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Husky English Guide


Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2. Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection 3. Basic Punctuation and Grammar Rules Capitalization Apostrophe Brackets Colon Comma Dash Ellipses Exclamation Point Hyphen Italics Parenthesis Period Question Mark Quotation Mark Semi-colon 4. Sentences Sentence Structure Terminology Sentence Structure According to Purpose Sentence Structure According to Structure Sentence Structure According to Length 5. Transition Words and Phrases 6. Spelling Tips 7. Commonly Misspelled Words 8. Common Usage Errors 9. The Steps in the Writing Process 10. The Structure of a Basic Essay SPES Sample Essay Outline 11. Basic MLA Style Header, Heading, and Title Works Cited In Text Citations 12. Plagiarism 13. Glossary of Literary Terms 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 8 9 9 9 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 17 19 21 21 23 23 24 24 25 25 27 28 29 29

This guide was put together by teachers to help students understand important English concepts. While it is not comprehensive, it should serve as a reference when writing and revising papers, reading and analyzing texts and studying for assessments. It is our hope that you will use it to answer many basic English questions, and ultimately improve your writing skills.

Parts of Speech
Noun a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea
Brad Pitt Heritage High School locker truth family team

Collective nouna noun that refers to a group of people

class committee

Common nouna noun that refers to a general class of people, places, things, or ideas
athlete beach apple friendship

Proper nouna noun that refers to the name of a specific person, place, thing, or idea
Dr. Savage Wake Forest July Harris Teeter

Concrete nouna noun that refers to an object that can be detected by one of the five senses
apple fragrance music pencil justice truth

Abstract nouna noun that refers to a characteristic, quality, or idea

courage memory

Pronoun a word used to replace a noun

I everyone him whomever mine it

Personal pronouna pronoun that refers to a person or thing

I me

Reflexive pronouna pronoun that refers to the subject of the sentence only
myself themselves Jason talked himself into studying for the exam.

NOTE: A reflexive pronoun is neither an object of a preposition nor the subject of a sentence.
Please give your ballot to Mr. Saxton or myself. Myself and Ms. Singh will be counting the ballots. Please give your ballot to Mr. Saxton or me. Ms. Singh and I will be counting the ballots.

Intensive pronouna pronoun that emphasizes another noun or pronoun

Jason himself reported the accident.

Demonstrative pronouna pronoun that points out a particular person, place, thing, or idea
That is amazing! Those are my keys. This is my boyfriend. These are the places Ive lived.

Interrogative pronouna pronoun that asks a question

Who Which What Which is your paper?

Relative pronouna pronoun that joins a dependent (or subordinate) clause to an independent (or main) clause
I love the poem that you wrote. I appreciate what you have done. (dependent clause) (dependent clause)

Indefinite pronouna pronoun that refers to people, places, things, and ideas in a general way
everyone each any some

Antecedent (of a pronoun)the word or group of words referred to by a pronoun

Ophelia has lost her mind. (Ophelia is the antecedent for her.)

Nominative caseforms used as subjects or predicate nominatives

She loves to read. (subject) Who loves to read? (subject) This is she. (predicate nominative) This is who? (predicate nominative)

Objective caseforms that are used as objects

He gave us pie. (indirect object) My brother hit me. (direct object) He gave whom pie? (indirect object) Your brother hit whom? (direct object)

Possessive caseforms that show ownership That book is mine.

Verb a word that expresses action or a state of being think succeed seems study dance is Action verba verb that is an action that someone performs physically or mentally
We wrote a letter to the editor. We expect the letter to be printed.

Transitive verba verb followed by a direct object that answers the question what? or whom? A transitive verb is incorrect without a direct object.
The committee named. (incorrect) The committee named a new chairperson on Friday. (correct)

Intransitive verba verb that cannot take a direct object My grandmother arrived early. Linking verba verb that links the subject with a noun, adjective, or pronoun Forms of be are often used as linking verbs.
They are extraordinary students.

Helping verba verb that helps the main verb express an action or state of being. Helping (or auxiliary) verbs include forms of be, do, and have. Other helping (or auxiliary) verbs are can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would. We should study for our test. (Should is the helping verb; study is the main verb.) Verb phrasea group of words made up of at least one helping (or auxiliary) verb and a main verb.
They have finished the work. He could be bringing us the food.

Verb tenseindicates the time of the action or state of being The three simple tenses are present, past, and future. o Present tenseindicates a current action or state of being
I live in Raleigh.

o Past tenseindicates a past action or state of being

I lived in an apartment.

o Future tenseindicates a future action or state of being

I will visit Ghana soon. I will be hungry.

