a the normal to this plane being thus (comp.CHAP. I. and to the connected formula XXII. we should have generally. .)). a and (3. (18. along the ellipse which answers to the value a? = 0. of the general Ellipsoid (with three unequal axes) that celebrated surface being here referred to its centre. in analogy to the known Functional Notation.. as the origin o of represents the locvs : vectors to its points . while may any further discussion of the recent quaternion equation of the be noted here that we have generally. TV^ = 1. it oa . (20.. 196. (17. may be denoted by the bol.
gives generally.).) The transformation any quaternion . lUVg = Ax. Hence. 199. Ax. . by 135. to write. and therefore = — Ax. which is perpendicular to oa. XXXVI. but it will be found to be convenient in practice. \q. q = VYq . tan Z g = TVUg SU^ = TYq : : S^. as a new link between qua and XXXIII. . YVq^Yq. the formulae . tan Z g = (TV : S) q . 9 : TYq.. = UV. XIX. (Vi0)2>0. * V(^'+^) = V^'+V^. for q. which have the advantage oi saving the when ter. (S'0)2<0. will take these shorter forms Ax.) It . XXXVI. by XXXV. 11) is that od" = oc" + ob" (6). . so that a (geometrically real) Quaternion generally of the form : Squareroot of a Positive. g":a=(7":a)+(j3":a). . I (1 : V^) = . . &c. a single let (23. that symbol happens to be a complex expression. and then (comp. is [bOOK II. generally. . repetition of the symbol of the quaternion . for the index of a right quotient. (1 V^) = write also. : page 118 to Art. (24. 194. . and 204. by XXXV. I. to write this last result under one or other of the may abridged forms :* XXXIV.Ax. . If any parallelogram obdc (comp. plus Squareroot of a Negative. ... q . as here. . g . or XXXIV. or still a parallelogram. . for any two quaternions^ q and q\ we ha\e the general formula. by II.200 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. XXXVI'. ^ .. 205. the formula : give. And we may because Ax. tan Z 9 = —S TV . 197) be projected on the plane through o.) ternions The equations 196. by 106.. we may establish generally the symbolicalf equation..Ax. : lUV = Ax. and not. S" = y" + and therefore. by 120. .) II. q. so that . not be entirely in accordance with the theory of that Functional (or Operational) Notation. . IVg = TV^ Ax. XXXVr. (21. to which allusion has lately been made. t At a later stage it will be found Note to page 174. : XXXV. 129) the recent equations.. the Note in IUV9 = UV9. (22. trigonometry/. q. the Compare the Note to Art. the projected figure ob"d"c" (comp. 202. possible (comp. so /3" . XVI.
equation K^ = 1 (145). Ax.] RIGHT PART OF A SUM OR DIFFERENCE.) ). .) In like other. IV. 2 D . : manner we can recover each V^ from the under the forms (comp. for any three quaternions. V2 = (1V)2 = 12V + V2 = 1V = S.. like the characteristic S o^ taking the scalar (196. . . q. from the expressions for or thus (comp.. q\ so that Y[q"v{q' + q)}^Yq"+Y{q+q)=Yq"^{Yq' + Yq)^ : and similarly we may III. IV. (1. under the form (comp. for any greater number of sumraands write generally (comp. XI.) may. 195*). in like manner.. or do not operate upon a whole mands). . and the tensor (187). and the mode o^ grouping them. . 197).) . of the operations of taking respectively K theaa. be thus written. being as yet supposed to remain unaltered. (11. (2. Hence also. and the characteristic of is a Distributive or the conjugate (137. 197. and 204. VS = SY . . XIV. (10..) (or sum).K2 = (SV)2 = S2SVVS + V2 = S + V=1. or briefly III'.VA^ = AV^. . We conclude then. 197. VII. 204) of a quaternion. = (1S)3=12S + S2 = 1S = V. . the order of the terms added.)). . or IV. that the charactetnstic V. in III. IX.. 129). I. the versor (156). q. again 202.Y(q'q) = Yq'Yq. II'. 195.) VI. represents a distributive operation: whereas the characteristics.). and 200.CHAP. 11. . VIII. of the expressions for S^. IV. IV. VII. 196. IX. (comp. thenorm{\A5. of the operation oi taking the right part (202. as in 196. ..)..): V. by operating on its parts (or sum We may now recover the symbolical . it for the case of two has only been proved as yet (comp. . KEq'EKq. (1. taking Symbol. while the formula II. it is 201 with which easy to connect this other. asia204. the«7?^/e(130). . 196. that summands but this result will soon be extended. Z.). IV. 186. T. N.. S and V in terms ofK: * Indeed. although both those restrictions will soon be removed. 202. VI. Y^q = S V(7. U. II. VI. are not thus distributive symbols (comp. S2 . and 204.w(128. .VA = AV.
round oa as an axis. S'. and S a. or generally of any two right quaternions (132). . or in words the Index of the nions for is Sum* of any two Right QuaterSum of their J?idices. generally. XL 206. . V2 = 4(lK)2 = i(l2K + K2) = (lK) = V. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Avhich is always (by 197. regards the addition (or subtraction) of such right parts. . Z(/3:a) = /(y:a) = Z(g:a)=^. but perpendicular to its let . Let obdc be again any paraloa be now an unitvector (129) 8=7 + plane so that Ta=l.. VIII. /3 a. YS = i(lK) (1 + K) = i(lK2) = 0. equal to the * Compare the Note to page 174. we have the formula.IV(^' + ^) = IY^'+IV^. . we may therefore write. . as in 204. obtained by a positive rotation of the former. . X. q + q. 205). if Z ^= z ^' = I . ^' = 7' + /3' . g' = I(g:a). Yq. so that Ax. and . q and q'. under the fore/3'. any two quaternions. IV. Hence. asin204.S2=:i(l+K)' = i(l + 2K + K2) = i(l + K) = S. (3. (j3' : P) = Ax. we may connect it with the addition (or subtraction) of their indices (133). 7=I(7:a). (y 7) = Ax. But this third index is (by the second parallelogram) the sum of the two former indices. 133. 7 a. [bOOK II. SV = i(l + K)(lK) = i(lK2)=0. may represent any two right quaternions. I. /3. or in symbols. As lelogram (197.202 VIII. and : : Then the three lines the indices of these three right quotients are (comp.) Similarly. : the three right quotients. : (g' : g) = a. IX. and their sum. V^'.) ) itself di right quaternion. . I (^' + ^) = Ig + I^. 193) so that we may write. (2. ^'=I(i3:a). through a right angle. q^ q. Let ob'd'c' be another parallelogram in the same plane... . . as follows. going conditions of construction. IL. 7'.
t In : * Compare again the Note It does not fall . metrical addition of the indices of their right parts. ttoo We see.CHAP. from the symbol for the line ab...).JI to. that lY.) . 175) by sides or angles of a spherical triangle: so the Addition of any two Quaternions maybe reduced (by 197. the Index of the Difference of any two right quotients.lY{qq) = lY(^lYq'. may possibly not have been anticipated. or parts. to page 174. the geo^ . that as the Multiplication of any (in 191) reduced to (1st) the aynthmetical of operation multiplying their tensors^ and (Ilnd) the geometri Q_uaternions was cal operation of multiplying their versors^ which latter was constructed by a certain composition of rotations. I. and was represented (in either of two distinct but connected ways. or determined. in the present and in a former may : work. II. The reader pare the Notes to the Preface to the author's (Dublin. and {q + q) is always their sum (205. for what be called Geometrical Addition of right lines. before the invention of the quaternions although the method adopted. being thus equal to the Difference of the Lidices* may then reduce the addition We or subtraction of any two such quotients. of deducing that rule. 204). 207. there is no difficulty in proving that V m. 203 because V^'.l{qq)^lqlq. if Z^'=Z^ = ^. t the subject but it within the plan of these Notes to allude often to the history of ought to be distinctly stated that this celebrated Rule.] GENERAL ADDITION OF QUATERNIONS. considered as analogous to composition of motions (or of forces). V^' are always right quotients (202. considered as certain vectors (1) this latter Addition of Lines h^mg performed according to the Rule of the Parallelogram (6. then. by algebraical analogies. In like manner. so that the index of the right part of the sum of any two quaternions is the sum of the indices of the right parts. .. Ilnd. 167. the algebraical addition oftheir scalar parts considered as two positive or negative numbers (16) and. I. . always (by 133) tion or subtraction of their indices known. 1st. and generally. to the addi a right quaternion being when its index is given. or of the right parts of any two quaternions. ba (1) may com Volume of Lectures on Quaternions .. 1853). 1. and 206. had occurred to several writers.
and Fig. make with each other. we may now infer that the Sum of any number ofgiven Quaternions has.). geometrical division ofversors. Art. generally. And because the sum of any given set of vectors was early seen to have a independent of their order. or of their axes. independently of the arrangement of the terms in each of the two sums. 4. 2). III. or even by a plane triangle (comp. t Two planes. two unequal and supplementary angles . as distinguished from the opposite aspect : which is most easily done (lll. under the form of the equation or V (g' + g) = (Sg' . Kg. of any two quaternions. (Sg . and let x denote the angle of their indices.) The formula. 208. a Value (comp. so we may now (by 197. III.)> by considering the axes as above. and of the mode of grouping them. operation being again constructed by a parallelogram. the Suhtrac and ?i> tion larsy of Quaternions to (1st) an algebraical subtraction ofscaand (Ilnd) geometrical subtraction of vectors : this last ?i. in the same way. or the mutual inclination of the axes.) We can infer anew that K {q S (g' + g) (3. in like manner.))> which Operation. [bOOK II.. KS = SK.. let t and f denote the tensors of those two parts. as the general Division of Quaternions was seen (in 191) to admit of being reduced to an arithmetical division of tensors. and 206. as in 195.. As regards the quotient or product of the right parts. II. in general.Vg).Vg') + or briefly. and of the Grouping of the Summands: or in other words. (1. by taking account of the aspect of each plane. seen to hold good. V2^=2Vg.]^ of the two quaternions q and q' themselves^ so that (by 204. * Compare the Note to page 175. . which is is independent of the Order. XVIII. Yq and Yq'. now (2. More generally.204 like ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. that K2g = 2Kg. and of the manner in which they may be associated. that the general A ddition of Quaternions is a Commutative^ and an Associative 197 J (l. it may be proved. value (9). manner. of course.) + g) = Kg' + identity. lY. or of the planes. but we here suppose that these are mutually distinguished. for any number of quaternions. whatever the number of the summands may be. is of 205.) reduce.
127. V {Yq' : Yq) = 0. and the second case that of opposite axes. .^). 11.5':Ax. 128). V?':V? = «'r^ and XVIII.). . . may be expressed . a. V?^V2 = IV2':IV? = + (TV2':TV?). T VU {Yq' Yq) = sin a. and therefore (comp.. . : .. XXXV.Yq = t% if a. V^'. because (comp. and by 204. ifa. XI. the recent formula) give easily. . . X. . VIII. and in particular. IX.^. . ?' : Ax. ? II. q' Ax. to Ax... XVII. . two planes.cos a. q' is positive (comp. TVU {Yq' . XX. right parts. : t' = TV2'= T^' : .= 0. . VI. Ax. the indices of the and product of the right parts of any two diplanar quaternions. to their and therefore common intersect. . VII. .] QUOTIENT OR PRODUCT OF RIGHT PARTS. 198).r. . . . . I. . = TV(? = T^ . ?) . of the quotient and therefore (by IX.). S {Yq' Yq) = ft' cos x .. . Then. • . XXXV. (6. XVIII. .) the quotient or product of the right parts of two complanar quaternions (supposed here to be both nonscalar ( 1 08). . (123). .CHAP. which may be thus expressed : XV. (V?'. . . XIII. XIX. . V?'. : . Yq)=t't cos . . t't' a.L(Yq':Yq) = X'..V? = + i'^. .. SU (Yq' V?) = + cos x SU (Yq' V?) = ..). . 191.. sin Z$^ and x = L {lYq' IV?) = L (Ax. Ax. . the .V?) = 5. . : . III. with the temporary abridgments proposed above.a. Yq'. by 193. Ax. but .. XII. V?': V? = + i'rS and XVI. and by 204. . TV {Yq' Yq) = sin XL TV {Yq' Yq) = Vt sin . as follows: . . = ^. V. if we the unitline which is perpendicular to hath their axes. (V?': V?) =+ 5. XXI. . . Yq = IV^' • I ^=  (T^?' TV?) (Ax. XXXV'. V ( V?^ V?) = 0. We have also generally (comp. : 204. VI. and 204. zl (V?^ V?) = : tt . V?) =. XIX.. Yq) = sin a: . .lV(V?'. .. . q).(Ax.nsina. XXII. I V ( V?' V?) = + a ft' sin x . 194. . . . or in which those planes and which is so directed that the rotation round it from I. . so that t andit' are each > 0) degenerates (131) into a scalar. I. . denote by h In the more general case oi diplanarity (119). S (V?'. 205 t sin Z?. if?' and III? XIV. IV. first case being that of coincident.
and therefore. . q = OC'.. J XXVI. point b.fv^:V^'j = /3.V = + sinasinccosB. . the supplemejit of the angle b. IV( V^.. for any triangle abc on the unitsphere. still . we have *' = sin o . . XXXIL (5. t'. and therefore the points t' and are as just stated. and therefore that round b from A to c. c' Lq' = a.= /3sinasincsinB. is positive. be (as in 175) the positive poles of the three successive sides bc. &c. by XXXI. d = . f v.. = oa' but X and d are the angle and the axis of the quotient of these two axes. ca. as in Fig. XXXL. 177) round A from c Then q to b. Ax.. ft aj XXIV.. . c'a'. Ax. .V^) XXV. a.B.V^ = + sina sine sin B. Vil.V. V^^ + ZB. XI. . and for the vector d t (2. we have the formulae: is which diametrically opposite to i\i& XXIII. of which the spheriand the corners may be denoted by the same letters A... &c. . as above quaternion which is represented (162) by the arc c'a' . Ax. writing. we easily obtain the the following expressions for the three scalars : x. V ft «/ l ] XXVIIL (4.(vI:vf]=. Also A. and ai =a . sf \ V ^ V . ab.. then fti on the other hand. IVI V^:V^ ) =/3sinacoseccsinB . .) ) of the q' new arcs b'c'. [bOOK II. TV( V^.) If. ABC be any triangle upon the unitsphere (128). . = B.sin a cosec c cos b : 1 . here. V. XXX. 180. (3. XXIL. s( V^. we . the rotation round b from writing for a moment ai = — a. XXVn. we have q' often done. as a. but the angle at bi equal in magnitude to that at b so that by treating (as usual) all the angles of a spherical triangle as positive. IX. = — ft. a'b'. . as well as ci = c. 43. &c. ft. of the given triangle. should have a new and oppo site triangle. ft by XIX. for example.) Hence. yi = — y. XX. or of the therefore x is. Ax. XXIX. Tq = Tq' = whence t Lq = c. = tt — b .. and S is directed to the point upon the sphere. l. XXI.= . AiBiCi.) Also.) In fact = smc. — (3: and =y ' where a = oa. stated. . . we should have bj = b. (2. b'. by III. t..(vl. A to c were negative. while the sides as usual be denoted by a^h^ c\ and let it be supposed that the rotation (comp. in which the rotation round Bi from Ai to Ci would be positive. b. b.. c the negative poles (comp.ft. if the rotation round b from a to c be positive. If a'.206 (1. then . VIII. with a = OA..) Let cal angles shall ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. c. Tvf V^:v5 = + sinacoseccsinB.
Anj/ two quaternions are collinear with any scalar the plane of a scalar being indeterminate^ (I'^l)(4.CHAr. Quaternions of which the planes are parallel to any Compare the first Note to page 113. : if three or more quaternions can be so reduced.) Collinear quaternions. (3. V5'. the complanarity of the axes insures the colUnearity of the common quaternions. can always be reduced to a common denominator (120) must be . generally 204. 207 IV V P" V or : Pi V— ai P 1 = ..) because the line c is common denominator e. but the converse proposition (1. for this new we were to change the sign of (3. considered as fractions (101). to common line may also be t Compare the Note page 114. general formula. and which in quantity is equal to the spherical angle b. of any two quaternions.. (6. XXXII. according as the rotation round b from c. (IV:S)[ V^.) The conjugates of collinear quaternions are themselves collinear. S5. I. . which might perhaps be denoted by the symbol ajSy. (2. as TV5: Sq was abridged. as to appear under the form of fractions with a collinear those quaternions planes.) Abridging. V^. the planes of any three quaternions q^ q\ q'\ consipassing through the origin (119). it follows 209. and because the axis of each is then perpendicular to that line. subsist. and by XXIV. or that round (3 from a to 7.) Hence the scalar and right parts. XXXIV'. .J COLLINEAR QUATERNIONS. and conversely.). ) IV \ = + /3sinacoseccsinB: V^:Vl a) still the four formulae of (4. because the peipendicvlar to the plane of the axes to the planes of the quaternions. in (TV: S)g. for any three unit. in the second member of each. is a line collinear ./3i sin ai cosec ci sin bi. provided that.) would therefore direction of rotation in the given triangle. to lYq: Sq to (IV: 8)5. * said to be collinear. we have by (5. contain any coinmon line. Sg'. considered still as terminating XXXIII. (5. those three may then be said to be Collinear^" Quaternions .V^'j = i/5tan a to the upper or the lower sign being taken. When dered as all that the Axes of Collinear Quaternions are Complanar : while conversely. then common to all their . is positive or negative. are always collinear with each other. . at the corners of a spherical triangle abc : y.vectors a.. this other (3.) Complanar quaternions are always does not hold good. collinear quaternions being not necessarily complanar.
of Collinear] Quaternions is the Multiplication a Doubly Distributive Operation. l. + q'. /3. with the same degree of generality as before. V.^q^^q'q. then. q'. VI. at least under the same condition of collinearity. in which the quaternions are not collie . {q"' + q") (?' + 5) = ql"q' + q^'q. {q'q)q'' = q'q''qq'\ upon these two equations. may represent any three collinear quaternions. . however."q + q^'q . 5. In words (comp. + .. and Operating by the characteristic attending to 192. extend to the more general case. so that we may write VIII. by 106.{q' + q)q'' = because. . . (5. q" {q' + g) = q"q' + q"q If.{Kq' Kq)^Yiq" . . + q'n.{Kq' +^q) = Kq" . Kq" . We have.) ) the three conjugates of arbitrary collinears. q'. .Kq' + Yiq'' . + q. 6.. (comp. that this condition is unnecessary. any four collinear quaternions^ we may esta.l^q\ where (by 209. a a J8 a B 8 B 8 a 8 a 8 it In like manner. .Kq. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. II. . K5. .q^. q'\ q'" be blish the formula (again agreeing with algebra): q)= q'^q' . such that ^ ^ a' ^ a' ^' and thus may conclude that (as in algebra).208 210. .. * It will soon be seen. 2^^ = ^\ + ^'2 where 2g' = ^1 + ?2 + . 'S.. denote a line common q" be any three collinear quaternions. 107.. . + q/q^^ \q'2qi + . 120) three other lines 7. K and 195. .. qY^qq". distributive property ofmultiplication will soon be found (compare the last to t This Note) near. and similarly for any greater number. Let q. . therefore.q' Yiq". [bOOK II. III.q^ . q" {q' VII. ^q" .* may be proved that II. m and n being any positive whole numbers. and ^q'q = q\q. . . . II.q'^q. . briefly. . Yiq\ Kg''. . and let a Then we may determine to their planes. 13). + ?m.¥. . we find that IV.
. T92 XL) = N9 = qKq = : (S9 + Yq) {Sq ..) = K. agreeing with 199. XV. we have this general transformation. N(9' + 9) = N9' + 2S. we obtain the XIX'. and 204. VUC^^) = 2SU9 .. Yq) . V9'.) Hence. and without any employment of sines. . .2S9 + 2 E 1. and transpose (comp. other general formulae : XL whence also. 209 by 209. S9'9 = Sq. q'q = Sq'. in VII.9K9'= 2S.) (by 206.) ). Yq'=. as in 200. q^=Sq^ + 2Sq. By supposing = K9. S 92 = 2S92 . product of ant/ two quaternions . we have the transformation (comp.. . and 204. .).. instead of XIX.V9. Sq + Yq'. in IX. of^^a V. Yq) . XIX. we have . in the latter of . we find these (3. following general expression for the norm of a sum : (9 or briefly.9K9' + N9.) Eliminating Yq^. Sq + IV(V9'. for the . Sq + Sq'. + 9) K (9' + 9) = 9'K9' + 9K9' + 9'K9 + 9K9 as in 200.. Sq + Y(Yq'. XXL .. and dividing by T^^^ . (4.) Hence . Kq + X. 191. 8. . .92 = 892 + 792. N (9 + «) = N9 + 2a. we find that a. Sq. S9 + S (Yq'. we obtensor (comp.S9 + . II.Yq. .) known Taking the : scalar and right parts of the expression IX. we find that 1 XVI. the two = IV9'. square of any quaternion^ : (2.q^ = 2Sq. . . . . which had indeed presented itself before (in 204. dividing by T92. this other formula . 126 199. also. q' \q and K(9' + 9). in particular. If we suppose.Yq) = Sq^ . (1. : III. and IV.2. which we also may (by IV9'9 126) transpose the two factors. . XXIII. V9).) X. changing where x is any By x in XX. S^ + Yq. and scalar.) but is now obtained in a new way. or : Yq. XXr. (4.YUq.9K9'. . XIII. by 196. XXII. S9 + IV9. VIII. . because . whence.. (6.. . Yq'q = V9'.) SU(92) = (SU9)2 + (YUqy q' XIV. and trans tain this general transformation for a norm. from XI. or even of the wellknown theorem respecting tlie (5. Sq. or cosines. VIL 9'K9 (8. (4. We may (7. but obtained here without any use of the formula for the eoUne of the double of an angle.] DISTRIBUTIVE MULTIPLICATION OF COLLINEARS. 202..Yq + Yq^.. XIL . general expressions XVIII. ' .) Separating the scalar and right parts of this last expression. and therefore Sq' = S9. . XX. or by forming the product of 9 as in 200. by XV. III. . II'. SU(92) = 2 (SU9)2 . we obtain these other . square of the hypotenuse. 190. (1. . by 192. for the and 202. VI. 9"' = K9'. 9' to II. .CHAP. . . 207) write. and (1 + K). + a. that 9" = K9. N(9  I) = N9 . VII.Yq. XVII. or for the square posing the two conjugate and therefore complanar factors (comp. Y.. . I.Yq^ . . . IX.9K9'.) ) complanar (because conjugate) factors.Yq + Yq'.T92 . .
) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.) It is . . is equal to a negative scalar (comp. we have founded nothing on the re and have made no use of any properties of obliqueansults of that former Article gled triangles. and multiplying by the square a and [3. = Tq^ + V52. gives S52 XXIV in each of II6IICC . without any appeal to even plane trigonometry being now supposed. .) In any plane triangle. that T(a2) whatever vector a = (Ta)2 = Ta2. for the convenience of the student. so that (12. . c. a we recover therefore. a previous knowledge of the last written formula. or = tt. because (by 190. a which Ta2 denotes* (Ta)2. of [bOOK Ta. since the theorem of the sqiiare of the hypotenuse has been virtually proved anew in (4. because although. from which the formula the last equation therefore be read XVI. as in 204. under the form. again. Vg2 < 0. cosine. XXXI. unless Lq = 0. and which jusrifies us in writing cose in The geometrical Examples. to the product of two vectors.).) nor is it necessary to the argument. . that any properties of trigonometric functions should be known. definition oi a. by . and we know that V^^j as being generally the square of a right quaternion. 200. T(/3 . important to observe that we have not here been arguing in a circle . in . its which two cases V9 = 0. beyond the : mQXQ 196. . yet in these recent deductions from i\\Q distributive property YIW. in order to arrive more rapidly at certain applications. Ta SU ^ + Ta^. and their validity be seen anew. . the Jnndamental formula of plane trigonometry. may be. and therefore square vanishes . Ta = 6. (11. because Ta^ as denoting also T(a) . (0.). in«every other case. of multiplication of (at least) collinear quaternions.a)2 = T/32  2T/3 . SU.= cosc. we assumed.). and by 196. 190).) The formula XV.). any two vectors. 204. as a cexidJin projecting factor. /3a = AB. XXV. was derived. Sg2 <Tg2. or even of rightangled ones. assigned any meaning to the square of a vector. we gef. IX. . 6. from XXII. (SVqy < 1. the formula. ^ = CB. 202. may (10. c2 = a2  2ah cos c + 62.Wt^=(I^Y. . for II. in the subarticles to 200. XXIII. Changing q to ft: a. let the vertex c be taken as the origin o of vectors . or generally In the Third Book of these Elements it will be shown. with sides of which the lotgths are as usual denoted by a. T(/3a) = c. that such a square or product can be interpreted as being a quaternion : and then it are not yet at liberty to interpret the symbol * We we have not yet will be found (comp.210 (9. then a = CA. Ta a \a J and \ j S^=fsvi Ta a a (10. XXII. abc. in Art. VI. T(3 = a. K(^..
oc have opposite directions.. In fact. . unless 5' = . on the cctntrary.) Since Tq^ it . or = tt .) Writing q=: a. in 186. the formula XX.). unless becomes. XXXII. XXVI. /3. which excepted case.T(y + /3) = +CTy.(TS) notation. : S qKq' . but without its having been necessary to consider any triangle. we adopt the abridged XXVIIL and suppose that the quotient q' : . .(T+S) (q:q). then the difi'erence of lengths of these two lines becomes equal to the length of the line bc'. from ^reome^ricaZ considerations alone. . 211 mation (13.qKq' =:T q'Kq = Bq.). . and 85. ^q = cos c.T/3). according as < T/3 : all which what was inferred. (11. for . y = oc. q'Kq = Ng S (^' . &c. . .CHAP. without any use of the transforSUq = cos Lq (196. or in other words that the lines ob. by XX. any two vectors unless y. x>0'.). I. that (for any real quaternion q) ws have the in equalities. SU^ being = + 1.. may be taken. Sg' = cos a.) With the representations of q and q\ assigned in 208. where either sign (17. . T7 + Tj3>T(y + /3). a. x> . = ^q.Tq :=T. but if it happen that the directions of the two lines ob.) It might therefore have been thus proved. (<?' : XXVII.). we have the values. XXXI. and Sq<+Tq. Tg + S5=(T+S)^>0. with a corresponding abridgment of notation. whichever sign be adopted but.S) ?.] APPLICATIONS TO SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY. as was done in those former subarticles.. combined with the definition of Ta. if . Tiq + qy (Tq' Tqy=:2(T + S)qKq' =:2^q. by two sides of a spherical triangle ABC. (?) > 0.T/3). .T (g' q).) . in which latter case.Sg = (T .y then one' will be in general a plane triangle.. not a positive scalar unless q' . • XXXIII. . the formula XXIX. oc' coincide. XXX. gives. y = x[3. in the first case whereas SVq =—1. and Sq = + Tq. And hence. in the second case. = oc'. on the plan of (15. q is hence. SU9<+1. and Tq. in . and becomes x>0.) anew On the other hand. and . unless Lq = 7r. (5 each : member g'= y : of this last inequality (15. agrees with if Uy = U/3. hence. = (1 + x)Tq. .a.= — Tq.. ^q'q = S (y «) = cos : h . XVI. : 9). T9' + T9>T(9'+5). we have. if we make /3 = on. (9. T (g' + 9) > + (Tq . We therefore at the results of 186. any other. happen that Z 9 = 0. .. in which the length of the side Bc' exceeds the difference of the lengths of the two other sides . SVq>l. (10. XXIX. but not in we have Uy = U/3 (155). by XXVI. . (16. also. .).). unless . arrive .Tg). T(y + /3) > ± (Ty . by XXVI. Uy =  Ui3. Ty > or the upper or the lower sign being taken. XXXV. and multiplying by Ta. XXXIV. Sq>Tq.^. (1. while (14. T7 . (18. (Tq'+TqyT(q' + qy = 2(TS)qKq'=21^q. = xq. =S .
such then tiplied is . was seen XVIII. but p abc.. the fundamental formula of ). this new equation : XXXVIII. XXVIII. for Sq and Sq'. . (21. of the triangle. included in the interpretation of the quaternion equation in (18.. or XIX'. &c. . (22. spherical trigonometry (comp. the connected equation XIX. as the formula XXXVI. gives therefore. Yq) = — = y'sinc. XVI. in the same hemispheres as the opposite corners . . c are as usual the sides of the spherical triangle . cos pc'. sin 6 cos bb' = sin a sin c sin B = TV V^. we have IVg' and IV (V5'. get this other fundamental formula of spherical trigonometry. upon the surface of the arcual perpendiculars. XXXIX. with reference to the same spherical triangle. 0^ spherical geometry . and are the sines of the three altitudes of the triangle. (5. dividing by sin a cos c. or XIX'.. &c. . and then interchanging b and c. COS h = + sin a sin c cos b. .). (2. as in 208. . .]. (10. [bOOK II. incide with b'. b'.). as in 208. XVIII. \ (3 a) ( the quaternion expression for the product of the sine of the side ca. b and b' are situated at the same side of the be still.V. thus the formula XIX'. and we see that this is . IVg^'^r = — /3' sin J (5. + sin b cos pb' + sin c cos a cos Pc' a. becomes. let fall Also cos pa'. the supplementary relations of two polar triangles to each other forming rather a part.212 the equation ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. relatively to them. other formulie of spherical trigonometry Thus if we suppose p to cobe deduced. that the rotation round b from c to A arc CA. j3 sin a sin c sin b=a sin a cos c + /3' sin & + y' sin c cos a. so that (2. h. a' if b' is positive.. dividing each term of the last equa(20. with the recent values (18. and the last formula becomes.. but negative in the contrary case so that cos aa'. the positive pole of that arc. . . let it be now supposed. as in 208. then. are positive. sin c sin b (comp. By assigning other positions to p. (19.. is here supposed . from the opposite ver tex B. 208. and a'. from the recent equation XXXVIII. when p is. lVg'' j8 = a'sina a sin .).) Placing p at A.).) as follows cos a cos c : XXXVI.) ). = OP be any unit. the positive poles of those sides of the sphere.. XXIV. mulsine of the perpendicular let fall by the upon that side.) Let jO tion by jo. by transposition of the two terms last written: XXXVII. and taking the scalar of each of the four quotients.) XIX. and a very elementary one.. where still. . two of these perpendiculars vanish. cos pb'.) to be the interpretation of the connected equation (23.) To interpret. by 196. may * No previous knowledge of spherical trigonometry^ properly so called. are evidently the sines from that point upon those sides being positive . sin a sin c sin b cos pb = sin a cos c cos pa' . by 208. and observe that (by the supplementary* triangle). we have..vector. Then writing = oa'. cos aa'= sin c sin b = sin 6 sin c . c' are is an arbitrary point. we XL. by 208.) If we place p at b.
by placing p .) The quaternions 7. at the plane a= 6 COSC+ ccos b. will be right also. 7'. without being now necessarily colliq. that the although it appeared whole of spherical trigonometry may thus be : developed.Yq"+Yq. and therefore. b'c' 213 =71 —a. . V. 210. or that if q(s"^q') = qq" + qq\ (2. from the fundamental equation of multiplication of quaternions (107). by 106. sin a sin c sin A sin b sin c = sin b — cos c cos c sin A . or verifications worth while to point out. and the results interpreted as above. 206. the general equation becomes. . at a'. as in 210. at the plane limit. a'b'= tt — c. with the elementary A + B + C = TT. Yq'. when that equation is operated on by the two characteristics S and V. But we cannot here delay on such to be deductions.) ). and the distributive property in question (1. .) Again. cV = tt — b. it is easy hence to that the of/ter dis tributive formula. which enter into it. which obviously agrees. . infer.lq?^V{lq':lq)^q'q + q'q'. (3.] GENERAL DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY. . q" being still arbitrary. (2. . as follows. that the distributive for of the last Article holds good. . we easily deduce the formula. W+q')q = l{q^'+q'Ylq.. We shall then have. with the verification that. XLI. It may next be proved.) is proved.. we have therefore the two equations {Yq" + Yq') V^ = V^" V^ + V^' V^ Yq ( V5" + Yq') = Yq.) Lq = Lq'= Lq" = ~. by XL. IX. (197. holds good for any three right quaternions. 211. Let then qq = \. . .CHAP. By taking conjugates. while cos bb' = sin a sin c = sin c sin A. by 210. : For any three quaternions.cos a cos A sin c relation.. I. and their sums mula I. in which case their 7'eciprocals (135). 194. . /Lq = Lq=Lq''=^. when the three quaternions. sin a cos c = sin 6 cos c + sin c cos o cos b limit. XLII. = {lq:''. q\ q"^ 7iea7\ are right. . (24. we have thus.
XVIII.S) qKq. which case the two members of this iuequaUty become equal so that the sum of the . q. summation binary combinations of the q\ ..(2y)2S(g2) = 2(^g' + in which. : unless all the quateniions bear scalar and positive ratios to each other. colUnear (209). and 204. (4. (1.V5) = V(V^. however many the I. and therefore also (by conjugates) the formula 210. ..Yq) = q"q + q'q .V5'). if ^ g =Z g' = .Yq)^{^q. And. and whe ther they be.. S^ + V^".) . as an extension .) In general. S? +Yq. 5'g). XIX. so that we may extend^ to quaternions generally ^ the formula (comp. 210. IX!. 210.Sq' + Yq' . Compare the Notes to page 208. 168) the general equation. also (comp. admit We have by 210. XXIX. we have now. .. (Comp..). ST^>T2g.Sq" + Yq". . of 210. easily of analogous extensions. or VIII. II. is I. (2. The General* Multiplication of Quater?iions is there fore (comp.Sq' + Yq. . or be not.) (5. 191. i^Tqy  (T2gr)2 = 22(T . inequality.^q + Yq'. of any set of quaternions. Sq + Yq. '^q='2g'q: summands of each set may . "V.. or Distrihiitive Property of Multiplication^ * by being. . SO that the formula 210. we have generally VII. V^'^ = . VI.Yqq.Sq +Yq'.). as an extension of 210. X. V(V/.. IV. by 208. from the general establishment (212) oHh. so far. be.Yq)y..214 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. XX. valid generally.210) 2i Doubly Distributive Operation. 212.) Hence. .Sq S(Yg'. 13. Besides the advantage which the Calculus of Quaternions gains. we have the III.) g. where the second sign of quaternions (2. II. VIII. XXVII. (?" +q')l = (Sq" + Sq') Sq + (V^" + Yq') Sg + Vg (Sq" + Sq') + (Yq" + Yq') Yq = (Sg". ^^ . N27 = 2% + 2 SS gKg' refers to all possible . is greater than the tensor of the sum^ in every other case. qq'+ q'q=2{Sq. . [bOOK . . The formulae. ^q.Q Distributive Principle. . .. .) 213. as an extension of 210. V. or right (211). . . (3. tensors. because.. . in g. .
and especially in questions respecting the (real or ideal*) intersections of right lines with spheres^ or other surfaces of the second order.   ap ob. or p — a begin by writing the expression. (3. chord AP. which may be considered (comp. we are to seek to satisfy the equation. (2. since it j3 evident that the length of the line /3 cannot affect the result of the construction. And first we shall take the case of chords of a sphere^ drawn from a given point upon its surface.CHAP. by some vector p. which shall be parallel to a given line let it be required to draw a OB . 23. in order to determine the required For and this purpose. XXI.) From a point a.] INTERSECTIONS OF RIGHT LINES AND SPHERES. to assign the vector. Tp=Ta In short. which admits of division by and gives then. an obvious process after dividing both sides by T/3../3. 215 assimilated to Algebra^ in processes which are of continual occurrence. we may = a + ar/3(15). (186. VIII. or rather of a and Uj(3. to employ the formula 210. but not then as a consequence of the distributive property of multiplication. 51 may serve to illustrate. p — OP. (2. as square. = OB . this principle or property will be found to be of great im portance. The follow ing Examples may serve to give some notion. I. of a sphere with o for centre. from zero . respecting : the multiplication of collinear quaternions (209). which had indeed occurred 200. 99) as a form of the equation of the right line AP and in which it remains to determine the scalar coefficient x. so as to satisfy the . to before. a = OA. and is as a function of the two given vectors. of the extremity of the chord so drawn.) scalar x which shall be (in general) different and then to sub  stitute this scalar in the expression p = a + a. &c. is. equation of the sphere. 2S /3' p = a2/3S /3' * Compare the Notes to page 90. would be sufficient. in applications of that calculus to Geometry. including contacts (real or ideal). manner we are conducted to a quadratic equation. I . In this x. which Fig.. or more fully. T(af £C)8) = Ta. (1.) Since /o /3. how the general disin tributive principle admits of being applied to such questions some of which however the less general principle (210).)). as limits of such intersections.
138) that the angle aop' bisected internally. (5.) for p gives.) is satisfied ..) It is evident. &c. a new treat the vector (6.) T^. To interpret the solution (3. = 2S:N^ = 2s5(by a a (3 196.).) It is expression for p. XIX. in the resulting expression for p. from the nature of that question. by the indefinite right line ob (see again (9. the geometrical considerations which have thus served in (3.). (7.) by Ta. with the verification that be replaced by U/3. as * instead of the multiplicand. to observe (comp. in which it is not permitted generally. the last process (3. To interpret the expression (5. f3 as the multiplier. (4.) is /3s=OD.T/3 c = Ta. to now easy to see that the second equation of (2.) being thus resolved. 11'. for the expression (5. . Tp = as was required. (7.) In general. 145. \ a ] a a and therefore. or the supplementary angle aop externally.). by (3. ocad (8.^ . let let chord AP. if we had not seen how to obtain them. and D be the foot of the perpendicular let fall 51 be the middle point of the from A on ob then the .) Conversely. &c.). This last procedure gives. 12S = K.) and (8.). hence. (10.) for p gives (by 186. (Comp. (5. a parallelogram.).) As a mere exercise of calculation. instead and then going on as before. and finally. which gives . expression (3. a. by 196. 51). is we have only Fig. that a ought to be deduci Compare the Note to page 159.) (10.). we may vary of T/3. as before. XII'. by 196. CA=(ap) = and accordingly. the problem (1.). 187.).. rules of calculation^ from the proposed conditions of the question. — /3 )3 op' or „OA — =K— OB if ob' OP =PO. in Fig. /3 [bOOK may II.216 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. by dividing the last equation (2. p„a f = K.).) to interpret or to verify the two forms of solution might have by been employed to deduce those two forms. it was in (3.
(12. K= And back since the first form can be recovered to the parallelism. if S(a:/3) = 0. as a limit. = si±^{(T. a the tangent plane (comp. so as to be perpendicular to that its second point radius. with the first. may occur. or for ideal intersections of line and surface. 51) the middle point.)) to the sphere here considered. = a = p+2/3S^ «= = p2/3S^. the recent Figure 51 still serving us for illustration. in this case. . but touches it the geometrical And meaning of this result is obvious : of meeting the surface coinciding. pa\\(3 (2. . p. 214. + x. we may substitute for it y — rt.(y ^=K —a a y a). To give now a case in which we shall proceed to con drawing a secant to a sphere.oA xo2 Ta = Tpo = T(€ + xoi3). namely. required to We have now./3. (5. (13. 196..). in a given direcfrom a given external point . by (3. processes as those which have served us to de duce p from and Accordingly. is the vector of any given point b.] IMAGINARY INTERSECTIONS.) Since /3 may be replaced by any vector parallel thereto.. does not (in strictness) intersect the sphere. K.CHAP.)%(vi)'}. p = a2(ya)S y ^ .) Hence we may infer that the plane represented by the equation. from the second.).) and (5. + 2«oSi+NiN^ = oPi. po = £+a. if po = opo.) of p gives. a is or sP=i. or not. such imaginary intersections sider the question of tion. 2lT from (3 and /3 by exactly the same a.) Suppose then that a draw a chord or secant epoPi. = 0. there was no room for the occurrence of imaginary roots of an equation. we may therefore write. whether (as in Fig.) The solution (3. the form (3. 2 F . or if (3 i^ a. being a new p.. scalar . that a right line drawn at the extremity of a radius oa of a sphere. at the point A. S S and the form (5. through which it is (1. blc I. we see that each leads us (11. if y = oc be the vector of any given point c upon the chord ap. parallel to the same given line (3 as before. x shows that p x= p = a. In the Examples of the foregoing Article.) gives. if pi = . and similarly. s^::"=o.) for 0. = A.
8 and t being thus two given and real scalars. must however agree.^ We merely express thus the /acf of calculation. xi we may write. or together imaginarr/^ according as the quantity under the radical sign is positive or negative . that is. and not in vested here with any sort of Geometrical Interpretation. In .) In this last case. will easily occur to [boOK II. ac And cording as we have one or other of the two following inequalities. wholly external to the sphere. (3. for the sake oi generalization of language. this case.) ). (12. . namely. the two following : We po in which e' it is = c + »/3</3Vl. as usual. 14&. for abridgment.) ). those in tersections are ideal^ or imaginary. and Art. 203. that the real tensor of the coefficient of It does not seem to be necessary. that the real part s + s(3 is the vector e' of the foot from the centre o on the line through E which is drawn tT/S (as above) parallel to on and Ilnd. conducts to the quadratic equation. at the present stage. or Subarticles. of this cylindric surface. since the cylinder envelopes the sphere (comp. we may agree to say. that the line intersects the sphere in two imaginary points. as it has hitherto been thought useful to * give . if we make. when treated by the rules of quaternions. from time to time. and therefore does not really intersect it at all . although.) The equation (conip. xi of the quadratic is sign in (1. with ob for its axis. and the line is one of its generatrices.218 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. that (with these meanings of the symbols a. is the intersections Pq. A'o = stV 1. and with Ta for the radius of its base. of the perpendicular let fall . 204. Pi wall be together real. If E be internal to the cylinder. = 3+t\' 1. which has no real root . (5. 1st. but if e be external to the same surface. for consistency of symbolical expression^ to (4.) vanishes and the two roots through e. pi = £ + »/3 + #^Vl. If E be a point . is where V —1 is the old and ordinary imaginary symbol of Algebra. (2. any one who has read recent articles the points Po. to t Compare again the Notes page 90. s and <) the formula Ta = T(£ \x^').). Pi are real . be given. easy to prove. (1. to supply so many references to former Articles. represents a cylinder of revolution. /3. become equal. then. touches the given sphere as otherwise evident geometrically. but such may still. by transformations* which with attention. the quantity under the radical xq. (X  sj + <2 = 0. the reason being that the right line through E is.) consider these two ideal points as having determinate but imaginary vectors. then. c. in the present case. the line which parallel to on.
