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Alternative
solution
to
our
environmental
Crisis



 By:
Wenliang
Fu


Introduction The world is in an energy crisis and the United States is suffering from its affects. Lately, the American government has not made much progress in environmental polices, as it has been over shadowed by our economic crisis. Due to the lack of progress in environmental policy, the country is facing major disasters: 3700 to 6400 people die a year due to pollution caused by emissions. 1 In the last twenty years, carbon emissions have increased by 1.5ppm (parts per million) a year increasing our temperature. 2 All these and more problems are being introduced as the demand for energy increases. America, as a country, needs to find a reliable yet cost efficient solution to our environmental crisis. There is an innovative solution proposed recently, the H.R 650, will cut cost for large companies at the same time saving the environment from harmful carbon emissions without the general consumer spending a cent. Problem Statement Transportation
in
general
produces
the
most
emissions
of
carbon
dioxide,
 producing
about
twenty
four
percent
of
the
overall
population
count.
The
 concentrations
of
carbon
have
increased
exponentially
in
the
last
fifty
years.
The
 earth’s
atmosphere
is
able
to
balance
lower
levels
of
carbon,
but
it
cannot
balance
 such
high
amount
of
carbon.
It
has
been
predicted
by
the
Intergovernmental
Panel
 on
Climate
Change
that
by
2100,
carbon
concentrations
in
the
atmosphere
will
rise
 to
970
parts
per
million.

 Temperatures
rose
2.5‐10.4
degrees
Fahrenheit
in
the
last
century.
This
 century,
it
is
predicted
that
temperatures
will
be
two
times
greater
than
the
last



























































1


Richard F. Garbaccio. The Health Benefits of Controlling Carbon Emissions in China. 2000 
Bernie
Fischlowitz‐Roberts.
Carbon
Emissions
Climbing.
2002


2

century
at
the
least
and
ten
times
as
much
at
most
if
no
actions
were
taken.3These
 changes
in
temperature
will
also
cause
unusual
weather
pattern.


 Higher
temperatures
are
also
affecting
crops.
In
2002,
there
was
a
shortage
 of
83
million
tons
of
grain
due
to
temperatures
and
the
lowering
of
the
water
table.
 In
India,
the
temperature
rose
up
to
134
degrees
Fahrenheit,
and
crops
suffer
if
the
 temperature
increases
more
than
90
degrees
Fahrenheit.
The
lower
precipitation
 reduced
crop
yield
by
10
million
tons.
In
some
states
in
the
United
States,
water
 table
dropped
below
100
feet
due
to
the
over
pumping
of
water.
Farmers
needed
 more
water
because
of
the
higher
temperatures
that
increases
evaporation.
4
 
 Different
kinds
of
emissions
cause
different
kinds
of
health
problems.
Carbon
 dioxide
in
the
atmosphere
causes
headaches
and
hospitalization.
Nitrous
Oxide
 (NO2)
causes
sore
throat,
eye
irritation,
and
excess
phlegm.
Ozone
(O3)
causes
 asthma
attacks,
lower
and
upper
respiratory
problems,
and
eye
irritation.
China
is
 one
of
the
countries
that
are
being
affected
the
most
due
to
emissions.
In
1997,
 178,000
premature
deaths
occurred.
If
China
met
pollution
standards,
346,000
 people
would
not
have
respiratory
problems.
5
 Proposed Solution Recently, the committee on ways and means consisting more than 41 members and led by New York representative Charles Rangel offered an innovative solution to the environmental crisis. H.R 650 Cleaner Trucks for America Act of 2009 switches the usual focus from every day consumer vehicle to industry trucks. The proposed legislation will reduce carbon emission by advocating electric truck. Today a truck only gets around 7.51mpg and that’s only on the high way, in state, and trucking industry requires high distance travel. With the proposed solution, trucking companies will get more credits to develop alternative fueled trucks; many trucking companies such as ken worth have expressed interest in investment due to the high gas price they have to pay. It is proven 

























































Bernie
Fischolowitz.
 
Lester
R.
Brown.
RISING
TEMPERATURES
&
FALLING
WATER
TABLES
RAISING
FOOD
PRICES
 Record
World
Grain
Harvest
Shortfall
of
83
Million
Tons
in
Prospect.
2002

3 4

5


Richard F. Garbaccio. 2000


that electric power is sufficient to power a industrial sized trucks as shown with an interview with the CARS members at OSU with ABC news. Each battery can last around 50 miles, its not a lot, but its sufficient at least for instate transportation with multiple batteries, also, the technology is only in its early stage. The bill focuses on hydrogen technology that produces little pollution, and it will give “new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicles with gross vehicle weight ratings of more than 26,000 pounds from $40,000 to $80,000” 6 Benefits The
choice
to
advocate
alternative
fuels
will
lead
United
States
to
be
less
 dependent
upon
oil
from
foreign
countries.