Irregular verba verb that does not use ed in the past tense or in past participle forms
She drove the truck home. She had never driven a truck before.

Past participleverb form used with forms of have to indicate the past tense
I have been there before. We had never eaten sushi.

Progressiveverb form used with forms of be to indicate a continuous action

We are looking for our car. The pencil was resting on the desk.

Active voiceindicates that the subject performs the action

My mother wrapped the gifts.

Passive voiceindicates that the subject receives the action

The gifts were wrapped by my mother

Adjective a word that describes or modifies a noun An adjective tells what kind, how many, which one(s), and whose.
The tired and thirsty hikers stopped to rest. (Tired and thirsty modify hikers.)

Proper adjectiverefers to an adjective formed from a proper noun

The Danish prince Thanksgiving dinner

Articlesthe adjectives a, an, and the

Adverb a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb An adverb tells how, how much, how often, when, where, or why.
today usually slowly sometimes

Preposition a word/word group that connects a noun to the rest of the sentence. They usually indicate time or spatial relationships.
to next to

6 under after in spite of during

Prepositional phrasea group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun (the object of the preposition)
under the bed for me

Conjunction a word that connects single words or groups of words Coordinating conjunctiona conjunction that joins words or phrases of equal rank (Many grammarians use the acronym FANBOYS to remember the seven conjunctions.)
For And Nor But Or Yet So Oliver was cold and hungry. I asked for your assignment, but you didnt turn one in.

Correlative conjunctionsconjunctions that work in pairs (either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, both/and )
Either Richard or Colby will be voted off the island.

Subordinating conjunctiona conjunction that joins a dependent clause to an independent clause (before, if, since, unless, where, when, while, until, than, as, after, although, because, as if, and so that)
Before I can leave, I must find my keys. (dependent clause) (independent clause)

Interjection an unrelated word or phrase that communicates emotion or surprise

Help! Good grief. Wow! Ouch!

Basic Punctuation and Grammar Rules

Capitalization 1. Capitalize the pronoun I. 2. Capitalize names of particular people, places, organizations, business firms, institutions, and government bodies.
John Faulkenberry Sprint Wake Technical Community College Girl Scouts

3. Usually capitalize first words in lines of poetry.

Hickory, dickory, dock The mouse ran up the clock

4. Do not capitalize junior high or high school unless it is the name of a specific school.
Heritage High School I am in high school.

5. Do not capitalize the name of a class

When I was a freshman, I couldn't wait to be a senior.

6. Capitalize all course titles that are followed by a number or letter.

My best class is Algebra I. Did you say that History III meets in the computer lab today?

7. Do not capitalize a subject unless it is derived from a proper noun.

My best subject is algebra. I really like my English, Spanish, and history classes.

8. Do not capitalize seasons

Every year during the winter season, I cannot wait for spring to arrive.

9. Capitalize geographical names.

Wake Forest, NC

10. Do not capitalize words that indicate direction.

Walk four miles north on 291 to Third Street then east to the store.

11. Capitalize words that show a particular region of a country or of the world. A clue is that the word the often precedes a direction that should be capitalized.
The Southern coast is beautiful. I live in the Midwest. I lived in the East for ten years.

12. Capitalize titles of people when they are followed by the name.
Uncle Joseph Senator Jones Coach Anderson

13. Capitalize titles of people in very high national or state offices even when not followed by the name.
Every American President has had to face problems. The Secretary of State has left for Europe.

14. Capitalize the title of a person when it is used in place of a name.

Will you come with me, Mom? Good morning, Professor.

15. Do not capitalize words of family relationships when used with a possessive pronoun.
I like to hang out with Jim, my cousin. I like to hang out with Cousin Jim. Your grandpa is a great cook. Yesterday, Grandpa took me shopping.

16. Capitalize the first words and all important words in a title of a work. (Prepositions of five or more letters are capitalized).
The Last of the Mohicans For Whom the Bell Tolls

17. Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence.

Mr. Russell said, Treat her as you would like to be treated. I think, she screamed, you almost drove over the bike! NOTE: Because she screamed interrupts the dialogue (the part in quotation marks), the remainder of the dialogue does not begin with a capital letter.

18. Capitalize the first word of a salutation and the first word of a complimentary close.
Yours truly, Dear _____,

19. Capitalize the names of weekdays, months, and holidays.

Im going to the movies on Friday.