V1 I. we may suppose that o.1' = .) manner.] CIRCUMSCRIBED CONES. a. An expression of the form (4. The same position of the point (1. a. 153).). while V 1 is the (scalar) imaginary of al gebra. <T/3 = V(T£'2. such as a in a a two real quaternions.) : epoPi being still now the ob are to be assigned. may be said by analogy to be a BisCALAr. an expression of the form (3. e'e" to the sphere. 219 in the vnaginary part of each expression. if drawn from that external we write oe' = t' = e + s/3. e'. in general.).) In fact.). which shall permit the same reality 214.CHAP. and the Ilnd assertion (4. since a enters only by data of the question and that limits of direction of the line . drawn parallel to ob. may 1. may distributive principle (212) may be employed in investigations respecting circumscribed cones. (8.) is justified. thus. we have * Compare the second Note to page 131. but V 1 is still the ordinary imaginary of algebra. which proves the 1st assertion (4.Ta2) = T. biscalars. 215. b are three given points. in which (3 and y are two real di vectors. e (which its may be assumed to be collinear. as before. imaginary.) Imaginary roots of algebraic equations are And if a bivector (6. whether the points be real or imaginary. which can be drawn to a given sphere from a given point. Pi to be real. (2. be said a BivECTOR. And because we have. (2.) (6. represents the length of a tangent point. E'E". for the case of imaginary intersections. * qi are which go and V 1 is. without loss of generality.' =s+ <V— where s and t are two real scalars. and the tangents (real or ideal). and squaring. or foot.). or a. the quotient.) be divided by a (real) vector. but be said to be a Biquaternion. In like (7. . or of the following. (1.). as in 214. and that limits of E are sought. and not a symbol for to be geometrically real right versor (149. as in tensor) are Dividing the equation Ta = T(£ + x(3) by Te. (5.fi/3 = /3S — = projection oe on ob Po. we shall have of e'e = 6 .) Instead of conceiving that o. Pi . which shall alloAvthe points of in tersection Po.
in this case. OE. we may ob serve that the equation. but TVU^ can (3. : then Te < Ta. TVU" = T. the only difference being.) /3. for every direction of /3 and the other from a point upon the write surface.) it.oa : T. Accordingly evident. drawn through an internal point. either cuts the sphere. and its roots are real and unequal.) may come to exist. but vanishes for the case when the angle EOB is right. : T VU (/3 f) = 1.) If E be interior to the sphere. or equal. we have. or touches it at all. therefore. or in other words.) But finally. : represents (when e thus external) a real cone of revolution.. and therefore = One root of the quaroot. To illustrate geometrically the law of passage from one such alternative to another. whatever the direction of it is /3 may be. T(a c) > 1 . that we now : E for a. £ or according as sin EOB < or = > T. [bOOK II. the first of the three recent alternatives. or . or t for a. E be SM/jer/aa?. as in 213 . if : e be an external point. XIX. or= or>T. drawn does not (really) meet parallel (as before) to on. or on or outside or the second or the third of ^^S* ^2* the three alternatives (2. sin EOP = T OA T. namely ar = — 2S(£:/3). so that Te = Ta. or exceed so that any one of the three alternatives (2. geometrically. side this cone.) If the point alternative (2. . or imaginary. according to the vary ing direction of (6. on lies init.) . then the first (4. or real and equal. (5. is in which case we have the second alternative.oe. and the two roots of the quadratic are necessarily real and unequal.) still exists. or by 210. according as TVU^< e that is. vertex at the centre o of the sphere and according the first as the line it. never exceed unity (by 204.220 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . is likewise always real.) is to be adopted . then TVU(j8 t) may either fall short of this last tensor. must cut the spheric surface in two distinct and real points. and T(a t) it < 1. except at the limit for which /3 ^ f . . the line through E. we have here the same system of chords and of tangents. dratic in X now =0. 52. &c. the quadratic in x may therefore be thus written. XV. that every indefinite right line. with its is . (Compare the annexed Fig. T (a :£) !.. In short. so that Tt > Ta.
= OE'. oe. in fact the first if p' be the foot of the perpendicular let fall from p on oe . may be obtained from that of the recent cone (6. merged into a single plane of contact.) ofE cuts perpendicularly the right line oe .oe'= (T. polar plane of the point plane of contact. . or or = + (^S^yN^ N^^N^ 2Se + i j. EP : =T.CHAP. the cone of tangents which can be drawn real.t[^i'J. any quaternion. of spherical or even of plane geo metry. * In fact a modern geometer would say. as another form of the equation of the circumscribed cone. (10. still 221 IfKbe from it to the sphere cone. we find the following equation of the e.oa)2. p'p T. or of what with respect to the given sphere : = (S^N^J while the fact that it is 0. that we have here a case of two coinci dent planes of intersection.OA : T. with its point. or by its equation entering through square. or T. (11.) may therefore be thus written : p£ or ' 6 T. a to express that the point or N^ = N. the recent equation (7.).) I. or at least one form of it is. OA : T. therefore. and x any scalar. CONJUGATE POINTS. and the equation of this enveloping or circumscribed vertex at e. TVU^^=T. and we see that T£. c e is p is on the enveloped sphere. f'=£S^ = 6N. as well as on the enveloping called the cone. also write. 6 £ is that of the point e' in which the polar plane (10. was to be expected from elementary theorems. c c (8.) We may = TV^ T^.] POLAR PLANES. by an external is simply changing p to p —6 .T. or S^N^ exhibited its = of the ex a plane of contact* is by the occurrence ponent 2.oe.) If then we make also N^ = l.) In general. (9.OE. it is.) The vector. if q be or sinoEP = T.Tt' as = Ta2. and quo tient is evidently = sin oep. (7.
. the new plane of of the new point c. then we take. and the other must be exterior to the sphere . (14. . or of conjugation. the vertex of a new enveloping cone. Assuming (comp. as p'.jO + yp'. because. almost entirely. with = Ta. namely. contact.st^Y'^''^ a a a Y ap j i = S. each of the two connected equations. p' be thus two conjugate points. The equation (10. or and attending to the equation of conj ugation (13. it will easily be seen that the investigations in recent subarticles are put forward.) In general. or the polar plane dd' .y+i/2N^. by 210. as exercises in the Language and Calculus of Quaternions. but which it appeared useful for our purpose to prove by quaternions* anew. one (16. and not as offering any geometrical novelty of result.). 52). may easily be thus trans formed : = si=(sP. \ a a j a a which gives. conjugate to each other.. or on the surface of the sphere. [bOOK II. (a + y)2 = N[a. when and p are interchanged. and let it be proposed to find the in which the right line pp' intersects the sphere. will pass through the former a geometrical relation of reciprocity.). s'.) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.x. P P P' 9 which may also be thus written. be given by its vector p'. between the two points c and e. whether that point be external or internal.+ 2a. of the former external point e. by 200. of the polar piano of e. of the two unity. (15.) Let P.^+y^'V^^N. which is indeed wellknown. TcT = Ta.) If one of the two points. differ * In fact. we have. of which the vectors satisfy it : presses that those two points are. while the other point p and vector p are variable. iJst'L. ?£!!'. p' must be interior. And norms here occurring. what is still called the polar plane of the given point. or the two values o^y. any point c external to the sphere.222 (12. s. x\y = l. if the points of intersection s. and situated on the polar plane ff' . a a may be said to be a form of the Equation of Conjugation between any two points p and because it exp' (not those so marked in Fig. .Ni £ P J P \ it a. . Tp a wellknown sense. XX. the equation then represents a plane locus. in respect to the given sphere. the following quadratic equation iny. VII.x.s V" P 6 or SiN^ P 0: P If continues therefore to hold good. it is evident that. vertex e : (13. s' are to be real.) Hence of the two points p. one must be greater and the other less than because the two roots of the quadratic. 25) points that OS = = (T a.
(Fsp's') = 1. the polar plane of the supposed 216. we must say that those tangents are ideal. of which some forms of the Quaternion Equation were latelyassigned (in 204.. = I. given. at least (1. the system I. : to the sphere but if so.) ). 4a.) and therefore comparatively few references J upon the present subject. for the year 1846. 204. denoted by the second equation of that system. and others formerly referred t See the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.). 31.(13.. is a surface of the second order ^ * Compare again the second Note to page 90. (17. to page 218. first. RESUMED. that the locus of the variable ellipse.2l. 223 divided sigyis. and important Surface or raIn what follows. or at least interest ing. (14. as of by mo dern geometry. it will : be supposed that any such reader has made himself already sufficiently familiar with the chief formulae of the preceding Articles . which the real but wholly external plane ) by quaternions. X Compare the Note .] EQUATION OF ELLIPSOID. /3 being supposed to be real. represents (not an ellipse but) a pair of right lines. we have the haronly by their : monic formula.CHAP. is cut by a plane parallel to its axis. (v^y=a.) represented by the equation. and to be inclined to each other at some acute or obtuse (but not right§) angle. Some readers may find it useful. for that celebrated ther to several such constructions. recognised as being (comp. real or ideal.) as being From a drawn of real but internal point p. previously unknown. (as or that in a notation already several times employed (25. as terminating on an imaginary circle is. we can still speak of a cone of tangents. &c. I.) internal point. or ijnaginary .S^ which locus is a:. points be). in which the cylinder of revolution. and represented by the first equation. (14. to see here a few examples of the application of the General Distributive Principle (2 1 2) of multiplication to the Ellipsoid. will be To prove. it follows (by 2G) that the right line pp' is harmonically it is well known to s' at which it meets the sphere at the indeed two s. § If /3 to. especially as those forms have been found to conduct! to a Geometrical Construction.* and must consider them contact . the two constant vectors a.
that is. and Jinite. it . which will be sufficient for the present purpose.) Making then p = (26). remains unchanged.Tfs^ + V^'\=l.) Introducing two new constant and auxiliary by the two expressions. as given . III. a surface of the second order. by an arbitrary rectilinear transversal in two (real or imalet ginary) points. the expres •il4^?)^ has a real value. determined (5.S^J(3. . whatever direction may be assigned to p the and this expression : surface is therefore closed. we have.224 in the sense that it is ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. which never vanishes. or rather the number of such intersections. cut [bOOK II. when surface has therefore a centre. fi.) The equation II. prCL we have . as above stated. in which the indefinite right line lm intersects the locus II. p is substituted for p (3.(14. the may also bo thus written : IV. or their us seek to determine the points p (real or imaginary). and this centre is at the origin o of vectors. + . vectors \ = ol. (4..) It has been seen that the equation of the surface . 204. (2. and in no more than two. for y : z. that the number sought is two . is. m.V^ + zVey = (j. we see already. and therefore that the locus II. the following quadratic equation.(yS^+.* whatever real value may be assigned to the versor Up. = om. for the reciprocal of the radius vector from the centre.. and let us assume two points l. by its mere degree..) gives therefore. without proceeding to resolve which.). vectors..
) Those notations of quaternions. and then 217. and who have caught the (10. being a plane of homology corresponding.l = fs^yfv^y=N^.S^S^ combining which with the equation II. planes... with T/3 common radius and the normals y and d.. 2 G .) I.fs?Y = (s^ H)'{ or. CYCLIC PLANES. . or XI. of which cyhnder the radius is T/3 . .. the direction of the axis of a circum^ two = Ti3.. which is not drawn in one or other of these either greater or less than the radius T/3 of the sphere.)..) = 0. . the in the direction of /3 infinitely distant point of the being a centre of homology.). The system of the two planes through the origin. The recent form.. has a length all these marks. may be while the planes them called (comp. meaning of which new forms will soon be seen. by 204.). of the surface . we get XIII. or 204. tion of the ellipsoid.. or X'.) Conversely.. or XII. perpendicular to the plane of the ellipse of contact. XII.) . XIV.^ + K^=S^ + V^. 196. is. (7.CHAP.. Tp = T/3. .xf^+K^'j^l.. if we seek the intersection of the surface with the concentric (8. : X. is T/3. and its mean semiaxis asserted) an Ellipsoid. of which the radius the system of the two cyclic planes.. conditions. the geometrical or thus.] CIRCULAR SECTIONS. we are conducted to the equation XII.) ) the ci/clic normals of the surface. X. will easily see that this ellipsoid II. and is homologous thereto . which are respectively perpendicular to the now vectors y and d..) By its centre being at the origin (3.. is (as above (9. (6. or IV. for their These two diametral planes therefore cut the surface in two circular sections. the equation IV. (14. scribed cylinder of revolution. for 225 the trana Under the same any arbitrary vector p. and therefore to the two circular sections (7. it is clear that the locus II. . selves may be called its ci/elic planes. while Uf3 has. t/  +K^^= 1 . is a deformation of what may be called the mean sphere XIV. 216) to a simple construction of that surface which we shall first investigate by calculation. and a last cited subarticle. to the same two planes. of sphere XIV.p = iIp + p\ a £=i/e_eV p IX. is represented by the equation. . VIII . of the quaternion equaadmits of being interpreted^ in such a way as to conduct (comp. being so that every radius vector of the surface. (17. by the who are familiar with modern geometry. we have formaUons. and either two planes XI. . illustrate by geometry. y may therefore he thus written X'. (15.
with a radius = T/e. and therefore that Ty = T5 would give. a sphere..'. and . although they may not at first seem to do so it is therefore allowed to assume that . such that XXII.) a. or that they enter symmetrically into the equation of the ellipsoid.= — Ty2 . (2.) &c. which we shall call the diacentric sphere^ be described round the point c as centre. XVIII'.). . we shall have. T(j3 + a) = T(/3a).3.. takes the form. <2' when t shall suppose to be positive. . and observ ^=K^.. XXIII. by VI.CB = I. XVIII. AE = Then if (0. 53. XIX. (4. (1. (. P K Fig. Ty > T^. fee). which we which the value may be chosen at pleasure.N^.) Carrying on the ing that (by 190. (by 186. (here written instead of o) of the ellipand if D be the point in which the line AE meets this sphere again.). if we make XVII. . the subarticles to 216. and therefore . p ..) We have thus.DB = t+K. XXI. let also CA=/c. which latter case was excluded in 216. . xxiir. and therefore so as to pass through the centre A soid. for the supposition . by 213. T^2 =<2 and —i.). and X'. shows that y and d may be interchanged. .226 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Roman numerals from [book II. (6. . and :? = . (6. y p the equation X.Ne. (13. CD = K.p.p.) Ti Tl2 = — T(J Tk2 Let ABC be a plane triangle.Ut = m. XX. but of and k are two new constant vectors. T^2 ^'^H]^ XVI. and < is a new constant scalar. Tt > T/c . XV. .) The comparison of the forms X. (1.
218. AE = BD^.) . that the point b is here supposed to be exterthe calculations and the construction would be almost the same. The following very simple Rule of Construction (comp. . and in direction either coincident with.DB.) results . (7. may be merely to fix the conceptions.) of the scapoint is The b lar *.) . <2 = T.) . if we make each member of the formula XXI. equal to unity^ sphere. whereof a chord.] CONSTRUCTION OF THE ELLIPSOID. as in XXV. a few of which may be mentioned here. equal in : and similarly for bd'.T. and if we select the length of such a tangent as the value (1. recent Fig.CHAP. XXVI. for its centre. of what may be called the Generating Triangle abc. (6. with their annexed proofs by calculation course. a real tangent (or rather cone of tangents) to this sphere can therefore be drawn from that point . of which one side ab is given in length and in position. external to the diacentric sphere (4. (5. the chord AD : the locus of the point E will he an ellipsoid. length to the line bd'. the two diagonals AE. 53) thereforeTrom our quaternion analysis From a fixed point A. — . with A. we shall have (by Euclid III. of employed. . whence follows this Geometrical .AE=T. and denote by d' the second intersection of the right line bd with the Fig. I. by the assumption (2. then the opposite side be is a chord of a given ellipsoid. Or thus: — of a plane but variable quadrilateral Abed'. . or in a somewhat more familiar notation. on the surface of a given sphere. that is to say. Ty < T^. .) If. 227 so that the equation XXIV.T.. where ae denotes the length of the (6.BD'. . 53. draw any chord ad let d' he the second point of intersection of the same spheric surface with the secant ZD^ drawn from a fixed external* point B and take a radius vector ae.). XXVII. or Tt < Tk.). and if their intersection d be always situated the side ad' of the quadrilateral is upon the surface of a given sphere.db. It is . and with Bfor a point of its surface. with the construction 217. still : the present Calculus being.bd'.) the elementary relation. <2 = T.AE. XVI. the line ae. * nal (f>. bd' be equal to each other in length.T. From either of the two foregomg statements. of the Rule of Construction for the Ellipsoid to which quaternions have conducted. becomes.) in fact That the corner b. or opposite to. if we assumed B to be an internal point. many geometrical consequences can easily be inferred. Equation of the Ellipsoid. is a point of the generated surface. (1.
For the points of contact of ellipsoid and cylinder. being (by 217. . to become a. are seen to have the directions of the two sides. at b. as the radius of each of the two diametral and circular sections. it (1 . vectors k.). . mentioned plane. of the generating triangle (1.) Again. bde = a right angle . whereof the plane passes through A. d' will .228 proved. . which envelopes the ellipsoid. while the length equal to the length of bg the surface has therefore a diametral and circular section.) ) the two m . the third side.). since the rectangle BA bg = BD bd' = bd ae = .) or (3.)) of the ellipsoid. so that the line f'b is normal to this plane of contact. position face. (6. by the construction.) relation.) clic normals (4.) to the ellipsoid. (7. cb.) These geometrical consequences of others might be added. (7. where G is the second intersection of the line ab with that spheric sur (2. in f. made by the lately . the direction of sphere at A. sin bde . or the tivo cyclic normals (216. (15. or XXIX'. is therefore the axis of revolution of a cylinder. and confirmed by.'S. and of which the radius has the same length.) ) the directions of the two former vectors y. and let bf meet it again in f' (7. which has the line ab for a diameter. and therefore x> to g AE (or of ad) then tends to become tangential to the of ae (or of bd') tends. . will again be equal to bg second diametral and circular section of the ellipsoid. the construction (217). the common plane of the lastmentioned circle and elhpse (6. (4.) Let AC meet the diacentric sphere again (as in Fig.) Again. 5 . 63) . y. the quaternion analysis from which that construction itself was derived. a. of the generating triangle XBC (1. the two and their two cycircular sections (2.) ).) can then be easily proved to cut perpendicularly the plane of the generating triangle abc in the line af' fore also . . if d move along this circle. plane perpen (3. in a plane which touches the diacentric sphere at and with a radius = bg.) Conceive a circular section of the sphere through A. by conceiving the variable chord ad of the given diacentric sphere to take the AG. XXVIII. . 204. cb of the triangle.). we have the equation. (9. k.ai>s is sufficient to deter . or that of ae. i. [bOOK 11.) The construction gives us thus two cyclic planes through A . and intersects the diacentric sphere in a circle. (7. Thus. CA. will be found that the /3. (9. the point d is therefore situated on a second spheric surface. and 216. bg. ^ . . and cuts the enveloping cylinder in an ellipse of contact (comp. the perpendiculars to which planes. we have the geometrical XXIX. can all be shown to be consistent with.) (3. have (by 217. or the sides CA. perpendicular distance of e from ab = bg . &c. ab. bc and the radius of a move along a parallel circle through such then is the length of bd'. and there (by conjugate diameters. A (instead of g). and i.) If D be conceived to approach to (instead of a). of that cylinder with the elHpsoid. any one of which /. (5.). ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIO:. to which many (8. assumed relations between the three pairs of constant vectors. double area of triangle abe : sin bdb.). . . adb = a right angle .) had presented themselves 216. which again agrees with 216. made by a dicular to G. (4.
that /3 is such an axis. and that a (10. N(*7 + l)' whence ^ ~«. + . and that f'b is normal to the plane of the ellipse of con(9.. T (TT^^' T(.) the recent expressions (9. a value of p which evidently (11.. that point. by 2 17.«) = BO. as an exercise) : XXX.) ).(i fc) S— I— .)=K'B. : or of a.CHAP. From the form 216. . XXXIII. XXXII. mine the left to 1. or of f'b thus confirmed. of fb. has therefore the direction of t that the last geometrical inference (7.. agree with the former conclusions (216.] CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONSTRUCTION. p = AB = ik: = ^:S. when we suppose XXXVI. 229 is ellipsoid.). a a: or xxxvir. that 1 g9l_g (gl)(K9+l) ^ Ng g+1^ Ng1 q1 N(5l)' q + 1 (9 + l)(Kg+l) . + . 63. or 204. is so is. by calculation with quaterf k. IV. . (5.. . The last : .).3 = ^4y=j4^ = the letters b. it is satisfies also II. (15. f'.) .. XXXIV. XXXVII.=^^J=^^^U(.. that 219. tact (7. generally. and are not interpreted as vectors of the points abcd in that Figure.) nions. we see that the last equation is satisfied.  . ^^0(. s^ = i. be here noted ei^ecially as regards the geometrical determination . a XXXIV. S^ K 1 + 1 + K I.) for a and (3 become. And thus by calcu lation the recent result (1. (14. Hence the recent geometrical inferences. namely that b is a point of the sur face . touches the ellipaoid at the point b. which corresponds . therefore. /3 = .c)2' whatever two vectors t and k may be. g referring here to Fig. A few other consequences of the construction (217) may .T/c2. = S^^^. while ajSyd retain their former meanings (21G). a = + (i + /c) S — 1+ K . . to the value = 1 in 216.Tl \ in " ^V^:S— S^:S— —K K +K 1+ 1=1 we verify l l I which the sign of the right part for may be changed. • s—^ . But we have here. K form 204. conduct to the following expressions (of which the investigation the student. of the equation of the ellipsoid. that AB (or bg) is the axis of revolution of an enveloping cylinder (6.). the form 216.) of the construction.. of a. may therefore be now thus written XXXV. <2 = Tt2 . easy to prove. combined with the value easy to infer that the plane. of which the vector p has been thus determined (10) the normal to the surface^ at .) It is is such a normal. ..).. .a = ^^. XXXI.
of the three principal semiaxes of the ellipsoid. . if the secants bdi and bdo meet the sphere again in Di' and D2'. two supplementary chords ah. r (i k) — . . XXXVIII. and the least semithen if the side bc of the generating triangle cut the diacentric sphere in the points h and h'. ac — . we have the values. we set off lines al.C) sin p^ sin p^ unpz .a = B?. c. or bd'i and if bd'2. = ^ (a — c) sin/)i. the former lying (as in Fig. ah' of the an. <2 . the mean. c = bh. . XLII. ca=Tk=—— a— c Ti2 Tk2 h= —. with a length to the = bg. XL. . respectively . the two supplementary chords adi. . sin/j2 sin/)i . . . we have XLIII. but if . or in the opposite directions. semiaxes are. c considered to be the locus. thereof. N. thus obtained. BDa^ . a peipendicular am to the plane of the triangle. XLIY. and will be situated the point M (which will be common. (4. \ 'c'b' . . ado of the circle have the directions oithQ major and minor semiaxes of the elliptic section of the ellipsoid while the lengths of those circle in the points Di.2 = (c2  a2) sin/^i . axes of the ellipsoid. so that the projections of these two sides of the triangle are (c'a we = CA = CB . together with the assigning of a certain system of spherical conies..230 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. the points b and c. — bc = .b'di^ = 4b'c' a/2 c'a = (a2 . will And if we erect. the points of the surface. respectively. two circular sections. XLI. and if the line b'c' cut this new which Di may be supposed to be the nearer to b'. 6 = bg. with the lengths of eh'. = i(a + c) sin/?2. in the respective directions of the sphere. [bOOK II.. a = Tt+TK. . thus. of which the surface may be 6. and ba.) Conceive that the sphere which the points b' and c' shall be supposed to be the projections of b and c . may write..) If these two semiaxes of the section be called and c. BH. and we still de note by t the tangent from b to the sphere. on the enveloping cylinder) will be a mean summit and ellipsoid are both cut by a plane through a. then c' will be the centre of the circular section of the sphere .bg: bdj. in terms abc may be thus XXXIX. ba. and we . expressed. denote the lengths of the greatest. .BDi^ = b'd22 . at the centre be respectively a major and a minor summit a of that surface. denote by p\ and /?2 the inclinations of the plane of the section to the two cyclic planes of the ellipsoid..bg: bd2 a. we have . and the major and minor semiaxes of any elliptic and diametral section . 53) between {!. whereto CA and CB are perpendicular. . on (3.) If. whence follows the important formula.. Ti = —— a \ c . _ c=T«T/c. L. DO) of . BDi = <2 : a^ = aca'^ BD2 = c = acc~^ . (2.) Let a. so that the lengths of the sides of the triangle of these semiaxes. ab = T(ik) = — .
SPHERICAL CONICS. &c. so that XLV. that k a point in which the we may here call the diacentric circle agf.) ) through the centre A of the ellipsoid.) rally.). is ae now again a circle of the diacentric sphere. a conies.CHAP. 196. so that the lengths of ak and bf are equal . (7.) If the ellipsoid be cut mean sphere XIV. or to the axis this ellipse at this point. that is by the plane of the generating triangle ABC.). 1st..) As verifications. (8. of a plane and the product of the sines of the inclinations of the cutting plane. including those two circles.. (11. coincide with the two cyclic planes of the ellipsoid : all this resulting. known and useful theorem. c^ by any concentric sphere. the cyclic cone which has a for vertex. we have /'i=f2=> but if and a^ = a. AE = Tp = r ^ 6. genesystem of two such conies. as a limit. for the particular value r =5 .) of any one of the concentric cones. as regards the other letters surface.] SEMIAXES. BD = <2ri^ac6i. by the what may be called the guidepoint D. cb. which was designed to illustrate that con struction. here add. ^ba. two c^ = ei ca. if the plane be that of the generating triangle abc. made by the plane of the greatest and least axes. but one of which the j)Za«e does not pass (as it did in 218. and since it is also must be on one or other of the two spherical cone and sphere last mentioned intersect. by many modem geometers. Avhich rest on any such conic. the variable semidiameter passes. by (6. which quaternions had conducted. I. from the con struction (217) to (9. and = a^. that the two cyclic planes (comp. varying with the value of the radius r. in on the concentric sphere XLV. The point e has therefore here. that 231 or in words. (5. Ilird. to triangle. for one locus.)) the The intersection of an ellipsoid with a concentric sphere is therefore. (17. through which. and which is still of the ellipsoid (or one of its prolongations) at a constant distance from the given external point b. the focal hyper . P2 = 0. intersects what may be called the principal ellipse. of what = na Ilnd. is that n' is a second minor summit of the chord af'. where r is a given positive scalar . construction. that is. . the signification of the letters abcdd'eff'ghh'ln has been already ex plained. to the two planes of circular section.) With But respect to the Figure 53. the system of the two circular sections. with the greatest ease. vkv'. the " the difference of the inverse diametral section of an ellipsoid. then . varies as squares of the semiaxes. so that an' we may . so that the locus of . XLVI. and rests on the last mentioned circle as its base . it which (comp. distinct from the (6. 196. that the tangent.* or the section nblen' of the ellipsoid. then either pi or the plane be perpendicular to either of the sides. (3. is parallel to the side ab of the of * In the plane of what bola of the ellipsoid.) And we see. and becoming. . is called. and the ellipsoid itself may be considered as the locus of all such spherical co nies.
i' = U/c. LII. under the following pre cisely similar U./c') = T (i . . draw any secant b'd"d"' (instead of bdd'). kv. tion of the ellipsoid admits of being put under several other forms among which. (11. and and therefore ab' = .Nf. in planes perpendicular to the plane of the Figure . that the least distance kk' between the parallels ab. it may here suffice to mention one. of the enveloping cylinder 218. . that this latter line is thus the normal (comp. equations. of that cylinder IV th. Retaining then the centre A of the ellipsoid. is equal in length to the line bg.) If then K.232 revolution ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. 220. . we may write the equation XVI.. c'b' =+ I. The reader will easily conceive that the quaternion equa. the two semidiameters. 218. (7.T<c.+ p I 2S p p TTI P " K VP • P I \p " p 'I whence follows this other general transformation : XLVIII. at the point b of that ellipse. . of the ellipse. . being = the radius b of the cylinder.Tk'2 = ^2.)» being in fact one side (or generatrix) are thus two conjugate semidiameters of the ellipse. ab (5.k). set off a line ae in the direction of . and also to each of . k.Ti + K HiJ^ p\ . as. form : Tk' = Tk. with a new centre c'. i. is parallel to the line akf'.+K. and a new generating triangle ab'c'. which are radii of the two circular sections of the ellipsoid.T/. Tt'2 Ti' = Tt. (in T (i' .. and to assign its geometrical interpretation. XLVII. construct a new diacentric sphere.k' t' . i and k'. p^ we have the transformations. as'.p^ new = T['u«. Ac' = — K.) i' and k have simply taken the places of t and k. or perpendicular to the line bff' .) ) to the same elliptic section. and therefore the tangent tbt'. and therefore also to the ellipsoid. at b Vlth.. however. where b' is a new fixed external point. in which (3. . that the point s' is on the chord ai of that circle. which is drawn at right angles to the side bc of the triangle.Tf£ + (2. [bOOK II. Vth. that AS touches the circle at a .). Vllth. that ak. by the conditions. we introduce two auxiliary and constant vectors. and Vlllth. . but the lengths of the sides are the same.. . K' = Ut.= T^. ( I..<. de fined by the give.+ \p K + N+2SKVNp p p p p j = NJSr+NN.) For any three vectors. 217) of the ellipsoid . XLIX. which L.
we can express the index OQ of any other right quaternion. = = I. and on some other constructions of t. with Hence we may write respect to the three axes 01. namely. as the old plane of contact was (by 218. the point E will be the same ellipsoid as before. and therefore also the indices (159). . by 202. II.. of the ellipsoid The only inference is is. Section 14. ok. a few additional remarks may be made. its equation shall come to be put under the new form. . also generally. such as V^^. can be (as above) re and duced. namely to the mean semiaxis. I. ix +jy + kz^ may be said to be a Standard Trinomial Form. IV5' OQ aj. 53. the three rectangular coordinates of the extremity q of the index. the following General Reduction of a Quaternion to a Standard QuadriIf then nomial Form (183) : of the constant vectors * If room shall allow. on the relations to the ellipsoid. and that the major semiaxis. in the following Book. bisects the angle bab'. . this last form.). oj. (7. b. . a. where xyz are some three scalar coefRcients. as the axes.OK. with a length equal to that of bd'". . Sq. (11. or in the opposite direction. that there exists (as . k. k. (4. T(tp+pK)=K2_i2.CHAP. Yq = xi \ yj^zk. of the same we shall have. general quaternion q.ix YJy + kz . On the Reduction of the General Quaternion to a Standard Quadrinomial Form . when.] STANDARD QUADRINOMIAL FORM. we denote by w the scalar part. and being perpendicular to the new vector. 233 the locus ad".j. Ketaining the significations (181) of the three rectangular unitlines oi. 2 H .oj + Z. i' + k'. that surface.ony. &c. between the two axes of revolution of these two circumscribed cylinders: the plane of the new ellipse of contact being geometrically determined by a process exactly similar to that employed in 218. and that but that the radius of this second its axis is the side ab' of the new triangle ab'c' cylinder is equal to that of the first. by 206 and 126. or the line AL in Fig. ok. or the right part Yq of any proposed quaternion q.)) to t f k. with a First Proof of the Associative Principle of Multiplication of Quaternions. under the tiinomial form (com p. of three given right versors i. ' — 221. to which every right quaternion. 62).) of which we shall here* draw from this new construction known) a second enveloping cylinder of revolution. in three mutually rectangular planes. oj.
icxyz^ may be said to be the Four Constituents of the Quaternion.' + 3/' + 2'). {ix +jy + kzf = {x^ + y^ we have. . . : gives the transformation. &c..). . . And because the distributive property of multiplication of qua ternions (212). [bOOK . q^ (Sq + V^^ =^)w + ix ^jy + kz in which the four scalars. (5. IV. 222. . iv'= IV. and 133). . . . + ix +jy + kz): yj {w"^ .. includes the four following scalar equations between the constituents : VI. but II. VIII. . also. by 204. q' = w' ^ ix \jy' + kz^ denote the same three given right versors (181) as before. . . . == 2/' 3/> z' =^ z. U V^ = {ix +jy +kz): ^ (rc^ + f^ + z^) V.kz. IX. or with the General and Fundamental Formula of this whole Calculus (183). III. . II. K^ =  V^. combined vvith the laws of of the symbols ijk (182). .=) w  ix jy . TYq=^(x' + y' + z^). (A) + z^). by 204. «2=J3 = ^2 = Z/A = 1. then the equation V. which is . where ijk . . is the General Quotient of two Vectors (101) a Quaternion. x=x. XI.V^2 = w^+x'' + y' + z' T^'* . between these two quaternions. U(/ (?f7 + x"^ +y^ + ^0 '> I . namely with the formula. as new justification (comp.2 + ?/2f 22. a of naming.V^2^a. = . 202. that if we write in like manner.. 112."234 III. .?' = ?. And it is evident (comp. q and§''. we have done throughout 116) of the pi' opriety the present Chapter. . we have then not 1.. only ^q = w.Tg= v'(«^' + a. VI. . When the Standard Quadrinomial Form (221) adopted. . VII. the following new expressions IV. % = NVg=(TV^)2=. . as before. and V^ = ix ^jy + kz. = Sq' . (S^ . ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
y/ (m. by then r 191... when he was led to anticipate that result through quaternions.) A^^ "^y + To prove the recent formula III.. ^J {w'^^x^ + y'' + z') . . XI.Yq y^.CHAP.kyx kz . we ought in. follows from XIV. Ng"=Ng'. . 23^5 SU^ = = (ix 10'.'2 + x'^ + y'2 + 2'2) + x^ + y^ + z^) .Yq = — z^ +jzx — izy V52 = Vg ¥? = . . nected.).. VU^ +jy vkz)'. jy. : we may arrange as follows the steps of the multiplication (comp. . that its truth be said to be obvious upon mere inspection.) "We have.2 .* in connexion with the partial indeter minateness of signification. or a right versor (153). W"2 + a:"2 + y"2 + z"3 = («. X. XVI. then 8ic. with which it is here conhad been discovered by the celebrated Eulbr. we have already alluded. (8.. He believes.. the author had some . in the ex pansion of w'"^ + &c.a. quadrinomial expressions w" 2" are arrangedf as above. but if 5 =w+ &c.= ^ v^^ +^ (1. ^"''^ "^ '^'"'^ "^ ^^'"^ " XIV " '^'^^' . XII.] LAW OF THE NORMS. therefore. at least when the terms in the four . t From having somewhat otherwise arranged those terms.. in verifying that the twentyfour double products. . . J [: r" = (i^j'z + z'w') + {xy — yx") and conversely these four scalar equations are jointly equivalent to. or that XVI. and may be summed up XV. . (2. (^j^2 therefore. . Avliich ..z"") . as distinguished from the quaternion formula XV.. of which the plane or the axis is arbitrary. . . .TVU. in the year 1843.y2 _22. however.) If q" = q'q. . when considered as denoting a right radial (149). a result to which if x^+y^+z^ = l. of the symbol V — 1...2 ^ x'^ + y'^^. V^ kz. Y q = ix +jt/ + kz = . (3. Xm..{ix+jy + kzy = l. again 182) Yq = ix +jy + ix . in the present calculus. may can in fact be verified by so easy an algebraical calculation. • Compare the first Note to page 131 and that to page 162. little trouble at first. q"=w" ^ 5' w" = ''" WW .a. the quaternion formula.. to have the equation.Ng.w" ^ ix" >tjy" + kz" = (w' + ix' +jy' + kz) (w + ix +jy + kz) under these conditions XIV.(x'x + y'y + z'z). that the algebraic theorem XVI. I. destroy each other. leaving only the sixteen /jrocfwc^* ofsquares^. .2 f kxy jxz = + iyz. = w' + &c. .
236 223. * At a later stage. <j i q" = z^' + = w" + ix" jy' + kz\ + jy" + kz'\ that the relation q" = q'q'. if (212) of such multiplication having been already proved. . [bOOK 11. We seen (212) to be a Distributive one: although we had also found (168. The principal use which we is shall here make of the it . q are replaced. ^'. We may 183). by the distributive we have only to try whether this last formula is valid when the three quaternion factors ^. or any other between the three quaternions ^. (3.) Let » ternions. and with or without repe by the three given right versors ijk but this has alarrive then. last right quaternion be called and = s„ so that v'v = s^ + v^ . which will not presuppose the Distributive Principle. u^. Kv'y Let this = »u'. we shall then have the equations. I . the genew^hich ral associative property of multiplication of quaternions can now with great ease be done. by the symbol q'q'q (1. . Su't) = I (w't? + ry'). principle. qq^q^q^qq. that holds good. . (2. \ q y' =w + ix ix ^ jy + kz^ \ I. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. to prove by fact. a sketch Avill be given of at least one proof of this Associative Frinciple of Multiplication. lu we write. and may denote each member of the equation therefore omit the point (as in II. 183. in any one common order on both sides of the equation.). and 196. = Vg. Ww =§(«'» — let ^v'v rr/). as it had been previously tition. v\ v" are any three right qua and therefore.). q\ q\ and inquire whether it be true that the associative formula without now assuming relation. as in 222. in Art. v" = Yq" \ so that w. 191) that such Multiplication is not (in general) Commutative : or that the two products^ q'q and qq. are generally unequal. . . we see. ^General Multiplication of Quaimportant ternions is an Associative Operation. at the been proved. the distributive^ property standard quadrinomial form (221). exists ^ II. thus. 183. 204. ready the that conclusion. v' = Yq\ by 191.
bears to the unit of length the same ratio. is at the same time (by 208) perpendicular to the third index lv'\ and therefore (by (1. where the point in Avhich it is in the first member may often for simplicity be dispensed with and still supposed that lv = iv = Lv =. . = Iv . Iv. the vector. if the rotation round Iv from Iv to Iv" be positive . . Iv" . VII. which gives the the trans %v"v'v = Tv". hence this last vector. if the direction of this rotation be reversed. . vv"') . TIv. VI. as above. if the rotation round Iv" from Iv' to Iv be negative. . V we have IV.) To interpret (comp. hy addition. v'v — v'v v" = (v"v' + v'v")v . . (2. IV. but that cosine line Iv". Iv and Iv'..) With the recent notations. . V. (4. lv.. I.v'(y"v + = 2vSv'v" — 2v'Sv"v . while its length.CHAP. IIL . V . on account of its extensive utility. Sv'v'v = ^v"v. we may employ VIII.Yq). = S. »'.. . = v"s^ — sy" \ whence. Sv'v"  Iv'.) the area while x is (by 208). v"yv'v = vSv'v" — v'Sv'v . «'St'"y therefore this other very useful formula. gives (by 206). Sv"v . formation. of q and q' (by 208. v"%v'v =Yv''8^ = v"s^ = v"8vv'.) The formula III. or Ty. and therefore generally. or TYCYq'. . We have therefore the important interpretation IX. will be equal the negative of this sine. : ^v"v'v =^ + volume of parallelepiped under Iv. .= IYv'v = lY(Vq'. (6. v" be still right. .) ) complanar with the third quaternion q".) With the recent notations. bears to the unit of area. 2 Vv"y 237 = v'v^ — vv" .Yq). cosine of its supplement will he positive. represents by (4.) a line perpendicular to both Iv and Iv'. Tw . . if c. (3. V . and equal to the sitie of the inclination of the line Iv" to the plane oflv and Iv.) the scalar expression. v'Yv'v V. . XXII. where Tv" denotes the length of the and Tr. or TY. (because Sv"«^= 0). v"v'v = vSv'v" + v"8vv\ . is . IV . . as that which the parallelogram under the indices. which is evidently complanar with the two indices Iv and It''. a formula with which the student ought to make himself completely familiar. or common to the planes being also such that the rotation round it from Iv' to iv is positive : . . .] ASSOCIATIVE PRINCIPLE OF MULTIPLICATION.t>"Vw'v. Iv.v'v. and therefore the angle between the two indices Iv". the (positively taken) of the parallelogram under Iv' and Iv This angle will be obtuse. the formula 208. that is. 2 Vr'tf^ = v". cos (ttx). .
if Ir" 1 1 1 1«'. o. p'. namely. kji = +l. op" for three coinitial the rectangular coordinates* of the four comers.) lues. according as the rotation round Ir. we saw that the ternary products ijk ijk and kji have scalar va namelv. X. becomes zero . x'y'z\ x"y"z". k give the transformation.). then each of these two last scalars . Iv (123) : while. or to recover. For example. under or in symbols. = 0. we have only to write it thus. p. * This result may serve as an example of the manner in which quaternions. (2. and accordingly if this is the volume (Avith a suitable sign) of the parallelepiped. and to remember that the scalar of the product of any two quaternions remains unalis tered (198.. for any three 7ight . 144). for any three qtiatcrnions XII. from I«' to Iw". is positive (181). p" be 000. . the laws (182. so that the volume mentioned in IX. va nishes. may yet be employed to deduce. . Xm. is positively or negatively directed. (8. if (9. (1. that for any three quaternions (and the result is easily extended to any greater number of such factors) the following formula holds good : Xiy. In fact. this scalar cannot vanish in any other case. when the order of those two factors changed. of indices becomes. prove this equality. . q" have any common line. we have the formula. lYq'. for nil possible permutations of the factorsj since we have just seen a case X. from that ofj to that of k. so that we may wnte. while the rotation round the index of i. on the other hand. Sy"t»'« = x" {z'y — y'z) + y" {x'z known expression for the z'x) + z" {jj'x — z'y) . (10. = Yq = ix \jy + kz. because it then represents an actual volume.Sv"v'v and when the three indices are complanar. the upper or the lower sign being taken. Yq) .) In general. by 183.. [boOK II. Svv'v" = . as another important consequence of the general associative property of multiplication. it may be here observed.S(9'V9) = S(9. SLV\d accovdrngly the parallelepiped (7. quaternions vv'v'\ . S (Vq" Yq. that although products of more than two quaternions have not generally equal scalars. that is.238 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. yet cyclical which such a change of arrangement permutation is permitted. ^v"v'v = 0.9'V). XIII.).) In general. important coordinate expressions.) Hence also : we may establish the following Formula of Collinearity. . to . I. = i. 11. in this case. v if the planes of g. which has the three lines op. an unitcube . and often with great ease. v' = ix' + &c. .. . although not based on any usual doctrine of coordinates. by 209. . q'. 183) of the symbols i. op'. . result. as a new Formula of Complanarity XL . . xyz. we employ the standard trinomial form 221.j.). (6. if lYq" \ \ \ lYq . ^q'q'q = Sqq"q'. if the quaternions (or their indices) be still supposed to be actual (1. edges. in produces a change of sign in the the sign S .) Again. w" = ix" + &c.
.] COMPLANAR QUATERNIONS. as above. . by 192. . any arbitraryfacilities for line in the given plane. was lately exemplified (1. we shall have an opportunity to say something of Powers and Roots and Logarithms . II. and especially to show how the Associative Principle of Multiplication can be established. . I. K. it may be inferred that = K (g". hence. if write. and of the connexion of Quaternions with Plane Trigonometry. number of the right factors is XXI. for a short time.. • XXIII.). It may therefore be not irrele vant nor useless to insert here a short Second Chapter on the subject oisuchcomplanars: in treating briefly of which. KUv = ±n'v. . if Ilg and U'q denote the products of any one set of quaternions taken in two opposite orders. VHi. according as the even or odd.Svv'v" = ~(v"v'v — vv'v'") Yv'v'v = f Yvv'v" = I (y"v'v + vv'v") Sv"v'v which obviously agree with X. Kq". XVII. . = . the consideration oi Diplanar Quaternions. results . for its denominator or for its numerator. . for the c&se where the number is three. XXII.) In like manner. we have already seen (191. = ^ (Hv + U'v) is tico. . . . 224. . 239 (11. and IV. we may XVI. as . in the Third and last Chapter of this Second Book. * Compare the Note to page 236. KUq = n'Kq XIX. and the distributive and associative properties oi Midtiplication (212. . (12.) For the case where that number the four last formulsa give. q'q) = Kq'q Kq" = Kq Kq . (13.. for this case of multiplication of quaternions. . whence by 192."gq'q . 223). furnishes some peculiar proving the commutative and associative properties o^ Addition (207). upper or lower signs being taken. . and under the same conditions. . by 144 XX. . then XVIII. and with Algebraical Equations. r be right. . while. the power of reducing each (120) to the form of a fraction (101) which shall have. XV. . Kv = v. as it does in algebraic multiplication. while assuming as proved the existence of all the foregoing properties. For tbe case of Complanar Quaternions (119). Snc = + Sn'v . I. After v^hich. .) But . . Vnv = + YWv . we propose to resume.CHAP. . SHi. XXIV. with a corresponding result for any greater number of factors. at pleasure. (I)) ^^^^ *^® commutative property also holds good. = h(Uv± n'v) . . for them. RUq = H'Rg. . without* employing the Distributive Principle.