In
conventional
automobiles,
less
than
 20%
of
the
actual
gasoline
is
converted
into
energy,
where
hydrogen
vehicles
can
 utilize
up
to
60%
of
the
energy
using
current
technologies.
7
 
 Hydrogen
vehicles
are
actually
much
safer
than
regular
trucks.
Even
though


hydrogen
diffuses
quickly
and
disperse
since
it’s
14.4
times
lighter
than
air.
If
the
 hydrogen
ever
starts
burning,
the
flame
is
7%
cooler
than
regular
gasoline.
Victims
 of
hydrogen
caused
fire
also
don’t
have
to
worry
about
choking
in
smoke,
and
they
 are
usually
not
burned
unless
they
are
directly
in
the
flame.
Hydrogen
is
also
hard
to
 explode
in
an
open
environment,
it
requires
twice
as
rich
of
a
mixture
than
natural
 gas
to
donate.
8
 The
biggest
concern
over
fuel
cell
is
that
will
people
be
able
to
afford
it,
the
 answer
is
yes;
hydrogen
will
be
made
affordable
by
the
time
it
reaches
the
general
 public
similar
to
any
other
new
products.
All
first
generation
systems
are
expensive
 like
the
first
gasoline‐powered
car,
so
it
is
not
reliable
to
make
conclusions
based
on
 the
first
generation
price.
Even
though
production
price
of
a
hydrogen
engine
is
 around
$225,
many
companies
have
a
goal
of
$30‐50.
Companies
stated
that
it
will
 achieve
a
competitive
cost
by
2010!
Also,
according
to
a
study
done
by
the
National
 

























































H.R.
650.
2009
 
Rifkin,
Jeremy.
The
Hydrogen
Economy

2002
 8
AMORY
B.
LOVINS.
Twenty
Hydrogen
Myths.
2005

6 7

Academy
of
Science,
the
cost
of
hydrogen
per
mile
should
be
around
50%
lower
 than
gasoline.
With
these
benefits,
Ohio
will
greatly
cut
cost
in
trucking
industries
 and
increase
our
environmental
stability.
9
 


Conclusions
 The
only
way
to
prevent
the
current
problems
from
getting
worse
is
to
have
 the
government,
industries,
and
environmentalist
work
together.
Pollution
from
 emissions
is
affecting
everyone.
The
developments
of
hydrogen
trucks
are
the
best
 solution
to
the
problems.
The
United
States
would
become
independent
on
foreign
 oil
if
the
solution
were
implemented.
Pollution
levels
would
decrease
causing
 improvement
in
health.
If
the
United
States
continues
to
ignore
the
environmental
 problems,
then
the
country
will
plunge
into
disaster.
Rising
temperatures
and
sea
 levels
will
diminish
the
coastal
regions
and
crops
causing
even
more
damage
to
 industries.
The
decision
is
up
to
the
government,
the
industries,
and
the
country
as
a
 whole.


Citations: Rifkin,
Jeremy
(2002).
The
Hydrogen
Economy.
Sliding
Down
Hubbert’s
Bell
Curve
 Rose,
R.
(23
May
2004)
Questions
and
Answers
about
Hydrogen
and
Fuel
Cells
Website:
 http://www.fuelcells.org/info/library/QuestionsandAnswers062404.pdf
 Fischlowitz‐Roberts,
B.
Carbon
Emissions
Climbing.
Earth
Policy
Institute.
Retrieved
April
30,
 2008,
from
http://www.earth‐policy.org/Indicators/indicator5.htm
 Garbaccio,
Richard
F.,
et
al.
"The
Health
Benefits
of
Controlling
Carbon
Emissions
in
China."
 (August
26
2000).
27
April
2008,
from
http://www.earth‐policy.org/Indicators/indicator5.htm
 Brown,
L.
R.
Rising
Temperatures
&
Falling
Water
Tables
Raising
Food
Prices.
Earth
Policy
 Institute.
Retrieved
April
24,
2008,
from
http://www.earth‐policy.org/Updates/Update16.htm
 Brown,
L.
R.
Global
Temperature
Rising.
Earth
Policy
Institute.
Retrieved
April
24,
2008,
from
 http://www.earth‐policy.org/Indicators/indicator8.htm


 Lovins,
A.
B.
(February
17,
2005).
Twenty
Hydrogen
Myths.
Retrieved
May
7,
2008,
from
 http://www.rmi.org/images/other/Energy/E03‐05_20HydrogenMyths.pdf





























































9


Robert
Rose.
Questions
and
Answers
about
Hydrogen
and
Fuel
Cells
2004