8 A very busy month for me is May. My favorite holiday is Halloween.

20. Capitalize the names of religious icons.

Jesus Allah Krishna Buddha God Bible

21. Capitalize the name of religions, peoples, and nationalities.

African Catholic Asian Jewish

22. Capitalize trade names or copyrighted names, but do not capitalize the name of the product.
Chevy truck Nike shoes Dell computer

23. Capitalize historical events, monuments, awards, and time periods.

Ice Age Mount Rushmore Middle Ages World War II Tony Award

24.Capitalize the abbreviations for time:

11,000 B.C. E. 40 B.C. 500 A.D. A.D. 70 2000 C.E. 4:00 P.M. 7:00 A.M.

Apostrophe 1. Use an apostrophe to indicate missing letters or numbers.

you are = youre do not = dont 1993 = 93 good morning = good mornin

2. Use an apostrophe and s to form the plural of a letter, number, or a word discussed as word.
How many As do you have on your report card? Count the 8 s on the page. Youve used too many and s in the paper.

3. Use an apostrophe to show possession. To form the possessive of a singular noun, add an s. If the word already ends in s one only has to use an apostrophe.
Marks book my sister-in-laws car the Jones house Chris locker

4. Make a plural noun ending in an s possessive by adding just an apostrophe.

the girls house (More than one girl lives there.) my bosses policy (I have more than one boss.)

Brackets 1. Use brackets to insert one parenthetical comment inside another.

I left my new leather coat (which cost $300 [my entire savings]) in the cafeteria.

2. Use brackets to insert your own editorial comments into quoted material. Brackets are used to enclose the letters sic to indicate that the speaker, not the writer, made an error.
Priest Holmes said, T-Rich [Tony Richardson] is an essential part of the Chiefs offense. Priest Holmes said, The noise from the 700,000 [sic] fans in the stadium helped us win the game.

Colon 1. Use a colon after a salutation in a business letter.

Dear Mr. Schnell: To Whom It May Concern:

2. Use a colon to add emphasis or to explain a clause.

There are two words for my younger brother: irritating and annoying.

14. Use a colon to introduce a long quotation; a list; or examples.

For this recipe, you will need the following ingredients: butter, eggs, flour, sugar, baking soda, salt, and milk.

15. Use a colon when writing times, ratios, literary references, or volume numbers.
7:30 p.m. (or P.M.) The vote was 49:1. Genesis 3:16 Newsweek 49:1

5. Use a colon between the clauses of a compound sentence when the second clause explains the first or amplifies it.
Rachel could say no more: we had convinced her. The climbers tired soon: they were not used to the thin air.

Comma 1. Use a comma or commas to set off (surround) a term in direct address, also known as the noun of address.
Pauline, are you ready? Watch out, Zach, for the shopping cart. I am here, Mrs. Jones.

2. Use a comma to set off yes, no, well ; other introductory words or phrases; mild interjections; and parenthetical expressions (words not necessary to the meaning of the sentence).
Oh, we wont need it. Well, Ill go then. By the way, do you know them? His brother, on the contrary, is very sociable. Ethan, needless to say, had missed the bus.

3. Use commas to set off the year when three parts of a date are given. Use no commas in a two-part date.
On Friday, November 23, 1990, I attended my first school dance. The climate during June 1971 was very humid in Missouri.

4. Use commas between parts of an address. (State and ZIP number form one part.) Within a sentence, use a comma after the end of the address if it is not the end of the sentence.


Apply to the Art Academy, 4105 Capital Boulevard, Raleigh, NC 27604. Is 1150 Forestville Road, Wake Forest, NC 27587, the correct address for Heritage High School? 5. Use commas after digits indicating thousands except in such items as dates or street numbers.
1,236 1236 South Winnebago Drive A.D. 11,884

6. In alphabetical listings of names, as in directories or bibliographies, use a comma after the surname (a persons last name).
Dempsey, Patrick Lovelace, Dr. Rebecca M. Jones, James E.

7. Use commas to set off a title or the abbreviation of a title following a name.
James P. Bradford, Jr., is the coordinator of student activities.

8. Use commas to separate the items in a series of words, phrases, or short clauses.
The team, band, and fans were tense with excitement. We drove under the suspension bridge, up the hill, and into the picnic grounds. Lucy studied, Ricky daydreamed, and I fell asleep.

9. Use a comma to show the omission of words.

I was wearing a topcoat; Louis, only a jacket.