Square Root. . 1 17) interpret any symbol of the form S in the given plane. \ . — On Cornplanar Proportion of Vectors. such as 226. or vectors. ON COMPLANAR QUATERNIONS. y/3. y /3. oi. . of the present Chapter shall all be be complanar (119). we can always (by (/3 : 103.. AND LOGARITHMS OF QUATERNIONS. their common plane being supposed assumed to coincide with that of the given right versor z ( 1 8 1 ). AND ON POWERS. * In fact the symbols interpretation . to a Standard Binomial Form. 225. 168) that the two combinations. [bOOK II. be conceived to be in that shall be here to &c. 103) by either of the by symbol (7 .. employed.j5):a\ so we may write. have generally different significations. OR QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS IN ONE PLANE. {y. ROOTS. which line 0)7. a a and may say that this line ^ is the Fourth Proportional to the us /3. Section 1. to Fourth Three. or /3y. y.240 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. to a. 7) : a. for the purmay given plane poses of this Chapter. Third Proportional to Two. as. 7. &C. any — y and — . have not as yet received with and even when they shall come to be interpreted as representing certain quaternions. (by 123). it will be found (comp. Mean Proportional Proportional. j3. General Reduction of a Quaternion in a given Plane. or ao. Under these conditions. that (j3.^^ two apparently equivalent symbols. write of that so we z. CHAPTER II. as denoting a line may also be denoted (125) not* but the la) (comp. the forrnulcB of complanarity : The Quaternions And all the lines.
two denominators 227.] COMPLANAR PROPORTION OF VECTORS.7 = ^)3. a. ' 7 . /3 y. More generally. II.. j3. are involved and that we have Art. another vector p in that plane. 7. 7. a 2 I or a=^/3. so that (still as in algebra) the tioo Extremes. or to the three lines a. of any such proportion of four lines a. /3. can easily be proved to hold good also for any ^ /o. /3 the two Means. whatever four (commay be denoted by /378£. which shall satisfy the equation. other arrangement of the numerators. . e be any odd number of vectors in the given plane. 7. interesting case of such proportion (226) is that in which the means coincide.CHAP. §. j3. S. An : (comp. for any one arrangement of the numeratorlines a. so that the also may change places. we have the trans the two numerators being thus interchanged. admitting thus of being interchanged. a and ^. For example. such as a. Again. as in algebra. . j3. and any other arrangeit ment of the denominators. 7. I. and Fig. 241 . . 42) an equation of the form. "I M"' . so that only three distinct lines. and of the denominatorlines . . 3. "^' Mr'' and when such a formula holds good. planar) vectors formations. may likewise change while we may also make the means places among themselves : become the extremes^ we at the same time change the extremes to means. of any such Complanar Proportion of Four Vectors. . 149. e. three lines 7 . and Under the same conditions we may write also (by 125). we can always find if . . . 7. if a.
l3 _ fy\h a J /3 _ fa\h y and therefore (by 103). because we shall shortly see that the opposite same sense another mean. as that be called by us the Square Root of the quaternion f line. namely that one of which the an^le is which shall acute. at the tional to y and Under the same same time. the mean proportional. by eminence. nor a = /3j3 : 7. portional (226) to itself. while y is the Third Proportional to the tAvo lines a and j3 . is also i\iQ fourth proas first. is. We say. \aj whence it is a \y natural to write. of which a and y are now the Extremes^ and /3 is the Mean : this line (5 being also said to be «t Mean Proportional between the two others. the equation or identity. the . either of two opposite quaternions. in general. But because we have always. the third proporconditions. (1. a and y . for distinguishing between them. (tled to write. (3. betAveen a and 7. a. and d j3. j3. In this case. and to those two other lines. we have SO that this mean. we are equally well enti the symbol qi denoting thus. although a rule will presently be given. has been already selected in 199. as that which may be called. it is said that the three lines ajSy form a Continued Proportion.) ). as in algebra (comp.242 but not* y = /3/3 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. is in — j3. and for selecting one. * Compare the Note to the foregoing Article. qy = g'^. nor j3 = (ay)^. : [bOOK II. whereof however one. although we are not here to write j3 = (ya)i.). 199. We have also (comp. again 149). a mean proportional .
) ): but the proportion of tensors. . to our agreeing to write. but denotes a real and given right versor (181). 7 form. any be carefully observed that this square root of negative unity is not in imaginary. in each case holding good. and XI'. for present purposes. a.) At the limit when each of these two unitlines direction as each of the . MEAN PROPORTIONAL. V(. the length of the mean determined by IX. or Uy =. * It is to sense. 243 \/ q. the upper when (as in Fig. VI = + 1. a continued proportion . IX. (3. an ambiguiti/ arises in this case. (1. by 225. thus taking upper signs. the bisector ob of that angle aoc itself. Avhich acute. when that angle is bisected by the opposite or when j3 bisects the verticallg opposite angle (comp.T7. nor even ambiguous. we shall suppose that the rotation round the axis of i which axis all the lines considered in this Chapter are. from the is first line oa to the second line ob. as the geometric mean (in the usual sense) between the lengths of the two given extremes (comp. II. if a. if . two given extremes. 42) the angle aoc. . line. T/3^ . between taken signs being the extreme lines a. or /3. even with the supposed restriction (225) on the plane in which all the lines are proportional is still /3 situated. itself. T/3 = v^ (Ta . . perpendicuwhich a supposition equivalent to writing. = Ta .* V 1 =+ 1 . At the other limit.a^) = ia. VIII. and generally. q. jS. again 199. . is in this case positive . is from the doubt which of the two opposite perpendiculars at o. we always henceforth understand the former of these two bisectors namely.T7).] CONTINUED PROPORTION. and denoted by Wc may therefore establish the for mula. XI. the angle and the aoc vanishes. in the recent formula VII. then U/3 = mean proportional /3 has the same common This comes X'. . but. so that Uy = Ua. X. but the lower signs. is bisected by the line ob. or right. tor. as above. if > 0. or obtuse angle with each other. and the resulting formulae. . And when we shall speak simply of the Mean Proportional between two vectors. 7. in its geometrical interpretation. to the line AOC. . when Aoc = 7r.Ua. make any not that of the opposite angle . and shall . .) scalar. . lar).T7:T/3 = Tj3:Ta. .. V(a2) = f a be any positive (2. j3.CHAP. to be taken as the direction of the mean vec To remove (to this ambiguity.. a and 7. the two Figures 41) .
) On comparing the recent equations II. on the recent plan (227).. considered as binomials of this form. VI. but only a loctts : namely the circumference of a circle. such as the equation. XL. tivo X and y being some co7istituents tioo scalarsy which may be called the (comp. III.Sq = x. .244 And thus the ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . in all cases. 154. notwithstanding the geometrical reality of the right versor.. sought point b would have no one determined position. (3. q^x+iy.. establish the following Reduction of a in the Quaternion given Plane (of 2*) to a Standard Binomial Form* (comp. oc.). we might then.) 228. ou the plan of this Calculus. by 227. were removed. vectors {in the given plane) becomes. (6. In this case. or ) III'. as in (2. The quotient of any two complanar and right quaternions has been seen (191.) If the restriction (225) on the common plane of the lines. we see that. in thus passing from general to co?n/>Zanar quaternions. 221): 11. with those v. y=yi i. as being for our present purpose. and with a radius equal to the geometric mean between oa.. mean proportional between two : [bOOK II. while its plane would be perpendicular to the given right . . IV. line (Comp. of the meon OB. breaks up (by 202. i form X iy is shorter. OA.) into two scalar equations between their respective constituents^ namely. . AOC. * It ia permitted. again 221) of this binomial. . and consequently may Yq:i=y. and perhaps to write this expression as less x + yV — 1. determined at least if their order (as first and third) be given. and on the racter of the square root of a negative scalar... and have then written x and y. Yq=yi=iy. partially indeterminate cha on the square of a right radial. (5. or versor. in 221. again the Figures 41 and the remarks in 148. marked as III. as a real in geometry. 163. 149. the . . q'= q. when interpreted. III. And then an equation between two quaternions. . in every case hut one: this excepted case being that in which. . fix definitely the direction. . with o for centre. x + iy=x + iy. we have merely suppressed the coefficients ofj and k. oc. since then we here suppose (225) that q\\\ii we are at liberty to write. if q\\\i.. as well as the length. ntdl . x=x. (1. IV.) ) to be a scalar . instead of w and x. have exactly opposite directions so that the angle (aoc = tt) between them has no one definite bisector. but the Uable to any ambiguity of interpretation. the two given extremes. l..
. on whichever side of the indefinite right line the point b may be situated. in that plane. referred to the two lines OA and oa'. q. of which the values serve to distinguish one such couple from another. 50 coincides with that of t. As useful to state.. . (3. OA. we see the same reason) the coordinates of the axes. which normal we may call oa'. . Tg =V(a. = x' . V. in that Figure. referred to the same pair of the principles of the foregoing (4. that the plane of Fig. U. with a lefthanded rotation aoa'. a comparison of the quaternion q with the binomial form II. x' and y'. a' = ia. and may suppose it to have a length equal to that of oa. for the quotient any two such couples. where c is a point which can be projected into o' and c" in the same way (comp. ^ ^'^ =^^5' = y" y'x . and product : VII. * Compare the second Note to page 108. y (= V^ i= : /3" : ia) =/3" : a . . and on a normal to that line at o. a. . = ^. difference.] STANDARD BINOMIAL FORM. XII. as above.CHAP. lX. 222) not only S*. in the given plane. 245 word "binomial" has other meanings in algebra. will give the two equations. 205). ^^ have. or oc OA. l^q = x^ +y^ XL . . that if we thus express as couples (2. = x. a . . .iy\ the ordinary (or Cartesian) kind.) Conceive. .) any two complanar quaternions. oa . or briefly. VI.x'y. while /8' . [q' + iy' XIV.) Again. . oa' = I. and • Vg = iy. by imagining that this o towards the back of the Figure or below* it..y'y) + i (x'y + y'x). q and q'. then. q'±q = (ix'±x) + i(^y'±y). are precisely the two rectangidar coordinates of the point B. q z=x' {. of And since every other quaternion. 1 = 4^^ we .. or constituents. x and y.) II. 197. but also. it may be conveCouple and the two constituent scalars x and y. we have (comp. may not unnaturally be said to be the Coordinates of that Couple. and /3"= ob". . q'. This being assumed.. which may i is axis of tal. ir (= S^y) = /3' : a . . bb" being let fall (as in the Figure) on the indefinite line OA itself. any one such couple.. for a reason which it may be the nient to call the form II. for . so that these two scalars.2 +y2). and that positive rotation round Ax. . can be reduced to the form y a. COUPLE. if horizon.q = {x'x .t is. . . then. = ob'. &c. as two rectangular unitaxes. and g = (3: as in 202 . and perpendiculars bb'.) It is evident (from Chapter). VIII. that the two new scalars.. J5 _ ^T^ x" = x" + iy" ^m7^' = x'x + y'y. directed from be reconciled with our general convention (127). we shall have the following general transformations for their sum. so that V. .Kq = xiy. of (6. (5. (2. XIII. are simply (for : : new point c.) Hence. directed towards the lefthand. X. as in 201.
2 + y'^) = (x'a. a whence 11. XV.. of the other two.. In fact. 229. conversely. The law of the norms (191. (8. or identity. turally be denoted III.. Section tors . of Four or more VecWhole Powers and Roots of Quaternions .) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . root (or third root) of the former which last relation may na: : .) ). by writing. ^^Y.^ Iir.). expressed by the formulae. so the sliglitly less simple equation q^= Q is satisfied by three distinct and real quaternions.). But it is important to observe that as the equation = Q. in which q is Sk sought and Q is a given quaternion. .{af^ + y'^) (a. or = . (3. gives for quotient a real quaternion.227. 54) that j3' and j3" are we conceive (comp.246 (7..i3=(^Ya(comp.V. I. 230. Thus if we suppose that the four vectors ajSyS form a continued proportion. two other but equally long vectors in the given plane.)) algebraic equation. qwas found to be satisfied by two opposite quaternions q. Nj. . 227. Ng'g [bOOK = Ng^ .. if the annexed Fig. if Q be actual and real whereof each. of the form ± V Q (comp. II. 2. or the third poicer. The conception of continued proportion (227) may easily be extended from the case oi three to that oi four or more (complanar) vectors . ob . and thus a theory may be formed o^ cubes and higher whole poioers of quaternions^ with a corre spondingly extended theory of roots of quaternions. . . and Roots — On Continued Proportion of Unity.) we may say that the quaternion S a is the cube. of and that the latter quaternion is. in . or the by the wellknown formula. which is equal to one of the cuberoots of positive unity.y'yf + (x'y + y'x^ which xyx'y' may be any four scalars. divided by either . 222. is ex pressed here (comp. including roots of scalars^ and in particular of unity. a cube/3 a . VII.Ul^.IV.J^a y p a \ (by an obvious extension of usual algebraic notation.J y = ^ p = ^.
. and has there . and) distinct cuberoots every other case. AND OF UNITY.CHAP. instead of III.vf(ITf=(f we shall have so that we are equally entitled. to /3"= A (real and actual) quaternion Q may thus be said . while none can have an angle equal to sixty degrees. j3 247 tained from by two successive and positive rotations.. (10)5 and if we. In have three (real. denote this one.. so that or "^ '13' 15" i3' and therefore v(IT=(f)=. to write. 231.. . VIIL 232. each through the third part of a circumference. At the limit. because it has a smaller angle (comp.Z^Q<^. or one of the three values of the symbol Qa. which we shall call the Principal Q.J CUBEROOTS OF A QUATEBNION. when Q is if zQ<7r. these other equations : vii. actual. unless the proposed quaternion Q degenerates into a negative scalar. we shall thus CubeRoot of the quaternion be enabled to establish the formula of inequality.a'=f?Y.. or ^'=^^v vir. degenerates. for the present. or Iir. into a negative itself a scalar.. 199. may be considered as simpler than either of the other two.. at this stage. one of its cuberoots negative scalar. of which however only one can have an an^Ie less than sixty degrees . as above. by the symbol ^ Q. II.ff = f^>. one of the three cuberoots of Q.
to be able to deal with all possible planes and that no one right common to all such. sented that by the number. (2. . We have.1 complanar vectors.^1 = 1. IX. as in arithmetic. the reason being. on the present plan. in the present Calculus.. XI. I. no line is repreral able writers. and to write thus. fore its angle =7r. we shall consider as simpler.1 . the only difi satisfies the equation = — 1. the one which an swers (comp.y(a3) = (l+eV3). while eac^ of the two other roots has angle =— . . 3/l=l. (2. might at first have seemed more natural to adopt as principal the scalar value. we require. There is principles may of n 4. and Xr. however. . by which i is multiplied in the expression IX. a.) The equations. ag. mainly.. . can be verified in calculation^ by actual cubing. [bOOK its II. . and according to which the symbols 1 and V — 1 were interpreted as representing a pair of equally long and mutually rectangular right lines. . with the connected for mula. although it if «>0. among these two roots of which the angles are equal to each other. if a>0. in a given plane. for 2y/. One.yl = l±p^^ and X. and therefore as principal. exactly as in algebra ference being. namely.. 233. it is regarded here as altogether real. . IX^.. using thus thQ positive sign for the radical ^3. except line is as regards its length . no difficulty in conceiving how the same general be extended (comp..Z^1=. 229) to a continued proportion .. In this case. ^(a3) = a. ( 1)*.) ) to a positive rotation through sixty degrees .248 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.. ai. and so shall be led to write. In Quaternions. which (1. * This conception differs fundamentally from one which had occurred to seve before the invention of the quaternions . .^ latter is in fact one value of the symbol. 227. that although i^ . as a real right ver sor* (181). a„. and are less than that of the third. as regards the conception of the subject.
write. n' V(»/. In fact. on this plan (comp.CHAP.) . as always de IX.. in connexion therewith. 2k . VIIL. since  1 may be changed to a./Q. when this root is expressed under the form of a couple (228). a \a J a \a I \ a Denoting. of which the n^^ power equals i. namely that there shall be a positive (scalar) co z. what we shall call the principal n*^ root of a quaternion Q by the symbol y^Q. We propose. lar. .. we have. for the case 7i = 3. VIII. . TT V. in the binomial (or efficient y couple) form x\iy (228). YI. . and the quotient y: x shall have a smaller value than for any other couple x + iy (with constituents thus it whence will follow that positive). to interpret the particular symbol noting the principal value of the n<^ root of i thus writing. ZQ<7r. and only differing from where the ordinary algebra by the reality here attributed to i. different values. if a>0. by Figure 54 . . namely the quotient of two radii of a circle. I however. And as to the general n^^ root of a quaternion^ we may on the same principles. 249 a whole when n is number greater than three . (1. we shall write definitely. = satisfied by the two values.l)u>0.L (»/this last condition.. for the thus to quaternion. representing the general n*^ root of positive has n unity. (2 ) For example. the equations. /./]. serving complete the determination of of thsit principal n^^ root of negative unity . . for the moment. although the equation 52 = (xiy)2 = t. 231. nor in interpreting. which make with each other an angle^ equal to the n^^ part of some whole number of circumferences. depending on the division of the circumference of a circle into n equal parts. or of any other negative scain each of the two last formulas. II.j.yQ< 1)  if n Vir. t". . factor 1«. each of these n*^ roots of unity is with us a real versor. Q^=l^.). = TT ^. the two constituents x andy shall both be positive. in = v/i . GENERAL ROOTS OF UNITY.] FRACTIONALPOWERS. in the way lately illustrated. ± (1 + ^2..
and we propose to extend the former to the case of negative whole exponents. [BOOK II.+ 1 sin —2n : : 2» which we shall occasionally abridge to the following Xir. . . . any quaternion. II.) And although the equation. writing therefore. and q the definition contained in the formula 233. III. . whether m be positive or negative so that this last symbol. : 2. V. : ^'"^" = q^"'^ . in the positive direction of rotation. which fwrns any line on which it an angle equal to the n*^ part of a right angle.) In general. . if ?w and n be still whole numbers. * when reduced to its Compare the Note to page 121. . by writing VI. as in algebra. through ani/ two positive whole numbers. . . . and  i. i4 = V «= —r— we shall thus have the expression. IV. . (3. we shall adopt only the one value. If m and n be the two equations I. mill and ^''= 1 . operates. whereof n may be supposed to be positive. q^rin^gm. ia satisfied by the three distinct and real couples. XII. .250 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. .. has as many distinct values as there are units in the denominator of its fractional exponent. . 234. denotes a versor. (4. poiver. ^"^ = 1 : == ^^ reciprocal''^ (134) of q. XI. enables II. t»» = cos —. q^.gn and in particular. and this root. We shall also extend the formula II. of whole the us to write. round the given axis of t. . (^")"» = . (» + V3) . q~'. . . .. (^")'" = y"^" . 2'» = CIS — : 2n' thus interpreted. i". . .
^j VIII. (4. which has however (in this case) until a selection indefinitely many values.ma symbol of the form q^. we may already definitely interpret the symV as denoting a versor. whereof the former shall be supposed to be positive. root of 9 this plan.) Again. among which values of q^.). (2.] AMPLITUDE OF A QUATERNION. or 227) of the quaternion (3. that which least we is shall naturally the m*^ power of the principal (1. Using the binomial or couple form (228) for a quaternion in the plane of i (225). bol Meanwhile (comp. as denoting the = + Ij this square has only square of any fourth root of q but because (1*)^ = 1^ two distinct values. towards which t. consider as the principal one.. ?/ = r sin 2. .. to which in the next Section (5. if we introduce two new and real scalars. — On the Amplitudes of Quaternions in a given Plajie. VII. &c.). and which are connected with the two former scalars X and y by the equations. the symbol qi denotes. is itsehf positive or negative . II. square of the principal fourth root. 3. but among these we regard as principal. .) ). which turns any line in the given plane. as in algebra. on it the square of the principal cuberoot (231) of that proposed quaternion. 233). .i' = cis^. . m 251 terms. the square of any cubehas therefore three distinct values. while 5"2 denotes the reciprocal of the square. the principal q. and can therefore be of little or no use. For example. on the same plan. and among these the principal value is the . incommensurable).CHAP. . . the symbol q^ is interpreted. through t right round t. — tir . i. the reciprocal of a squareroot of q . . but a surd (or as a limit. of one value of this surd power as principal.) is. Ax . . ponent. 2 ' I sm .) If the exponent t. whether rational or and thus may establish the formula. which square square root (199. The symbol q~i denotes. XII'.) we shall proceed. angles.. (4. (1. be stiU a scalar. ^^^ or briefly (comp. the three values of the cuberoot of the square of the same quaternion q . 2 Section nions. the fractional exponent  being thus reduced to its least terms. in the positive or negative direction. r > 0. and on Trigonometric Expressionsfor such Quaterand for their Powers. I. r and z.) n*^ root (233) of q. ^= r cos 2. according to a law which will be best understood by the introduction of the conception of the amplitude of a quaternion. we may : consider this surd exponent. 238. namely. at the same time. according as this scalar eX" irrational. t* = cos —f *7r . shall have been made. namely those of the square root q^. corre a variable fraction tends and the symbol itself may then be interpreted as the sponding limit oi a fractional power of a quaternion. 235.
and the corresponding symbol L q. which in the present work has been adopted from the Theory of Numbers.) II. as completing the system of notations i. z. the limits as considered obliged only to satisfy the equaamplitude. and thus shall have the following formula. and in the two following years) the only peculiar tually employ. they are to be considered as chiefly available for the present exposition of the system. for perpendicularity. and 234. g^rclsz. nor employed. &c. VI. and complanarity : although the last of j. I. to denote (130) an angle of the Euclidean kind. at least for the present. '^ by us to Angle'' because we have already appropriated the latter name. V. of connexion between amplitude and angle. No apology need be made for employing the purely geometrical signs. serving to express the conception of one n*^ root. in the subsequent . 111. peculiar to the present Calculus . [bOOK (5. z. . in connexion with quaternions also.. may have any real arid scalar value.^ am. h. and vector (or right mark N for norm. .?racf£ce thereof . ) : III. tensor. i. applies to the recent abridgment cis. it has yet done. the arcual or angular quantity. and now am (or am^). Xir. . part) : although perhaps the U. 183. {z=)Qm.q = 2mr ±Lq'. . . am q . of what we shall call in the as distinguished from another . scalar. to some notations in the present Section for powers and roots. : which last expression may be conveniently abridged (comp. versor. . T. . axis. though not requiring that notation afterwards. U^ = cis 2: . whereas the ceeding. by iho. R. or simply. tions I. I. parallelism. and to the characteristic P. . 130. We shall denote this amplitude. them was perhaps useful. symbol. t The symbol V was spoken of. next section the ponential of a quaternion. VIII. 228. with peculiar significations. reciprocal. in either direction. first introduced by the present writer.. we shall then evidently 11. . S. for cos + i sin .. of which the laws are expressed by ihQ fundamental formula (A) of Art. that Calculus does not habian}'. Ax. or at least one not ex and tt . K. index.252 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.^.) to the following IV. besides the three letters. and which were originally (namely in the year 1843. who has found it frequently .more than the_^ye characteristics of operation. .. have the formulae (comp. . and amplitude. maybe called the Amplitude^ of the quaternion q this name being here preferred And . will gradually come more into use than As to the marks. and as not and the same remark often wanted. so that Y. and in fact. 233.Tq = T(x + ii/) = r. JJq = U (re + iy) = cos z + i8mz. for angle. j. symbols of quaternions (see Note to page 160). for conjugate. * Compare the Note to Art. in 202.
Writing q = ^: .a) = am„(. one right angle. are given. (1.i = z.] ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF AMPLITUDES. or oi entire revolutions. am„ (. . in the given plane of i. . receives any one determined value.i 1 = 2ra7r. when only the tions of the two lines. .) But the particular quaternion. in general. am. for any other given quaternion q. . say that this last quantity is the n^^ value of the amplitude of q while the amo q.) n in here treat as equivalent to each other. is thus a scalar quanproper sign) the amount of rotation.j 1 am„ a = = z. XII. and with abstraction made of tensors) multiplication * and division of quaternions answer respectively to Compare the recent Note. 253 the upper or the lower sign being taken. i itself. 236.q.CHAP. a and /3. the generally arhitrary integer VI. IX. the amplitude). We . .* which we (3. . round Ax. or am (/3 a). a be still a positive scalar. shall be considered as having definitely. . positive or negative or null. so that (with the or Z» 9 . may = then write also (for any quaternion ^ :  the general transformations following VII. from the and admitting. the its any whole number of circumferences. direc (2. VIII. 5' = Tj : . so that we shall establish the particular formula. 1 = . am.q = inq = 2mr ±Lq. . respecting the notations employed. (4.. .) write. U5' cis am 5' . .1) = (2» + 1) tt. or right versor. if . it is obvious that (within the given plane. gr. we may XI.1) = Z„ (. if a > .cis am q. the equation X. and .! . and from the formerly established connexion of multiplication of versor^ with composition of rotations (207).) tity. i. II. From the foregoing definition of amplitude. am„ . When. = + tt. With and with the convention. q = ± Ax. as a more definite for mula than VI. amo (— 1) . . expressing (with line a to the line /3 amplitude am. and n being any whole number. may be called the principal amplitude (or the principal value of these notations. and XIII. the corresponding value of the amplitude may be denoted by either of the two following temporary symbols. according as Ax. same rule of signs as before) : we may write. may zerovalue. amo q = loq = ± iq] am. for its amplitude. of being increased or diminished by a. i . .
II. . . we may write (algebraical) addition . where the exponent p may be any positive or negative integer.) known and useful theorems. it follows evidently that. whence cos (z' + z) = S (cis z' cis z) = cos 2' cos z . q) = am q + am q\ member is II.254 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . VI. . we arrive at the important formula : with VII. we may them IX. . . .oxaq . am. Tn^ = nxg. .. implying hereby first that. the number z of factors of the form . III. thus. nar). VI. .. . if For example. and subtraction of amplitudes : so that. (cis z)^ = cis 2z . as follows. z . .) It was proved.). uiig = nuj . at least if the exponent p be (3. &c. .) still In these last formulae. for a product of any number of (com planar) quaternions. with similar results for more factors than two. i< (234). . . and with 235. cis z' . VII. . . if : I. . : . is easily extended to any number of quaternion factors (complanar or diplaso that we may write. respecting and sines of sums and multiples of arcs. 2im. \]q holds good : V. n cis z = cis Sz .q^ ^p. . by the associative principle of multiplication (223). . whence in particular (comp. cis z be two. and combining III. may represent any angular quantities. it (2. t. . the amplitudes am. the power Without expressly introducing the conception. in each formula. under abridged forms. 2. . X. n cis am 2 (= nUj = Ullg' = cis am Hq) = cis 2 am g VIII.. generally. 5. (cis z)P = c\spz . . and for a lohole power of any one quaternion. including thus. . . that for any two quaternions. .am q . from the consideration of. but not here specifying ivhich value. the formula Vq'q a result which. or zero. or at least the notation of we may derive the recent formulae IX. ojie of the values of the among the values of the second member . with a scalar exponent. . in 191. the symbol am 5' be interpreted in the general (or indefinite) sense of the equation 235.. with an analogous result for tensors (1. [bOOK II. That power oft. we have thus. IX'. 9'. am {q'. cis = cis (z' + z) . = U^'. some cosines (4. (6. With the same generality of signification. . and X.. we have the analogous formulae . . . .) amplitude. any whole number.) Confining ourselves to the first of these two equations. (cis am q)p — cis(p am §'). amn2' = Samg' IV. IV. X'. therefore write &c.. has be . am {q'l q) = am q'.sin 2' sin z sin (z' + z) = ii V (cis z' cis z) = cos z' sin z + sin z' cos z sin 22 = 2 cos « sin z cos 2z = (cos zy — (sin z)^ . .
). cos — = S. XIII. and substituting z for ^tir. . . . . XII. the formula. II. (6. sm —= V.. lip be tion. . T {qy = {Tqy = T^^ . But the two last formulae may be changed by XI. U (q^) = (U^)^ = Uj" may be .. 2P1 (cos z)P = i (i« + i*)P = I (iP« + t'^O + Ip (i^P^)* + i(2^)0 + &c = cos joz+p cos(/) . (6. cis pz we have thus . where t may be any scalar. and many other known results of the same kind. and with analogous processes for obtaining the known expansions of 2P"' (sin z)p. this interpretation. . .) In connexion with the same intei^retation XI. symbol satis^nng an equation which . because the number of the factors seen to be arbitrary in this last formula. i1 i' = i(i< + i0 (i* . from or if z = ^ir .CHAP.i'O (7. XVI. to the equations IX. for any positive whole value. halving. although the later /orms.t* = t'. namely XIII. XVII. even when the exponent p is fractional. . .(i^> = iP^ if p be any whole* number. .q • taken. as a thus: XI. jp = (r cis zy = rP = i^qY cis {p am g') . that if i' be either the same or any other scalar. We see then at once.4) 2+ &c. and X. 190. . that the second member is then one of the values of the first. . . although one not quite so definite. It will soon this . I. or surd . . are important. namely. as given above. V is easily must hold good. i* = i ei . we may write also. in formula holds good. if be an even integer . which (comp. . even or odd.. t* = cis z.] POWERS WITH SCALAR EXPONENTS. we get the equation. by raising the double of each member of XVI. . as in algebra. and XIV. trr . XVIII. . the transforma . 255 may be written interpreted in 234. .. although we see that their geometrical interpretations. since all which be seen that there is a sense. of p . n .. V V = iM'. which are therefore thus again obtained . coefficient of cos Oz. 161) the two may be thus written : factors. t< = »^*. and any value (235) of the amplitude am. in kinds. 237.) Hence. to any positive whole power p. or geometrically as a versor.K. are perhaps somewhat simpler: having in deed the appearance of being mere algebraical identities. of the same useful symbol i\ it mav be noticed here that XV.2)z with the usual rule for halving the +^^ p — • cos (p . And XIV. III. which turns a line through t right angles. of the tensor and versor II. and that therefore. still a whole number.
. n being whole numbers whereof the first is is prime to the second. which are precisely the n' values (comp.). . . _. .. The formula IV. .. XII. 234) of the fractional power q^.) IV. we IV. . Hn = CIS — 2«7r ... (4. . 235. xi. XII. by the formula (2. . And if.. . by V... common value of this whole power [bOOK q^. . with a lues. this restriction is only a temporary one. ..> = . . &c. generally. . II. ^= — . multi * As before. will conduct to one for I. (3. 1*0 =.256 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. n'.. = (qp)n (qP^o cis so that the n*'» value of qP is equal to the principal value of that power of q. &c. we have thus. remove and in particular. the transformation. . _ &c. 235. I . . Iin=cisn7r. cis (p am„ q\ with .) Thus. ofp. m'. a restriction . n^>0.) we may say a. (. lP» = cis 2pmr. (3. For anj/ value of the integer n. 1*0=+!. . so that the exponent p here fraction in its positive denominator n\ while the factor Tq^ is a. power qP that the symbol (qP)n..1)p by the abridged symbol have. . whence (comp. for any fractional* value IX. recurring periodically. (jiyn = cisp(2n+ l)7r. 2pn7r lPn(qP)o . (1. ^. = ( l)i recurring periodically.. in any given system. 1*2 = +!.. is equal to ^ x the logarithm of Tq)y least terms.)). we have Principal value . gives. which however we VI. defined such values. ^. represents the n*^ value of the is. . Vn. oflP= IPq = making successively .. . (l)i2 = + t.(l)io = cis= + and (l)ii = cis^ = i. ^. however.) (1). shall soon Up be any fraction.) ( l)p„. then the expression in the second member admits of n' distinct vaanswering to different values of n . when/? as above.)^=L^%. we Denoting in like manner the n'* value of (. 1. on principles already established the principal value of that power corresponding to the : value n=0. fraction.^„ VIII. 1.(i)^=l:fi^ these three values of (5.=. (qP)n = T/ . V.. XIII.. . l^i=l. Abridging (1p)„ to 1^. 232). Ih = l + tV3 1*2 ltV3 = r 1*3 = 1.. substitute this slightly different formula (comp.. p = i. X.. . supposed to be 2. on the same plan (comp. as positive scalar (of which the positive or negative interpreted logarithm. generally^ by 235.
„. may be the exponent p being still The formula IV. + ^2 + 2 L . XIV.1)P„ (aP)o limit. therefore consider the symbol. for the case (131) into : where the new quaternion exponent. extended so as to include. and the exponent q\ are supposed to be (generally) quaternions. To do this. . — a. XIII. as a when scalar. n^^ value of the p^^ power of any negative scalar. XII. q.. XIII. will be one main object of the following Section which however will also contain a theory of logarithms of quaternions.CHAP. ^^ in is any quaternion. .) . yet we can still consider one of them as the principal value of this (now) surd power : namely the value. while the exponent. q. is in like man(G. I. multiplied by tlie corresponding value of the same power of negative unity.. or in symbols. to the principal amplitude (235. and although the number of values of the power qp becomes thus unlimited (comp. and to consider which we next proceed. +a. in qq'^ which both the base q. becomes incommensurable.<7. and of the connexion of both logarithms and powers with the properties of a certain function. but no interpretation has been as yet assigned to this other symbol of the q. (4. IX. cis (p amo 9). with its consequences V. that if the base a be any positive scalar^ the principal jp'^ power ^ (<^)o. which we shall call the ponential of a quaternion. in a way which shall be completely consistent with the foregoing conventions and conclusions. the arithmetical value of aP. P(^. p. is simply. II. which answers . by our definitions. the case = CaP)o cis p (2n + 1) tt. Section 4. (g'P)o = TqP . — On ternion.a)Pn = (. 257 plied by the corresponding value of the same power of positive unity } and it may be remarked. is which the same kind. If we consider the polynomial function. . with Quaternions for their Exponents. as now any scalar^ being fully interpreted. 239.. or surd. (. w)=lt^. .] PONENTIAL OF A QUATERNION. 234. VI. (7.)) of the proposed quaternion 238. although for the purposes of this Chapter complanar (225). We may base.)). . the Ponential and Logarithm of a Quaterand on Powers of Quaternions. (3.) The ner equal to the arithmetical p^'* power of the positive opposite. degenerates a scalar. or rather which shall include and reproduce them.
. whereof the one may be and of which each a certain function of the two scalars. Qo). r.m))<a. shall hold good. Y^. .2.3. Writing then which the VIII.„ 7j2<aS n. however large the number scalar a and however small (but given and >0) the each of the two scalar may be. V.258 in which q is ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . shall be satisfied. (X..wiV then it is r(m+l)/ given^ the tensor not difficult to prove that however great..ro = 0.\nfunctioji. x. . while it is supposed (for conciseness) that TT ' n '^^ r (^ r \ 1. converges ultimately to Y. P(^..„. x and y. we scalar a. however large the (positive whole) «>0. such that the a finite value of the number ra following inequality..xtQ. m) = X. we shall call the ponential function. m\n)V{q..)' + (r. lY. It follows evidently that series. can always be assigned. VI. T(P(^.. and the T.. or succession of scalar functions. is latter Foo.+q:g>i Avith the signification II. x.= \vx. . P(?.Xo=i. quaternion Q (namely the limit . or F. .. a Ji72ite number m can be assigned. . and [bOOK II. converges ultimately) as being in like manner a ce....P(^. any quaternion. . is and however small the (positive) In other words. or simply JT. . or simply the Ponential of q.m).=y. to following of quaternions^ IX.2)=l + g + '. We have therefore X.. V{q. Ave . ..„. a fixed and finite called Xoo. must consider series this Q = Xoo+iYcK>=X+iY.. limit.. m is any positive whole number.. if given. = y^xy.„ + iY^.q = x + iy. P(^. which .. Ponential ofq=Q'Pq=\\qx + term q^.0)=1. hut finite and Tq may be. the equation. . 228).l)=l+^.„X„. number n may be. in consequence of its possessing certain exponential properties which may be denoted by any one of the three symbols. and P (?.= i + a. provided that this last write (comp. . or simply P^. VII. q2\. . for if which the inequality III. or P {q). of the .+"'^^V.
and be their sum. where Ao > Ai > o. P (r^^ 2m) . can be expanded as sums of positive terms of the form r'p. XIII. III. m) < a(2i + 22 + series . separately tends to 0. 771).). r'... . be convergent when q is changed to a positive scalar.P {r" . when 5' is a quaternion. The function Vq therefore subject to the Exponential Law. rp<. . q'^\\\q'\\\qi with the signification 239.q^^ = q^^q.] EXPONENTIAL PROPERTY.. writing again r = Tq. . but. . number if a> . as m tends to oo must exist a fortiori. and r„. so that . it such as &c.'+ 2'0 the asserted inequality (2. r" = Tq'\ &c.. can be made <«. Ao + Aig + A2g2 4 &c..2< r.Hence. . m). m + n)P(g. therefore. .n+h shall then to prove that this last difference. . 240. provided that the m is taken large enough each difference. 259 equality III. if therefore proved to exist. m). an ascending with positive coefficients. in P {i\ m) P (r. 1 can be assigned. so that let q" I. such that <a and then. 0.) In general. are replaced by the . by 212. then.. 235) r (2. q' \\\ q.CHAP. have r^i <rp. . = Tq„. 2m) P(r'. since V. is a tendency which r". (1. 7\„ = Tq.. we rm+n. fr^+i.„ and = Tq'. XI. tensors. and the other containing m{rn+ 1) such terms). m + n)P(r.) In connexion with the convergence of this ponential series. P(r".. or the sum of the n positive Now if we take a number p>2r 1.Vq'. a finite number m>p>2r <a . oi" with the in= Tq. XII.rp (one sum containing ^m{m\.. &c.. T(P(^. 11. m) . we shaU have. r.1)./. if \\. w + is n) . II. .P(r.m))<P(r.V{q'^q) = Vq'. P (r. . . it . as in algebra. quaternions. . o. HI. the two differences. when the q'. the sum of these two positive differences can be made less than any given small positive scalar a. Let q and q' be any two complanar quaternions.P {r'\ m) < a. r. q". is sufficient • • terms.. . of q^^ and with corresponding significations of q^^^ and q'^^i we have where like 50 = 9'o manner r' = l. q. . m).P(r.i it may be remarked that if we write (conip. will ^fortiori converge. by 239.Vq=Vq. and IV.
. TP^ = PS^ = Pa. . V.) ). . Pa. cosy. and therefore to be the versor ofFq. here to be considered merely as a definition of the sense in which we interpret this exponential symbol. . Viy. Pa. IX.=£*. X. . VII. while Pa. namely as what we have lately called the ponential function. (2. . to be included in a more general definition (comp.Viy'. P9 = €«.) . Vq = V{x + iy) = Tx.Pg. since IV. . . VIII'. . The other . shall henceforth write simply t^ to denote this principal (or arithmetical) value of e is the known the x^^ power of c. . factor Pic is in which we have just seen that the factor. but this formula is 239. . in particular (comp. e9 . . = SFiy=l'^ + &c. 240. X. Fq=F{x\ iy) = e'' cis y.). . + &c. IX. (5.. PI = c. VIII. . ^'VP^>=?/^ Hence the ponential Fq may be thus transformed XII.=e. . = = = e^y = cis P UP^ V^ Fiy y (comp. .) For any scalar x. .). .) Already we have thus a motive IX. IV. because we have in general. . 238) of the symbol (3. .) If ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . and therefore. . then VIII. we . write (comp.=S^=lTP^. : XL . = (£«)o = arithmetical value off' . . or VI. Vq. is a positive scalar. 199. 158). considered as the sum of the infinite but converging series.. easily 11. . write (comp. 1 : P2> = P( iy) = KFiy. . 241. this last transformation being obtained from the two series. 237. 235. . we have by VIII. x = \Px — natural logarithm of ponential of x. It will however be soon seen q^'. a.P(^) = PO=l. the transformation : X. and x is any scalar. and III.260 (1. where We base of the natural system of logarithms. The exponential law (240) gives the following general decomposition of a ponential into factors. proved to be a versor. NFiy = » 1. . I. . generally. for writing.P% = KPy. .=siny. . . (K$)"' =K{q'") = {s2iy) Kq"" (comp. [bOOK II. IX. is the tensor of the same ponential. We may therefore VII. . 150. and so shall have the simplified equation. X.
/(y + y') = S (Viy .<\>y . sines or y and it is easy to prove that the upper sign is to be In fact. XVII. such depends. not chosen to assume as known the series for cosine and sine. artifices. provided that we determine the constant c by the condition. XVI. Pic = t . .P(ty) = l.fy = cosy. (3. root of the equation fy= as usual. (/y)2 .CHAP. or XXIII. /(15) and of course there are =+ 0070737. /(. motive would thus arise for representing a right angle by this numerical (2. namely. for thus we should reduce XVII. as the study of the series* would show. XV. . whatever unit of angle ^= cos ( X a right angle \ may be adopted.//. . not necessary to be mentioned here. TT = 2c = least positive XIX'. nor as that known one on which their vaas follows. .iiPty = SPt(yc)=:/(yc). which results. or for so selecting the angular unit. by the exponential law (240).Pzy=/y + i7(yc). .y) ^+fy. . . . or nearly. If then we replace c by . . we might then have proceeded xiii. 261 (1) If we had to select (at first) lidity any one unit of angle. c. giving nearly. As to the function (py. . XXIV. and therefore that sin 0y = + XXII. . .0029200 . evident that taken. . II. Writing <}>(ry) Pi>=/y + %. by simple interpolation between the two approximate values of the function/. whence . and then \}a!& .'Pv^ we should have. . since XXI. 0c = + 1.. by which a far more accurate value can be found. . we have * In fact. . /(y + y') +f(y y') = 2/y . .) constant. XXV. /(I 6) = . 15708. . XX. . c = least positive c— root of the equation Jy(= SPiy) = . .) . <^y' . . + (0y)2 = Pi>. functional equation. 0y = S. Viy') ^fy . XVIII'.] CONNEXION WITH TRIGONOMETRY. and . as to have the equation (tt still denoting two right angles). to the simpler form. the value of the constant c may be obtained to this degree of accuracy. it is . it can be shown (without supposing any previous knowledge of cosines) that 0c is positive. XVIII. XIV. would show that . —1 . 7r = 314159. fyfy'^r^y^W.fy' . = . A XIX. .f{yy)= . .
as in II. and not by 1'5708 nearly but we should still have the transformation. The usual I. ' ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. (5. which may all be repreIII. VI. .. for cos y and sin y. . while the one which corresponds to n0 may be called the PrinciIt will be found that when the exponent p is any o£ the p^^ power of q enables us to establish the formula. .. the General Exponential Formula. and XXVII.262 XXVI. . the principal value of q'^' being still conceived to correspond to n = 0. Viy = IX. XXX. n be any whole number it follows. 1 .= P(pP„'?). or that the number w (^or 2c) is to 1. and of which each satisfies IV.. y— ] = sin ^ . has indefinitely many values. sented by the formula.yi siny = lim..) If any other angular unit had been. Pzy = cis ( Xa right angle j.(e'% = P(2'P. follows that the nnit of angle. chosen. .. XII. the definition already given (237.) for the n^^ value V. pal Imponential. .) ). V'^q. for any reason. that P . II. . . if tial function. when the exponent is a quaternion q': thus writing generally.. IV. for any two complanar quaternions. (?"). it lim. as the circumference is to the diameter of a circle.. we see. XXIX. P {q 2m7r) = Vq.2). that the inverse ponenor what we may call the Imponential. though not the same . XII. . of a given quaternion q.r'^ = ^.yiti VPiy = 1. scalar. by a new definition. then a right . . which thus gives Piy = cisy. . \ by 241. 235. [bQOK cis y. is (as usual) the angle subtended at the centre by the arc equal to radius . 2m7r = and . .. and we now propose to extend this last formula.. the equation. (4. series as before. unit being retained. ^y = cos series : cos^yl") X. to the more general case (238). . instead of being and since we have the limiting value. or to the principal amplitude of q (comp. XI.P„'^ = lT^ + tam„^. angle would of course be represented by a different number. (3. q and q'.) The assumed as known for cosine and sine might thus be deduced..PP. 242. then.