10. Use commas to set off adjectives that follow the noun they modify.
The boys, breathless and exhausted, stood waiting.

11. Use commas to separate consecutive adjectives if each one modifies the noun alone.
I heard his hearty, contagious laugh. (hearty laugh, contagious laugh) Note: No comma is necessary if an adjective modifies an adjective-noun combination. Example- This is a compulsory medical examination. One way to spot these instances is if the word and can be substituted or if the two modifiers can be flipped and the sentence retains the same meaning. I heard his hearty, contagious laugh. I heard his contagious, hearty laugh. This is a medical, compulsory examination. NO!

12. Use commas to set off words or word groups that are appositives unless the appositives are short and closely connected (necessary for clarity).
Jenna Lambert, a science student, built this project. My brother Simon called. The poem Cargoes is by Masefield.

13. Use a comma or commas to set off a direct quotation.

Hillary replied, Its in the dining room. Where, Cody asked, were you?

14. Use commas to set off contrasted elements.

The office, unlike the hallway, was welcoming. Greg, not Peter, is her brother.

15. Use a comma wherever needed for clear meaning.

To Mary, Beth seems shy. In 1980, 920 permits were issued. What the reason is, is unclear. Outside, the house looked in good repair.

16. Use a comma after complimentary closings in all letters. Use a comma after the salutation of a friendly letter.
Respectfully, Lovingly yours, Dear Reagan,

11 Dear Uncle Mitchell,

17. Use a comma before a short clause that changes a statement into a question.
It was a long trip to our summer camp that day, wasnt it? He wont do that again, will he?

18. Use a comma or commas to set off sections of the sentence that give incidental or supplementary information. Omit the commas if the clause or phrase is restrictive (necessary) to the sentence idea. A clause beginning with that will always be restrictive and, therefore, will not be set off by commas.
Officer Keck, who is always alert, saw the collision. (nonrestrictive) The crossing that we were approaching was a dangerous one. (restrictive) Millie, bursting with the news, walked toward us. (nonrestrictive)

19. Use a comma with a conjunction to separate the clauses of a compound sentence unless they are very short clauses.
Public education is free, but a student has various subsidiary expenses. Josh arrived in the morning, and Roger followed him later in the day. You read and Ill listen.

20. Use commas to set off clauses and phrases that are introductory or noticeably out of their normal places in the sentence.
Before Mr. Reece put the microscope away, he cleaned it carefully. Because you were not paying attention, you missed the assignment. After that first long and exhausting day, I began to enjoy the summer. I shall, as soon as I can, bring you a full report. .

Dash 1. Use dashes to indicate a sudden break or change in the sentence. They are often used to emphasize a word, phrase, or clause. The dash consists of two hyphens without spacing before or after them.
The movie was dullpainfully dull. The schools in this areaespecially those in Wake Countyattract the finest teachers.

Ellipses 1. Use ellipses to indicate that some words have been left out of a quotation. Be careful not to leave out crucial words from the quotation.
In his address to the student body, Mrs. Barger said, Due to the weather conditions, school will dismiss at noon . . . Bus service will be provided, but delays are expected.

2. Use ellipses to indicate a pause.

I dont have . . . well, maybe I . . . has anyone seen my homework?

Exclamation Point 1. Use ONE exclamation point to express strong feeling when making a request or statement. Use exclamation points sparingly.
That is amazing! Get out of here!

2. Place the exclamation point inside the quotation marks if it is part of the quotation. Place it outside the quotation marks if it is not part of the quotation.
As she chased the wolves away from the chickens, she shouted, Get out of here! I cant believe he said, I love you !


Hyphen 1. Use a hyphen to make a compound word.

mother-in-law self-esteem

2. Use a hyphen to join a capital letter to a word.

T-shirt U-turn

3. Use a hyphen to form new words beginning with the prefixes self, ex, all, great, and half.
self-taught great-grandmother all-inclusive

4. Use a hyphen with prefixes to avoid confusion or when the prefix ends with the same letter that begins the base word.
re-cover the furniture (vs. recover from an illness) re-sign a petition (vs. resign from a job) anti-intellectual

5. Use a hyphen to join two or more words that combine to form a single adjective before a noun. If this type of adjective follows the noun, there are no hyphens.
Our school is equipped with up-to-date technology. Our schools technology is up to date. The Franco-Prussian War was quite controversial.