.) II. because Po»£ = Ic = 1 by . to enter into would be foreign (225) to the plan of this Chapter any further de tails. (2. (q^')o . . . . these £'V = cis y. . continue to hold good . combined with 235. a formula which evidently includes the corresponding one. sin 5 = — (£'« . and we may write (comp. 263 For example.^' = (I5')n =P . 241. (6. XVI. is therefore now seen to be in fact.. (£9)o = F(q¥oh) = Fg. in 240. extended to the case where the exponent g' is (7.£^) . and the Notes to pages 243. (tOo = £"F . XIII. (2. the same notations. . . . : may now be defined . . XV. ^vi considered as denoting iu algebra a real quantity. XI.) "With this interpretation and we may write. which is not in the given plane ofi. IV. l.).. XII.) The power of g. . X. cos 5 = ^ (£»« + £»9) .).. diflfering cos y = ^ (£«> + f'V).) The cosine and sine of a guaternion by the equations IX. 248. two last only from the usual imaginary expressions (in the given plane) for cosine and sine. 237. iq^% = irfi'. * Compare 232. of cis g. X. the ponential Tg.CHAP. definitions III. thus we may write. which we agieed. for this case of diplanar guaternions. 2imrg' .) The same definitions give. which last . XII. by our general definition. cis 5 = £*9 = Fig. (4. to denote simply £9. (g9')n = P C^'IT?) P OV amn g) = (Tg)o«' cis(g' amn 5) .. by the geometrical reality* of the versor i. the exponential properties.)o=P(iPo^0 but it = p(^y^. .) With . though we see that there would be no difficulty in treating it. XII. . after what has been shown respecting complanars. and VI. may even be a gvaternion. . IX. give generally. (2.) The formula VI. IX. on the subject of the interpretation of the exponential symbol gi'..] LOGARITHM OF A QUATERNION. . (1. . when p is scalar. sin y =— (£'V  £»V) . equation agrees with a known interpretation of the symbol. and therefore not complanar with the base g . (3.(i. XVII. for the n<^ value of the p*^ (0. . the principal value of that power. 236. . VII. this last equation including the formula 237. VIII. or exponential.. . . Po'i = y .. . XIV.).
so that we may write. IV.. WJq = i anio q. first member is one of the values of and one value of log value of qi' = £9'i3 (4. to the complanar quaand we see that its expression involves* two arbitrary and indepenternion base. .. ^ of a quaternion q (in the which satisfies the quaternion any .). (1. IX. VI. l^ = Po"'2' = ITg. and may simply cipal logarithm^ and in this view it is is be denoted by the symbol. . 5. may be said to be the prinanswers which nential^ (as above) to n the or Logarithm. e'^' = Vq' = q. .) As examples (comp. VIII. be said to be the ^'eweraZ logarithm of the quaternion. or log or (log q)n. q while its principal value may be defined to be Iq \q. value simply the Imponential P"^g. . X. II. It = z7r of q q. 235.1) = iV. But the principal impoexpressed by = 0. As regards i\iQ [bOOK II. . . 1^ = 1 (llq . because ITUg^U = 0. q. . .J0^. . . we may regard I. As the corresponding expression in algebra. according to Graves and Ohm. = V. holds good. . VIL . log .) . . of which the n*^ the formula 242. . (log g)« = lj + 2imr. which YVq is still the scalar and natural logarithm of the positive scalar T^'. and therefore.) . general logarithm it as given plane). (3. III. (2. . .) and (4. of the quaternion q. in the sense that every value of the the second (comp. shall have. or still more simply. if The formula. . . The quotient (5. : integers.+ 2 amo ^ . equation.(Iog. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. qi' = q\q. dent may . . U^) = IT^ + lU^.. We in have thus the two general equations. g'g= log q + log q \\\ q.. .) Principal of two general logarithms. this last denoting the n'^ value and then we . (2. I. . 1(.Go.).264 243. S1^ 1T^. .) The general logarithm log may be denoted by any one of the symbols. 236). V1^ = 1U^.) ). III. q'.
. Fnq.CHAP. ^" + 5'i5'"i + 92^"= + . the coefficients qi qn being as before. . real. qi. + 5„ = . and then proceeding as before. . of which roots it is possible however that some. however. is equal to a product ofn real. namely. which has been seen (242) to have infinitely = 2tn7r. but nothing hinders us. number. from substituting for the versor U V Q. Tnq=^{qq){qq). q.. and complanar quaternions. VIII. is any given positive integer. II. . all may become equal. . qo.. . It is true that we have supposed Q i 1 t (225") . .y'mg finite equations. where n may be any whole represented by the expression q terms. namely. we merely intend to exclude here equations with infinitely many many t roots. 265 Section Polynomial) Equations of AlgeComplanar Quaternions . has always n real quaternion roots. actual. or that an equation of the form. or 245. complanar. such as P^= 1. braic Fornif involving 5.. write. 0. of the form qq''.^«Q = 0. complanar with Q . that if . in consequence of certain relations existing As between the n given coefficients. and no more 5^"). 2 M . if we Fnq = q'' + qiq'''^+ . — On Finite"^ (or 244. all can hQ proved in * cases to exist: although we may not be By ?. This result is. and linear (or binomial) factors. in the given plane. included in a much more general Theorem. then the equation. has always n real. the n distinct and real values of the symbol Q" (233.] EQUATIONS OF ALGEBRAIC FORM.. I. We have seen (233) that an equation of the form. qn be any n given. 11. and on the Existence ofn Real Quaternion Roots.). in any other case. determined on a plan lately laid down. I. of any such Equation of the n"* Degree. and unequal quaternion roots. we may say that every such polynomial function. another statement of the same Theorem.{qq^^). and Q is anyt given. II. q.a. . . . respecting Quaternion Equations of A Igebraic Form . . where n real.+ qn. q'. and actual quaternion (144).
the curve here called (in : 251) an oval is not perhaps defined with sufficient precision the inequality. under the supposed conditions of complanarity (224). has been considered. It is to be observed that Mourey's book contains no hint of the present calculus. because the theorem is evidently true for the case 72= 1.. our present methods. XII. . ofn terms of the coefficients ^'i. we can assign it or not). actual. . &c. entitled La vraie theorie des Quantites Negatives. of the algebraical equation of the n^h degree. and like the earlier Avork of Mr. with roots^ q\ . [bOOK II. Or because  nion q always exists (whether satisfies the equation. . q. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.* h^q(qq){qq")^{qq'^'^)Q. which satisfies the system of . and com.^nq is divisible by q q\ as in algebra. . of known algebraic form. without essential loss of generality. is 1.F„^' = 0. . . bra of Prof. in which.. to questions within the plane : whereas the very conception of the Qttaternion involves. 248..) of the polynomial function f. 1.266 able. Or we may equations. <j + 5^^"^ =qi = + 52 qq" + q'q" + q'q" + = ^VV"+. q\ &c. 246. towards the geometrical proof of the theorem in the text 1828). was proposed by Mourey. we may. is and Q are any n real and given quaternions whereof at least Q and q may be supposed satisfied by at least one real. III . being not employed. 1849). have been taken from the same work . et des Quantites pretendues Imaginaires (Paris. in the given plane. 1828). Or finally. as we have seen. to assign expressions for the q^^\ in . Suggestions also. a reference to Tridimensional Space. the difference Tnq . like the Double Alge De Morgan (London.. . while the case 244. in his very ingenious and original little work. and the case 9'n = satisfied by the supposition = 5' 0. planar quaternion. reduce the enunciation to the following: Every equation of the form. . qnsay that there is always a certain system real quaternions. Warren (Cambridge. it is sufficient to say that at least one real quater247. with the foregoing form (245. actual (144). q. ichich IV. here numbered as 251. * The conesponding /orm. however. / + ^" + . .. in which q. being confined. . ^3.  i.
which thus renders T(pp equal to unity. 267 nions 249. or system of equations. A.T/g=l. o. let and let it be supposed that a. or given. nishes with T/3. which satisfies the condition. b.q^"'^^ vanish. Supposing that the m\ last of the nl given quaterfirst of them are actual. . . . . . in a given plane. VII. . Attending then only to the least value (if there be more than one) and becomes infinite = of Tp.vector) U/>. . . tions: T^/t) = 1 . having varied continuously (although perhaps with fluctuations) in the interval. < 1. ^. and scalar function Y^t.. .T. q^ . Xll. Whatever value i\\\i we may assume for the versor (or unit.] GEOMETRICAL EXISTENCE OF REAL ROOTS. that whatever sysand s. which satisfies the two condiIX. is To . it into the two following: . II. . . which satisfies the condition IX. 159. . because the function T(pp va when T/3 oo. a = q'\ 13 .CHAP. ob. same planes.Vfq=]. . and whatever tem of real points. and may (by 187. may be assumed. and actual quaternion qo. os. am ^p = 2p7r. 0. . . . .. but that the where 7n may be any whole number from 1 to n . X. or VI.1. any and op. and introduc. are nm + 2 other lines in the and p. Q qq .q'% . in the same plane. if a. we can conceive a real. such that which p 250. which shall have the two following properties : XI.. A. p= q\ o = qoK and ^^ ^^ \(tI a /3 \osl OA OB the theorem to be proved may then be said to be. "*> q'^'* we may write thus the recent equation I.. in some whole number (negatives and zero included). known.. there always exists at least one value of the tensor Tp. . thei^e is always at one real point p. or OA. line or assumed given \\\i. positive whole least number w. am/^ = 2.>0. complanar. 235) decompose IV.?7r. 251. be give a more geometrical form to the equation.. nm ing a new real.T<p(xiyln)<l. And in this way the equation. . unambiguous.p(ifc) = l. . and Y. and that <[>/> is a known scalar function of /a.
II. in the course of this one positive circuit . or 7^ai/.3 = = 0. XIII. while p perthe amplitude am <pp has passed 1. . the amplitude am (/j iff)... Thus. or decrement.268 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. is on the oval. a. m times. that the line oa : therefore never meets it again if prolonged. finite. every right line. namely that of the . if supposed to vary conti have increased by four right angles. if t be the number (perhaps zero) of given internal points. and has (upon the whole) undergone no change at all. or by 27r. &c. and which shall have the two following properties o. time. of the product (VIII. while the number m is (by 249) at leasts forms (as above) at least one. through conditio?i form 2p7r. 235. will have increased. b. And since precisely similar remarks apply to the other given points. the ray ap will have likewise made one positive revolution. the amplitude am(AP: oa). b. the amplitude of the lefthand factor (pia)"". . the ray ap has only oscillated about its initial and tion of the opposite line final direction. so as not to receive any sudden increment. without ever attaining the opposite direction if still in this case. follows that the amplitude. oa the the in a point M.p [bOOK Tp = ft. it . and the amplitude of the But if a be an exterior factor (^p . by 2m7r. is satisfied throughout.. has (by 236) received a total increment =2{mYt)'7r. in : 1st. if the point A be also interior to the oval. and afterwards the other positive halfcircuit from N to M again. and consequently.'^ will Then. let us conceive a point p to perform one circuit of the oval. of 0p. or XIV. then while the point p performs first what we may call the positive halfcircuit from M to N. has been at least once satisfied. although the prolonga ao must meet it once in some point n. so that. and consequently the a value of the X. meets the curve other given points once. IX. . .Vp=i. moving in the positive direction relatively to the A. (!•))• .) of all these factors. . and Ilnd. and that line intersects so curve finite point. has only fiuctuated mils x&\Me. . positive circuit. and therefore at least once. given interior point O. by the or * That is. but once only. therefore. But the other condition. which we shall call generally an Oval. This being laid down. at the same nuously. am 0P.a) a will have increased by 27r. = if I. . . may be conceived to determine a real. supposed to vary continuously. B. of one more whole circumferences (comp. . drawn/rom ike ori gin any arbitrary direction within the plane. whatever the given direction of the line OS may be. line ao. so must be prolonged to meet that curve. 252. and plane closed curve. no one of the nm because 0a = 0.
into two separate ovals. only the one round o. that o shall be luithin it. This conclusion so important. I. : 269 supposed construction of the oval position P.. there is therefore at least one real upon that curve.] GEOMETRICAL ILLUSTIIATIONS. described as a locus (or as part of the locus) of p. with the additional condition is when necessary. QUADRATICS. ter be drawn = os.) that a exists. for which 0p or fq = 1 . of the form.. that it may be useto the ful to illustrate the general reasoning. 250. with its transformations is therefore in this manner proved. This curve of the fourth degree is the wellknown Cassinian. 9o\q OP AP OS OA (real) point p We have now to prove (comp. op. 65. as in Fig.AP = OAAB. the equation 249. III. I.. 56) a right line from o meets the general or total locus in several points. or ab. 245 and 246. . and consequently also. I V. * . . Fig. III. . by means of this equality IV. the theorem of 244. ' or 11. m. which includes the equation of rectangles. his. and therefore also the position equation 248.) Conceive. by applying P P it case of a quadratic equation. that a continuous curve* Fig. . so that. is satisfied. but when it breaks up. 56. /or this of that point. VIII. 55. 248. and 55y bis. II. is 253. 55. if this latFig. 56. rejecting for the present that round A. then. (Compare the annexed Figures. we here retain. by 247. The theorem of Art. as the oval of the proof. . or which satisfies the following condition of similarity of triangles (118).CHAP. in such a manner that when (as in Fig. ap equal to a given line os. which renders the fourth proportional (226) to the three lines OA. A AOP a PAB OP.
T0^ = VI. tion q. has therefore a second real quatertiion root. q. . and the amplitude of the factor AP OA increases by : 27r or by 0. has the same (250. we obtain the following depressed or linear equa IX. Hence. terior or exterior to the oval. 247) . again 245) is thus decomposable into fivo linear factors. 224). or by the equation of the locus the geometrical condition 0/o = 1 (II. Then while p moves upon that oval. and therefore . 56) . therefore. qxq +^2 and dividing by qq\ as in algebra subtracting. therefore. for at least one real position.) is therefore satisfied . J . 246). The quadratic VIII. . . . 245). ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. related in this manner to ^e first . [bOOK II. = 5' / = . upon the oval. in the positive direction relatively to o. V. from M to n. but the point m which is nearest to o> as not 1 25 belonging (comp. VII. and complanar thus there is always a real quaternion q[ in the given plane. throughout. = q^ + = (comp. or can be put under the form. . 55. the ray ap : performs in like manner one positive revolution. by the construction.) to the oval here considered. . VII. and because the quadratic function T2q (comp. or IX. VIII.270 m'. passes at least once through a value of the form ^pir. p. 1. . 5' + 5''+ ^1 = 0. actual. and. = 1 (I. it increases by 27r (as in Fig. q p:X . and in the other it case.5''5'i (comp. real. the amplitude amcpp of the pj'oduct increases by47r (as in Fig. which satisfies the equation. n'. Foq = (f + q^q + q^^O (comp. or (on the whole) does not revolve at all. where q^ and . am 0p = 1 .). . . by at least one real vector p equation fq root^ and consequently the quadratic by at least one real quaternion = But the recent form I. Vlir. F2^' (comp. ray op performs one positive revolution.. bis) . whatever its initial value may have been. from n to m again. .) is satisfied generality as the earlier form. IV. and the amplitude of the factor op os increases continuously by 27r. we have so that in each case. . according as the point a is inIn the one case. U^jO = 1 . quaternions q^ are any two given. so that the we reject all . but . XII.
and (comp. which each satisfies the condition of si milarity III. it (1. consequence of which there must be two real positions. .] RELATIONS BETWEEN THE ROOTS. 271 X. root. Accordingly. which •wHl have two new real roots. . we may write . . and thus the cubic has therefore one real the general proof (252"). which cannot vanish fore for any fourth real value of 9 the cubic equation X. q . 248). of . and for the case of Fig. which has been function may be put under the form. 246). . say q\ hy above illustrated by the case of the quadratic equation. . . for the case of Fig. q" and 5'" . 56. II.91 = — 1. ^ p' = (T . it . p and p\ which satisfy the equation II. the line pp' of p'. 244) the quadratic equation has no more than two such real roots. 55. with this position we have (comp. q'q" = 92. (3. there must correspond another real position p'. may therefore be put under the ybrm (comp. in the course of one circuit. op' = p' = a p = PA .) the similarity. q2 = —(J:a. XVIII . II. F39 = (9 9 ) (9  9") (9 .. in p and p'. might have been geometrically anticipated^ from the recently proved increase = 47r of amplitude 0p.) .. (or 246) becomparison with the form VIII. and 226) the equation. cannot vanish for ant/ third real qtmternion. and dividing by 9— q\ we can depress the cubic to a quadratic. subtracting therefore (compare 247) the equation F^q^ = 0. namely The other relation between the roots of the quadratic VIII. if the equation II. . 244) and similarly for equa tions of higher degrees. (comp. 9 "). . from the consideration that the second (or is which although not employed above. XIV. III. gives XIX. be put under the form. so that (comp. (2.) The existence of two real roots q of the quadratic I. . so that the point p' completes (as in the cited Figures) the parallelogram opap'. XVII. and by the middle point c of OA. and if we now write XIII. or XV'.. .) cubic equation . .) As regards the law of this correspondence. XI. or of two real vectors. . T^q=(q^) (qq"). . . A Aop' a p'ab . Vzq = q^^q\q^ + ?2? + ?3 = 9 (?  O (99") + 93= . two ... .CHAP. to the real position p on the first. and then the recent relation IX'. p + p' = a . . ore the one oval of that Figure. .p for = 5a. upon the second. lighter^ oval. . The X. <pp' = ^ (a — p) = ^p = 1. related to A exactly as the^Vs^ (or dark) oval of the Figure is related to o so that. XV. bis. in this case exists. tween the two roots will take the form of the following relation between vectors. has there: no more than three real quaternion roots (comp. (4. is bisected XVI.
and accordingly.. like o and a. (5. say b namely the when the point s. P and pen. of the quadratic equationYIlI. 55. s vary together : although it may (and does) hapto a former position without p having similarly return may Now the essential property of the oval (253) may be said is the to be this: that it tensor locus of the points p nearest .272 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.9=§5i±Va9i252). we may thus regard the vector as a known function of the or the point a function of the point p. given value of To.. . that s returned. this latter point must move (by II. (6. 0)0 I.) Cubic and biquadratic equations. is given. and the theorem is. at least once. 56. with the given origin o for centre . and the point s. . in the sense that. OP and ap. namely when a is an interior point. the line ct. or If then we conceive the point p to move. again Fig. The equation <T = x/)=^(pa). and to four right angles for the case of Fig. Uo=Ux/J. = 1 of 253 being written as follows. s will pass. his.. each and the mean angular velocity oj . and once in the second case. 254. XX. and the point s also to move. without expressly intro ducing the notation or conception of amplitude. is [bOOK II. must therefore have revolved twice in first case.) the angular motion of equal to the sum of the angular motions of the two rays. . (1. and — p'. which proves the theorem in question. os. however. Txp has a given value. are in like manner resolved by the known ybrmwZir of algebra. 6^). the the radius os. and III. according to the law expressed by the recent formula I.) on the circumference of a given circle (comp. a s as or II.. as before. The actual solution. the formula being. or a.) In the first of these two cases. along the oval. . through every position on that circle.) a fourth proportional to the three lines oa. but we have now (as has been proved) three real (quaternion) roots for the former. this And may be proved by os is the radius observing that (by III. is planar quaternions. the square root ciples already laid is to be interpreted as a real quaternion. in which. but this latter sum amounts to eight right angles for the case of Fig. the three angular velocities is positive throughout. p. to o. on prin down.T(r=Tx/>. The following is another mode of presenting the geometri cal reasonings of the foregoing Article. while o and A arefxed. by calculation. o . for which the of OS. that in so moving. vector p. op. while p performs one circuit of the oval. or and Ap. and four such real roots for the latter. . in cornperformed exactly as in algebra . with quaternion coeflScients of the kind considered in 244.
NV9 = N^ = 2c . within certain limiting values of the coefficients. whether the sometimes negative velocity of that ray might not. &c. and ca by a. as ihQ joint to denote equation of the system of the two ovals. . as the Figure may sen^e to exhibit. the mean angular velocity of the ray ap is zero. This cannot be.. have two common tangents. before) a TV^. (3.) To prove the same things by quaternions. parallel to the line oa. 56. But in the second case. = T(. LEMNISCATA. . we shall find it convenient to change the origin (18). as in the case of Fig. T(92_i)=2c. (by 199. S ^2 = 2S52 . % .) would again traverse the whole of the same circumference as before .o + a). when A is exterior. by V. (8. II. to prove geometrically. 56. maximum when Tq = ai. if then it could ev&c fluctuate in its motion. becomes (as of which the quaternion equation a lemniscata. like p'. a circuit of the other (or lighter) oval^ in Fig. .CHAP. 204.] CASSINIAN OVALS. the square of the equation V.) While s thus describes a circle round o. it is permitted to suppose Sq = 0. the point s (if still dependent on it by the law I. exceed the cause the radius os to if move backwards^ always positive velocity of the ray op. following forms : 210.) N. or Tp = a 2c : when interpreted. o and a : the new or third circle. for parts of the circuit. . where the oval meets the is case. ha. and thus now cp by p. reproduce those of the preceding subarticle. and that this happens for this case of Fig. we may conceive the connected point to describe an equal circle round A and in the case at least of Fig. that these two circles (with t'u and t'u' as diameters). (8. namely at the two summits (5.T(pa) if 2a*. . during the successive description of the two ovals by p . . 55. IV. which connects what we may is call the two given foci (or focal points). however . Sq= axis. AB. . B from the constant equality (253. but becoming (as and vanishing when Sg2 = 2c f 1. and we might for a moment doubt. _ 4NS9 = 4c2 .a. VIII. and thus. when 2c = I.ye generally . (% . .1 .1)2 + 4NV5 = 4c2 results which. but if c 1 ~.) When > > 1. (2. 0. ap and OA.) ) be written under either of the two VII. 200. writing also ca = Ta = tr.N^ = may (by . (N5 + 1)2 whereof the first shows that the maximum value of 56. (4. or for p 4. and representing still the radius of each of the two equal circles by b. and so for a while.T52 = X52 + 2V52 = 2NSg . ap.) the transformations. We shall then have. . to the central point o.) of the rectangles op. known) may. passing through the four points of contact on the ovals. 5 =^ a and c = . it would pass more than twice through some given series of real positions on that circle. at least if 2c < 1 as maximum corresponds to the value Tg = 1. 273 the radius os is double of that of each of thefu^o rays op. V. a But because we VI. and the two ovals (with MN and m'n' as axes).being a minimum for 1. be written (comp. bis. In the intermediate 2 N . for we conceive p to describe. the Cassinian curve IV. the quadratic equation would have more than two real roots : a result which has been proved to be impossible. there exists a certain undulation in the form of the curve (not represented < in that Figure). the following : IV.2NV^. for the sake of symmetry. it is easy . which described on this focal interval OA as diameter. and then we have only one continuous though oval. TVg is c.) ) under any one of the following forms. or .
of such a given difference. shall be in a given plane (225).T(q^1) 1. or [book . as in the annexed Figure 57 .N92 = 28. . on the formula oi similarity. is a known problem of elementary geomeTo solve it briefly. drawn through the line which connects the two foci. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. XII. ob. XII.274 IX. by quaternions. Draw. . or lemniscata. which shall be in length a geometric mean between the two given lines.i±"=!^. 253. combined with a given base. we shall see that it involves not merely an equality of rect angles. the recent equation V. let baa' represent the given difference of base angles. II. . for all degrees. —a a p follows by the simplest calculations. g2 or finally. or cp. with o for its middle point. he remarked. and XIV. 255. it II. that if we remove the restriction that the vector p.. whence that III. by means base be the line aa'.. . o and a. and let oa ab . = (^1 1) + 1 ^ proportional (227) between a and y3. We shall then have the similarity and equation. To2 = 2Ta2 cos 2 ^ which last. (6. oa. however. .. iu253... aop and pab. (7. let the given try.. paa' .Aoa'p<xpab. . when written as Xir. on which we cannot here delay. cp2= 2cA*. If 253. for a moment. cos 2acp. but also an equality of angles. pao of the triangle gap: but to construct a triangle. III.) It may. cases of equal roots answer to some interesting peculiarities ofform of the ovals. IV. P =P + . will then represent the surface (or surfaces') generated by the revolution of the oval (or ovals). . so that the angle oab represents (in the Figures 55) a given difference of the base angles aop.aa'p . be equal to the given rectangle of sides.^2 XI. apjTf. . . X. that quadratic equation having thus its roots equal.. as an exercise. I. and shall also bisect their angle is or that ^ a mean therefore. we look back.) This corresponds to the case when XIII. . Tr/ = 2SU . in passing. about that line oa as an axis. and a given rectangle of sides. a line op. and in general. agrees evidently with known results.
thesis* easily confirms.) tor. p' in a circle. r. whence it follows that the four points a. b. whence L bpa = opa + pad = po a' new similarity. 227) by the opposite \ecop' = po. . The polynomial function Fnq . and because /3 = (p a) p. .y}. The equation III. as geometry again (2. . t Geometrically. because the angle aob is double of the angle af'b^ by what has been already proved. which shall have a given geometrical mean. P. B. vertex. gives L ap'b = oa'p + a'po = aop . like the quaternions which it depends.. bpa. for example. and the sides about them are proportional.p . is however satisfied also (comp. being two known.) Quadratic equations in quaternions of may also be employed in the solution other geometrical problems .—=—=— p'a oa op oa' ' ' so that the /o«r followiog triangles are similar (the two first of them indeed being equal) : V. ^1. and scalar functions of the two sought scalars. (3. A AOP a and if POB.y) + iB'n{x. the A oa'p a op'b. P ' +^ a =^=^=:t a p a'' or IV' ' p\^ = —. would confirm. IV. . 57). 256. are similar. rela X„ and r„. F.. and the quadrilateral apbp' is It will be shoAvn. I. tliat these four inscriptible. angle aa'p of the sought triwhich geometrical syn (1.CHAP. in a shortly subsequent Section. q. II. the construction gives at once the similarity. points. are concireular:f or in other words.. . ap'b. . p'. A a'op' a AGP oc POB aAP'B . (245). form a harmonic group upon their common circle. we complete the parallelogram apa'p'. p. or p' = . q^ on 239). . ivith Coeffiof cients of the kind considered in the foregoing Section. a. x and y\ which functions.= Gn(co. 275 its extremity will be the required : a result of the quaternion analysis. finite. ap'b are supplementary. thus the opposite angles bpa. as required.] IMAGINARY QUATERNION ROOTS. real. many On the n^n Imaginary (or Symbolical) Roots Section 6 a Quaternion Equation of the n^^ Degree. Gn and Kn. &c.) . to decompose a given vector into two others. are therefore supplementary^ their The angles sum being equal to the sum of the angles in the triangle oap . the quadrilateral APbp' is inscriptible which (we may add) passes through the centre c of the circle oab (see agam Fig. AOB . may always be reduced to the form of a couple (228) and thus we may establish the transformation (comp. we have : . because their angles at o and p are equal.q = Fn(x + iy) = X„ + iY. the two triangles I. . or * In fact.
Xny ynis F^q = 0. with the old notation (123) of complanarity. and let any biquaternion (214).) ). and 214. x^ —y^ = a.). . can always be satisfied by n systems (or pairs) of real scalars. the two pairs of lines. H. and as not equal to any i real versor. A2 + 1 =0. II. the old or ordinary imaginary.) Then. X„ = 0.{x. and : although two or more of these n points may happen to coincide with each other. . to become real. (3.a. and y be treated as coordinates (comp. (3.= and xy = 0. [q^ =x+ hy . X. 228. 245). by the pair of right lines xy = 0. of two equations of the n*^ dimension. = 0.. especially as regards the com»i«(a<it7e/)roper<y of multiplication (126) so that V. [Fnq] = M" + [?l] [gy' + ' + M = . lars. .) If II. o( algebra. * Cases of equal roots may cause points of intersection. the 2n given and real scalars. . may be considered to have four coincident intersections at the origin. [bOOK II. but for the case a = 0. Fnq = for the polynomial equation in real and complanar quaternions. or III. but as following the rules of sca.. though only in the^r^^ dimension. (8. in no more that these two curves intersect each other (generally*) in n real points. or (as we may here call it) bicouple. we see (by what has been stated in 244. . (244. r. tively to them. . . 181.W. . are each of the n^^ dimension.) to the system of the two scalar And equations. .) Let q denote meaning just now proposed of a real quaternion. (3. let [§] denote the connected but imaginary alge braic quantity. the two equations represent a system of two curves^ in the given plane and then the theo rem is.) ).. but VII. q^x + iy. if is intersected in two real and distinct points. or biscalar (214. VIII. which are generally imaginary.. hi = ih. x^ — y. be said to be complanar with i. . we may be led to substitute the following connected algebraical equation. j/C'). V— 1. i . .) Let h denote. as a temporary abridgment. and by not more than n. 3/1. and with.^y. x + hy IX. it rr^y'. y) = 0. (1. hut coincident with each other.276 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. ..)). (7. IV. and proved in 252) that such a system. former real roots: for instance the hyperbola. . a?!. or III. although may happen that two or more of these systems shall coincide with (or become equal to) each other. or real couple. a. so that . considered as an uninterpreted symbol. Gn(x. x + iy and with the h. of the same degree. such as (comp. n. . of the form [9'] + «[g"]. still and VI. and involving real scalars similarly : (4. the scalar a > or < . but .. = ±i. but which involve also. h not . y) = 0. (2. since the one quaternion (or couple) equation^ equivalent (by 228.. a. . such as IV. .
contrary to what has been proved (252).CHAP. or III.) of y x^^\ with real and scalar values y\ degree «2 . the quaternion equation Fnq=0 would then have an (n + l)st real root.('»+i) and y ('«+').^q = {) in of the w'* degree. of scalar values. where Xn and Vn by are the XI. or at least useful. for instance. correspond .v nish together. and has been proved ways. it results that the equation F. and y .. q\ q'\ . which equation has therefore n^ algeor imaginary namely. 214. (3. in the given plane off (comp.("+J) Hiy^w+O.) ). nary Roots. of the form. of the form.)) by n(n. and n (» — 1) other roots. &c. II. [a. IV. or at least cor respond. (2. complanar quaternions. by the supposed elimination.)).(«^»)] + zXi/^""')] = a. and it has no more than n such roots.) (1. . x'.* of the Form a: + y V (6. by what has been lately proved. first. 252).) But we have seen in II.(«i). of the . (3. (3. (8. [. XIII. be n(»  1) imaginary n^^ roots of unity. .r("')] . with the same number of corresponding values of y. for example. which in the present Calculus it corresponds.. . n real y('0 (comp. (5. and of which the III. conducts generally to an algebraic equation in braic roots (5. (7. .. . j(»^ (244. ./"*'\ X/}''"^^\ y/'*'^^\ are four real scalars. . [>(»2)] . besides the n reaZ roofs already determined (233. . for the puiposeof the preit sent work.. jO'+i) = «.) Elimination of y. . for example. between the two equations x. to imaginary or biscalar values ofy. is symbolically satisfied also (comp. while it admits of only n real quaternion I.^''''^ + %//("^'0 . selecting ant/ one ofn real pairs IV. same real and scalar functions as in I. which may . . .)). where a. . which may be thus denoted. but h is the imaginary of algebra (256. the General Algebraical Equation X.] NEW SYMBOLICAL ROOTS OF UNITY. with real coefficients.) There must. has therefore n Real or Imagi— 1 . be thus denoted.. roots. since if a. or bicouples (256. II. and which are either themselves imaginary (or biscalar. to the Note to page 266.) ). 256. [Fnq'\=Xn + hrn = 0. that these two real functions can be made to va. . then. ./«^») + Aa?//^"^') + i{y. has the/onw.). Compare . but it seemed necessary. real and scalar to roots. XII. receives which. 257 On the whole.1) imaginary quaternion roots. and ^//^"""'^ ). [^^"^1)] = [a. in connexion with Quaternions : or rather to establish the theorem (244. . . 214. could lothh& real. 1 277 for A'. after the reductions depending on the substitution V.). of the n^^ Degree. or hy n^ n biquaternions (214. [y(«+i)]. to prove anew. in other * This celebrated Theorem of Algebra has long been known.
(4. here observe. we : have the four followmg squareroots ofl \\\i. it breaks up (comp. so that in the particular case^ when that radi And cal vanishes. the three ambiguous signs in the last expression being all independent of each other. q. XI. which generality exist. or quaternions \\\i the two following are imaginary scalars. each (gene.Fnq= Wn + iXn +j Vn + kZ. in the given plane . if X. ±i. ±hi.+1. VI. the two imaginary roots of the quadratic equation J'g^ = 0. .).) The sixteen fourth roots of unity ( i) are: IX. XX. e^q .. when that general equation is reduced. y. x. and z be eliminated between these four. q^ are the three real cuberoots of positive unity. . by the foregoing principles. that when the restriction (225) on the n*^ /?7ane of the quaternion q is removed. y. 02 .) into a System of Four Scalar Equations. = 0. 1.9=1*1= .. . if we write (comp. "We may.) Again. +hi. Oq. ±h.) Imaginary roots. 80 that roots and 6^ are (as usual) the two ordinary (or algebraicat) imaginary cube: of unity . . no fewer than n* Hoots. :^„=o. the two next are real couples. 1 . Comp. or biscalars. ±i(l±A)(l±0.) ). in calculations respecting ideal intersections. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. then the nine cuberoots of\(\\\i) are the following VIII. however. 221.+1. or biqnaternions. by At . to the Standard Quadrinomial Form.. the four roots of the equation become real and equal : zero having thus only itself {or a squareroot.278 237) . and the Notes there referred to. z„=o. we have V. = 2. 9. . (3.. by 256.* in and ideal shall contacts. . l + iV3 . [bOOK II. . z namely. w . imaginary couples. X. 92 . (2. g^ = ll2 = ltV3 .) have or no occasion to employ them. the result is (generally) a scalar (or algebraical) equation of the degree n\ relatively to the remaining constituent. and the four that remain are whereof the first is a real scalar . (3. VI.) ). or bicouples. we (5.. and accordingly in the case n two real and two imaginary IV. (± ^0' = ^'»' = (. 237. are sometimes useful. of this sort. 0. (3. for. in w. hi. so that 1. by 221. or rather necessary.. . {2. rally) of the n*^ dimension. in geometry : although little what remains of the present Volume. . Art. 214. 9% O^q^ . may be obtained by multiplying the squareroot in the formula 253. the General Quaternion Equation of the Degree admits..r„ = o. and if we write also. at least as symbols (214. real or imaginary : because.1) ( 1) = + 1. r„=o.
. (comp. we shall say that each of these of the other relation the Reciprocal] and shall (at least for the present) denote this two vectors between them. the expres XII. And as regards the temporary use of the characteristic R. NwNr'=l. Ra = Ua:Ta. . compare the second Note to page 252. mid on Harmonic Means of Vectors. . that the number of roots (or solutions) of a ^ni7e* equation in quaternions shall become infinite. (6.). is may even happen. with Remarks on the Anharmonic Quaternion of a Group of Four Points. Ua Ta.NtJ = 1. . — a = When two vectors. li = « + hv'. and on Conditions of Concircularity. .] RECIPROCAL OF A VECTOR. Ta . V. (3. . and IX. Nr' .. when no plane given. =—1 we may sion. . .a' = Ra. and 204. (l)i = r+Ar'. x. .) It z. Su = Sv' = Svv =0. 258. until cal of a vector a by the symbol a"' we shall be prepared to connect it with a general theory of products and powers of . If imaginary roots be admitted. and every right quotient v. so that for every vector a. Section 7. . procals * One of the most important is contained in the following theorem Compare the Note to page 265. = IR?. we shall afterwards denote this reciprobut we postpone the use of this notation. v .0. with merely the diflference of the norms reversed : XIII. and v' (7. or VI. . and therefore : are so related that II. besides the two real and scalar values.a = Ra'..CHAP.. Ud + Ua is = 0. three other constituents. write. + 1.) And in like manner. . Ta' = 1. we have this general symbolical expression for a square root of positive unity. . and the Note to page 121. RIt. and IV. On the Reciprocal of a Vector. 154). .. + h. . imaginary and similarly for the of the sought quaternion q. VII. Compare 234. as has been selves to seen to be the case for the equation q^ (149. pro vided that the norm of i}xQ first exceeds that of the secondhj unity.). a= Ua Taf : or that III. 161. a and a'. VIIL R^a = RRa = a. . t Accordingly. . ^v=^v' = ^vv'=. real or 279 : which therefore has n* (algebraical) values. vectors. properties of such reci: 259. XXXV'. y. being thus any two real and right quaternions. . besides the two biscalar values. by writing V. . . even when we confine ourwhat we have considered as real roots. II. under these conditions. I. in rectangular planes. still more generally.
we may therefore write. and of the length of the same line a'b'. . and ob' = E. . . . as usual.) Taking lower signs we find for any three vectors a. II. whatever two vectors a and (3. Ra or VII. . (oa'. and y = oo. . . may be.Ri3. it . a (6. R/3 by ^ 195. the relation.ob' = R. 1 . ob = 1 : a'b'. in symbols.. . because the similar triangles give. . . then A oab a' ob'a. XII. 58) the right is oa'. . = (5 OB. XI. Ra — Rp inverse similarity I. OA . (2.) /3 Changing a and . the reciprocals of opposite vectors are themselves opposite (6. = (ob' : a'b'). II. under the same conditions. being remembered that III. (8.. K+ a a' +a we ^ have ^ X. (1. [bOOK II. has the direction of od. The gives also. VI.R(/3a) = rT^. changing a to y. More generally. .0A. if oa =R. . Rxa = x^ Ra. Ra+R/3 = ^ R(3 — Ra : R(/3±a)' or the lower signs agreeing with VI. the fourth proportional (226) and ob. at the origin o. a'b'. and the tioo triangles. ob' for their reciproline a'b' parallel to the tangent od. (oa ba) OB : . . = R. b'a'). . ob. R(a)=Ra. ab. the tangent at o to the circle oa'b' is parallel to the line ab. in X. oa' = OB ob' = . Fig. IV.) In general.Ra). The angles bao and ob'a' or bod being equal. and ob. If any two vectors oa. (4. y (complanar or diplanar) the formula : ^^^^•••^RaR/B if VR(i3y)' R« I ^a'yAn' a = oa.) . or 207. ^i3 1 = K'^^. or the direction op its length is easily proved to be the reciprocal (or inverse) posite to that of a'b' . (oa : ba) ob . (2. /3 to their reciprocals. generally.) Since^ then. the last formula becomes. then (comp.ob. /?. . or to ba. . . and taking conjugate*. AO. X be any scalar. . — ^ (3 = 'R(R(3.) if . .).) to AB. circle to the oab .) Of course. ^3 . ob'a'. oa. have cals.^ IX. I. (7. are inversely similar (118). OAB. diNiding. or V. Or in symbols.280 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
that the three pairs of points. ob.) If then the five points o . oc. then (see again Fig.] ANHARMONIC AND EVOLUTIONARY QUATERNIONS. A. or simply the Anharmonic. or simply the Evolutionary. or rem (259). OD we shall then have. . . and oa'. the evolutionary quaternion. aa'. compose a complanar or a homospheric Involution. or the three cor responding diagonals of the hexagon. or of the (plane or gauche) Qua' drilateral ABCD..CHAP. 58) their three coinitial re* There is a convenience in calling. cc'. if . the relations XVI. od' the reciprocals of oa. . d be complanar (225). =— AB CD EP .) ). 1. oc. c. K (a'b'c'd') = (abcd). their anharmonic quaternion function. (11. . . to any four points ofspace^ the notation (25). . D. . generally. bb'. we shall have the following general and useful ^rmwZa of transforproduct (in this order^ is the mation : where oa'. 261. ^=K bo' . 281 (9. XIX. (11. and not merely for coUinear groups (35). we have generally. (ocba). . . B.*  „„ XX. . t\A^ product of three quotients. by 226. (abcdef) . we have. ob. . of the Group of Six Points. four rays OA. (abca'b'c') = 1. D be any five points. and XXI. . BC DE FA . F. = K (oadc) ^ ^ . he chords of one common circle. (a'b'c'd') = K (abcd) . II. ob' are With this notation : supposed to be reciprocals of oa. XVIII. c. expresses either 1st. by XIV. the formula.. by XV.(oadcba). that those three pairs. . of the Group offour points A. for points.) If then we extend. . or (if they be not collinear) of the plane or gauche Hexagon because the equation. and therefore. .) ob'. the anharmonic quaternion (abcd) being thus changed to its conjugate. . . or Ilnd. may be expressed as follows ^ 260. Another very important consequence from the defifrom the recent theo: If any three coinitial vectors oa. form a collinear involution (26) of a wellknown kind . when the nition (258) of reciprocals of vectors. . (abcdef). (adcb) = . or XXI'. — — (12.. (abcd). (10. . XVII. . b. (abcd) + (acbd) = 1 . we agree to write generally. ^ ^ ^ DA . od are changed to their reciprocals. ^ ' BC DA and defining that interpreting QSLch oi ihQ^Q iyfo factorquotients as a quaternion. abcdef : A . K (a'b'c'd') = (oadc) any six (ocba) = . 2o .) Let o. XIV. of a new kind suggested by quaternions (comp.
(Ea .) p on the circumference. p ^ = ta+u(3 —. reduces itself to a scalar quotient of segments of that line (which therefore is I. Or we may write. denoting awy scalar. (18. a (5 while YII. then the three points a'.). . + «.R/3). * Compare the remarks in the second Note to page 139.^+^=. 99. respecting the possible line.) If jO =OP be the variable vector of a point ternion equation of that circle may be thus written II. which depends on the variable position of the point (2. . . if three coinitial vectors^ oa. /^ ^"^ = t + u. are terminocollinear (24) : or. chord. which vanishes according to a laiv. ^ as another form of the equation of the t+u circle ' same oab .x = (oabp) I. ob'. we consider the null . b'. 25). by II. as having the direction^ of the tangent. 00.) Or we may write. ob'. (3.. OB. are chords of one circle. And are situated on one right line. conversely. . the qua Ep = bemg E/3 + a. OA. . . if the symbol oo be used here to denote the point at infinity on the right line a'b'c' and if. we have for the circle. p upon the : circle oab. VL. (1.282 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. t+u of IV. . with which may usefully be contrasted the earlier form (comp. V. determinateness of signification of the symbol UO. the coefficient x thus a variable scalar (comp. is parallel to the right line.. when the zero denotes a .) Or. . while the anharmonic function (259. . in other words. [bOOK II. its own b'c' : conjugate. c be concircular.) ). the tangent to which circle. oa'. \^ \hQ four points o. oc'. member by the first. where III. then their three coinitial reciprocals. at the origin. thus c' terminate on one right line. this latter symbol. ciprocals. . oc'. by 204. A.). PR for the right line. oc. dividing the second . of the equation of the line ab. by 139) : namely. od. (9. and taking conjugates. oi \hQ inscribed quadrilateral OABC. in thus employing the notation (35) for the anharmonic of a plane pencil. b. (oABc) = bV = (oo a'b'c') = (o OABc). (4.
CHAP.
(5.)
II.]
CIRCULAR AND HARMONIC GROUP.
more
.
.
283
Or
etlU
briefly,
IX.
V(OABP) =
;
or
still
IX'.
.
.
(oabp)
= V>
if
0.
(6.) It the four points o, a, b, in their plane, while POi,
.
o be
coneircular,
and
.
.
p be any fifth point
.
pci are the reciprocals of po,
PC, then
by 259,
XXL,
we have
the relation,
X.
the ybwr
.
,
(OiAiBiCi)
.
= K(OABC) = (OABC) = ¥"»
;
new points Oi
.
Ci are therefore generally concircular.
(7.) If, however, the point p be again placed on the circle oabc, those four new points are (by the present Article) collinear; being the intersections of the pencil p. OABC with a parallel to the tangent at p. In this therefore, we have the
case,
equation,
XI.
so that the constant
.
.
(p.
oabc)
=
(oiAiBiCi)
= (oabc)
;
anharmonic of the pencil (35) is thus seen to be equal we have defined (259, (9.) ) to be the anharmonic of the grovp.
(8.)
to
what
And
because the anharmonic of a circular group
its
is
a scalar,
:
it is
equal (by
187, (8.) ) to
write, for
own
tensor, either positively or negatively
taken
we may therefore
any inscribed quadrilateral oabc, the formula,
XII.
.
.
(oabc)
= T T (oabc) = + (Ua
falls,
.
Bc) (ab co),
:
.
= '^
that
P
Q.
quotient
of rectangles of opposite sides; the upper
or does not
fall,
taken, according as the point b'
is,
according as the quadrilateral
oabc
is
or the lower sign being between the points a' and c' an uncrossed or a crossed one.
:
(9.)
Hence
it is
easy to infer that /or any circular group o, A, b,
c,
we have
the
equation,
XIII...U^ = ~ +U^;
AB
CB
the upper sign being taken
the quadrilateral
when
the succession
oabo
is
a direct one, that
is,
when
namely, when
ever
uncrossed; and the lower sign, in the contrary case, the succession is (what may be called) indirect, or when the quadriis
OABC
lateral is crossed: while conversely this equation
it
XIII.
is sufficient
to prove,
when
occurs, that the
anharmonic (oabc)
grovp
is
is
therefore
by
(5.) that the
circular (if
a negative or a positive scalar, and not linear), as above.
E be any five homospheric points (or points upon the surface of one sphere), and if o be any sixth point of space, while oa', oe' are the reciprocals of OA, OE, then the five new points a'. e' are generally homospheric (with each
(10.) If A, B, c, D,
. .
.
.
.
o happens to be on the sphere abode, then a' . e' are complanar, plane being parallel to the tangent plane to the given sphere at O with resulting anharmonic relations, on which we cannot here delay.
other)
their
;
but
if
.
common
:
interesting case of the foregoing theory is that generally scalar anharmonic of a circular group becomes equal to negative unity : in which case (comp. 26), the
.
26 1
An
when the
group
cidar
is said to be harmonic. few remarks upon such cir^ and harmonic groups may here be briefly made the stu:
A
284
dent being
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
left to
fill
[bOOK
II.
up
hints for himself, as
what must be
now
to
him an easy
exercise of calculation. we have
II.
.
.
(1.) For such a group (comp. again Fig. 58),
I.
.
.
thus the equation,
a'b'
— (oABc) =
we
1
;
and therefore
= b'c'
;
or
III.
this condition,
..R/3=i(Ra + Ry);
and under
monic
shall say (comp. 216, (5.) that the Vector
^
is
the
Har
Mean between
the two vectors,
a and
y.
),
(2.) Dividing, and taking conjugates (comp. 260, (3.), and 216, (5.) obtain the equation,
we thus
Iy...2^2=2;
a^y
'
or
= ^a; y.../3=^y +a + a^
^
.y
y
or
YL..(3 = y = la,
£
if
VII. ..£
= (y + a);
We may
thus denoting here the vector oe (Fig. 58) of the middle point of the chord Ac. then say that the harmonic mean between any two lines is (as in algebra)
to their
the^wr^A proportional
(3.) Geometrically,
we have
.
semisum^ and to themselves. thus the similar triangles,
;
VIII.
.
A AOB a EOC
VIII'.
.
.
A AOE a BOC
;
whence, either because the angles
are equal,
oba and oca,
or because the angles
oac and obc
I. is satisfied,
we may
infer
c,
the four points o, a, b,
(4.)
(comp. 260, (5.) ) that, when the equation if not coUinear, are concircular.
We have
also the similarities,
and
IX'.
.
.
A oea a aeb
;
and
r...t/=^% — at
€
CHAP.
II.]
INVOLUTION IN A PLANE, OR IN SPACE.
285
diagonals; which geometrical relation answers to either of the two anharmonic
equations (comp. 259, (10.))
:
XIII.
.
.
(oBAc) = + 2
it
;
XIII'.
.
.
(ocab)
= + ^.
(8.) Hence, or in other ways,
may be
inferred that these diagonals, ob, ao, are
:
conjugate chords of the circle to which they belong through the pole of the other, and that thus the line
the point d, in which the chord
(9.)
in the sense that each passes
db
is
the second tangent from
Ac prolonged
it is
intersects the tangent at o.
Under the same
conditions,
easy to prove, either by quaternions or by
:
geometry, that
so that
AC
is
;
we have the harmonic equations —1 XrV. (abco) = (bcoa) = (coab) = the harmonic mean between ab and Ao bo is such a mean between
.
.
;
;
BC and ba
and ca between co and cb.
(10.) In any such group, any two opposite points (or opposite comers of the quadrilateral), as for example o and b, may be said to be harmonically conjugate to each
other, with respect to the
two other points^ A and c
;
and we
see that
when
these two
o (whether in space) there always corresponds di fourth point b, which is
points are given, then to every third point
A and c
in a given plane, or in this sense conju
gate to that third point
always complanar with the three points A, c, o, and being even concircular with them, unless they happen to be collinear with each other; in which extreme (or limiting) case, the fourth point b is still
:
this fourth point being
is now collinear with the others (as in 26, &c.). When, after thus selecting two* points, A and c, or treating them as given or fixed, we determine (10.) the harmonic conjugates b, b', b", with respect to f^ew, oi any three assumed points, o, o', o", then the three pairs of points O, b o', b';
determined, but
(11.)
,
;
o", b",
case
line,
it
be said to form an Involution,^ either on the right line AC, (in which will only be one of an already wellknown kind), or in a plane through that
may
or even generally in space
:
and the two points
A,
c may in
all
these cases be
field
said to be the
two Double Points (or Foci) of
this Involution.
is far
But the
thus
opened, for geometrical investigation by Quaternions,
too extensive to be
more
than mentioned here.
(12.)
We
shall therefore only at present add, that the conception of the
harmonic
mean between two
vectors
may
:
easily be extended to
not be limited to the plane
since
we may
define
any number of such, and need that r] is the harmonic mean of the
n arbitrary vectors ai,
.
.
a«,
when
.
it satisfies
the equation,
or
XV.
.
.
R»7 = (Rai +
n
.
+ Kan)
;
XVI.
.
.
nRtj
= 2Ea.
(13.) Finally, as regards the notation Ra,
cal of a vector,
it
and the
definition
(258) of the recipro
may be observed that if we had chosen to
define reciprocal vectors as
having similar (instead of opposite) directions, we should indeed have had the positive sign in the equation 258, VII. ; but should have been obliged to write, instead of
258, IX., the
much
less
simple formula,
RI»=IRr.
* There
is
even
when
the
a sense in which the geometrical process here spoken of can be applied, two fixed points, or foci, are imaginary. Compare the GeomCtrie
Chasles, page 136.
to 259, (11.).
Superieure of
M.
t Compare the Note
286
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
II.
CHAPTER
III.
ON DIPLANAR QUATERNIONS, OR QUOTIENTS OF VECTORS IN SPACE AND ESPECIALLY ON THE ASSOCIATIVE PRINCIPLE OF MULTIPLICATION OF SUCH QUATERNIONS.
:
Section
nions.
1.
— On
some Enunciations of the Associative Pro
perty, or Principle, of Multiplication of Diplanar Quater
262. In the preceding Chapter v^^e have confined ourselves almost entirely, as had been proposed (224, 225), to the consideration of quaternions in a ^iven plane (that of i) ; alkiding
only, in some instances, to possible extensions* of results so obtained. But we must now return to consider, as in the
First Chapter of this Second Book, the subject of General Quotients of Vectors : and especially their Associative Multiplication (223),
which has hitherto been only proved in connexion with the Distributive Principle (212), and with the
Laics of the Symbols iyj, k (183). And first we shall give a ^QW geometrical enunciations of that associative principle, which shall be independent of the distributive one, and in which it
will be sufficient to consider (comp. 191) the multiplication of versors; because the multiplication of tensors i^ evidently an associative operation, as corresponding simply to arithmetical
multiplication, or to the composition of ratios in geometry .f shall therefore suppose, throughout the present Chapter,
We
that g^
r, s
are
some
given and
distinct planes ;X
three given but arbitrary versors, in three and our object will be to throw
(6.)
(10.), (11.)
* As in 227, (3.); 242, (7.); 254, (7.); 257, ; 260, (10.); and 2G1, (11.) and (12.).
Or,
and
(7.)
;
259, (8.), (9.),
f
more
generally, for
any three
pairs of magnitudes, each pair separately
being homogeneous.
X If the factors
g, r, s
were coinplanar, we could always (by 120) put tbera
CHAP.
III.]
ASSOCIATIVE PRINCIPLE, SYSTEM OF SIX PLANES. 287
some additional light, by new enunciations in this Section, and by new demonstrations in the next, on the very important, although very simple, Associative Formula (223, II.), which may be written thus
:
I.
.
.
sr.qs.rq;
or thus,
more
.
fully,
II.
q',
*
g'g
= t,
if
g'
= sr,
s
=
rq^
and
t
=
ss'
;
s\
neio
and t being here three new and derived and derived planes.
versors, in three
263. Already we may see that this Associative Theorem of Multiplication, in all its forms, has an essential reference to a System of Six Planes, namely the planes of these six versorSf
lY.
'
q, r, 5, rq, sr, srq,
or
IV.
.
.
q, r, 5, s, q', f;
on the judicious selection and arrangement of which, the clearness and elegance of every geometrical statement or proof of
the theorem must very much depend while the versor character of the factors (in the only part of the theorem for which
:
proof is required) suggests a reference to a Sphere, namely to what we have called the unitsphere (128). And the three following arrangements of the six planes appear to be the most natural and simple that can be considered namely, 1st, the
:
which the planes all pass through the centre of arrangement the sphere; Ilnd, that in which they all touch its surface; and Ilird, that in which they are the ^\k faces of an inscribed
in
solid.
We
proceed to consider successively these three ar
rangements.
264. "When thQ first arrangement (263)
to
is
adopted,
it is
natural
employ arcs of great
circles^ as representatives of the versorSj
on the
under the forms,
(i
y
/3
d
a
and then should have (comp. 183,
7
(1.) ) the two equal ternary productB,
sr.q :=!so that in this case (comp.
difficulty.
d d y SB = = s.rq; ^^ pa a y a
224) the associative property would be proved without any
288
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[BOOK
II.
plan of Art. 162. Representing thus the factor q by the arc ab, and r by the successive arc bc, we represent (167) their product rq^ or s\ by AC; or by any equal arc (165), such as de, in Fig. 59, may be supposed to be. Again, representing s by ef, we shall have df
as the representative of the ternary
product s.rqy or ss', or ^, taken in one order of association. To rep resent the other ternary product,
sr. q^ or q'q^
— ^ y^
<^
(
STTI
"~>Lg
"\
''/\
\
J^
//^^Nv
we may
y
^^"^
first
i,
determine
^\^^
*ji^^:^^^5^
c*^^^^^^^^—^^:^
three
new
points, g, h,
by arcual
—^"^
equations (165), between gh, bc, and between hi, ef, so that bc, ef
Fig. 59.
intersect in h, as the arcs representing 5' and s had intersected in e; and then, after thus finding an arc Gi which represents sr^ or q^, may
determine three other points, k, l, m, by equations between kl, ab, and between lm, gi, so that these two new arcs, kl, lm, represent q and q', and that ab, gi intersect in l for in this way we shall have
;
an
arc,
namely km, which represents
is,
rem then
that this last arc
km
is
q^q as required. And the theoequal to the former arc df, in the
full sense of Art. 165; or that when (as under the foregoing conditions of construction) the five arcual equations,
I. ..
r>
AB =
<^
KL,
riBC
= '^GH,
<>
EF =
f^
HI,
'^AC = ODE, nGI = '^LM,
is satisfied also,
exist,
then this sixth equation of the
II.
.
same kind
.
'^
DF = '> km:
K and m, being both on the same great circle as the two determined points, d and f ; or d and m being on the previously f and k: and the two arcs, df and km, of that circle through great
the two points,
great circle, or the two dotted arcs, dk,
equally long,
fm
in the Figure, being
and
similarly directed (165).
equations
nine points a . . i so as to satisfy the three middle (1.) Or, after determining the the three other points, k, l, m, without any other I., we might determine
arcual equations, as intersections of the three pairs of arcs ab, df ; ab, gi ; df, gi ; and then the theorem would be, that (if these three last points be suitably distin
extreme equations I., and guished from their own opposites upon the sphere) the two the equation II., are satisfied. The same geometrical theorem may also be thus enunciated If the first,
:
(2.)
third,
and fifth
sides (kl,
GH, ed) of a spherical hexagon
klghed
be respectioely
and
arcunlly equal (165) to the first, second,
rical triangle Abc, then the second, fourth,
and third sides (ab, bc, ca) of a. spheand sixth sides (lg, he, dk) of the same
fm) of another spherical
tri
hexagon are equal
angle, MIF.
to the three successive sides (mi, if,
CHAP.
III.]
FIRST AND SECOND
ARRANGEMENTS OF PLANES. ^89
. .
(3.) It
may
also be said, that iffive successive sides (kl,
ed) of one spherical
hexagon be respectively and arcually equal to thence successive diagonals (ab, mi, of theirs* BC, IF, ca) of another such hexagon (ambicf), then the sixth side (dk)
is
equal to the sixth diagonal (fm) of the second.
(4.) Or, if
denote such a
the
we adopt the conception mentioned in 180, (3.), of an arcualsum, and sum by inserting + between the symbols of the two summands, that of added arc being written to the lefthand, we may state the theorem, in connexion
:
with the recent Fig. 59, by the formula
III.,. '^DF +
'^BA=n EF+
n BC,
if
'^
DA = n EC
;
where b and f
(5.)
We
IV.
.
may denote any two points upon the sphere. may also express* the same principle, although somewhat
)
:
less
simply
as follows (see again Fig. 59, and compare subart. (2.)
.
if
'^
ED + n GH +
'>
KL =
0,
then
o
dk + « he +
'^
lg =
0.
(6.)
If,
for
a moment, we agree
V.
.
to write (comp. Art. 1),
^
.
AB = B  A,
little
we may then express the
VI.
(7 )
recent statement IV. a
more lucidly thus
:
..ifDE
Or
still
+
HG + LK =
if
<>,
0,
then
kd+eh + gl = 0.
above referred
to,
more simply,
f^',
«^"
be supposed to denote any three dipla
nar arcs, which are to be added according the theorem may be said to be, that
VII.
or in words, that Addition
(8.) Conversely, if
.
.
to the ride (180, (3.) )
(o"+'^')
+
'^
=
^"
+ ('^'+");
an Associative Operation.
of the truth of
of ArcK on a Sphere
is
any independent demonstration be given,
any
one of the foregoing statements, considered as expressing a theorem of spherical geometry, f a new proof will thereby be furnished, of the associative property of multiplication
of quaternions.
265. In the second arrangement (263) of the six planes, instead of representing the three given versors, and their partial or total products, by arcs, it is natural to represent them (174, II.) by anConceive then that the two versors, q and r, gles on the sphere.
are represented, in Fig. 60, by the two spherical angles, eab and ABE; and therefore (175) that their product, rq or s\ is represented by the external vertical angle at e, of the triangle abe. Let the
* Some of these formul® and
figures, in
connexion with the associative principle,
is
are taken, though for the most part with modifications, from the author's Sixth Lecture on Quaternions, in
which that whole subject
very fiUly treated.
Comp. the
Note to page 160.
t Such a demonstration, namely a deduction of the equation
equations
I.,
II.
from the five
by known
properties of spherical covics, will be briefly given in the en
suing Section.
2 p
290
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[book
II.
second versor r be also represented by the angle fbc, and the third versor s by bcf; then the
other binary product, sr or
q\ will be represented by the external angle at f, of the new triangle bcf. Again,
to represent the Jirst ternary
product, t ss^ s.rq, we have only to take the external angle at
if
=
=
D of the triangle ecd,
60.
Fig. D be a point determined by the two conditions, that the angle ecd shall be and DEC supplementary/ to bea. On the other hand,
if
equal to bcf, we conceive
a point d' determined by the conditions that d'af shall be equal toEAB, and afd' supplementary to cfb, then the external angle at d', of the
triangle afd', will represent the second ternary product, q^q = which (by the associative principle) must be equal to the
sr. q,
first.
Conceiving then that ed is prolonged to g, and fd' to two spherical angles, gdc and ad'h, must be equal in all respects
vertices
h,
;
the
their
d and
d' coinciding,
and the
rotations (174, 177)
which they
represent being not only equal in amount^ but also similarly directed. Or, to express the same thing otherwise, we may enunciate (262) the
Associative Principle
I.
by saying, that when the three angular equations^ ..ABE = fbc, bcf = ecd, DEC = 7rBEA,
.
.
are
satisfied, then these three other equations^
II.
DAF = EAB,
FDA = CDE,
AFD =
TT
 CFB,
are satisfied also. For not only is this theorem of spherical geometry a consequence of the associative principle o^ multiplication of quaternions y
but conversely any independent demonstration* of the theorem at the same time, a proof of the principle.
266.
is,
The
the six planes
third airangement (263) of may be illustrated by con
ceiving a gauche hexagon, ab'ca'bc', to be
inscribed in a sphere, in such a
manner that
the intersection d of the three planes, c'ab', b'ca^ a'bc', is on the surface; and therefore that the three small
circles,
denoted by
p.
these three last triliteral symbols, concur
* Such as
we
shall sketch, in the following Section,
with the help of the known
properties of the spherical conies.
Compare the Note
to the foregoing Article.
CHAP.
in
III.]
THIRD ARRANGEMENT, SPHERICAL HEXAGON. 291
;
one point d
while the second intersection of the two other small
circles, ab'c, ca'b,
may be
denoted by the letter
first
d', as in
the annexed
Fig. 61.
Let
it
be also for simplicity at
supposed, that (as in
the Figure) the^z;e circular successions^
L
are
.
.
c'ab'd,
ab'cd^
b'ca'd,
ca'bd',
a'bc'd,
or that the Jive inscribed quadrilaterals^ denoted by ; these symbols I., are all uncrossed ones. Then (by 260, (9.) ) it is allowed to introduce three versors^ q, r, 5, each having two expresall direct
:
sions, as follows
__
II.
.
.
__b'd =+ q = JJ DC'
—
ab'
V—; AC'
CD'
ca'
ca' ^^da'  = + U— r=U— B'D CB
^;
^^
BD'
a'b
although (by the cited subarticle) the last formulae should receive the negative sign,
members of these three
if
the
first,
third,
and
were to become sponding quadrilaterals were crossed ones.
I.
fourth of the successions
indirect,
or if the corre
We
have thus (by 191)
the derived expressions,
III.
.
.
5'
= ro' =
U
— =U —
DC'
:
•
BC'
Q^
= sr=JJ
CB'
=U
:
AB'
whereof, however, the two versors in the first formula would differ in their signs, if the fifth succession I. were indirect ; and those in
the second formula,
IV
. .
if
the second succession were such.
q'q ^ ^
Hence,
;
.t
= ss'
=s.r(7=\J —
^
;
bc'
= sr.q = \j ^ two
—
AC'
and
since,
by the
associative principle, these
last versors are to
be
equal, it follows that,
tion, i\iQ four points, b,
under the supposed conditions of construcc', a, d', compose a circular and direct sucis
cession
;
or that the quadrilateral, bc'ad',
plane, inscriptible,* and
uncrossed.
267.
It is easy,
by
;
suitable changes of sign, to adapt
the recent reasoning to the case where some or all of the successions I. are indirect and thus to infer, from the associative principle, this theorem
*
of spherical geometry
:
T/'ab'ca'bc'
Of course, since the four points bc'ad' are known to be homospheric (comp. 260. (10.)), the inscriptihility of the quadrilateral in a circle would follow from its being plane, if the latter were otherwise proved : but it is here deduced from the
equality of the two versors IV., on the plan of 260, (9.J.
292
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
II.
he a spherical hexagon^ such that the three small circles c'ab', b'ca', a'bc' concur in one point d, then, 1st, the three other small
circles, ab'c, ca'b,
bc'a, concur in another point, d';
I.,
of the
six circular successions, 266,
is
and
bc'ad',
and Ilnd, the number
always even (including zero). And conversely, any independent demonstration* of this geometrical theorem will be a new proof o^ the associative principle.
of those ivhich are indirect
268.
The same
fertile principle of associative multiplication
may
be enunciated in other ways, without limiting the factors to be verThus we sors, and without introducing the conception of a sphere.
may
say (comp. 264, (2.)), that
if
o.abcdef (comp. 35) be any
pencil of six rays in space, and o.a'b'c' any pencil of three rays, and if the three angles aob, cod, eof of the first pencil be respectively equal to the angles b'oc', c'oa', a'ob' of the second, then another
pencil oi three rays, o.a''b''^o'', can be assigned, such that the three other angles boc, doe, foa of the first pencil shall be equal to the
angles b'^oc'', c^'oa''', a'^ob'^ of the third: equality of angles (with one vertex) being here understood (comp. 165) to include complanarity,
and
similarity of direction of rotations.
(1.) Again (comp. 264, (4.)), we may establish the following formula, in M'hich the four vectors a/3y5 form a complanar proportion (226), but c and Z, are any two
lines in space
:
T I.
,
.
^^_^i3 — ,f — ,11 a £ y£
^_^. — ~j
7
125),
«
for,
under this
last condition,
we have (comp.
II
^?=?« ^ = i i^f 'ye ayt a' d e'
is
(2.)
Another enunciation of the associative principle
the following
:
ni...it'JA a
y
e
then
1^4; aye
kX/z, so that
,
for if
we determine (120)
six
new
vectors, r]6t,
and
I
[0 =
>?
d
,
T)
«
=—
a
/3
,
whence
and
I
OK =
e
,
I
y
IV.
.
.
<{
i
^
^
f 
i?
An elementary lowing Section.
*
proof,
by stereographic projection,
will be proposed in the fol
CHAP.
we
shall
III.]
PROOFS BY SPHERICAL CONICS.
293
hare the transformations,
whenever the twelve vectors a
to the equation,
VI. is true, (3.) Conversely, the assertion that this last equation or proportion are connected by the five proportions IV., is a fi
. .
form of enunciation of the associative principle
;
for it conducts
(comp. IV. and V.)
but,
even with
this last restriction, the three factorquotients in
VII.
may
represent
ant/ three quaternions.
Section
some Geometrical Proofs of the Associative Property of Multiplication of Quaternions^ which are inde2.
— On
pendent of the Distributive* Principle.
269.
trical
We propose,
in this Section, to furnisli three
geome
Demonstrations of the Associative Principle, in connexion with the three Figures (5961) which were employed and with the three arin the last Section for its Enunciation
;
rangements oi six planes, which were described in Art. 263. The two first of these proofs will suppose the knowledge of a few properties oi spherical conies (196, (11.)); but the third
will only will therefore be of a
employ the doctrine of stereographic projection, and more strictly elementary character. The
Principle itself is, however, of such great importance in this Calculus, that its nature and its evidence can scarcely be put in too many different points of view.
270.
The only
this Article
assume
properties of a spherical conic, which we shall in as known,^ are the three following 1st, that
:
through any three given points on a given sphere, which are not on a great circle, a conic can be described (consisting generally of two oppo
which shall have a given great circle for one of its two cyclic arcs; Ilnd, that if a transversal arc cut both these arcs, and the conic, the intercepts (suitably measured) on this transversal are equal; and
site ovals),
Ilird, that
if
while
*
its legs
the vertex of a spherical angle move along the conic, pass always through two fixed points thereof, those legs
;
Compare 224 and 262 and the Note to page 236. t The reader may consult the Translation (Dublin, 1841, pp. 46, 50, 55) by the present Dean Graves, of two Memoirs by M. Chasles, on Cones of the Second Degree, and Spherical Conies.
294
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
[bOOK
II.
intercept a constant interval^ upon each cyclic arc, separately taken. Admitting these three properties, we see that if, in Fig. 59, we conceive a spherical conic to be described, so ^s to pass through the three points b, f, h, and to have the great circle daec for one cyclic arc, the second and third equations I. of 264 will prove that the arc
GLIM
is
the other cyclic arc for this conic; the
;
first
equation
I.
proves
next that the conic passes through k and if the arcual chord fk be drawn and prolonged, the two remaining equations prove that it
meets the cyclic arcs in d and m; after which, the equation 11. of the same Art. 264 immediately results, at least with the arrangement"^*
adopted in the Figure.
The
1st property
is
(1.)
easily seen to correspond to the possibility of circum
scribing a circle about a given plane triangle,
namely that of which the corners are
:
the intersections of a plane parallel to the plane of the given cyclic arc, with the three radii drawn to the three given points upon the sphere but it may be worth
while, as
(2.)
Ilnd property by quaternions. Take then the equation of a cyclic cone, 196, (8.), which may (by 196,
exercise, to prove here the
:
an
XII.) be written thus
and
let
II.
.
.
I...S^Se=N,
p and
p'
S^
S
=

n',
being thus two rays (or sides} of the cone, which may also be considered to be the vectors of two points p and p' of a spherical conic, by supposing that their
lengths are each unity.
Let r and
r'
be the vectors of the two points t and t' on
;
the two cyclic arcs, in which the arcual chord pp' of the conic cuts them
so that
in.
..S = 0,
a
S^=0,
(3
:
and
IV.
.
.
Tr =
Tr'
=
1.
The theorem may then be
Y.
. .
stated thus
that
if
p=XT\ XT',
then
VI.
.
.
p'
= x'r + xr
I.
;
or that this expression
VL
satisfies II., if the
equations
III.
IV. V. be
satisfied.
Now, by
III.
V. VI., we have
a
whence
it
a
first
X
a
(3
/3a?'/3
members of I. and II. are equal, and it only remains to prove that their second members are equal also, or that To' = Tjo, if Tr' = Tr. Accordingly we have, by V. and VI.,
follows that the
VIIL
.
.
^7—?.^^^ = SiO,'•' by ^y^ = X +X T+T (O' + p
in question is proved.
200, '^ (IL), ^' and 204, (19.): ''^ >"
and the property
* Modifications of that arrangement be easy to adapt the reasoning.
may
be conceived, to which however it would
CHAP.
III.]
PROOF BY STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION.
295
271 To prove the associative principle, with the help of Fig. 60, three other properties of a spherical conic shall be supposed known :* 1st, that for every such curve two focal poi7its exist, ipossessing several
be constructed; Ilnd, that if, from any point upon the sphere, two tangents be drawn to the conic, and also two arcs to the foci, then one focal arc makes with one
tangent the same angle as the other focal arc with the other tangent ; and Ilird, that if a spherical quadrilateral be circumscribed to such a conic (supposed here for simplicity to be a spherical ellipse, or the
opposite ellipse being neglected), opposite sides subtend supplementary
important relations and one tangent arc he
to
it,
one of which
is,
that if these two foci
given, the conic can
the two (interior) foci. Admitting these known and supposing the arrangement to be as in Fig. 60, we may conceive a conic described, which shall have e and f for its two focal points, and shall touch the arc bc ; and then the two first of the
angles, at either of
properties,
equations I., in 265, will prove that it touches also the arcs ab and CD, while the third of those equations proves that it touches ad, so
ABCD is a circumscribedf quadrilateral: after which the three equations IL, of the same article, are consequences of the same properties of the curve.
that
272. Finally, to prove the same important Principle in a more completely elementary way, by means of the arrangement represented in Fig. 61, or to prove the theorem of spherical geometry enunciated in Art. 267, we may assume the point d as thejfJoZ^ of a stereograpjhic projectio7i, in which the three
small circles through that point shall be represented by right the three other shy circles
^
li7ies,hut
all
being in one common plane. And then (interchanging accents) the
theorem comes to be thus stated
:
be any three points (comp. Fig. 62) on the sides bc,
If A,
b', c'
CA, AB of any plane triangle, or on those sides prolonged, then, 1st,
the three circles,
* The reader
In
""
^Fig, 62?
may again
consult pages
46 and 50 of the Translation lately
cited.
strictness, there are of course
four foci, opposite two by two.
relation of the focal points e,
t The writer has elsewhere proposed the notation, ef(. .; abcd, to denote the f to this circumscribed quadrilateral.
.
296
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
I.
.
.
[bOOK
II.
c'ab', a'bc', b'ca',
;
will meet in one point d and Ilnd, an even of the six (linear or circular) successions,
II.
.
number
(if
any)
.
ab'c, bc'a, ca'b,
and
11'.
.
.
c'ab'd, a'bc'd, b'ca'd,
will
be direct; an even number therefore also (if any) being indirect. But, under ihi^form,* the theorem can be proved
considerations, and
still
by very elementary
ployment
(1.)
without any em
of the distributive principle (224, 262).
The first part
;
of Euclid
of the theorem, as thus stated, is evident from the Third Book but to prove both parts together, it may be useful to proceed as follows,
admitting the conceptiou (235) oi amplitudes, or of angles as representing roto<io«*, which may have any values, positive or negative, and are to be added with attention
to their signs.
(2.)
We may
thus write the three equations^
III.
.
.
ab'c
= mr^
bc'a
= nV,
ca'b
;
= n"7r,
on a prolongation of that
is
to express the three collineations, ab'c, &c. of Fig. 62
the integer, n, being odd or
even, according as the point b' is on the finite line AC, or
line
;
or in other words, according as the
for the
first
succession II.
direct or indirect
:
and similarly
two other
coefficients, »'
and n".
(3.) Again, if
opqr be any four
IV.
.
points in one plane,
we may
establish the for
mula,
.
POQ
j
QOR = FOR +
2m7r,
;
with the same conception of addition of amplitudes
if
then
d be any point
in the
plane of the triangle abc, we
may
write,
V.
.
.
ab'd
1
db'c
= n;r,
bc'd + dc'a
= nV,
ca'd
+ da'b = n'V
;
and
therefore,
VI.
.
.
(ab'd + dc'a) + (bc'd + da'b) + (ca'd
if
f
db'c)
= (w +
n'
+
n")
tt.
(4.) Again,
any
four points
opqr
be not merely complunar but concircidar,
we have
the general formula,
VII.
the integer p being odd
.
.
CPQ + QRO=/J7r,
or even, according as the succession
opqb
is
direct or indi
*
The
Associative Principle of Multiplication
was
stated nearly under this^r7n,
same simple diagram, in paragraph XXII. of a communication by the present author, which was entitled Letters on Quaternions, and has been printed in the First and Second Editions of the late Dr. Nichol's Cyclopcedia of The same commuthe Physical Sciences (London and Glasgow, 1857 and 18G0).
and was
illustrated
by
the
nication contained other illustrations and consequences of the same principle, which it has not been thought necessary here to reproduce (compare however Note C) and others may be found in the Sixth of the author's already cited Lectures on Quaternions (Dublin, 1853), from which (as already observed) some of the formulas and
;
figures of this Chapter
have been taken.
CHAP.
red
;
III.]
ADDITIONAL FORMULA, NORM OF A VECTOR.
denote by
297
if
then
is
we
a,
d
the second intersection of the
first
and second
circles I.,
whereof c'
first intersection,
we
shall
have
VIII.
.
.
ab'd + dc'a
first
=jtJ7r,
BCD f da'b =/)'7r,
11'.
p and p' being odd, when the two
trary case.
(5.) Hence,
successions
are direct, but even in the con
by VI., we have,
ca'd
1
IX.
.
.
db'c —p'tt,
II',
where X.
.
.
/j f
p'
+ p" =
ji
+
re'
+
»";
I.
the third succession
is
therefore always circular, or the third circie
;
passes
through the intersection
say,
D
of the two first
and
it
is
direct or indirect, that is to
p"
is
odd
or even, according as the
is itself
previously considered,
even or
number of even coefficients, among ih^five odd ; or in other words, according as the
is
number of indirect successions, ing zero), or odd.
(6.)
among
the five previously considered,
even (includ
In every
case, therefore, the total
:
number
of snccessions of each kind
is
even,
and both parts of the theorem are proved
(respecting the even partition,
the necessity of proving that
if
the importance of the second part of it any, of the six successions II. IT.) arising from
as in algebra,
we have always,
and newer
XI
if q, r, s
.
.
sr.
q=:
+ s.7'q,
XIl.
.
.
sr
.
g=^
—
s.rq,
be any three actual quaternions.
(7.)
The
associative principle of multiplication
may
also be proved, without the
distributive principle,
by certain considerations of rotations of a system, on which we
cannot enter here.
Section 3
On some Additional Formulae.
273. Before concluding the Second Book, a few additional remarks may be made, as regards some of the notations and transformations which have already occurred, or others analogous to them.
And
first as
to notation, although
we have
reserved for the Third
a^,
Book the
interpretation of
such expressions as ^a, or
yet
we have
agreed, in 210, (9.)» to abridge the frequently occurring symbol (Ta)^ to Ta^ ; and we now propose to abridge it still further to Na, and to
square of the tensor (or of the length) of a vector^ a, the Norm of that Vector: as we had (in 190, &c.),' the equation Tq^ = 'Nq, and called N^* the norm of the quaternion q (in 145, (11.) ). shall
call this
We
therefore
now
write generally, for any vector
I.
.
a,
the formula,
.(Ta)2 = Ta2 = Na.
),
.
.
(1.)
The equations (comp.
II.
186, (1.) (2.) (3.) (4.)
..Np =
l;
III.
V.
.
.
IV. ..Np = Na; N(pa) = N(/3a),
N(p  a) = Na
;
represent, respectively, the unitsphere ; the sphere the sphere through o, with a for centre ; and the
through A, with o for centre
;
centre a.
sphere through b, with the sa"^ "' *^^
2q
298
(2.)
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
The equations (comp. 186,
VI.
(6.) (7.)
),
.
.
[bOOK
II.
..N(p + a) = N(pa);
VII.
N(p/3) = N(p
a),
represent, respectively, the plane through o, perpendicular to the line
oa
;
and the
plane which perpendicularly bisects the line ab.
274. As regards transformations, the few following may here be added, which relate partly to the quaternion forms (204, 216, &c.) of the Equation"^ of the Ellipsoid.
(1.)
Changing K(fc
:
:
p) to
Ep
:
R/c,
by 259, VIII.,
in the equation 217,
XVI.
of the ellipsoid, and observing that the three vectors p, Rp, and Rk are complanar, while 1 Tp = TRp by 258, that equation becomes, when divided by TRp, and when
the value 217, (5.) for
<2 is
taken, and the notation 273
is
employed
:
I.
..Tf^+^VNtN/c; R»c
V
Rp
;
of which the first
and the
member will soon be second member as k^ — i^.
with the
seen to admit of being writtenf as T(tp +
p^:),
(2.) If, in connexion
earlier
same
surface,
we
introduce a
new auxiliary
forms (204, 216) of the equation of the vector^ a or os, such that (comp. 2 1 6,
VIII.)
the equation may,
by 204,
(14.), be reduced to the following extremely simple
III.
.
fonn
:
.
T(T
= Ti3;
which expresses that the locus of the
the
mean
sphere, 216,
XIV.
;
neio auxiliary point s is what we have called while the line PS, or a — p, which connects any two
to
corresponding points^ p and s, on the ellipsoid and sphere, is seen to be parallel the fixed line j3; which is one element of the homology, mentioned in 216, (10.).
(3.) It
is
easy to prove that
.
IV.
if p'
= S^ .S? a c
S^,
and therefore
V.
.
.
S
^':
= 8^ S?, 87 c
:
and
o'
be the vectors of two new but corresponding points,
p'
and
s',
on the
ellipsoid
and sphere; whence it is easy to infer this other element of the homology, that any two corresponding chords, pp' and ss', of the two surfaces, intersect each
other on the cyclic plane which has ^ for
fact,
its cyclic
normal (comp. 216,
is,
(7.) )
:
in
they intersect in the point t of which the vector
,^^
VI.
.
.
r
xp + =—
x'p'
x+xr
=
xa +
x^a'
if
x^x r,
x=S^, d
p'
and
a;'
= 8^
d
n
;
* In the verification 216, (2.) of the equation 216,
senting a surface of the second order,
=toad of
hasj
.
(1.), considered as reprein
V— and V^
ought to have been printed,
Va
and
V
a
;
but this does not affect the reasoning.
others iTJompare the Note to page 233.
nions (Dul
thi figures of
* XVIIL in in itself. (15. XIX. but with a new centre which is of homology. XVII (9.) Quite similar results . i\iQ point at infinity on sphere. . homologous to the same mean same two cyclic planes asp/anes of homology. 200. XIL. (6. the infinitely distant point on the axis of the second circum scribed cylinder (or on the line ab' of the subarticle last cited).) ).S=S^ S^. XV'. . the When it was said. ou the plane just mculioued (comp. with the The same ellipsoid is. XVI.. XIII. (. might therefore have been taken (as asserted in 216. UIV^ = Ax. . .gNj=g(lKg).) : XL. (8. IX. ^I^^. 216. I UV5 = UVU5 . . XV.) XIL .Vg) = ri(r252)^"S which q and r may be any two quaternions.) Although not specially connected with the ellipsoid. . TIV = TV i and the identity 200.T(T = T/3. the following general transformations may be noted here (comp. (7.CHAT. The equations 204. as IX.10.TVV? = V{KT7S5)}. but in like manner without proof. . . 220. because 299 this point is VIL. 199. (1. (T we had assumed VIIL . that no binomial expression of the form x\. XIV. in 257. (4. TI Vg r the more symbolical forms. . . XXXIV. which would have given again. U(r5 + K5r) = U(Sr. with the same centre of homology as before : the line /3. 9 . or on the axis (204.) ). .) and 218. « 7 y the other cyclic plane.Sg + Vr. (5.1^(228) (10. becomes more evident.] HOMOLOGIES OF ELLIPSOID AND SPIIEUE. .) '"g + 1 i^ = (gl)(KgM) ^ Ngl + 2Vg (g + l)(Kg + l) Ng+ 1 + 285' The formula. and 204.) could satisfy the equation. XL). meaning was (comp.) ) of one of the two circumscribed cylinders of revolution (comp. when we observe that XVL .S^ + V^^^i3 = p2/3S^ in IIL. . if would have followed. . with y instead of d for its normal. UIV = Ax. (10. that zero had only itself iov a squareroot. and III.. S^=0. (10. . Xlir.) We have also generally (comp. . . . (4. and XXXV. in page 587 of the author's Lectures on Quaternions. in two other ways. .t2 _ y«) f 2ixy. . ..)).). 225). . * This formula was given. = f. tanU? = (TV: S) Vg = easily. as another plane of homology of ellipsoid and namely. but with X. . = TVg . = 92 = (x + iyy = (.) sphere. give . is not perhaps of any great importance but will be found to furnish a student with several useful exercises in trans formation. XIV'. UVU = UV .
generally. with the conditions 257.). (2. by 256.Ug + Tg. VII.) With this definition. and if h again denote.. in each of which it is permitted to change the norms to the tensors of which they are the squares. with equal norms (or with equal tensors). (14. and as above. XXVI. yet if we substitute for q the biquais verified. XXV. ' . tors (273). we have .N(/3 + a)=N(T/3. (8.(i + so that the biquaternion i hj)2 is = is f + +ji) = + AO = one of the imaginary values of the symbol 0^. andby the laws (183) h (ij oft/A. and + hk. that when two imaginary but nonevanescetit factors give thus a null product. . . the trans XXI.* for if hiquaternions (214. we may establish the formula : : each two parts being generally imaginary. (2. minus the Square of the Right Part of these called a Biscalar..) formations. (15. 0» = r 4 hv% if = 0. . the following transformations are occasionally useful (comp.) N (g + hq) = Ng .) ): N(g' + 5) = N(Tg'. or to write T for N. not only the square of one.Ua + Ta.Ug').) For example. XX.) It will be found. in planes perperpendicular to each other. equal to the Square of the Scalar Fart. for a symbolical squareroot oi hj. (1. without efMer of them separately vanishing a circumstance which may throw some light on the existence hj : + of those imaginary (or symbolical) roots of equations. 257.N» = . . + hv'.300 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. and therefore cannot be verified any other real ternionf v scalar. 200. . XIIL. (12. . or (comp. g2_i = (^_l) (5 41) = by the substitution of ± 1. as in 256. XXIII. N(9 + hq') = (Sq + hSqy . Sv = Sv' = StV = Nr' . or real vec As regards the norm of the sum any two real quaternions.) In general.) or to define that the iVorwi of a Biquaternion (like that of an ordinary or real quaternion) is . which were treated of in 257. and the^rwer being what we have if h be. XXIV.) For example. (2. or real quaternion. XXII. being thus any two real right quaternions. provided that we agree to extend to biquaternions the formula N5 = Sg2— Vg^ (204. if q and q' be any two real quaternions. 220. t This includes the expression + hi.Ng* + 2AS of . for q.) ) be admitted. although the equation XXII. and v' (11. and 210. * . diflferent from zero . has no real roots except . . positive unity.(Yq + hYq'^ . . (13.). [bOOK II. the ordinary imaginary of algebra.U/3). this equation XXII. . but the product of two such factors may vanish. when hiquaternions are admitted into calculation. the imaginary of algehray then (comp.). gKg'. for any real or imaginary' values of the two scalar coefficients x and y. besides the real value 0^ XX. the imaginary expression. the norm of each is zero. c ..^ Other such roots are + of 257.) and (7.)) we may write. (6. . Compare the Note to page 276. (16. however.
that neral conception. In the Book of these Elements we . Quaternion (112. any two directed right lines in space (4) Ilnd. or by what generally a Scalar (17) . we have called and Vth. each affected (97) wdth a scalar being in each case zYseZ/* (generally) Directed Line* in or what we have called a Vector (I). Section 1. . OR POWER OF A VECTOR. the difference of . that the Quotient of tivo such Vectors is. multiplied by or into a positive or negative number (15) IVth. . the fundamental principle or pervading conception has been. Space ^ 276. CONSIDERED AS PRODUCTS OR POWERS OF VECTORS AND ON SOME APPLICATIONS OF QUATERNIONS. AS A QUATERNION. the sum of two or more such lines (59) Ilird. CHAPTER I. generally. III. In the Second Book. 1st. 275. — On a First Method of interpreting a Product of Tico Vectors as a Quaternion. the quotient of such a line. the sum of a system of coefficient (99).BOOK . First Art. 116). as being another line in the sayne plane. inter preted. It is howwe have included under this ge which usually relates to what may be called an Oblique Quotient. divided by such a number (16). ON THE INTERPRETATION OF A PRODUCT OF VECTORS. ON QUATERNIONS. the product of one such line. or the quotient of two lines in space making either an acute or an obtuse angle with each other * The Fourth Proportional to any three complanar lines has also been since interpreted (226). a ever to be remembered. as 2i> such lines.
277. . or new combinations of symbols. mula: * Compare the Notes to pages 146. or that the latter vector is multiplied into* the former. 278. 7 denote vectors. a'\ . and we are therefore /ree in . the other limiting case. . when the angle is right. /3a. when the angle is equal to two right angles. is designed to be a much shorter one than either of the fore going. or for the Square. or that the product j3a is obtained. that a vector a is multiplied by another vector j3. (130). the limiting case. the foras another. and shall appear to be consistent with convenience and And to do so will be the chief object of this First analogy. In symbols. and II. any meanings to these neio symbols. or a Right Quaternion which has been seen to be a case not less important than the two former ones. when the angle becomes null. in which case the quotient degenerates (131) into 2L positive scalar . or when the two sitely directed. . But no Interpretation has been assigned. [bOOK III. which shall not contradict each other. . . . . we shall therefore write. 7j3a5 . . or when the lines are oppo and when in consequence the quotient again but now into a negative scalar and Ilird. intermediate case. the degenerates. I. of the Third (and last) Book oit\iQ^Q Elements: which Chapter to assign. . remain as yet entirely uninterpreted . the three following particular cases: 1st. or other Power ofa Vector : so that the Symbols. instead of being parallel (15). in either of the two foregoing Books. 159. lines are perpendicular (132). : and when therefore their quotient becomes what we have called (132) a Right Quotient. for a Product of two or more Vectors . or when the two lines are similarly directed. j3.302 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . Ilnd. As a commencement oi ^Moh Interpretation we shall here define. . at this stage. a^ a'. aS which a. we had proved (136) that one quaternion is midtiplied into when it is divided by the reciprocal thereof. but t denotes a scalar. as a first definition. . when the multiplierline /3 is divided by the reciprocal Ba (258) of the multiplicandline a .
(a + a this other general equation. Multiplication of Vectors is. like that of Quaternions (168). 280. I. Again. . whence also. 223. The . And we proceed to consider. . by the same general formula 259. VIIL. that III. VIII. ) i3 = aj3 f a'jS. (by 196. that II. then. ). . j3(afa')=/3a + i3a'. Ra = . are and the Multiplication of is Vectors. definition (278) gives the formula : 279.CHAP. have the transformations. VII. from the definition (278). . .Va/3 = \{^a a/3). . . . of a Product of two Vectors. in the following Section.). . (1. (1. . — 07i some Consequences of the foregoing Interpretation. again 223. = . it gives therefore. like that of Quaternions (212). two opposite orders. II. a Doubly Distributive Operation. by taking conjugates (279).. by 259. = Kaf5 11. 303 where II. we are not yet presuch ternary product of vectors. (1. therefore. assigned any signification for a as 7/80. tvp .) It follows also (by 204. . . I. and similarly. as being egual to a certain Quotient^ or Quaternion. Commutative Operation. that IV. we have III. the general relation.Ua Ta : (258. I. corap.0)3 = KjSa. The Products oftioo Vectors^ taken in therefore Conjugate Quaternions. = i(/3a + a/3).) . . . Si8a = + Sa/3 Vj3a (2.) It follows (generally) a Non from II. . 281.] INTERPRETATION OF A PRODUCTOF TWOVECTORS. comp. aB = ^nr. . As we have not yet .) )./3a=i3:Ra. or /3a . Section 2. some of the general consequences of this definition. • i3a = :^ Ka . or interpretation. we R(a+a') it Kj3 RjS RjS Ra Ra" follows.. I'.
(6. lYj3a. (3a. 208). . whether the Associative Principle (223) oi Multiplication of Quaternions does or does not extend tc VectorMultiplication. are two coinitial sides : (4. TVa/3 = 6a sm X. . a. XL XII. 198) the angle of the product of any two vectors is the supplement of the angle of the quotient. . .U(/3:a).a = Ta. we have thus. S/3a = Sa3 = = SUai3 = cosx. . III. from the multiplier to the multiplicand.) "Writing for abridgment (comp. (3.. . respectively. XIV.Ua . V. SU/3a .. /3. = ba. by IX.T(3a=T(3. attention may be called to the Scalar character of a Product of two Parallel Vectors.) It follows also. IV. XIII./3a = y. 191) to the product of the tensors. U. by 279.Ta. binary product. again 208).) We have next the . ./3a = T3. T(3a VII. .yba sin x . in the sense that tliey bear equal ratios to their respective units (of length and of area). = + ya6 sin IUVa/3 = Ax.Ta. T((3a  a(3) (3. VI. . TY(3a = parallelogram under a. or to the double of the area of the triangle OAB. . may be thus written. so that the rotation round the axis of a product of two vectors. and to the product of the versors. . Vectors. ob.. .. . or OA. whereof those two factors a. of which line the length represents its area.6a cos a. IV/3a = . is positive. . (2. . For any two vectors. . therefore. = 2A OAB .(/3:a).. . (5. . . we may write the equation. (3. 7 = Ax. j3a among which.. 6 = T/3. XI'. and to the Right character of a Product lines at right angles (1.) Hence. XII'. the tensor and versor of the product of two vectors being thus equal (as for quaternions. a/S = + y a. IVa/3 . and the index. VIII.IUV/3a=Ax. But we can already derive several other consequences from the definition (278) of o. U/3a = U(/3 : a) = U/3.304 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. or of two The definition (278) I. is a right line perpendicular to the plane oi this parallelogram. . . . IX.. L^a=7rX'. of two Perpendicular with each other. it gives. that the tensor of the right part of such a product. transformations (comp. . is so that if we denote here this lastmentioned area by the symbol A OAB. . .. so that (comp. = Z.) .(/3:a).) . a.. IV. equal to the parallelogram under the factors. TV/3a = . a. =2 x parallelogram = 4 A gab. TVU/3a = TVUaj3 = sin x . . [bOOK III pared to pronounce.
Va/3 = . it would not have been so natural to have assumed for a definition of that symbol. We may also write (by 279. so that a. (IV: S) (Vy/3. .) If a. XXIV. with the signification (273) of Nor. T(«p + px) = Ti2Tk:2. according as the rotation round (3 from a to y. . might be deduced from this formula XVII. of the Ellipsoid. and.(3: a. and reciprocally . S/3a may write. XXII.S(/3:a). XXIII.V/3a) = ±/3 tan b . (7. .. a. and y/3 = . XXVII. by XVII.) If the two factorlines be perpendicular to each other. 1st. /3a = 0/3 = S/Ja = Sa/3 = + ba. I. XV. in the two last formulae. . Under the same condition of perpendicularity. same condition oi parallelism. XXVI. which is negative or positive according as the two vectors multiplied have similar or opposite directions .) On the other hand. c.* . for we may establish the formula. . I/3a = 76a . or = tt. XIX. with the converse. and reciprocally. XXVIII. A.al3. if 13 ^ a. and the product (ia becomes a right quaternion (132). XXV.V/3a) = + /3sinasincsinB. V/3a = Na . . 2 R . a. XVII. XX.) = 0. under the . = Sa)3 = 0. then because. S (Vyj3 V/3a) = . * All the consequences of the interpretation (278).afS. (he right part of their product vanishes.(/3: a). f3a=^\. 305 XVI. or may now .. . .) : ) the following ^rm«Za ofper pendicularity. which. however. ^/3a=Iai3 = . considered as vectors of the comers c of a spherical triangle. (12. the subarticles to 208 allow : us to write. /3. with sides equal to three new positive scalars./3a = Na. then V/3a = 0.. if /3 I. Under the general head of a product of two parallel two interesting cases occur. if the two factorlines he parallel. .. . the formula 278.y /3. 282. . the case when vectors. or briefly. b. . is positive or negative. B. . (9. . according as (10. upper or lower signs being taken. then then (3a =.) . then the parallelogram (4. I. V(/3 : a). or that round b from a to c. of the product (3a of two vectors. I. . as it was to assume . . .] PRODUCTS OF PARALLELS AND PERPENDICULARS. T(tp + pjc) = NtNic. (8.a.S/3a = Na. . (1. is a right angle. XXI. . (11.) becomes a rectangle. or that product reduces itself to a scalar. IV(Vy/3. (3a=. . Ia/3 =+ yo&. be written thus : XXIX.) The equation 274.. &nd formula ofparallelism . if /3 II a. as denoting (Ta)2. the upper or the lower sign being taken. . . .) and (2. if j3\\ a. .CHAP. which furnish two first examples of Powers of Vectors : namely. sin a sin c cos b . so that we XVIII. XXX. y be any three unitlines.
it . S.). a2=a2 = (Ta)2 = Na. U. so that the square of any vector a (2. 186. which gives this remarkable result. . represents therefore. . p2 = a2. and When (3 = a. write. * for the square of a vector. which passes through the point (6. . or to the Power of that other which has Negative Unity for its Exponent. . . by 186. the formula (comp. which passes through the origin * Compare the Note to page 210.). that the Square of a Vector is always equal to a Negative Scalar.a)2 = a2. . 190.V.a2=0. being thus justified : and in like manner we may . . .a2 = T(a2) = + Na = (Ta)2 = Ta2. or to the negative of the square of the number Ta. ) a for centre. in which case it follows from the definition (278) that their product is equal to Positive Unity : so that each may. which expresses (185) the length of the same vector.). the two factors are equal. represents the sphere with (p  a)2 = (/3 . is equal to the negative of the norm (273) of that vector. VIII. III. the square of an unitvector (129) being always equal to negative unity. t Compare also the subarticles to 273.a2 = U(a2) = l = (Ua)2 = Ua2. (3. 199. . . . the definition (278) gives. Np = Na. . the case when the factors are (in the sense already defined. (comp. gives VII'. 258) reciprocal to each other. . (comp. as a particular but important I. Tp = Ta . ..) More immediately. (5. and parentheses (or points) being again omitted. VI. : as before. . 204). o. . II. and thus we may write.f 186. (4.) The equation .. the omission of the parentheses^ or of the pointy in this last symbol of a tensor. i . (2. the sphere with o for centre.a2=Na. or VII". 273). in this case. case of 281. represents the sphere with . and V. ) a for centre. a2 = aa = a Ra = (Ta)* = Na. (p . T. (3.) of a.a)«. the product /3a reduces itself to what we may call the square may denote by a^. IV.306 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.) Hence (compare the notations 161. (1. b. and Ilnd. the equation.) The more general equation. (4. XXIII.) For example. which passes through the point a. VII. [bOOK III.. IX. as well as for the square of a quaternion (190). be consi dered as equal to unity divided by the other.
. + Na < 0. XII. OA . . o for centre.* as follows: taken for the origin of vectors). . . . The definition (278) gives also.2Sap + c = 0. . . of the Central Ellipsoid (ox of the ellipsoid svith its centre plified.. . X. p2 . III. is therefore necessarily real.. (1. * . 186. (6.) p'i=2Sap and X'. if the given vectors a.) IhQ distributive principle of vectormultiplication (280).CHAP. f Compare the Note to page 233. 18G. (9.2Sa'p + c' = 0. . .. XVI.N(pa) = (pa)2 = ca2 = c4Na. The equations.) . . the o. and with this last radical (if real) for radius. may . of great importance iu the present Calculus.] SQUARE AND RECIPROCAL OF A VECTOR. .)).2S(a'a)p it is = c'c. of the two spheres. with a for centre. p2 + l = 0. (9. or if this though negative. ..) The equation. (/3 ± a)2 = ^2 + 2Sl3a + a2 . . and X. (7.) a form of the Equa of the UnitSphere (128).. (14.) The radical plane XVII. XXIX. represent the spheres with which have a and so that this very simple formula. represents therefore a (real or imaginary) sphere. if c be a positive scalar . and is. p' tion + 1 = 0. has for equation.a)2. Ra a = Ra Ra = . XX. Sap = 0.. : IX'. even if one or both of the spheres themselves be imaginary. p«2Sap + c = 0. be transformed to the following. 1 for their respective radii ) . (13. : 1 . the recent equations IX. . (p + a)2 = (pa)2. or XX'. plane through XL .) This sphere scalar constant.T(tp + pK:) = jc«ia. t Compare the second Note to page 279. p2 . whence it is aRa = a a = 1 : . be (algebraically) greater than a^. (8. 307 The equations (comp. . 210.) The equation 281. c. or thanif c Na : but it becomes imaginary. XIII. . XV. natural to write. (7. therefore be thus transformed .pHa2 = 0. is (comp. as such.) ) the formula. may or it . . (p ~/3)2 = (p. T(pa) = V(ca2) = V(c + Na). (11. . enable us to establish generally (comp. . . XVI'.) I.). . XVIII. and the formula 279. may now be still further sim XIX. c. therefore always real. XIV. . lepi'esent. perpendicular to the line and the plane which perpendicularly bisects the line ab. (10. (12. or XXX. respectively. a and the given scalars c be such.
the equation. of unity divided by the vector (277).Ua Ta : .. VII. 258.lv = v. XXII. to interpret thi two of product j3a. . their indices. as to use this a .RIt. of arriving the symbol (3a. . to which may be added the more recent formula. 284.(206). (16. if we this new formula of the same kind. the equation XXIII. . IV. XXI. to t Compare the Note page 174. a above alluded to if we 80 far anticipate here the general theory of powers of vectors^ last symbol to denote the quotient. 111. as usual. and Index^ or IndexVector (133). already seen that It. that XXIII. considered as equal to a Quaternion.a=l. . (1.' = Ii. It cannot to have been observed by any attentive reader of the Second Book. = I(i. . /3a = /3 aK : we had adopted then the formula XXIV.'±v) Iv'±It. as a definition'^ ofthesymbol a'\ might have been used. andif Iv. if u and v denote (as in 223. whereby to interpret the product of any two of right quaternions. IX. had proposed to establish I. . and . ai = . (16. between a Right Quaternion (132).. Thus. Section 3. Ra = l:i = ai. XXIV. \v' . a.ai = a'. . if v' . we have = v. — On a Second Method of arriving at fail the same In terpretation^ of a Binary Product of Vectors.308 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. Iv denote.':I»=v':tj(193). And then.v = v'v. . taken in a given order any indices * Compare the Note to page 305. or for every vector.). so as to have identically. 11. as being equal to the product oj those tivo quaternions themselves. how close and intimate a connexion^ its has been found to exist. . given vectors. as a definition (supposing that the recent definition 278 had not occurred to us). as a formula of interpretation for But we proceed to consider an entirely different method. It could not therefore have appeared strange. or of a Binary at the same (or an equivalent) Interpretation of this latter symbol : Product of Vectors. 283. .) If . I.).) any two right quaternions. [bOOK III. &c. . and conversely (133). . Ii. . by .=IRv(258. .) It follows. I .
. although they (2. /3. XXII. to a.)(3. correspond mulae. (1. notwithstanding the difference ofform of the definitional equations by which they have been expressed. with the recent from the former definition. therefore coincide. corresponds thus to the result 191. and may (with our last definition) be deduced from. XXIL. in the same order. (2. (1.) The doubly distributive property (280). I.. t. and j3 = Iv' . and XXIII. . (Some of the consequences from the^jsub.) The result 279. . of 281. VI. to 281). to. b. oi vectormultiplication. RIy therefore. by the recent formula II.a = Pi3.. that IV.articles to considered. III. and XVL. VIII. . It. X.CHAP.r'«. of j3a.)) . IX. are understood to denote the two right quaternions..) and (2..a = /3 : Ra.). lYq. /3a = v'v. (3.. definition (or interpretation) II.v'v = Iw': I (1 : r) = Iv': IRr . if a = Iv. of a binary product of vectors [3a.] SECOND INTERPRETATION OF A PRODUCT. (1. . as a theorem (194). . 278. at least in their results.) of Art. as resulting tions. XX. VIII. several of the consequences lately given (in subarts.. we have Y. v. or suggestions. II. in those formulae 208 which are previous to its subarticles. v and v\ and to multiply these latter. or VI.. For thus we should have been led to establish the for mula.). as in 278. II. I'a and T'/B.) The two formulae of 279. a.. The two have been obtained by ferent processes. and are expressed by two different formula.. t'. 208 have been already of 208. of multiplication of quaternions.) now the 278 and 284. 223.. we should obtain.. Thus. or to the first formula of 223.. whereof the two To lines a establish and j3 are the indices. . XII. are the indices of two right quaternions. or we should have this slightly more symbolical equation. respecting conjugate products of vectors. substantial icZew^ify of these two interpretations. but the definition (258) of Ra gave us the lately cited equation. which the symbols. and o.. XVIIL. . in 281. I. the equation. the equa VI. answer to the two other formulae of the same subarticle. . (11. and y. I.. r'v.. interpretations dif a and still denoting any two vectors. is on this plan seen to be included in the corresponding but more general property (212).My /3 = I«':RI«.. (5. 309 we should only have had the two to conceive (as we always may). XIV. ^ IRv . (1. that proposed yac^or^. XII.). the for XL. we have only to observe that it has been found.. By changing YVq. VII. a and (5. respecting the scalar and right parts of the product (3a. respecting the corresponding parts of (4.j3a in = /3. . XL.
have interpreted that product. may replace the formula 278. /3a. angular to both. the positive rotation round tha. a and j3. of the same product^ (5a. together with the converse substitution. if ^=a. with these more general results of the same kind (comp. For it is evident that if such substitutions can be sliown to be generally legitimate. at the same time. addition or subtraction^ II. It becomes. I. how far such substitution. . Functions of Right Quaternions. its perpendicularity to their plane .310 (6. (4. the .Ii(^±a) = I'/3±ria. consistently with principles already established. I. II. The geometrical properties of the line [bOOK III.) tion ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. is permitted in this Calculus. 283. I'lxa = ^xV'a. 286. of those two right quaternions. important to inquire. . and by then de fining that the sought product )3a is equal to the product v'v. .). we have the formula of . r^2« = 2l'fl IV. III. of which they are the indices. . We have first. . by changing the two factorlines. from Ime and /3 to a . (namely. v and v. or of v for lu.)... then. (3. 283.). and therefore ultimately to the same interpretation of such a product. we shall thereby be enabled to enlarge greatly the existing field oi interpretation: and to treat. It has been seen. in the second formula. therefore.) and (4. at this stage. by 133 (comp. and the representation by the same of the paralellogram under those two factors^ regard being had to units of length of area^) might also have been deduced from 223. or III. to the two right quaternions. Functions of Vectors.ri/3 = Iia. — On ternion with its the Symbolical Identification of a Right Quaown Index: and on the Consti'uction of a rect Product of Tioo Rectangular Lines^ by a Third Line..). lY^a. or I~'a and I"^j3. II. . by means of the second definition (284). equality ^ In the next place. as being. 1.. deduced from ihejirat defini (278) of (3a in 281.t line. of T'a for a. that the recent formula 284. 285. 207 and 99). in aZZ cases. as the first. by 206 (comp. as a second definition of a product of two vectors^ which conducts to the same consequences. Section 4. w^e Now. or allowable.
or VIII. each vector a to the and we have seen that if we change.1=1. y3. . under i\iQ we the same conditions of complanarity. as general. that we might at once proceed to define^ for the purpose of interpreting any proposed Function of Vectors as a Quaterternion. and then take the index of the new right quaternion which results. 283. But . the form.). . and with of the vector p. . : VII. in order to be certain that no contradiction to former results can ever be thereby caused. comp. by 193 (comp. while the second definition (284) oi multiplication of vectors. . which has been proved to be consistent with ih^ first definition (278). the equation. in this form.^=. It . . r'^. /3 = 2ica. V. more and is symholically. = ^. was the form (99. corresponding right quaternion T^a. 287. The most I.. ^. the formula. which was a function as regarded considered in the First Book. as that tained before.tt = ^a. same signification . IX. general form of a vector function. r>^:I'a = ^:a. I. .J^a(226. must inquire whether we are at liberty to write. in III. or IX. if it be understood that the sulject of the operation I always a right quaternion. namely.. or still . or in symbols.. . has given us the analogous equation. briefly or VIII.CHAP. 7. .. there is a case (or rather a class of cases). 311 In the third place. we have. IV. that the following general Equation exists . that II. for division. before finally adopting this conclusion. are any odd number of complanar vectors..). III. I?? = v. which had been otherwise ob 2a^a = ll^xlr'a (comp.). e . the equation VII.. . we shall thus be conducted to precisely the same vector p. And before of 286. then. But. .r^a = /3. III.r^a = a. 275).] RIGHT QUATERNION EQUAL TO ITS INDEX. if 1. VI. another form of a vectorfunction has been considered in the Second Book . which a. 286. would seem. which it is necessary to examine. we accept. or of a vector of other vectors and of scalars.
. and so be treated as vectors. be represented by. for any set of vectors a. more symbolically. represent or this. while in the particular case q being some quaternion. /3. 289. v''^ = {v'':v'). IX. tlie symholical equations VII. y3. . (5. or operating on these four vectors a. 7.. as proved. And it is so easy to extend this reasoning to the case of any greater odd number of given vectors in one plane. in which case there will always be (by in the same plane. in particular cases. We shall therefore adopt. Taking then what we may call the Inverse IndexFunctions. . = /a"^«. we principle. t\iQ fourth proportional to /3. same . namely.v\ which proves what was required. •) f{a. : in virtue of the to. and equated indices (133). degenerate (131) into scalars. y. VIII. although they may.i.Iia). as well as powers and other Functions of Vectors.) = q. 7> . p by the characteristic I'S obtain /owr collinear and right quaternions (209). let we V. . which may be denoted by v. or when = q v= 8^0= I>. as general. to interpret ternary (and other) products of vectors. and any function X. VII ^=t^ij:h. v"'\v={p\ a=^\^=:)v"\v'\ VI. 288. .. the equation. or .a = ^ = I(I» = l(I. of 286 .. In shall write generally. [bOOK III. which will />.312 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. • • 1% r^y. this quaternion is when right. To examine planar vec/or^. a. 226) 2L fourth vector construct the function (7:^). as hQing generally Quaternions. in a shortly subsequent Section. 7. there be at first only three given com^. I. . or may become right quaternions ( 1 32) in which latter event they may. . ' . that we may now consider the recent formula lY. their own symbols.^. a I'a /3 11/3' VIIL. and shall thus be enabled. Or. 7a. v'^ v'\ v'" \ and we shall have the equation. . a.
) II. .. = with certain properties of its Index.. of the Operation of taking the Axis of a Quaternion (132. (23. and the second Note * to page 200. .] PRODUCT OF TWO RECTANGULAR LINES ALINE.CHAP.). On An immediate consequence of the symbolical equa tion 286.) ).. = UIV. q = UIV^. being Positive : and the Length of the Product being equal to the Product of the Lengths of the Factors^ or representing (with a suitable reference to units) the Area of the Rectangle under them. I'/3. . I. that Product of any Two Rectangular Lines in Space is equal (or may be constructed by) a Third Line.Ax. (7. and usually by preference (for that . or Ax. t Compare the first Note to page 118.q=\JYq'./(a. IX. a 0 being 290. identify'^ a Right Quaternion with and own Index. and on the Conception of an UnitLine as a Right Versor. 1'7.). 291. resulting from this Identification .. or II.. 174. r. Thus. as in 204. . 136. (6. from the MultiplierLine to the Multiplicand' Line. (6. 313 case). the Rotation round this Product Line. as in 274. instead of writing. we may now say that such a product is equal to that index. 200. q = IJJVq.. already pointed out (284. For example. in all the formulae into has entered and so may simplify the Notation.. = lUV. . of the we may now suppress the Characteristic which it Index of a Right Quaternion. 191. /3. or of Expression. vector. may therefore henceforth be replaced Compare the Notes to pages 119. instead of saying (as in 281) that the Product of any two Rectangular Vectors is a Right Quaternion. the to And hence will follow the important consequence.Ax.) ). or Ax. I/(l'«. we shall write also^ the formula. is that I. And generally we may now. . for all purposes of calculation its pression.)=/». ex Section 5 some Simplifications of Notation. Ax. = UV. Ax. I. rectangular to both. The Characteristic Ax. 2s . . we may now write simply f.
such sym * U appears to have been hitherto thought expedient. . we may now. required that we should do so for some time. y pa fifi^ and dpidnog. whenever we may think fit to dispense with it. whereas we defined. that the right quaternion Yq was the Right Part of the Quaternion q.X added (according to rules already established) to that right quotient (132). by this combination of two other characteristics. in some examinationpapers by the author. as those which are denoted in these Elements. intelligible. but. that must evidently be a mere affair of taste and convenience and in fact they have all been printed as small italic capitals. identify that part with its own indexvector TVq. by other in writers. : t Compare the Note to page 191. For we and acquires a perfectly definite are in this manner led to conceive a Number when it is (positive or negative) as being added to a Li7ie. and so may be led to call it the vector part. without henceforth speaking of the right part: although the plan of exposition.! of that Quater nion q. or the assertion (17) that " Scalar plus Vector equals Quaternion. . S. . and indeed cannot* be dispensed with. we are thus led to establish the formula. of which the line is the Index. symbols. in the practice of the present Calculus. T. be the st/m of a J On account of this possibility of conceiving a quaternion to number and a line. . at the end of the First Chapter of the First Book. Of course. which signify respectively a Line and a Number. which was put forward at an early stage of the present work. adopted in the Second Book. And thus an enuncia tion. bols must be used : and it type used for these. by the letters and "V . namely. which are of greater and more ^ew^7«/ utility. Thus. when \1.314 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. and for the analogous characteristics K. [bOOK III. to denote the same operations on quaternions. or simply ^Ae Vector.I'*a . by 290. or of the sum Sq + Yq. I. any one who chooses may invent new symbols. U and V. are now enabled also to diminish. In 9^ =a+ a. We some extent.'* becomes entirely signification. and have been found to answer their purpose. in 202. it was at one time suggested by the present author. not hastily to innovate on notations which have been already employed As to the several published researches. the number of technical terms. q = a\. under some form. I . and in the elsewhere cited Lectures. to 292. which have been employed in the foregoing Book. that a Quaternion might also be called a Grammarithm. by a combination of the two Greek words.
are included in the a Qiiaternion. or And Numbers and Lines. Fig. y i a. or UnitVector (129). or summands. . XXI. C2. Conception of 293. equally long. being another line perpendicular to p. .. that both ScaVectors. vanish separately. and V. in . or ^2 + 1 ^ (282. or instrument employed.] CONCEPTION OF ANUNITLINE ASA RIGHTVERSOR. (3. p^a = p(5 = a' = a. as now enlarged or modified. the two other lines. any change of length. at right angles to its old direction. then (by what precedes) the line y represents. is formed by a repetition of the operation.) is still an unitvector. And then the remarks (154) on the = equation q'^ ~\. we are entitled to say. . and if the length of y be numerically equal to the product of the lengths of a and [3. y be any three lines at right angles to each other. if Thus (comp. through a positive quadrant of rotation : and thereby to oblige the OperandLine to take a neiv direction. the product of (comp. or constructs. . if lY.pa = /3. I. where q was a right versor in i\\Q former sense (which is still a permitted one) of its being a right radial quotient (147). oppo. 41). Ta.Line. or is equal to. lohatever scalar^ may be denoted by a and a. or the quotient oftico equally long but mutually rectangular lines. II. (3 i a. the line a. become immediately applicable to the interpretation p2 of the equation. = l. may lar s because either of these two parts. (B to a. a be any line perpendicular to stick a vector p. but without a plane perpendicular to itself. VIII. Compare the first Note to page 136. if a. of which the effect is to tuvji a line. denoted by (what w^e may here call) the characteristic p or having that unitvector p for the operator. y i (3. 281. or axis* of rosite to still . .. 315 and whatever vector. . as a sort of handle. 290). Again. XIV. I. . as being also a Riff ht Versor (153) or an Operator. at least if a certain order of the factors we may write the equation (comp.) More generally (comp. . at the same tinie.). T/3 = Ty. we have the equations. at right angles and of the same length with it and from which a third line a\ or — a.a/3 = y. 279) be observed: so that III.CHAP. which is. . but tation.) leads to the forming of a new conception of an Unit.) . where p (1. the same symbolical identification of \v with and V (286.
I.) a') And if (comp.a2 = Na (282. In this more general case.j3a./3Sya + .). in order to form. . now replaced by the following : (1. — On is the Interpretation of a Product of Three or more Vectors^ as a Quaternion.) by a new vector.a are = 7. right quaternion (132). in the plane of /3. considered as a coefficient. The operator a^. or that round y from a to has the direction taken as the positive one. VII. provided that the rotation round a. 189). y. a = Ta. Fig. and IV. ang three 7j3. from /3 to y. and so be constructed (289. . I. . V. which is. y. in which a was first changed to )3. the Formula.. I. I. . of tension and if we multiply again hy a. but degenerate (131) into a scalar.. to the ne gative scalar. or a Quaternion with either an acute or an obtuse angle (130) . — : a^. as the result (289. 223.). or aa. in consequences. namely. write generally (comp. Section 6.) &c. by V. but different : with a direction opposite to that of the line. for we now vec see that it is an Associative Operation: or that we may tors^ a. and then to or we repeat this compound operation. version combined (comp. III. /3'. . ay = aa^ = a2/3 =/3' = aTji. is therefore equivalent.. that Multiplication of Vec maj tors. like that of Quaternions (223). we may still conceive that the multiplierline a has operated on diictline y . 28 1). II. or whence the equation.yV/3a = aS/3y /3Sya. however.) . is II. his. Vy/3a = aS/3y .). /3.) The formulaB 223. as we completely consistent. (5. we obtain a. or may become itself a. It follows (comp. ySa/3 . in which indeed included. II.316 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. There now no difficulty in interpreting a ternary product of vectors (comp. with the one first proposed (282). the tensor »f the pro duct y. the multiplicandline (3. (3. (4. [bOOK (3. or a product o^ more vectors than three ^ taken always in some given order . since the tensor of /3 is (generally) multiplied by that of a. in its e^c? on /3. . . may see. and with a length generally if namely VI. so as to produce (or generate) the prohut not now by an operation of version alone. 294. or as a (scalar) (Ta)2. or multiplier (15) — Na. III. III. 41. be a^atn deduced^ but now with a all its ne?:? interpretation. fourth line /3.) of the substitution of the corresponding right quaternions in that product: which result is generally what we have lately called (276) an Oblique Qtwtient. 277. ..
5 111 a. vectors. by the three symbols. . in I. a. SyjSa = .. \ ySa(3p . (3. XVII. XIII. or a line oe./3. instead of V(7j3a). a. . oab and ocd. .) VI. VII. Srt/35 = 0. . being positive in the first case. XV. the formula V. complanar or diplanar. II. or V. the points may be omitted. 223. . . according as the rotation round a from : j8 to y is or in other words.S. y/3a. Sa/3y = . . 317 and with which Yy(3a which. which is at once complanar with a. .] is TERNARY PRODUCTS OF VECTORS. the S.^j. y be any three VIII. of (3. .) pressed The condition of complanarity of by the equation (comp. as with the earlier equations referred it useful to render himself vevT/ familiar. upper or lower signs being taken. . which is . pSa/3y = V/3y.ySa[3d V (Va/3 Vy^) = aS^yd.) Another very useful formula. y. is therefore ex : . to. . but negative in the second. common results on both sides being respectively the three scalar products. Sap . (Compare the notations 123.y) = aS/3y ^/3Sya. (2. of the ternary product of vectors y/3a. which 'i3 represents therefore (comp. ^. /3. . we have by and IV. where again the points .) (6. . X. Syp Sa/3y . X. and IV. Sap + Vya . XI"V^. S(3p Sa(3y. XVI.y. &c.) An(»ther useful a student of this Calculus will find form of the equation IV. . 0. perpendicular to y. (9.) One mode of proving the correctness of this last formula XV. II. .) The equations IX. is the following: V(Va/3. by the formula : XIV. we see that any arbitrary vector p may be expressed as a linear function of any three given diplanar vectors. . .Sa/3y = Say (3 = . y. and with y..) If a.) Comparing them. pSaPy = aS(3yp + (3Syap utility. which is in the intersection of the two planes. (7.) XL II. (4. XII. S(3p + Va/3. Syp member of which. is the following: . Sy/3a = . the scalar SyjSa. of the same kind. (3. the transformations. X volume of pyramid oabc .(SSayd . . gives it .) and fourth vector d. a. found to be one of extensive (8.. and each of these three equivalent expressions represents & fifth vector e. . : 223 enable us now to write.CHAP. /3. 129. in the second . . or characteristics of operation. . the expression.Sya/3 6 =+ =+ positive or negative volume of parallelepiped under a. (5.S/3ya = S(3ay = . . 8a(3y. For any four vectors. may be omitted. YiYa(3 . XI.. . but complanar with a and or in symbols. or VI'. for any three vectors. three vectors. operate S. .Vy^) = dSa(3y .5 = aSi3y/3Sya. j8. IX. for simplicity. written. . (3.. Sy^= (3 : and a. y. is to on both members of it.y. .
sin Boc . while. each term of the member vanishing separately. to be valid. whether in.So> Sa/3y ..) In drawing this last inference. or characS. = 0. and changing p to e. or out of. in which 8 is any new vector. (9. y must be complanar vectors. Chasles. p denote any five vectors. Sy ^a + SyjO SSaf3 . we have this other . XXII. . cos aod + sin coa . S/3\ = 0. . we are conducted to the following equation. sin BOC aod + coA sin bod + sin aob is sin cod = .). ^ . . obtained as above by quaternions. ever so as a limit. a line perpendicular thereto. when we seek to interpret the formula XXIV. then.) Operating on that formula by S. including several others under it . y.) and (12. where a. . y. We here employ the principle. SyX = Sy/x. cos cod = 0. admits of many transformations. od. which. cannot be perpendicular at once to those three diplanar vectors. y good.) if y be We have therefore this new formula : XXIV. . S^X = S/3/i. since the equation has been proved.^. Sa/3y /?. that the equation XV. [bOOK /3..) Hence under the same condition XX.) If. . plane trigonometry.) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. common plane which p (3.\=0. in any investigation with quaternions.) By passing from od to in their common plane. oc. XXV. we find a result which may be written thus (with or without the points) teristic. which expresses a known theorem of first . we assume : are which in fact must be true.3p + YafSSyp = 0. holds (14. . as in VI'. (18. also. we have this new equation : * Compare page 20 of the Geometrie Superieure of M. the of a. SyX^O. y he actual equations^ and diplanar. complanar /3. ob. by 281. cos bod + sin aob . then no actual vector \ can satisfy at once the three scalar XVIII.318 (10. then a. . that if the three vectors a. in if Sa(3y = 0. SaX = Sa^. any four complanar and coinitial lines. may denote any fourth vector. S(3yd  S(3p . by the symbol. X he an actual vector. three vectors the when even a. . if or Sa/3y if XX. /3. like the former. (15..)) on the equation XV. the three scalar equations. for . III. we can at once infer that XIX. . = Sap may .) .) and if we change p to a vector d in the plane of a.^. . is to that plane. OA. because it (11. (12. known* sin equation sin : XXVI. d. (7. . Sa\ = 0. XXI. X = ix. we meet a system of this form XVIII. as an interpretation of the same formula XXIV. y.. conversely..V/SySap + Vya S. little out of the plane of a and /3. but only mentioned here as offering itself naturally to our notice. . : XXIII. /3. give (13. . Operating (comp.. by (9.) If p be perpendicular evidently true. but (17. the last formula (16. .
3Sa/3y.) This last formula is evidently true. Sap = a.) nor can it (221) as depending on three scacannot then be determined hy fewer than three be eliminated between /ezrer than four. by (24. the proportion. by XIV.. supposed to denote three given scalars. . let a. .] ELIMINATION OF A VECTOR. might have been deduced from XIV. own scalar. (26. so that XXIX. XXXI. whatever three vectors . the three equations be.. if we suppose sin that the three vectors are equally long. let XXXVII. if Saf5y = 0. . . same signification of the scalar we have. . vector. 319 Sa(3y XXVII. if = . as well as XV. it j3. sin BOC + ob . XXXIV. by Xy. .^.) equations. aS(Byp + pSyap + ySa/3p = 0. S(^p = d. we have . As an example XL. when a. (27. = 0. S(3p = Syp = r. . p = ei (^a'a + 6'/3 + c'y).. . . 6'. aY(3y + (3Yya + yVa/3= by a. and so obtain this other formula.. .CHAP. S^yp = S(V/3y. oc are any three radii of one circle. y be again any three given and diplanar vectors and let the three given equations be. and then interchanging 5 and p. by (4.) The equation XIV. ob. aVj3y + /3Vya + y Vaj3 = 0. Syap = e. .p) = V/3y.. . Then the sought . where OA. S(3yp = a. &c. and the formula V/3y : Vya : Va/3 = sin boc : coA : sin aob . = SatSpyd f Si3tSyad f SyeSapd. XXXII. if XXXVI. As another example. (9.) In general. .) XV. XXXI. which might indeed have been at once deduced from XXIII. XXXIX.. (19. S/3p XXXV. = 0. (22.). /3. thus. hence limit. Syp = c . . operating with S. 11. and the equation interpreted as (23. . divide each term by p. OA .). with the . becomes . then.. sin aob = is . if Sa/3y = 0. and if we suppose it to be perpendicular to that plane. in Articles 10. I. b. the vector (2^2") of this last expression vanishes therefore equal to its the and we may write. = = Sa/3y. . e vector p has for its expression. we may Yya Ya^. . in Avhich a.o. must hold good at the y are complanar . Sa/3p c' . /?... As an example of such determination of a vector. may in general be considered • lars (the coordinates of its term^ scalar equations (25.p) &c.) first The equation XXIII. XXVIII. .) p = ci(aVi3y + 6Vya + cVa/3). c are . and therefore. . may be denoted y. (20. XXXVIII.p\\ V/3y II \\ since S(S/3y. . if p be in the common plane of the three other vectors .. sin coA + oc . . of elimination of a b. by 281. XXXIII. by II. expression is . p instead of A vector .) For the case of complanar ity. . let there be the four scalar Sap = a. (21. XXX.
d: XLI. it follows evidently from the definition 278 of a binary product of vectors. . the XLIIL (29. BCDE i CDEA + DEAB f EABC + ABCD = . . In fact. . is easily to the rules of vectors. oabc denoting such a volume. ed. or. in .. 70). in . and may then write the .) More generally. d by E. and therefore it which is restored to its former value. being . which (32. . (5. DABC = EABC — EBCD + ECDA — EDAB . and oa or a to a  d. d. recovered from the foregoing principles XLVII. this resulting equation. by . the formula. XLV. generally.320 then. XLVI.. or — 1. represented by the four scalar equations XL. . y. c . changing the formula : o to d. [bOOK III. DABC = S(a  ^) (/3 . eo. EABC = EA EBCD + EB ECAD . 282. = op. = a positive or a negative scalar.) If OS = (T=aRa = aai (282. but only the /our vectors.) of the First Book.. ED. . A.) A.SSa(3 .. (3. namely the equation (comp. in . and the ^bur b . according as the rotation round OA from ob to oc is negative or positive. although it has not been expressly stated before. (30. scalars. . 68) under the more symmetric form (because — EBCD = BECD = &C. change places with each other. Sap = a. with a given order of its points. y. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. c. /3. And an analogous formula (69. a. eb. combined with 196.) This last equation may therefore be considered as the condition of concur rence of the four planes.). c. by XXIII. or Spa = a. for. III. the equation. may be observed. in : . result (comp. which a = OA. by XLIV. . 6 . we may then omit the ambiguous sign. . or is multiplied by any two of the four points. into which p does not enter. D. . 65. as . we have first. a .. for any six points oabcde. Sa/3y = 6 . oabc. d. (3. conceive a pyramidal volume (68) as having an algebraical (or scalar^ character. which the additions are performed according coefficients. we have . that every scalar equation of the linear form (comp. that the expression is changed to its own opposite. .) XLVII. (31. EABD . . XL VIII. XVIIL). (28. by a second such binary interchange. represents a plane locus of the point P of the perpendicular on that plane from the origin.^) (y .) Denoting then the new origin of a. e may denote any five points of space. XLII. . .^) = Sa/3y  SjSyS + Syda . OA BCDE + OB CDEA + OC DEAB + OD EABC + OE ABCD = 0. in one common point. Sa(5y=^0.) for the scalar ofa ternary product of vectors : and so may write. XXL).. . and p s. a S/3y5  SySa + SSaf5d. &c we have thus . . we XLIV. . in the last expression (3. + EC. y. when any two ofthe four vectors. so as to be capable of bearing either a positive or a negative ratio to the volume of a given pyramid. vector of the foot as usual. XLV. a. B. b. this last formula may be written as XLIX. . substituting a. . the volumes being treated as scalar and results.d. d for ea. or when negative.
considered as being each a certain instrument.). . as representing the reversal which results from two successive quadrantal rotations. when the three vectors a. to turn in that plane. we As can recover many and can. and the conception (293) of an identity (290) of a right quaternion with its inunitline as a right versor. a2/32y2 + (Sa/3y)2 ^ (Va/3y)2 («S/3y /3Sya + ySa/3)2 a2 (S/3y)2 + /33 (Sya)2 + y2 (Sa/3)3 . oj. c.. the law be interpreted on the plan of 293. in a plane perpendicular to itself.. I. I.. nates). a = ia +jb + kc. &c. or construction. or operator^ or agent in a right rotation (293. transfer the Standard Trinomial Form (221) from Right Quaternions to Vectors. J.] STANDARD TRINOMIAL FORM FOR L. is expressed by equating zero the second or the third member of the formula XLV. Mliicli is only another form of XIV. . by observing that.) ). y be termino. . b. d are terminocomplanar (^64:) when they terminate in /owr complanar points A. ok of 181. the three coinitial vectors a. rectangular coordi.. may 2 T . (1. Vj3y : Yya : Va/3 : V (/3y + ya + a/3) = OBC OCA OAB : : : abc. which causes any line. 63). d. to the laws (182). or Avith the three lines ox. = or I'. signs (^or algebraic ov scalar ratios) of areas be attended to (28. &c. /3. (33. namely. allow us now to treat the three importnnt versors. without any change of its length. we have the proportion. k. (A) and if we now. so as to write generally . b. (3. may now be written as : follows LII. c. p ix +jy + kz. = 295. : Fundamental Formula A. . in conformity with the same conception. and ought to he familiar to the student. this conception. w^e have the formula : LIII. 321 ^Sa/3y = aS/3y5 + i3Sya5+ySrt/35. and even as (in our present view) identical ivith. connect of the foregoing results with ease them with coordinates. II. and the formula 69. .1. A VECTOR. ?. the Laws of the Symbols ijk are still included in the Fundamental Formula of 183.2S/3y Sy« Sa/3. (34. an expression of the form. /3. if . y. included in the i^ =. I. . through With ^positive quadrant. (1.) The formula 69. as constructed by.. . (35 ) Finally.) if we think fit.«(/3y) + /3(ya)+y(a/3) if = 2V(/3y + y« + a/3) = 2V(/?~a)(ya) = 0. LI. their own axes . for the case of three collinear points a. 22=/ = A2=//^=l.. for ternary products of vectors in general. may be deduced from XXXL. y are complanar. (1. =  The dex.) or to The case when four coinitial vectors a. where xyz and abc are scalars (namely.CHAP.collinear (24).
p. op'.j. (6. XVIII. oi three lines. were supposed (in order to fix the conceptions. . (or handle^ directed towards through a right angle. x'y) . + k. 222. V. p2 = (ix ^jy + kzy = norm Np (. . d. a positive quadrantal rotation round the linej. on the contrary. VI.). i. for p. or formulae. k. . IV. . in succession tions of — i. . which has a direction op.) Finally. the three hues p. which agrees with the former resultt 282. p' p". brings a revolving line from the position j to the position k. p = ix +jy + kz. which causes the line to take an upward position.) The condition of perpendicularity of the two lines p and a. or op. with a righthanded (or screwing) motion. The two contrasted laws. (4. .) The condition of complanarity IV. i. agreeing again Avith (7.z'x) + z\y'x known results. this square of the line p is therefore equal to the negative Tp (185). .). came to be illustrated by conceiving. (1. on a line first southward. round an oms the south.) expressed by the formula (comp. which agrees with a wellknown theorem of rectangular coordinates. to a new final position.ix' + &c. . and with a reference to northern latitudes) to be directed.5 + z2) . denoted by — k. when they afe represented by the two trinomials I. III.) ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. one time = — k. or opposite* to the old final position. j3. posite to the initial one. p" = ix" + &c.. round the line i as an axis. II.322 (2. ji = *. the law ijk operate on a line a. by the three lines. p. the west. brings a new revolving line from a new initial position. that we (3. the volume of the parallelepiped * In the Lectures.r2 + 2. which gives three new but equally long lines. in a precisely similar manner. an upward) direction. that although a positive rotation through a right angle. 223. as its ^na' turn one . as a new axis. the three rectangular unitlines. V = + A. and the zenith .) may now be interpreted as expressing. towards the south. which obliges this nevf a downward (instead of. respectively. is (by 294. + 6y + cz) .) or (2. k.) the square of that vector the value II. u . (5. which has at first the direction of \j. (1. or + k. (182. with an axis directed to the west. t Compare also 222. y. and then the contrast of the two formulae. and III. represented by the trinomial forms. and so conducts at last to a line — a.) by the formula. = Sap = . that we at ij ==+ k. give (comp. i. which is at first directed westward. p".. in the direc+ h. and I'. [boOK III. yet.) in the The foregoing laws of ijk. which are all (as has been Formula A. are not in one plane. may be expressed (281. when combined with the recent expression ) for said) included (184) I. . or to the negative of its of the square of its length (273).ji a moveable line. XIIL). op". = — 1 (183) may be interpreted by conceiving.. line to take finally as before. —j. = Sp"p'p = x"{z'y . p' . the by 294. j. directed at and that at another time we operate. : .) When recent expression for 8p"p'p gives.y'z) \ y"(x'z . (3.(oa.
in Uke manner. of any two right quater nions are at right angles to each other. and Sa = 0. I. 323 (comp. i I Ax. such formulas of complanaritg as the following. i. (9. 273) it ia evident that on the same plan we have now.y i. Ax.SyjSa =  (a/Sy . no inconvenience will result. zk\\k. between the symbols of two right quaternions which are.) it being The relations of rectangularity. 223. Sa(3y = . we on our present plan. 225) that the axis oij was a line in XhQ'plane of i and it might cause some . is since a vector.CHAP. . vna = + vn'a = (na +n'a). the transformations.) It may be vectors. if na = a/3y. .) But. .. . 185.) ) of which they are edges . we may write for ang number of vectors.) III. then (or round i from j to i).) . so * formula. Ka = .a.. considered as being collinear (209). with the notations of the Second Book. Va = a. Ax. In general. 223. and similarly in other cases. or the planes. as equivalent to Ul'^a. . (12. . Nl'^a. if convenient we were now to abridge that formula to j [ that we should not henceforth employ the sign of three lines. Ax. . k . (10. according as it has the same direction as that round + X from +y to +z (8. page 136) to the same significations of those symbols as before (155.^' \\\i. KUa = ± Il'a. according as that number is even or odd understood that XII.) ). X. where the axes. XV. complanar : for example.Ax. 181. kJi'. . jik. ).Ax. on our present plan.. considered as represent ing a right quaternion (290). noticed here (comp. (9. it seems \\\.. . . by 123. the symbols Ua. we interpret. t. that we have the important . may now be written more briefly. always (by 144) the opposite ofits own conjugate. or the direction opposite thereto. If. and therefore IX. to express (comp. because their indices (or axes^ are compla7iar : or finally. : VI. except as connecting else either symbols considered still as complanar. Tl'a. 223. if yjy.yi3a. which result at once : from the definitions (181). y be ang three (by 294. Ax. in the former sense (123). and V. (11. or symbols of three right quaternions. sna=+sn'a = Kna±n'a).. .) we have . XL . confusion. j . XIII. Ta.) On the other hand. More generally (comp. .. if we now insert the sign of parallelism. any two complanar quaternions (123). that if a. and this volume. VII. /3.y/3a) = + Vy/3a = (ai3y + (12. (13. as follows XIV.xi\\i. . Na are reconducted (compare the Notes to . thus expressed. n'a = . according as the rotation round p from p' positive or negative : that is. .iij. xyz be any three scalars. we might also have writtten.] PRODUCT OF ANY NUMBER OF VECTORS. . k J.. is a to p" is itself positive or a negative scalar. : upper or lower signs being taken. Va/3y yi8a). VIII. we may write.
articles to is 260. is equal U7iit to.) and (4.~^ V.) If A. B. also positive or negative. by that definition. . by 260. e2(ABCD) = AB.) Conversely. . theorem respecting the product of the sides of an inscribed triangle be supposed to have been otherwise proved. or else the opposite direction. DA. of the same inscribed triangle abc. as defined in 259. the formula. or in spheres. [bOOK III. if this since it will give in like manner the equation. the product of the lengths of the three sides. 296. their product has either the direction of the fourth successive side. By to the first poi7it A. D be any four concircular points. a plane and inscribed quadrilateral. because ita scalar part Sa/3y vanishes. given by an equation of^ the form : y^ / ^L^:^^— I ^^\c ^^. c. 63) which touches the or \ \ / (more fully) which touches or re~ the segment ABC of that circle. .cd da > : or < 0. ab. which it may be well to mention here. The product or in symbols. III. at the point a circumscribed circle. \ U //'' presents the initial direction of motion. AB BC CA = AT . e2 = BC2 . being points. . we have generally. (8. and if it be remembered. law of arrangement of those four which has been already stated. . : iu which the namely the product of two negative or of two positive squares. by 294. a(3y of ang three complanar vectors is a vector. according as this quadrilateral in (4. abc. Fig. with the usual reference to an of length. that their anharmonic function (abcd).).^^^^ A ^^S* "^• tangential productline. conceiving the fourth point d to approach. coefficient e^ is a positive scalar. we know.) a circle is a crossed or an uncrossed one. or represents. we have. AT being a line (comp. for ang plane or gauche quadrilateral ABCD. from A through 'B to C: while the length of tliis ^ ^ONj^^.). we find that the product of the is three successive sides of ang plane triangle. . (2. or negative scalar. (1. Da2 = BC2. IV.) If then abcd be . . and if the factors be three sue cessive sides AB. . of successive sides of closed polygons. by the sub. .. There are a few particular but remarkable cases^ of ternary and oihQv products of vectors. . (9. AT.) But. cd of a quadrilateral thus inscribed in a circle.CD. AB BC CD DA = a positive .).324 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. and of w^hich some may be worth a student's while to remember: especially as regards the products inscribed in circles.) abcd is an uncrossed or a crossed one.bc. . (3. along the circumference.BC. . bc. the formula : I.. DA^ > 0. according as the quadrilateral (5. . . as follows II. (3. according to a scalar. then (6. and by the scalar (thoMgh negative^ character of the square of a vector (282).DA=<Ae continued product of the four sides. 1 . continuously and indefinitely.
determined by the given conditions.CD.) If p be afljrpoint on the circle through given origin o a given line ox = r.). we shall then have by tive (281. and op = IX. and any one of these may be considered as a form of the equation of the circle. concircular with A. and thence of can return to the corresponding theorem (260. bis'). we can draw two tangents ox. bis. . AB BC CD DA = (aT AU) (CA Ac). IX'." expresses..PO=a. while Au is. ac. . p. . as represented in Fig. be obc about the two triangles. op..) As another verification. I. if oa' = a"' = Ra = R. a tangent to the new segment ACD. as in the annexed Figures 63. then. (9.DA=AU. . or Rp . a given point A. . but the dividend at. oA. it or X'.) ). oab and . Fig. being on the contrary positive for the other case of a crossed one (Fig. 63. which the tangent r admits. so that tjS'^ is a vector. 65) tico circles.au is negaVII. Making then shall OA = a. . formed by drawing the diagonal ob and then.OT. (9. as XI. (3. that the line p"iai. IX' Vrp1 : Vrai 64. c. (8. 63. OA. VIII. X. Ti3i = Vrai. the last formula IX. . 64. . so as to represent the two ternary products. coeflScient. AC or N. .r. .)) (5. as usual. 325 .Ra. : . is given by the formula. ought to do.) If B be the point opposite to o upon the circle. which x is some scalar which varies with the position of p. respecting the product the sides of an inscribed quadrilateral . VI. respecting the anharmonic function of any such figure g ABCD : for we shall thus have. or as being 4. ou. and VI. obc. 64). the last formula gives. 58. whether plane or gauche. . the equation. we have a (p — a) jO ': = — XTy XT : p' . and with Art. we can always circumscribe (as in Fig. in . AC.). or a'p' (see again Fig. 260. or AC^ is always positive (282. —a a'ipi. scalar.) ). in which the divisor cA. (1. fT A Fig. (10. we can recover easily the theorem (3. which touches at a (7. foi^ the case of an uncrossed quadrilateral (Fig. (8.CHAP. and op' = p^ = R. B. .) Geometrically. . to the two segments cab. it (11.) an equation of the form. on the plan of (6.) If a quadrilateral oabc be not inscriptible in a circle. 63). /3 =r : Vra"!.AP. . OB = T(3 = Ta T VUra' = 5a : i : sin aot. by V. of being multiplied by any without the value of j3 being changed.. then the diameter ob.] PRODUCTS OF SIDES OF INSCRIBED POLYGONS. is parallel to the given tangent t at o ] which agrees with Fig. in . . . i( T> he ant/ fourth point.
BC. of any quadrilateral oabc. ob. (17. XIV. under this other sign the sign SU . (10. bc : : co).).) Hence XIII. which inscribed in may always be conceived to be a determined sphere. that the rotation round it. (13. 196. to the opposite corner move.AB. .OU:OB4. must hold good for cyclical permutation the ease when those quaternions degenerate (294) into vectors is . be determined by the same rule as in the general and uncrossed quadrilateral (Fig. respecting the axis a.BC. . z: = L ^ySa . . by (13. 65) angle between the two arcs.BO.) The angle same quaternion . but the dividend or.co. then the axis normal to the circumscribed sphere being also in of the all cases at the point o such. OAB and OCB. (14. . and although. with the same construction (generally) by for the equal angle of the anharmonic^ L (oabc). after which we XII. a/3y5 SUa/3yo . respectively or the angle between the arcs ocb. or proceed in a new and opposite direction from o it may therefore be said to be the (see again Fig. along which a point should circumferences.CO = OT. because the quaternary product and the anharmonic function degenerate together into scabecause the figure may then be conceived to be inscribed in indefinitely many this angle being = lars. we may say. oab. . Z. may still ir. 63) for the inscribed and crossed one (Fig. (9.AB. the axis becomes indeterminate. or L (oA ab. through the two other corners. on the two B of the quadrilateral oabo.) under generally. and consequently XVI. shall have the quaternary product) OA.) These results. = SU/Sy^a . is allowed. OABC. if that be a plane figure is : but if it be gauche. the three equations.)) of the same quadrilateral. . bo ob. apply without any modification to the anharmonic quaternion (259. for the case of a quadrilateral in a circle. bis). is equal to the angle of the lunule. 63.BC. is the supplement '^Pthe angle tou beif tween the two tangents above mentioned it is therefore equal to the angle u'ot. bounded the two arcs of small circles oab. and therefore to the plane itself of the quadrilateral . A and c. and therefore also the quotient in the product in thejirst member. C vectors. in order to go from o. .nd angle of the product of the four suc: cessive sides. that the angle of the qua ternion product. and it is still more obvious.) The axis of this quaternion is perpendicular to the plane TOU of the two tangents . and [bOOK III OB. (15.).Co). second member. . is a positive scalar. ou' touch the new segment OCB. or spheres. that the general principle 223. from ox to ou.) It is evident of quaternion factors under the sign S. or the is a quaternion. or abcd. ocb .326 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. or or N .AB. any four . Sa/3y5 = S/Sy^a XV. OA.) For the gauche quadrilateral oabc. ov. under the sign T : whence again allowed. (oA. we have . that every permutation of factors cyclical permutation also (comp. of the permissibility of (16. for . (12. where the divisor. oB^. for the inscribed . yet the angle case : but = 0. is positive.
BC CD DE EA .ca = at. and I. between the arcs dab. = AW = a new "VVe vector. . . bc CD da) .da = au AD DE EA = ay . ac. : .) Comparing with 294. 66) to the angle at b..BC. aob. XVII. of the forms. p. (badc) Z. L (ab .) ) and that this sphere passes . connected hy four passing through three of the points : circles. . Fig. then p2 = xa* + y(3^ + zy^. see that the condition for the four coini (21. or for space : — we derive from Let abcd be any four points. by (13. which passes through may be thus expressed : XXL if p = xa + y/3 + zy. . . 62) the variable point p into points a'. .) Let then and ends. . .) That the equation XX. b. AB. which includes several others under it " The product of the five successive sides. Z.oc'. . between cda and cba.) Again. /3. XIV. OB.) If then we project (comp. XVIII. = S(oA.Po) = Sa(/3a)(y^) (p_y)(_p) = a2S/3yp + (S^Sy ap + y^SajSp p^SaySy. XVII'. . drawn from. respectively parallel to the planes boc. . dcb. 282. . them the following theorem. p be a point on the sphere which passes through three given points a. . the point at which : the pentagon begins (20. (cdab) =Z =Z (dabc) .oa' + ob. . for the guccessive sides of any plane or gauche quadrilateral abcd. let abcde be smy pentagon. = (at AU Av) (^C^ aP^) which touches the sphere at A. but also it is equal (comp. . not only is the angle at a.. c' on the three given chords OA. (10. c we shall have the equation. . their common p thus terminating on one spheric surface. . and to the angle at d. . au. y. (22.) Interpreting now. (18. we have the four equal angles ^ XVI. b'. av are three tangents fourth tangent at that point. (23. . = L (bc CD . with the corresponding equality of the angles of the four anharmonics. XIX. (cbad) (dcba). ab. sphere (19. to the sphere at A. and conceive that the two diagonals AC. (abcd) =L = (bcda) = = Z.).ob' + oc. tial vectors a.AB. XVII. .bc. shall then "We have three equations. by three planes through that point p. have therefore this Theorem. or of those of the four reciprocal anharmonics (259. give .). . I (adcb) /. inscribed in a . we origin o. does in fact represent a spheric locus for the point is evident from its mere form (comp.CHAP. of any {generally gauche) pentagon inscribed in a sphere. we shall have the equation : XXII.cd. ad are drawn. is equal to a tangential vector. for the plane. equal to the angle at c. between the two other arcs bcd and bad. 327 in particular. and through XX. where at. coa. .] PENTAGON IN A SPHERE. these last equations. . each then. . . da ab) = &c. . so that their product is a But the equations XVIII. between the arcs abc.CP. . oc. adc.) and (15. op2 = oa." o.
which distinguishes that axis from its opposite. y.) This result of calculation. As = 8/3^1 = Sy^i = a verification.). . OB'=/3' = /3^ oc'=y' = yi. d be the foot of the perpendicular from o. .) The formula XXIII. . which expresses (by 294. the equation of the sphere becomes simply. ^Sa/5y = XXVI'. which determines this diameter. coefficient^ is interpreted as in is 294. a2 . agrees with. S^p» is = 1 . on the plane abc. 260. and 196. the theorem (12. D is the point of the sphere opposite to o. XXXIII. being because the perpendicular let fall parallel to the tangent plane to the sphere at o are terminocomplanar (64) : on this plane from o is XXX. . (25. .C0) .. . (Compare 281. . may be transformed to the following ai) (yi : XXVIII. . divided by the double area of the triangular base ABC. (27. . . to any one of the four vectors.) . and the equation XX. is equal to the sextuple volume of the pyramid oabc.) XXIV. XXV. 6. 282. of the sphere . or XXV'. (24. considered as a one. . for the diameter d may also be thus written ai /Ji) : XXVII. (25. XXXI.0D Va03a) (y/3)y. 294. Sa'5 = S/3'^ = Sy'S = 1. /32 = S^/3.). XX.) In general. or altitude. and ^ a diameter (comp. determined by the equation. or .) The formula XXIII. A. 0. . the three equations. so that . d XXXII. when we change p XXIII. o\ Sai/3i yi = V (/31 yi 4 y' ai + = V(/3iai)(yiai). . observing that the equaj3. . or by the system of the three scalar equations (comp. the formula shows that the length TS. ^Sa/3y = a2Y)Sy+/32Vya + y«Vaj3. (10. oa. this other may be written in wav : XXVI. tion is satisfied.)). S^a.). may be proved by OD or d. that the four reciprocal vec XXIX. (6. respecting i\\Qproduct of the successive sides of a gauche quadrilateral. .). ). and may be deduced from. or . (28. OD. . .AB. OA'=a'=ai. c. in which they all terminate.co. .328 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. .. . = V(0A.). = S^y.. y2 S^a' = S^/S'i = S^yi = 1 . B. and 294. (3. (4. because this expression = Sa/3y Sa5i : V(/3y + ya + a/3) 1. which (26. = S (/31 (34. XLIV.BC. satisfies. (33. then if . p2 = s^p. . [bOOK III. tors. .  ai) (pi . a. where the symbol oabc.a'') .b' = d\ as appears from the three scalar equations. so far as the quaternion here an inscribed it regards the direction of the axis of and may be used to confirm. IX'. namely. as denoting the volume of the pyramid oabc. oabc including the rule of rotation. = XXIV.)).bc. comp. .0ABC.) Introducing an auxiliary vector^ . of this perpendicular. op' = o'=p^ the plane a'b'cV.ab. through the four given points^ o. .
e = ABCD. (19. . of the sphere oabc./3) (5 . or divisor. may elimination (294.. cond member of the one preceding if XXXVI. coefficients. and elimination of the vector d. of a vector k. between the four scalar equations XXV.. so that. : a). 65. may be called the con dition or equation c. is equal to a tangential vector. (34. and in particular (comp. . is a scalar : because by drawing diagonals AC.) ) to a vector.) .) And another form of equation of the same sphere. by 294. (32. b = CDEA. at the first point. may be obtained by the analogous ehmination of the same vector ^. B. . be obtained as the result of an which allows (as above) the origin of vectors to be arbitrary. XXIV.. 2u . (10. or other even. . The equation or condition XXXV. . XXIY 329 have been obtained by the (29. with the relation between the .] EQUATION OF HOMOSPHERICITY. I. and of a scalar g. might . the product of the successive sides of a pentagon. The product if (289) and sphere. = aa* + fc/32 + cy2 + dd^ + ea^. six times the second member of this last formula being found to be equal to the seit.fSyS). XXXVIII. in the same plane.) The product of any even number complanar vectors . or other oddsided polygon in a sphere. more fully.) = +b+ c + d + e. . of and XXV'. A. with vectors apydt from any arbitrary origin XXXIV. (27. p . is generally a quabut the product of the successive sides of a hexagon abcdef. 70) the equation.. from the product of an even number of tangents.. (12. XLVIII. we find as in (6.0 = aa + b(3 + cy + dd+ee. ae from the first (or last) point a (31. ternion with an axis perpendicular to their plane of the polygon. ad. between ^ue scalar equations of the form 282. in the tangent plane at that point. or heptagon. and the analogous equation for the five points abode.) But the product of the successive sides of a heptagon. (19. XXXVII..sided polygon. number of vectors. o. which touches the sphere at the initial or final point because it bears a scalar ratio to the product of an odd . . « a XXXIX. 260. between the four other equations . . at the initial (or final) point of the polygon.) The equation XX. transformation (35. the product of any odd number of complanar vectors is always a line.. we have also (comp.)» namely the five following.)).) ) is normal to that (33..)) of the five points o. 6a = S (y .). may be written thus = S(a/3) (iSy) (y. (27. (36. a = BCDE. . (10. on the plan of 294. to the deve(30.) that it differs only by a scalar coefficient.) The equation XX. the axis of this quaternion (comp.CHAP. d = EABC. inscribed in a circle.e) {e XXXV. or any other evensided figure^ inscribed in a circle. and XLVII. inscribed in a sphere.d) {S. of homosphericity (comp. of any number of lines in space is generally a quaternion they be the successive sides of a hexagon../3) = S (y^e  Se(3 + ejSy . or . or its XXVIII. is equal (comp./3) (6 C = DEAB. &c. answering lopment of XXVIII.. drawn from the first point of that inscribed and oddsided poly gon : because it difiers only by a scalar coefficient from the product of an odd num ber of such tangents. or thus. &c.) On the other hand.) ).
are respectively. XLm. [bOOK = . by tlie the Jifth (37. </ . . .) In effecting the may be useful on other occasions : aq + qa=^1 {aSq + Sqa) vector. which LII. (p .. .) Accordingly. L. or the formula. XLVL . and that points. other locus. /32 . multiplied by the sextuple termine. XLIV. . . p2_2Sx:p + 5r = 0. generally.) in general . of a gauche quadrilaproduct offour part of teral inscribed in a sphere. so that . or its vector e. 0=V(a/3) (^y) (y«) (pa). gi\ing p = «. . . as arbitrary. sides.) The equations of the tangent to the sphere abcd.). . D are not complanar. B. = S(a/3) {(3y) (y^) (5a) (pa).Q four points A. is equal to the diameter drawn to the initial point of the volume of the pyramid. V(ab.330 XL. and the equation of the sphere abcd. c are not collinear.V(ai8)(^y)(y^)(^a) = 2aS(/3a)(ya)(^a). . . of the sphere (41. = V(acircle : /3) 037) (y5) (5a). . a2=32 = y2=^2 = _r2. aqa = a^Kq + 2aSqa . reductions (41. then after some reductions transformation. A. where a may be any and q may be any quaternion.. . we have the (42.) By treating this fifth point. we find in each case the equation.da) = 12ka. XLIV.a)2 = 0.''^ enunciate this theorem : (43. p being as usual the vector of a variable point p.). or p =A (20) . we recover the condition or equation of concircularily (3. oi lh. and (40. XLVIL it . as in (36.) Hence. . we obtain the the positive scalar r denoting the radius.). a22S/ca + ^ = 0. ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . . b. condition referred to.) "We may therefore " The vector successive the — formation havp been employed. which its four points depolygon. if k be.bc. £2_2S/c£ + ^ K being the vector of the centre written as K of the sphere Abcd.0 = S(a/3)(/3y)(y^)(^p)(pa). Ta = T/3 = Ty = T5 = r. and . III.2Skj3 + = 0.). b. the following general for mulce of trans(44. XLIL (38.0 = V(a/3)(/3r)(rp)(pa). . and of the tangent plane (39.cd.. LI. of which the equation may be XLL.) If the centre abcd be taken or for the origin o. XXVI'.. . .. whether or XLV. LII'. . at the point a. the four being supposed that the three points A. g being some scalar constant point E is situated. . XLV.. may The equation of the be written thus ABC. the centre of the sphere. on the one or the to the circle abc. and XLVI. and on which. . c. . XLVIII. c. d. we combine the two equations XLIII. equation (comp. XLIX.abcd.
q" = qYq". . and that the fourth. for the fourth proportional to three complanar vectors. 5. which has been already considered. . yS. second^ and third quaternions. being also at /. may present general plan) the Fourth (on Three to these Proportional Diplanar Vectors. I. in this new case. . /3. fourth vector in the same plane. or that each side of the triangle abc is than a quadrant. ABC on a IV. 289) the symbol namely i\i2i\. . when 7 not \\\ a. and it will enable us to interpret (comp. . = . ll. £ I = Yy^^a = Va/3'y = ny \ la  mfi^ .) the vectors of the corners of a triangle /3. we shall say that they q'". hut at least a Quawhich be the called ternion. 7. Such fourth some interesting properties.CHAP. 6. the equation of quotients. and to illustrate by showing their connexion with spherical and generally with spherical geometry. taken in this given order.] FOURTH PROPORTIONAL TO DIPLANAR VECTORS. q'. which it will be useful briefly to consider. and q". trigonometry. the Fourth Proportional to the^r^i. Ta = T/3 = Ty = 1 . it . n. (1. I. defined by the equations.. be (as in 208.q"'={q':q). &c. (2. 331 Section 7 — On the Fourth Proportional to Three Vectors. first three cosines. q^ q'.« I (n = = cos 6 cose = = Say'i Si3ai = S/3y. . y the unitsphere. or VI. or the equivalent formula. 7. III. where it is understood that V. =cosa=Sy/5i . . and let us write. is greater than zero.Sya. a. /3.. is namely form a Proportion . In general. This definition will include (by 288) the one which was assigned in 226. less supposed. . . Pa^<^i. Diplanar 297. namely to §'. that each of these m. ^= /3a"^7. whereof the sides are a. . (1. when any fovr quaternions. VII. as denoting not indeed a Vector. for the sake of fixing the conceptions. f . a2 = /32 = y2=l.) Let a. .) Then. q^\ q"\ satisfy q"'\ q'' = q'\q. =  Sa^.). ^. introducing three new vectors. c . a. especially with reproportionals possess ference to their vector parts.
a. and so obtain a new def. that cos b XIV. (11. in this new or de rived triangle. 2n = . fai=K^a» of the equatio mode of arriving at the same inteipretation ..) The sides opposite to d.as = which (3K = S(3. . we shall have the relation. IX.. show by a'. + r2=N/3aV = scalar e is different from zero. .(a^ + j3a) . VII.. to their (4. XV. one common length.) We have therefore the equations between vectors. have all [book III. we have . .am. for if we write. the equations XIII.s = aKa. l. c of the old OT given triangle . triangle. Ka. because they have one common norm namely.). XVir. .) This . are bisected. (8. 67. = ysy. ^ + ^=2»^i3. = (5d. sides (6. cos a= r cos a'.. y are ^ = y£y» . . S £ XVIir. whatever the length of the vector a mag be. .y^y. VIII. and IX. . 156). the three following equations between quaternions.OD = m= by the rl^. r. yd = ay. XVI'. . . are therefore ^r portional to the cosines of the sides of the old (or bisecting) triangle ABC. I = /3^/3i. f + ? = 2Za.. . as in Fig. = . N^=N£ = N? = . common length. K S = I3^(3. (7. XL and the . OE = Ue = (5. of which the corners are determined XII. e. on the unitsphere. new also. expresses that the to that vector a because .) The equations IV. by V. T^ = T£ = T? = r = V(Z2 + mS + 7i2 _ 2/mw). £ = aZa'\ = a£ai. . because we have the d^ three equations. d+E = 2ny. .2 + ^2 + „2_2Zmn = r2.) Another . def. = . £a = aK. . X./3?/3.) Dividing the three lines ^.Z=. by 2m = (ya + ay). Hence also. ?/3 and express in a new way the relations of bisection (5. . c' (so that the arc ef = 2< by IV. W may be put (comp. the first equation line e is (comp.). ? by their length. or because . with respect it XIX. therefore. Sa/37 e2 = S/3aV = e. unitvectors. 2Z = (^y + y/3). because the vectors a. or (9. may also be thus written. f.. XVII. £. by the corners A. so that (3. = r cos 6'. 2 ^ = /3^/3i. . say r. XIII. or . .332 we ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. y are diplanar. XYI. XYIII. . (1. . f=y^yi. give. (3.) Denoting the halves of the &c. XVII... is less than unity . we change them versors (155. cos c =r cos c' the cosines of the halfsides of the new (or bisected^ triangle.) In general. three new unitvectors.). 138) the reflexion of the line c. r. . 6'. . ri£.) . find that these three derived vectors . 279) under the form. by 279. Kfa or XIX'. B. dy = y£. /3. (10..
£ . (13.. Lea=LaKi £ ^ are equally long. 6 (10. . that whatever may be the length of a. can be dispensed with.. an operator..?=r+r. by 281. XXIV.K"aai = ^' _ ^" the parallel part of ^ being thus preserved. XXVII. S9P51 = Sgi^p = Sp = 0. conceive two opposite points. in 179. these two rotations being similarly directed.). and in one common plane. &c. riia. but there may still be a convenience in admits of being replaced by UV . and the other perpendicular to a. through an angle equal to the double of aob (if the cenire of the sphere). and op = p'o = Ax. of that operand. . in such a manner that C one pa XX. 51.) And in like manner we can from XXIV'.) If then .Z^a'ha. namely one with such a symbol as . in (7. (10.T£ = T^.. or of the tensor. ^ and 333 = aZa\ rallel is to conceive ^ decomposed into two summand vectors. the forms.a^. XXIII. if . XXV. . XVII.) "We may also write the equations . from XXIV.) Or we may return from £ and then this equation between quaternions will show. then we shall have. 223. o be still that the line od may be derived from the line OE. infer (17. we must have. . XVII'. . . XXV'. . that is. we can infer op' = Ax. that is. that the line OB admits * It was remarked it because in 291. = a^a'^ to the form ea = a?. through an angle =2 Lq. (1. so that XXIX. (15. . by the conditions of being respectively the positive poles of the two opposite arcs. to the first (12. as being sttll a rightangled quaternion (290) . so that the two lines £. more . round the axis of q. Ax. employing it occasionally. ^ = i3aif a/31 and . .) Substituting this last expression for ? in the second equation XVII'. = 51^^. and in 191. p' and p. briefly. /3ai = Ax. a)3i = Ax. (14.) and was seen to indicate a conical rotation of the axis of the operand quaternion (of which the symbol is to be conceived as being written within the parentheses). (^ .CHAP. so that a vector must remain a vector. occurred before. hy the operation a )a^. . under XXIII'.). . . or XXIV.. XXI. ba. but the perpendicular part being reversed. as suggested equation XVI'. for .] EXPRESSIONS FOR CONICAL ROTATION. for 9 ( ) 91 . (5.) ^ = 9£gi. &c. . = aK'a^ + aK"a^ = ^aai . . by a co nical rotation round the line Op' as the angle an axis. the transformations. . 5 =^aJ. 6 = a/3i^/3a» XXVI. .*£a = Ax.). XXII. that this characteristic Ax. g. we AB and . and the rotation from to a is equal to that from a to ^ . . or (comp. to be determined on the unitsphere. £ I. . rj«.) ) because XXVIII. (16. after any operation of this sort. £ = ai^a. An expression of this form. derive this we new equation. Avithout any change of the angle. .
no diflSculty in geometrically proving this theorem of remarkable how simply quaternions express it : namely by the . is one part of the theorem (17. which that given arc subtends. s. dr. through an angle equal to twice the angle boa. on the sphere. the annexed Figure 68 is drawn . XXX. R B A SU lar successive reflexion from F to e.) There is. we see.) The point p may be said to be the reflexion. .) at A and b. with respect to the point b. but the bisections above mentioned give (comp. as we see by the points^ involves essentially the associative principle of multiplication. say that two successive reflexions of an arbitrary point upon a sphere (as here froraD to F. if f' be the point diametricallv op Fig. first. would in fact bring the point D.— 'JF/ has been reflected into the position f. meeting the great through a and b in the points r. 1 . 68. ES. at the same pole (p)_ is but it we see. or parallel to that great circle is : and that the angidar quantity (dpe) of this rotation double of that represented the double of the (22. is evidently measured by the arc RS of the great circle with p for pole . .(3^pl3. with respect to two given points (b and A) of a may given great circle. .) (19.) Instead of conceiving that the point D. or round the axis op. required. are jointly equivalent to one conical rotation. by an equal but opposite conical rotation. posite ioF: so that a conical rotation round this the position E. round the line as a new positive axis.a^=ai3\p. (21. 69. and then along Fig. the thiee arcual perpendiculars. and that therefore the P is the interior pole of the small cir point cle def'. the positive pole of the arc ba. but their significations will soon be explained. t. as rotation : by the arc (ba) connecting the two given points . 69. and the other part of the same theorem (17. (23.) is proved. XXXII.) To in illustrate these and other connected results. ft. e. let fall from E. round the pole (p) of that great circle . a. '^ rs = 2 « ba. the quantity of this conical rotation. (5. . or the line od. as above. or to the description of an arc of a small circle. of the point D. or is angle (bpa). with respect to the point b. or to the line ob. on the great circle through A and b. or of. as indicated in Fig. for the moment. f^ TA = '> AS .) to (20. 165) the two arcual equations. with a similine OD. round that/)o/e. or OE. which bisects the interval between them and thus we . we may conceive that pole. which a.) Again. formula. OP of being derived from od. D. and arcs are drawn from circle it to d. F. and then from f to e).(3a\ . that because the arcs ef and fd are bisected (5. whence XXXI. which pole p. which p represents. are equally long. with b for from D to f. or the . (18. n RB= '^ BT. in . (The other letters in the Figiu*e are not. a point has moved along a small semicircle. [book III. f.) This being understood.334 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. p may denote any three vectors and which.
two arcs ba. . and we is see that the result.) And instead of thus conceiving two successive arcual motions of a point D upon a sphere. 8 . TX = \/(r^ n*)=r sin c'. cod. namely the two following : AB OCD. . XXXIII.] CONSTRUCTION OF A FOURTH PROPORTIONAL. oi lines withf»/aMe«. . whereof no three are complanar. happen to intersect each other. and — c — d. prolonged. and introducing the . of the form \ aa^^b^^^ cy connecting /o?^r coinitial vectors a fifth vector. and \= L. &c. or equivalent to a motion along an arc de of a third small which is through B and A.) When the two lines. S evidently complanar (22) with a. ab and CD. y. y.. then this = aa+ bfi=  cy  dS. or two successive conical rotations of a radius OD. S. for is which OL = U\. especially as regards the Construction of the Fourth Proportional to three diplanar vectors. 335 effect. the two (generally unequal) vectors. the condition (63).) ) . 25. 64) the vectors of two (generally distinct) points of intersection. (26. namely the equation which may be compared with 294. Za  7»/3 = i(6 . which dius. . conceive an analogous composition of two successive rotations of a solid body (or rigid system). j3.. let us first remark. and thus we recover. 68). • and cd oab.CHAP. d^= 0. draw some additional consequences from the equations VII. (aa + i/3) : (a + b). . we see that the . which are obtained as the quotients of these two divisions. that when we have (as in 62) a linear equation. c. . because (by a wellknolv^n theorem respect . and on which we may perhaps return. it is therefore part of the indefinite line of intersection of the plane aob. round axes passing through a point o. de. A. and (cy + d^) : (c + d). £ is . from f to e of these two successive and semicircitlar motions circle. And if we divide this fifth vector by the two (generally unequal) sca a+ 6. I. in a new way. considered as compounding themselves into one resultant motion oi ihAt point or rotation of that ra. B. and XXXV. or for the terminocomplanarity of the four vectors a. of these e two pairs of vectors. 68. now the recent equations VII. which gives. and which distant by a quadrant from c : a result which may be confirmed by elementary conaiderations. another small semicircle. which the given arc ba. and has a projection us thereon. and also with (comp. 294. the two lastmentioned points coincide . meet in a point l (comp. generally. Fig. are (comp. • (27. (6.) But to from what precedes. parallel (as before) to the great circle as before) is double of (still (24. XXXIV.. and from the recent Fig.) Resuming XLV. : we may easily suggests itself (25.) lars. with A for pole. for the complanarity of t\iQ four points o. Sy\ = 0.5). (28. which \s fixed in space (and in the body) and so obtain a theorem respecting S7ich rotation. (3. new vector.
(30. and : dm is a quadrant. : r^ sin c' = cos c'. V/3X : = ZV/3a. III. and 5 = T^. have in fact a common valu« To prove this last result by quaternions.. : which XXXVIII. q. tion (18. interpret the two vectorequationsy XXXVII. an equivalent . if _ tan tan CD AB cosBC sin cos sin bl ac al 6i we if let fall the perpendicular CQ on ab (see again Fig. . whence (yX)2 = VyX = yX = Xy.. 68 have their significations determined. whence d the pole of : and the angle lnm is right conceiving then that the arcs CA and cb are drawn. [bOOK de and ef. n. . whereb}' all the letters in Fig. r.. '^ QR.336 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.L = XLII. XLIII. ^^ (31.S^=T^..)  y2X« = X2. V^f = 2«yX. . the sines in question are therefore (by 204. . by elementary principle that the three trigonometric quotients in namely cos cq. (32. k. .UX . or cos l. LN = n CD. . as before. Q bisects RS. TX TV/3o = r sin c = tan c': tan c. XXXVI. ok = . in which. which show. points m. XIX. yX (yX)it being remembered that X L y. and is if At the same time we see that if p be (as before) the positive pole of ba. have three triangles. while l' is the negative (as l the positive) pole of cq.co. k' be the negative and positive poles of de. . nd is will be quadrants and because the angle at R is right by construe is M the pole of dr. sin c' VaX = wVjSa. and to assign their that by XXXIII.S^ = ?^=S^ayX'=.yUX . iug transversal arcs) the the third side in a point bisector ba of the two sides. last equality of sines.) Accordingly. XLl V. rightangled at q and n. to the trigonometric equations. UV^f = UyX. V5X = Vf\ = ^V5£. ok' = yUX . r. TVU^X = TVUA = ir2 sin 2c' we may . SU^=Sn'^" VJj V/3a \pa y\ yX . XLI. so that tions. TV^e = r2 sin 2c' .) On similar principles.. ol' = . and TA = T£\=r2 8inc'. we have the transformations. OL = + UX. . common i>. . .) To prove by quaternions this common value. (33. in . we have only to observe sin el. = nyX.). and without employing the auJ Mary points m.). . XXXVr. €=«y+X. while we may write. and we determine two new '^ n by the arcual equi XL. the arcs mr. OP = UV^a . LM = '^ AB = .S^X'=l.) XXXIX. must meet for which sinDL= (29. SyX'l = 0.
(d + e + f). the lune ff' shows that this sum is what remains. y. (35. y. the upper sign .) We may thus LII. . : ternion. of the triangle DKF. 2 = D +E +F  TT. /3ai. and 295. to the sarne three vectors other. /c . LL . . XLV. we have by XI. to the three equally long hut diplanar vectors. when we subtract the vertical angle F. yai/3 = . this fourth proportional.. L = l'dr = tp . but an equal vector part (comp. are also isosceles (19. . 337 (34. Z. in order to express this of/jer fourth proportional.) The double of this representative angle is the sum of the two baseangles of the isosceles triangle dpe .XK» =/iKi XLVI. (1. of a spherical triangle 2x .. 2c'. r = cos2.sin 2 + r^d cos 2 new fourth . L. positive. . because OD = U^=ri^. (36. from the baseangles gles of the d and e of that triangle . a from /3 being taken. as above supposed. or has an opposite scalar. = pi\i. /3a"iy = cos l'dr + od . f'pd.y . is 6. j3a'y we introduce the area. to y has been supposed to be negative.K/3ai y = . . .) that when the sides 2a'. write. or l'dr.) . . so that . and because the two other triangles.y\. the rotation round a from y on the contrary. : .) Having thus expressed /3ai y. a. of the triangle def. .). epf'. of is angle (174) which the representative arc (162) is km. have. of which the second and third have merely changed places with each : the formula LIIL (39. OK = Uk. . or edp and we may write for this versor. for the angle of this proportional. or X = y/c. writing thus XLIX. But the common therefore. at once. that because the rotation /3 round a from to (3 must be. the expression XLVII.) Writing also. ya'^/3.) It follows bv (6. sin l'dk. and om = U/t. /3. expression for the Angle of the Fourth Proportional XL VIII. 2b'. . we have = . (40. when the rotation round to y is negative. we require no new appeal to the Figure. LIV. or the spherical excess^ say 2. /3. /3a"y = sinfS h r»^ cos ^2 . We have therefore this very simple . I. L^a^y = \irl'2.) ) : the geometrical difference being merely this.J ANGLE OF A FOURTH PROPORTIONAL. vector part of these ie^o fourth proportionals by VII . and we a. which is the negative of its conjugate. . XLV.).) Or. . and /A = /3a'X. if . 204. and the representakdm. (38. c = + sin2. we have these other expressions . by XIL (37. is therefore tive a versor. or when we sum of the supplements of the two subtract the sum of the three an: same triangle ^om four right angles. or qua.CHAP.yai3 = KDL = i(D + E + F) = i7r + ^2. (9.
if {S5eKy = r^ r2 .SU(V/3a:y). . . e. or the sine of cq. LX. let fall gle . LIX.) to be each less than a quadrant. in . but the elimination of ^2 between LIX. mula LV. cos i2 = r = (r3 ^^'^ rS {eZ + Kd Se) ) . . or the arc mn from what has been recently shown. without any such 1 .) this last form. is [bOOK III. (4/mn)3 = i(e + ?)3 (? 4 Sy Cd + e^ = 2 (r2 . by LIV. from the LVII. LXV. by quaternions. 45+^0 __5JM___ . (42. of the bisecting triangle ABC. (ilmny = (SdeKy + (r3 gives. of which the area triangle.338 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.4Zmn = S(^ + (44. . Te. c of another spherical a. since . LXII and under tan 12 ^ ^^= r = r3_rS^£^ + we have a. . have been hitherto supposed for it will be found that the forrestriction.S?^) (r^ . whence. we have also the formula. . LXIV. a = U(£ + = i^"'(£ + 0. sini2 = e = Sa8y = S(V/3a.yi) = TV/3a. .) Under the same conditions.) Under the same condition. upon that side from the opposite corner of the latter trian because we have LVI. LVIII. As a verification. c. that the angle rdk. . . is equal to the sine of a side of the bisecting triangle abc. ?.. . in which. represents the semiarea of the bisected triangle def .) The same expression. sin CQ. 6. (43. T^ of the edges at o may be. the cosine of cp. sin 12 = sin mx = sin lm . holds good. conclusion can be drawn immediately. n. by IV. are bisected by the corners A. sin l = sin ab .S^f) . (45. by the rightangled triangle lmn. 68. {S &c. 52 = £2 = ^3 = _ and in fact this equality results immediately from the general formula 294. . . whatever the lengths Td. multiplied into the sine of the perpendicular.  r{8sK + S^^ + SSe)  )2 . .tiUeKSV^d 1 I • SXJSe ' general expression for the tangent of half the spherical opening at o.SeK) (r2 ..) It follows also. we may write also. we have LXIII. then : LV. (41.r^ {(SeKy + (8^^)24 (S^f)^} ^SeKSKSSSe.. LXI. LTII.. to find that . . and the other factor is which one factor is the sine of ab. we ought then . and XIII. of any triangular pyramid odef. (46. cos a cos a' = cos b : cos b' = cos c : cos c' = cos ^S. . . LXI. but * These sides abc. of which the sides* are 2. respecting the equal lengths of d. DEF. MDN. or in Fig. we can infer that the sine oi this semiarea. .) + = ^'S(f^ + ?^+^0+ 4lmn Hence also.sinA2=SU(£+0(^+^) (e + e) = SdeK:4:lmn. simplicity (1.
denote the area* of the bisecting triangle abc. LXVIII. (48. tan 2 c = 1 Sa/3y ' '^ e lt/ . of which the axis is the radius OD. but cos ^2 = cos c sec c'. x^^rr LXXI. ..cos 2 2 2 abc b .) The arc mn. LXXIV.) ). which thus represents new quaternion may be thus expressed LXXIII. .) Returning to the bisected triangle. . UQ= cos ^S + on. (21. by (IX.Sya .. sin 12. 4 cos . abc . 210. sin a' sin i' sin F cose . . the last formula gives. sin tan S = = sin ft . (comp. . Q.] CONNEXION WITH SPHERICAL AREA. An important transformation of this last versor maybe obtained as fol lows : is * The reader will observe that the more usual symbol 2. the general principle infer that LXVII. TQ = r = cos2.) . if />' . . . sin ft = sin es = sin le may l = cos ln sin mn cosec lm = tan mn cot ab. . . 1^ = sm ~S .. has its be considered as the representative arc (162) of a certain new quaternion. sec c .) and (XL). respectively. . LXII. we have. . sin c sin = sin c sinp = sin b A = &c. LXXV.cos  LXIX. I. hence sinp' tan c LXXII. denote the perpendicular from f on the bisecting arc ab.. . a sui LXX. or ft in Fig. . or \Jd . ^^^„ . .S?^  = Sbnnd .) But. .Y(d + e)(6 + whence other (47. .Sa/3 sin c sin +m+« p 1 if + cos a + cos 6 + cos c' so that p denote the perpendicular e cq from c on ab. (? 339 S6t) LXVI. pole at the point d. + 1 + ..cos . = smp sm c . for this area of here employed (36. or of its versor. 68. by spherical trigonometry.S/3y .cos . by LV. in Fig. its tensor and versor being. sin 2 = ~  sin c sm c 1 = &c. def. cos(49. and in quantity the semiarea of def.) to denote the area of the cxscribed triangle def. . verifications may be derived. Q = dya^ = : . e^ + O. enables us to .) If <T + ^) = 2«J (r2  SeK . and this (50. tan ab. cos 2 <r = 1 i cos a + cos 6 4 cose 4cos . (51.CHAP. . Accordingly. 6^ + d8a(3y = r2 + e^ . 68. m + ny =2(1 + 1) (1+m) (1+n) 2 2 2 (abc hence the cosine and sine of the new semiarea are.
or as equivalent to the symbols V(5£J). On the contrary. (54. as above. and in short. and it will be seen that they suggest and embody a remarkable theorem. (1.i)i (t^^'Os . it would be useless to speak of them. which has the Initial {or Final) Point of — * rather. all passing through one fixed point. UQ' = cos2OD. &c. each equal which differs indefinitely little from unity. of any Spherical Polygon. the analogous to formula : LXXXL . H be negative and therefore. from e to f. and we may even conceive an extension of it. number of indefinitely small triangles. = j^ .) ).) To assist the recollection of this result. then the same reasoning shows that (5:i)i (?». (3. but one of a new kind.. of the curve. or a Definite Integral. if we did not employ the noncommutative property (168) oi quaternion multiplication. such as the point d.) It is easy to extend this result to the area of anj/ spherical polygon.l^ = LQ=L 5ya(i = l (56»)i (f^O^ (?5i)i = .sini2 = (5ri)i (^£1)^ (« ^'> . . which has nm for its representative arc. the corresponding quaternion LXXVIII. t . In fact. for their respective bases or to the spherical opening is of any cone. may be deduced from is. 180. with some comon the spheric surface. we have by LXXV. . the Products here that it is we may say considered would evidently become each equal to unity : so that they would furnish no expressions for spherical or other areas. LXXX.sin i(2 + 2') = (5£i)^ (f^O^' (S^/'O^ (^o^^.) The conjugate (or reciprocal) versor. dfh . which the limit* of the product of indefinitely many factors. LXXIX. LXXVII. . defh. triangle. with exponents each being interpreted as square roots (199.sin ^2'= the rotation round d from f the two coaxal versors.) of any pyramid. . where 212' denotes the area of the spherical quadrilateral. UQ by simply interchanging Q' /3 and y. . (55. and we have = KQ = S(3ay = r«  e^ . . which could not easily have been introduced without Quaternions. also (63. [bOOK III. to the area of any closed curve upon the sphere. if cos IS' +OD. or to the spherical opening (44. it may be stated as follows (conip. these expressions of productform are found. and with indefinitely small : arcs EF. these powers of quaternions. as a limit. . but in other req?ects succeeding each other with any gradual or sudden changes.) for the definition of an arcual sum): " The Arcual Sum of the Halves of the successive Sides. FH. to the squareroot of a quaternion. round any number of successive axes. the rotation round d. expressed thus as the Angle of a Quaternion.340 so that ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. UQ'i. . of the ordinary kind . respecting the resultant of rotations of a system. by multiplication of LXXVI. when that property or principle of multiplication is introduced. This Limit is closely analogous to a definite integral. and let oh the area of the let 2' be new spherical . is equal to an arc of a Great Circle. to have extremely useful significations in spherical geometry . cosKS + 2') + oD.) Let H be any other point upon the sphere. considered as decomposed into an indefinite mon vertex. being still supposed to be negative. and LXXX. . (52. or « and ^ . ..
so far. Figures. through half the arc df which halfside righthand factor. through the resultant arc tor. LXXIX. to correspond to the extreme left the final resultant (or total transvector arc). (^^~i)i. before adding (or compounding) And accordingly. for examfrom the line OB to the line OC. the formula. half the arc ed. 341 the Polygon for its Pole.)). 2 of the triangle was simply changed to its own negative. ^ are complanar. (58. in the expression for which. through half the arc fe. or through any arc equal to finally. t Compare the Notes to pages 116. X Compare the Second Chapter of the Second Book. OA. which answers to the factor placed immediately to the left of the former . when we say. ceive As regards the order thus may be observed that . round which the rotation on the surface conceived to be per formed ple. or squareroot.. which has the point d for its positive pole. or through any equal arc (163). or that the three lines d. whereof the former are supposed to be multiplied bgf the latter. such as the arc ln . in the conjugate (or reciprocal) formula took the opposite order.] AREA OF POLYGON OR CURVE ON SPHERE. is negative (or lefthanded). and represents the Semiarea of the Figure. with hia head at the point A. . we have only to conceive that the three points d. being thus represented by the ^naZ arc mn. as arranged in the formula. the spectator is imagined is to stand on the point of the sphere. to a person standing thus with hisfeet on A. : any point of the surface within the triangle that is. such as ml in Fig. . it (56. having of the triangle def answers to the thus moved. in the order in which the successive sides df. ba (as a transvec And 180. we cona point to move. a new versor. when the halfsides are (ar cually) added in an opposite order. on the whole. their halves. e. for the angle (51.'' it being understood that this resultant arc is reversed in direction. II. in proceeding as usual from righthand to lefthand factors. fe. 159. in the arcual which corresponds to the quaternion multiplication in LXXVI. we while the result was. 68. and the Note (or origin) o. line. his body being outside the sphere. and with his hody in the direction of OA prolonged : or else standing on the centre Compare 174..CHAP. in the order dfe. 177. f are coarcual (165). as in the recent pear to be the direction of that rotation. thus cos 12 . (3. referred to. in the same Figure. we have . S. (de^)h (£^1)^ (?5i)i = 1.) Now be that round d. from b to f.) To give an example of the reduction of the area to zero. from f to as seen* from the direction of positive rotation on the sphere has been supposed to e .). I. by the laws* of complanar quaternions. if SdtK = . and 2 = 0. ed have been taken. which answers to the product of the three square. = 1.) of the quaternion (or versor) product which it represents. or situated on one great circle . For this case. we mean that such would apsimilarly to page 153. first. • In this and other cases of the sort. we conceive a motion through that half. LXXXII. . And that the rotation round the or radius. def. e.) addition. and therefore along the perimeter. as the area we saw in (52. (57.roots. and hand factor in the formula the halfarea. We then conceive the same point to move next from f to a.
. (59. and by VII. . t Compare the Note to (54. or the halfarea of the triangle efh (= def— dhf).).1 )^ S^« ».. which brings it from oe to od. = r. and in general. Qo = idt~ )i Qi (« ^.) is .(e . yet it can easil}^ be accomplished For example we have. and in . . or let SS^t] III.j)2 = r2  e« + 2e^ . = = . 28. (60. for r and e fact. transformations LXXXV. od.) ple But the this when new point added area (53.).) . may be formed by simply squaring the versor \] Q and although this squaring cannot be effected by removing . But for the present. by a rotation round the pole of the arc ed. it may be convenient to distinguish (comp.). by means of the two conjugate qua ternion products.. and to consider them as denoting two opposite triangles. but with a double angle. and denote the product formation. :J . although the axis of Q2 is transferred from the position of the axis of Qi. (15. because d and = . us conceive that abc and lmn * In some investigations respecting areas on a sphere. it may be considered to be sufficiently evident. of four squareroots ' by if Q2. even when this auxiliary point is not situated on the perimeter. LXXXI. butwehave Aere S= — \yaf. Qi = (f^i)i (^.. how the be applied and extended. with any assumed point D on the surface as a sort of spherical origin. in (53. which shows (comp. but is either external or internal thereto. (GL) From formula this LXXXL may example. LXXXir. . ) that in this case the angle of the quaternary product Qi that of the ternary product Qi.» )i (17^1)^ (^^0'. of which the ««?« is zero. ya(3d dyajS . . Qo = UQ2=r2(^ya/3)2=(ya/3)2 S^ . Qo = . because S enable us to write this last result under the form.) let the point then. we are content to express this distinction. so that the quadrilateral defh has only the same area as the triangle DEF. (63. 63) between the two symbols def and dfe. if p  Yq. so as to represent (comp. the geometrical reason being evidently that in this case the added area 2' vanishes . IX. = pq.) may even have a negative* effect^ as for examh falls on the old side de. . (54. LXXIV.) ) the area of any closed figure on the sphere. (51. LXXXVI. l)y LXXIII. (62 ) A new quaternion Qo. . = .^ in the formula in other ways.) and (52. the fractional exponents. tlie LXXVI. Accordingly. the trigonometric values LIV. h be coarcual = with [bOOK f. X The equation dyafi = y aj3d is qp not valid generally . by XII. . To show its geometrical signification. the product of four factors LXXXI. if S5?j. if we write LXXXIII.i)i (^£i)J. sin S. with the same axis od as the quaternion Q of (50.) Again.. = 0. we shall have the trans LXXXIV. .342 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. reduces itself to the product of three factors LXXVI.(yafSy = cos S + od let . (?». and with a tensor equal to unity. X.
). . equal ba (31. at least if we still suppose. def. or numeri cally equal to. . which has cause MN pole at D.) We see. of . has therefore been and may be said to have been proved anew. determined by the three arcual equations (163). . F. still U^ in XII. '^BC='^CBi. I. if we desire that the sides of the auxiliary triangle. the area S of that auxiliary triangle . be bisected (as in Figures 67.). The formula LXXXVI.a^i. by limits. or from. .yf3r^=ya^. by these simple geometrithe cal considerations. 68) by the corners of the given triangle abc. nLMi = ^BiAi. or Qq. in the equations XII. may deserve next to be (although more briefly) considered. we must write now. as we have each less hitherto for simplicity done (1. a y (3 is which the axis directed to. to XXVI. being reserved for a short subsequent Article: and other cases being easily referred to from a given line to its opposite. Z < 0. . . than quadrants. to XI. 2' we may still retain the recent equations IV. . and also the signs of the versors U^.) whereof the B. . respectively ojo/JosiYe by the given points A. . 70. the corner d of a certain auxiliary spherical triangle def. 43) the product aiy^. b. and XV. c are now each greater than a quadrant. or that II. how to interpret the symbol. LXXXVir. 343 have the same meanings in the new Fig. 167. the sides of the given triangle are all greater. (1. 68 and that AiBiMi are three new points. The case when instead of being all less. which easily conduct to this fourth equation of the same kind. represents the product its yaJ/3yi. and XIV. and Fig. 298. c. or by passing now that I. LXXXVIII.a>— 2 6>— 2 c>— . e.] CASE OF SIDES GREATER THAN QUADRANTS. whence the arc mmi. of 297 but we must change the sign of the radical. This new arc lmi represents thus (comp. . namely as denoting a versor. MN = o NMi r. the case when they are all equal to quadrants.(3y^ while the old arc ml. (64. or its . Uc. . to D. under these new conditions I. . Qo=^^^.CHAP. XIII.) to half that area). ^. are bisected (5.. and of which the angle represents. r. of which the sides a.. and is numerically equal to the whole area 2 of def (bewas seen to be equal (50. according as the rotation round is a from j8 to y is negative or positive. E.. sides. nAC = '^CAi. or interpreted.  (ya/3)2. r being still the common tensor of 5.) Supposing these. may the new equations. < 0. n . LXXXVII. represents a/?^ . and therefore being still supposed to be itself >0. as in Fig.. m < 0. Thus. . at same time. that the sides of the given triangle abc are than a quadrant. or II.
it is again. and VIII. or edp.) cos a — — r cos a'. without an ambiguous sign (comp. L. nor is ^tt — ^2 any longer. = sin ^2 + /3aiy when od. cos is iS . we proceed to form from it ab be supposed each greater than a quadrant. M and r will fall on the arcs lq and or the angle kdm. And as regards the quantity of this rotation. The equations IV.' k will fall between the points c and q . instead of our subtracting (as in 297. however. y. . to re D is now o' a negative (7. the (posiOn the contrary we have now.. . . (34. Z /3aiy = 1(2  tt). for the com. namely when Z= 0. r = 4:Cos2. a new arrangement.) It not . : VIII. . yet the conesponding rotation round the point prolonged: and although the arc km. therefore be written unambiguously as follows h' cos c' : VII. it is now. but also in that which has been reserved for the next. ca. also and the p and ql. &c. (2. (4. analogous to 68.. or negative values (298). €7. we adopt positive values (297). not only in the cases of the last article and of the present. a baseangle of one „ .344 III. and the formula 297. cos 6 of OF = cos IV. cos ^S = cos a. . by a X. + 2r cos a cos cos c = cos a'2 + cos 6'2 + cos c'2  according as sines ?. 297. . ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. . the radius od is no longer the (positive) axis US of the fourth proportional fSa^y . for this axis and angle. we may write. V. we may now 1. or the magnitude of the angle at D. still U^ = r» ^ c= — r cos c. &c . the recent formula V. as in Fig. 71. . holds good. 68. . OD = U^ = r»^. LXIX. ' / but we have now. E f r)7r. to be observed. in virtue of which this angle is to be vertex . . 297. in the prese7it case (298) we have the area 2 > tt.. yet because. in thetri ^"^11^^ —rrJ^' \ ~//^^ jrw 71.) ) the latter angle from the former tlierefore sum . the rotation reversed. . III. (35. . angle def. we may remark that if.) In like manner. (3. Ax. or Z<0. &c. ^n^^ /') D^. that according as VI. To illustrate these results construction. . l(3aiy = x(p .). LI. . XL . /3.Z~ \ ^^v/^^ c found by halving what remains. the bisecting arcs bc. . LIV. OE = U6 = r>£. tive) angle of that versor.).) character. 297 holding good. the perpendicular cq will poles also exceed a quadrant. as in 297.) the following expression for the fourth proportional fSa'^y to three unitvectors a. is subtracted /rom the angle at r. or l'dr. h' = — r cos 6'. may 2 cos a' cos />0. be considered. that although this /ormttZa VIII. continues to hold good. (6. in Fig. may still present the versor (3a^y. •where the scalar part changes sign. of three isosceles triangles.+ cos b"^ f cos c'^ — 1 .) . the rotation round the first from the second to the third being negative . [bOOK . (5. LV. when the sum of tlie supplements of the angles atD and e. as in 297. 3rtiy = DO = OD. n of the sides of the bisecting triangle . the expressions : IX. write. in agreement with the recent expression X. as in Fig. the value of r being still supposed is to be positive. with p for their common ^'''"^V^v. and if a new Figure.. difficult to prove (comp. .) It is.
XIV. LVIII. ^ + 5 = 2rj3 cos 6'. IV. . if we begin with the equations 297. we have also the conjugate or recipro cal formula. (9. V. 3r .. (13. we should only have to change . we have at once (comp. 297: and similarly in other cases. we might again substitute for c its opposite point c'. 54£= 2ry cose'. of the conjugate of the formula VIII. or by these other equations (comp. a result TT .)) for the case and in which it is still supposed that the rotation round a from /3 to y is negative. this simple construction is adopted. : j8. oc = y = U(5 + £). VII. . (64. .cos 2c' 1. Z. and so would fall under the case of the present Article after employing the construction for which. ^. OB = /3=U(^+^).= (/3aW)2 = cos2OD. . with sides = 2o'. 297. S< which had only been proved before (comp. .). but n positive. manner. XII.).) LX.) With the same direction of rotation. if we had I and m negative. with the relations 297. ing by I. means but n < . 297. the equations. as ab. and by taking the negative of the square of following : we are conducted to the XIII. 2c'. is derived from this one. by the condition of and therefore by the equations (comp.] MODIFICATIONS OF THE CONSTRUCTION.). .). .) In general. or the unitvectors U^. a/3y happened that only one side.CHAP. opposite to c.sinS. bisect XV. or that we had Z > 0. Fig. VI. When XVII. f. and with their cosines denoted its sides .). lometry. y by of the foregoing constructions we . c..^? =(yai/3)2 = cosS + OD.) I. n. and so fall back on the construction of Art.cosiS this equation. and if we wished y to y' to represent the fourth proportional to a. by the known formulse of spherical trigo 2 Y . by merely taking scalars of products of vectors. . 4 cos a cos b' cos c' = r2S(^+ XVIII 3) (5 = 4 cos b cos c cos a' = 4 cos c cos a' cos b' + c) = &c. &c. = 1 + cos 2a' cos 26' 4. or to change =—y should only have to introduce the point c' for thus the new triangle abc' would have each side greater than a quadrant. ^°^° cos a' _ ^Q^^ cos 6' _ cose cose' _ cos a'2 f cos b'^+ cos c'2 c'  1 ' 2 cos a' cos 6' cos vhich can indeed be otherwise deduced. 6. 67) that another triangle abc. XVI. .. and 298. (10. £ + ^ = 2ra cos a'. attributing any arbitrary (but positive) value to the common tensor^ r. 297. m > 0. (62. as before 297..OA=a = U(£ + 0. and without any reference to ireas (compare however 297.) If greater. gives. of which the versors. it . 26'. ya'3 = sin^S + OD. XIII. (8. was while each of the two others was less than a quadrant. . XIV. . of the three coinitial vectors 5. terminate at the corners of a given or assumed triangle def. .sin2. 345 The negative XII. the resulting versor to (11. And in like (12. we may then suppose (comp.) its negative. LXIX. with sides denoted by a. m. of the given triangle abc.
). . 68. Luby. and therefore coinciding in position with the sought sides de. &c. and includes the formula 294. . (47. t This opportunity may be taken of referring to an interesting Note. (1. as above : the simplest process being .C. 297. are probably all well known. triangle. as in 297. which admits of several . y are three ttnitvecOA. and as one of that class. &c. described in the sub. may be stated under this apparently different. are together less than quadrants. in which an elegant construction connected with the area of a spherical triangle. is acknowledged as having been men tioned to Dr. areaf of a spherical are .) The trigonometrical results of recent subarticles. especially as regards the arcs. several years ago. 7 > . &c.) tors. verifications. to let fall a perpendicular. that according as the sum of the squares of the cosines of (14. t F. (a/3y)2 = 2a2/32y2 + a^(/37)Hi82(ar)2 + yK«i3/4aySai3S/37. (15. through c. as certainly some of them but they are here brought forward only in connexion with quaternion formulce. A construction nearly to the present writer the same. can be exscribed to it. and denote. by a since deceased and lamented friend. . OB. the sides of the inscribed and bisecting triangle. We [booK III. or all greater than quadrants. LXVII. but only one* such triangle.. LIIL. &c. of a given or assumed spherical triangle. the principle expressed by the recent formula XIII. by (t the area of the triangle abc.346 ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. the following may be mentioned. or together greater than quadrants. y denote any three vectors. — — — . such as CQ in Fig. 297. * In the next Article. 1852).. so as to have its sides bisected. wherein a. which is not irrelevant to the present subject. ly the sides of a given spherical triangle abc be thus all less. see. and then to draw new perpendicular to these perpendiculars. or of the ex istence of indefinitely many exscribed triangles def : namely./3 + y a + /3 y+a . oc. (3. from c on ab. = cos cr + a sm 0 . for instance. we shall consider a case of indeterminateness. or together equal to quadrants. def. we suppose that a. William Digb. or equal to unity. the Rev.D. to page 96. 97 of Luby's Trigonometry (Dublin. And if. ABC. as above.) : XXI '" (y + «) ^ 2e+2a(l + ? + m + n) +2e+ 2a(l + /+m + n) •K(a+/3)(i3 + y) (y + a) (« + /^)(/3 + y) _l + l + m + njea _ •f .articles quaternions. but the order of the factors important : XIX (17.) the halfsides. a + /?y + a/3+y •. . it (18. is (3. of def. 1 + a tan 2 cos + a 2 sin 2 <t 1 + l + m + nea cos ff . as in 297. was suggested Sadleir. when the sides of ab( are all equal to quadrants. then.) "We may. transform as follows (comp. ^ 1 — a tan cos (t 2 a" cos a 2 a sm 2 . a triangle def. = / I + a Sin  0\2 = + a sin c. (16.) Conversely. by 11 .).T. is greater than unity.. or less than unity. but essentially equivalent form : ^^ XX.
we have the equation. y as the unitvectors of the points A..S/3ySy a. for which the three sides a. and 210. /3. of the given are all less. S (V/3y Vy a) = y^Sa^ .) ). b.). and m. .) If then we take any spherical quadrilateral abcd.SU/35. XXIV. . n' /. (16. 5 be that if a. that TO = 0. (Va/3)2 y : . in which o. 1803).) This seems to be a natural place for observing (comp. . I.35)2 a2^2 (Sy 5)2 + a*52(S3y)2 + /3252(Sya)2 + yH^{^a^)K + 2/3«SyaSy^Sa5 + 2y2Sa/3Srt^S/35 J. the lately cited equation 294. (21. on our general principles. = coscD = &c. The two cases. but that it does not even contain any vector part (292) different from zero although. . 347 y. In squaring the lately cited equation 294. is which can be confirmed by elementary considerations. in 297. . XXV. * A is formula equivalent to this last equation of seventeen terms.a2/32 XXVI. not only that this fourth proportional is not itself a Vector . . with 5 written in instead of p. (20. a2/32y222 4. . and write XXIIL treating a. . . and which are often found to be useful = (Sai8)2 . of certain other cases to these. (19.) here given merely as following formulas of transformation (comp. connecting the cosines of the arcs r>. for which the sides of that given triangle are all equal to quadrants : or to inquire what is. we have used the two XXII. .] CASE OF SIDES EQUAL TO QUADRANTS. ca. if I. n as the cosines of the arcs bc. n = 0. j8. having been aec. /3. m' = cosBD = . c. the corners of a spherical quadrilateral given at page 407 of Carnot's Geometrie de Position (Paris. (1. which join. may be any thiee vectors.^S/3ySa^)2+ (SyaS35)U (Sa/3Sy^)2 + 2a2Si3yS.* but an interpretation of the quaternion formula XXII. Z' = cos AD = . triangle considered in the two foregoing Articles. it is still included (131. two by two. 299(10.). .. we Z suppose. LIIL. in 298. or that II. conduct easily to the followmg very general and symmetric formula : XXII.SUa5. 204. c. any four vectors. the Fourth Proportional to Three Rectatigular Vectors. 276) in the general conception of a Quaternion. = 0. And we shall find. as in 297. XV. or all greater. (1.)..CHAP. . .3^Sy5 + 2^2Sa/3S/3ySya = 2SyaSa/3S/3^Sy^+ 2Sa/3S/3ySy^Sa5+ 2S/3ySyaSa^S/35 + ^'^ y2 (Sa^)2 + y2a2 (8. than quadrants.) In fact. XV. : (1. . b. ab. as being found to be equal to a Scalar. XVIII. . and the square of the it equation 294. it only remains to consider that t/m^d principal case..) and (11. with a reduction. 1 + /2Z'2 + m'^m'^ + ri^n"^ + 2lmn' + 2mnT + Inl'm^ 2lmn = 2mnm'n' + 2nln'l' + 2lml'm' + Z24TO2+n2 + Z'2+TO'2+n'2. .). a = 6 = c = .
.S^y=Sya = Sa/3 = 0. de will be because bisected by the points a. . Any point p may be asgiven triangle abc and then. if the three given lines be only at right angles to each other. f is equal to the sum of the angles subtended by the sides of the given triangle abc.). and (2. . the formulae 297.). ij^k and kj^i. Ta = T^^Ty = 1. yaii3=a/3iy t. VIL In fact. and the angles subtended at A by pe and pf are together equal to two right angles. as for instance to the triangle ijk (or jik) of 181. the problem is found to admit of indefinitely sumed. Vr. as required : the arcs ae. XLVIL. and its area 2 = tt . so that (comp. with respect to the three sides TV). to suppose that the rotation round a from /3 r=0. = /3y'a = l. def. Fig. — ijk and — kji. in the same equation. but these are the vector parts of the three pairs oi fourth proportionals to the three rectangular unitlines^ a. D. /3. and equal to four right angles . in the present case.) ticles. . the values. A. this in 297. (5. for simplicity. c. e. t = 0. (3. without being equally long.. and might have been inferred from the for mula 297. the three other arcs ef. but because the angle .) For example (comp. pe. we see that we have now and that thus the six fourth proportionals reduce themselves to their scalar parts. are therefore. . on the general plan of 298. manner we find. in the present case. + 1 and — 1. (15. E. that they are unit lines. f . . b. as may be otherwise seen from the same Figure 72. are respectively equal to the the two fourth proportionals. ?=0. e. in the formula 297.) The radius OD. y.348 or III. or ^ (tt u . j. &c. /3a'y = r^"^a = «r~'/^ = +l. (4. 295) we have. VIL give.) The positions F. (3. in the interior of the be taken. indeterminate . and therefore to cluded in the Fundamental Formula A (183). by the laws (182) of . however. ljH = ik\j=ji^k = ~l. the values : In VI. many solutions. for the fourth proportional becomes therefore. in such a manner that the sides of the new triangle shall be bisected by the corners of the old. and the same evanescence of vector parts must evidently take place. . under the supposed conditions. Vir. IV. . indeterminate. The spherical excess of the constant. exscribe a spherical triangle. by triangle def is therefore equal to two right angles.) Continuing. (6. . . namely (here) to positive or negative unity. . . the six isosceles triangles on pd. if its reflexions D. ABC. . ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS. /3a~^y. vatiishes. c. V. and e=l. by the laws two last in To connect this important result with the constructions of the Arto we may observe that when we seek. a. while [bOOK III. at the assumed interior point p. to a given triquadrantal (or trirectangular) triangle. pf as bases. to y is negative. taken in all possible orders. two ternary products. or LVI. PF are perpendicularly bisected by those three sides. ij'^k=jkH=^ki^j = + 1 . b. 72) the arcs PE.r). of the auxiliary points. . that sum of the three angles d. or variable points is but the sum of the angles at those three because.^ = 0. fd. LV. as before. af have each the same length as ap. the formula becomes simply l'dr.
J OTHER VIEW OF A FOURTH PROPORTIONAL. /3aiy class here considered. . But it may be interesting.. al3'y. (^: a). (3. /3y^ the three fourth proportionals VI. we naturally employed the results of preceding Sections of the present Book. a^. . might have been interpreted. from the principles of the present Book. are equal . yS. /3». if XXI. a)8'= oy>=/3.1. VIII'. in this Third Book. or —7. unless the three vectors a. availed ourselves of the interpretations previously obtained. whatever vector a may be .*). and this fourth proportional /3a~'y. by 294. a2= 1 : a«. — On to 300. and therefore to . respectively. when the recent con of rectangularity III. deduced from the Proportional the Second Book. on the principles of the Second Booky without at first assuming as known. VIII.) Conversely. is and similarly in other examples. and not uninstructive. . . a/37 as quaternions. are therefore equal.. to — y^. * The formula here referred to should have been printed as Ra = 1 : a = o"*. that the Fourth Proportional to Three Rectangular Lines a Scalar.3ay. in any terpretation of the three lately II. mentioned symbols. y/3i = a. For example. (8. . = + a. to inquire we how the equivalent symbol^ I. + y.  a^. (3. and thus. (9. + a2. a~". while the vector part of the ternary product ditions ^ay vanishes. we may write. in order to interpret the sym hoi /3a'^7. of a'^ as a line. 282. 3aiy = a2. and of a^. or even seeking to discover. with 7 not \\\ a. which the factor a^ is always a scalar.) Or (comp. to assist ourselves in attaching a definite signification to the Fourth Proportional (297) to Three Diplanar Vectors . write generally the transformation (comp.) ) we may .) The conclusion. are satisfied. Principles of 8. . yaJ= + /3. III. of the (7. 7. 349 = 1. . to /32. + and consequently to + 1 while the corresponding expressions VI'. may in several other ways be deduced. in . . . 1) ) are perpendicular each to each. y (supposed to be all actual (Art. as in the recent equations VI.CHAP. + y2. with the recent suppositions. IX. In the foregoing Section. this ternary Section an equivalent Interpretation of the Fourth Three Diplanar Vectors. can never reduce themselves to scalars. I. product jSay. It will be found that the inquiry conducts to an expression of the form.)3ai = y.
350
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
III.
.
[bOOK
III.
where
S is the
same
vector^
(/3:a).7=^ + ew; and e is the same scalar,
.
as in the recent to
subarticles to 297; while
u
is
employed
as a
temporary symbol,
denote a certain Fourth Proportional to Three Rectangular Unit Lines, namely, to the three lines oq, ol', and op in Fig. 68; so that, with reference to the construction represented by that Figure,
we should be
equation
:
led,
by the
principles of the Second Book, to write the
IV.
. .
(ob:
oa).oc=od.cos12 +
(ol': oq). op. sin ^2.
And when we
proceed to consider what signification should be at
tached, on the principles of the same Second Book, to that particular fourth proportional, which is here the coefficient of sin ^2, and has
been provisionally denoted by
w,
we
find that although
it
may be
regarded as being in one sense a Line, or at least homogeneous with a line, yet it must not he equated to any Vector: being rdiih^v analogous^
in Geometry, to the Scalar Unit
of Algebra, so that
1,
it
may be
+
1,
and conveniently denoted by the usual symbol
to Positive Unity.
or
But when we thus write u=\,
naturally or be equated the last term
of the formula III. or IV., of the present Article, becomes simply €, or sin ^2 ; and while this term (or part) of the result comes to be
considered as a species of Geometrical Scalar, the complete Expression for the General Fourth Proportional to Three Diplanar Vectors
takes the
Form
of a Geometrical Quaternion: and thus th^ formula
is
297,
in
XL VII.,
or 298, VIII.,
reproduced, at least if
we
substitute
for the present, (/3: a).7 for /Sa''^, to avoid the necessity of interpreting here the recent symbols II.
it,
(1.)
The
construction of Fig. 68 being retained, but no principles peculiar to the
Third Book being employed, we
as before,
may
:
write,
with the same significations of
:
c,
p, &c.,
V.
.
.
OB OA = OR OQ = cos c + (ol' oq) sin c VI. oc = OQ cos ja + OP sin /?
:
;
.
.
.
.
.
(2.)
Admitting then, as
is
natural, for the purposes of the sought interpretation,
that distributive property which has hQ&a. proved (212) to hold good for the multiplication of quaternions (siS \i Aoqs for multiplication in algebra); and writing for
abridgment,
VII.
.
.
u = (ol'
:
:
oq) OP;
.
we have
the quadrinomial expression
VIII.
.
.
(oB oa). oc = ol'.
:
sin c C0SJ9
.
+ OQ
;
.
cos ccosjo
+ OP
in
.
cos c sin/)
+M
sin c sin p
which it may be observed that the sum of the squares of thefour
coefficients ofth
CHAP.
I.]
SCALAR UNIT IN SPACE.
oi.',
351
proportional, u,
is
three rectangular unitvectors, OQ,
op,
and of their fourth
equal to unity.
(3.)
But the
coefficient of this fourth proportional,
which may be regarded as a
e
species oi fourth unit, is
IX.
.
.
sin c sin
p = sin mn =
sin
12 =
;
we must
vided
therefore expect to tind that the three other coefficients in VIII.,
when
di
^S, or by r, give quotients which are the cosines of the arcual distances or that a point of some point x upon the unitsphere, from the three points l', q, p X can be assigned, for which
by
cos
;
X.
.
.
sin c
cosp
= r cos l'x
it is
;
cos c
cosp
= r cos Qx
;
cos c sin
p=
r cos px.
(4.) Accordingly
found that these three last equations are
satisfied,
when we
substitute
d
.
.
for
x
;
and
therefore that
we have
the transformation,
.
XI.
01.'.
3inccos/)
+ OQ.cosccos/j + OP.coscsinp = OD cosiS = ^,
;
whence follow the equations IV. and III. and it only remains to study and interpret the fourth unit, «, which enters as a factor into the remaining part of the quadrinomial expression VIII., without employing
any
principles except those of the
(3a,
Second
Book
:
and therefore without using the Interpretations 278, 284, of
&c
and
tt',
)3',
301. In general, when two sets of three vectors, 7', are connected by the relation,
I.
a, /3, 7,
..—= a
7'
p
1,
or
II...
=
a ^,
7y
a'
it is
natural to write this other equation,
TTT III.
.
.
^ = ^' 7 —7
ft
ft
'
;
these two fourth proportionals (297), to a, (3, 7, and are equal to each other: whatever the /w^Z signification of each of these two last symbols III., supposed for the moment to be
and to say that
to
a', ^', 7',
may be afterwards found to be. In short, make it a condition of the sought to may propose Interpretation, the principles of the Second Book, of the phrase,
not yet fully known,
^''Fourth Proportional to Three Vectors y'
we
on
and of either of the two equivalent Symbols 300, Equation III. shall /oZZow from I. or II.; just as,
I.,
that the recent
at the
commence
ment
that the equation {^fi: a).a — ^ should be satisfied. 302. There are however two tests (comp. 287), to which the recent equation III.
of that Second Book, and before concluding (112) that the general Geometric Quotient jSia of any two lines in space is a Quaternion, we made it a conditioji (103) of the interpretation of such a quotient,
must be submittedj before
its final
adoption; in
352
order that
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
we may be
Line in
sure of
its consistency, 1st,
[bOOK
III.
with Xhe previous
interpretation (226) of a
Vectors, as a
Fourth Proportional to Three Complanar their common plane; and Ilnd, with the gene
ral principle of all mathematical language (105), that things equal to And it the same thing, are to be considered as equal to each other.
is
found, on
trial,
that hoth these tests are
home :
so that they
form
no objection to our adopting the equation 301, III., as true hy tion^ whenever the preceding equation II., or I., is satisfied.
(1.) It
d, as in
defini
may happen
;
that the
a,
first
member
of that equation III.
is
equal to SiUne
II.
226
namely, when
(3,
y are complanar.
In
this case,
we have by
the equation,
7
so that a,
7y
a
a
a
are also complanar (among themselves), and the line d is their /3', y' and the equation III. is satisfied, both members being fourth proportional likewise
:
symbols for one common line, ^, which is in general situated in the intersection of the two planesy afSy and a'ji'y' although those planes may happen to coincide,
;
without disturbing the truth of the equation.
(2.) Again, for the more general case oi diplanarity of a, /3, y, we ceive that the equation* II. coexists with this other of the same form,
may
con
V.
if
.
.
^
X = 21
a
a y
principles of equality,
;
which gives
VI.
.
.
2 y =Cr", a a
this third equation be
the definition 301 be adopted.
If then that definition be consistent with general
to find,
we ought
by
:
III.
and VI., that
tween two fourth proportionals holds good
VII.
. .
= ^'/'; ^7' a a
or that
VIII.
.
.
2, 1,
a y
= ^, a
when
give,
by the general
And accordingly, those two equations the equations II. and V. are satisfied. principles of the Second Book, respecting quaternions considered
as quotients of vectors, the transformation,
= ^I.Z = ^Jl = ^',ae ^% ay y' ay" a' y
a'
required.
then permitted to interpret the equation 301, III., on the principles of the Second Book, as being simply a transformation or I.; (as it is in algebra) of the immediately preceding equation II.,
303. It
is
and therefore to write, generally,
l...q^{ = q'^\
if II. ..
5(7:7') = ^';
* In this and other cases of reference, the numeral cited
is
always supposed
to be
the one which (with the same number) has last occurred before, although perhaps it may have been in connexion with a shortly preceding Article. Compare 217, (1.).
i
CHAP.
where which
I.]
FOUIITH PROPORTIONAL RESUMED.
are any two vectors^ and
9,
353
7, 7'
^
are any two quaternions^
satisfy this last condition.
Now,
if v
and v be any two
right
quaternions^
we have (by
193, comp. 283) the equation,
.
III.
.
Iv.lv'
= v:v'
==
vv'^
;
or
IV.
.
.
v~^
(Iv
:
Iv^)
=
v'^
;
whence
V.
.
.
vMv = v'^
.
It;',
by the principle which has just been enunciated. It follows, then, that '''if a right Line (Iv) le multiplied by the Reciprocal {v^) of the Eight Quaternion (v), of which it is the Index, the Product {v^lv) is
independent of the Lengthy and of the Direction, of the Line thus operated on f' or, in other words, that this Product has one common Value,
for
all possible
Lines (a) in Space: which common or constant
value
to
may be regarded as a kind of neiv Geometrical Unit, and is equal what we have lately denoted, in 300, III., and VII., by the tem
porary symbol w; because, in the last cited formula, the line op is the index of the right quotient oa: ol'. Retaining, then, for the a in space, considered this we line have, for every moment, symbol, u,
as the index of a right quaternion, v, the four equations:
Yl...v^a = u;
in
Yll.
.
.
IX.
.
.
V"'
a=vu; =w a
:
VIII.
;
.
.
V
=
a: w;
which
it is
understood that a =
Iv,
and the three
last are
here re
garded merely transformations of the first, which is deduced and interpreted as above. And hence it is easy to infer, that for any given system of three rectangular lines a, p, 7, we have the general
as being
expression
:
X.
.
.
(/8
:
a)
.
7 = xu,
if
a _L
/3,
^
L 7,
7
is
j_
a;
where the scalar
coefficient, x,
of the new unit, u,
determined by
the equation, XI. .a; = ±(T/3:Ta).T7,
.
according as
XII.
.
.
U7 = + Ax. (a: ^).
given
This coefiicient x
is
therefore always equal, in magnitude (or absolute
or negatively taken, according as the
quantity), to i\\Q fourth proportional to the lengths of the three
lines 0^87
;
but
it is positively
rotation
a, is
round
the third line 7,
from
the second line
/3,
to the first line
itseM positive or negative: or in other words, according as the rotation round the first line, from the second to the third, is on the
contrary negative ov positive (compare 294, (3.)
(1.)
).
for the present,
In illustration of the constancy of that fourth proportional which has been, denoted by m, while the system of the three rectangular unitlines
2 z
354
from which
it is
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
conceived to be derived
is
[bOOK
III.
in
any manner turned about, we may ob
serve that the three equations, or proportions,
XIII.
.
.
?f
:
y=/3: a;
y:a=a:y;
y:/3,
/3:
y = y:/3,
conduct immediately to this fourth equation of the same kind,
XIV.
if
.
.
M:a =
or*
« = (y:/3).a;
we admit that this new quantity, or symbol, m, is to be operated on at all^ or combined with other symbols, according to the general rules of vectors and quaternions.
to change the three letters a, j3, y, by a cyclical per(2.) It is, then, permitted mutation, to the three other letters /3, y, a (considered again as representing unitwithout altering the value of the fourth proportional, m; or in other words, it lines'),
is allowed to make the system of the three rectangular lines revolve, through the third part of four right angles, round the interior and coinitial diagonal of the unitcube, of which they are three coinitial edges.
no such change of value will take place, if (3.) And it is still more evident, that we merely cause the system of the two first lines to revolve, through any angle, in since thus we shall merely substitute, its own plane, round the third line as an axis
;
for the factor
But by combining these two last another factor equal thereto. modes of rotation, we can represent any rotation whatever, round an origin supposed
/3
:
a,
to be fixed.
(4.)
/3'
:
And
y', to
as regards the scalar ratio of
a'
.
any
other, of the kind here considered, such as
any one fourth proportional, such as a y, or u, it is suffi/3
:
.
cient to suggest that, without
pose
it to
be so
any real change prepared, that we shall have
in the former,
we
are allowed to sup
XY...a' = a;
X being some
scalar coefficient,
/3'
= /3;
Y = xy;
iatio
and representing the
required.
304. In the more general case, when the three given lines are not rectangular, nor unitlines, we may on similar principles determine their fourth proportional, without referring to Fig. 68, as Without any real loss of generality, we may suppose that follows.
the planes of
this
y3: a,
I.
a, /3
and
a,
7 are perpendicular to each other; since
comes merely
to substituting, if necessary, for the quotient
another quotient equal thereto.
..
Ax.
(/8:
a)
J
Ax.
(7: a),
let
II.
Having thus = /3' + ^'', 7 = 7' + /3
.
.
7",
where /3' and 7' are parallel to it, and to each other; so
the expressions,
III.
.
to a,
that,
but
j3"
and
I.
by 203,
are perpendicular and II., we shall have
7''
.^^=S^.a,
yS^.a,
may
be omitted, though for greate
* In equations of this form, the parentheses
clearness they are here retained.
CHAP.
1.]
SPHERICAL PARALLELOGRAM.
IV.
355
and
.
./3"=V.a, a
r/^
=Y^
a
.
a.
We may
then deduce, by the distributive principle (300,
(2.)
),
the
transformations, a a a
\
J
ad
where
VI.
.. a
f^/
a
a
= ^S+7"^=7S + )S''SA and VII.
a
a
/3
/3
fv
.
.
ojm
a
a
= ^^ 7^ a
Q'l
The
latter part, xu^ is
what we have called (300) the (geometrically)
scalar part, of the sought fourth proportional ; while the former part B may (still) be called its vector part: and we see that this part is
represented by a line^ which is at once in the two plajies^ of ^, 7'', and of 7, ^'^ ; or in two planes which may be generally constructed as follows, without
lar, as in I.
a, /?,
now assuming
Let
7'
that the planes a/3 and 07 are rectangube the projection of the line 7 on the plane of
and operate on this projection by the quotient /3:a as a multithe plane which is drawn through the line )3 a 7' so obtained, plier
;
: .
at right angles to the plane ay3, is 07ie locus for the
and the plane through
is
7,
which
is
another locus for that line.
d,
And
sought line d perpendicular to the plane 77', as regards the length of this line,
:
or vector part
and the magnitude
(or quantity) of the scalar part
x%
it is
easy to prove that
YIII.
.
.
T^ = ^coss,
and
and
IX.
.
.
x = ±tsms,
where
X..
if c
.?
= T/3:Ta.T7,
XI.
.
.
sin 5
= sin c
sin
j9,
denote the angle between the two given lines
a, 13,
and
p
the
inclination of the third given line 7 to their plane: the sign of the scalar coefficient, x, being positive or negative, according as the rotation
round a from
13
to
7
is
negative or positive.
we
see that
(1.)
dition
Comparing the recent construction with Fig.
the four unitlines
68,
when
the con
I. is satisfied,
Uy, Ua,
U/3,
Ud
take the directions of the
four radii oc, OQ, or, od,
which terminate at the four comers of what
may
be called
a trirectangular quadrilateral
(2.) It
may
the sphere. be remarked that the area of this quadrilateral
CQRD on
is
exactly equal to
//the area 2
of the triangle
def
;
which may be
inferred, either
from the circum
356
stance that
its
ELEMENTS OF QUATERNIONS.
spherical excess (over four right angles)
is
[bOOK
III.
constructed by the angle
MDN
being together equal to the triangle abf, so that the area of desk is S, and therefore that of cqrd is ^S, as before. (3.) The two sides CQ, qr of this quadrilateral, which are remote from the obtuse
;
or from the triangles
dbr and eas
angle at d, being still called p and c, and the side cd which is opposite to c being also let still denoted by c', let the side dr which is opposite to p be now called p'
;
the diagonals CR,
(CDR
—
be denoted by d and d' ; and let s denote the spherical excess or the area of the quadrilateral. "We shall then have the relations, ^tt),
QD
tan c'= cos
cos !cos
d = cosp cos p tan
cosp
s=
= cosp cos c' = cos c tan p seep' = cos c sec c' = cos d sec cT
c
;
cos d'
;
c
;
tan p'
;
;
of which
some have virtually occurred
before,
and
all are easily
proved by rightan
gled triangles, arcs being when necessary prolonged. (4.) If we take now two points, a and b, on the side qr, which satisfy the arcual
equation (comp. 297, XL., and Fig. 68),
XIII.
.
.
n AB
= OQE
;
and
is
if
we then
join AC, and let fall on this
new
arc the perpendiculars bb', dd'
;
it
easy to prove that the projection b'd' of the side
bd on
the arc
AC
is
equal to that
arc,
and that the angle dbb'
is
right
:
so that
we have
the two
new
;
equations,
XIV.
.
.
n
b'd'
= o AC
is
;
XV.
.
.
dbb'
= §7r
and the new quadrilateral bb'd'd
(5.)
also trirectangular.
Hence
the point
d may
he derived from the three points abc, by any two of
the four following conditions: 1st, the equality XIII. of the arcs ab,
;
qr
;
Ilnd, the
Ilird, the trirectangular characcorresponding equality XIV. of the arcs Ac, b'd' ter of the quadrilateral CQRD ; IVth, the corresponding character of bb'd'd. (6.) In other words, this derived point D is the common intersection of the four perpendiculars^ to the four arcs ab, ac, cq, Bb', erected at the four points R, d', C, b ; CQ, bb' being still the perpendiculars from c and b, on ab and AC and R and d' being deduced from q and b', by equal arcs, as above.
;
&c., are here
305. These consequences of the construction employed in 297, mentioned merely in connexion with that theory of
fourth proportionals to vectors, which they have thus served to illustrate; but they are perhaps numerous and interesting enough, to Spherical Parallelogram^''^* for justify us in suggesting the namey
'•*'
the quadrilateral cabd, or bacd, in Fig. 68 (or 67) ; and in proposing to say that d is the Fourth Point, which completes such &parcdlelogram,
when the
three points c, a, b, or b, a, c, are given
upon the
sphere,
asjirst^ second,
and
third.
It
is
must however be
that the analogy
*
to the
plane
carefully observed, here thus far impet'fect, that in the
in Fig. 68,
By
the
same analogy, the quadrilateral cqrd,
may
be called
a