6. Use hyphens in certain numerical expressions.

twenty-five (used for numbers 21 to 99) two-thirds full (in fractions used as adjectives or adverbs) We won 72-55. (in scores) Read pages 35-47 (to mean through)

7. Use hyphens to divide a word at the end of a line of print. Words are divided only between syllables, but do not leave one letter by itself.
Most of the time when youre writing by hand or on the computer, you do not have to worry about hyphenation; but when you do have to hyphenate, pay careful attention to word division rules.

Italics 1. Use italics to indicate the titles of books, films, plays, long poetry, ballets, operas, magazines, newspapers, television programs, pamphlets, CDs, legal cases, works of art, websites and the names of ships and aircraft. When the title is handwritten, the words that should be italicized are underlined.
Of Mice and Men I love watching The Big Bang Theory.

2. Use italics to distinguish a particular word or to denote foreign and scientific language.
I will look up the word democracy in the dictionary. Muchas gracias for your help on my Spanish project.

Parenthesis 1. Use parentheses to enclose supplementary information that interrupts the flow of the normal sentence structure.
I forgot to study for todays vocabulary test. (I usually remember.) The hockey team (except Otis) played well.


Period 1. Use a period after a complete sentence that is a command, request, or statement.
Answer the question using a complete sentence. Please work quietly. I know how to write a complete sentence.

2. Use a period after initials and most abbreviations. Abbreviations using all uppercase letters typically do not use periods. If an abbreviation comes at the end of the sentence, do not add another period. (This final rule does not apply to question marks and exclamation points.)
W. C. Fields Ph.D. U.S. CIA PSAT

3. Use a period as a decimal point.

The company lost over $4.5 million last year.

4. Use a period after each Roman numeral, letter, and number in an outline.
I. Fall team sports for boys A. Soccer 1. Competitive 2. Intramural B. Football II. Fall team sports for girls

5. Always place the period inside the quotation marks that end the sentence. George Carlin said, Dont sweat the petty things and dont pet the sweaty things. Question Mark 1. Use a question mark after a question but not after indirect questions.
Who knows when to use a question mark? Im wondering who knows when to use a question mark.

2. Place the question mark inside of the quotation marks if it is part of the quotation. Place it outside of the quotation marks if it is not part of the quotation.
Who said, A successful book is not made of what is in it, but what is left out of it? I have to ask, Who knows when to use a question mark?

3. Use a question mark in parentheses to show uncertainty.

The writer lived from 1620 (?) to 1659.

4. A question mark or period may be used after a request.

Would you please work quietly? Would you please work quietly. (also correct)

Quotation Mark 1. Use quotation marks to enclose what someone says but not what someone is thinking. Quotation marks are not used with indirect quotations.
Mr. Macleod said, Finish this assignment by tomorrow. I wondered when I would have time to work on the assignment. I told Mr. Schweickert that I would need more time to complete the work.

2. Use single quotation marks to punctuate a quotation within a quotation.

14 Read Building and Punctuating Sentences for tomorrow, said Mrs. Reid.

3. Place periods and commas inside quotation marks.

I must cancel the test, Ms. Koning announced sadly.

4. Place semicolons or colons outside the quotation marks.

No one volunteered to sing The Star Spangled Banner; it is such a difficult song.

5. Place exclamation points or question marks inside quotation marks when punctuating the quotation; they are placed outside when they punctuate the entire sentence.
I panicked when Mrs. Roth asked, Will you explain the use of semicolons? Have you memorized the words to The Star Spangled Banner?

6. Use quotation marks to punctuate titles of songs, poems, short stories, lectures, television episodes, book chapters, and articles from magazines, newspapers, and encyclopedias.
The Star Spangled Banner is a difficult song to sing. Verbal Abuse is the most compelling chapter in your grammar book. Ms. Belk appeared in Force of Nature, an episode from Star Trek.

7. Use quotation marks to distinguish a particular word, to indicate slang, or to point out that the word is being used in a special way.
I looked up the word democracy in the dictionary. Mrs. Travers couldnt help but show off her rad car. I am a-maized how good this corn tastes! Note: Italics may be used instead of quotation marks in the examples above. I looked up the word democracy in the dictionary. Mrs. Travers couldnt help but show off her rad car. I am a-maized how good this corn tastes!

Semicolon 1. Use a semicolon between two sentences (independent clauses) that are closely related.
Use semicolons between independent clauses; use colons to introduce a list.

2. Use a semicolon before words like however, also, besides, for example, in addition, instead, meanwhile, then, and therefore when they connect independent clauses.
Exclamation points help convey emotion; however, some writers tend to overuse them. Exclamation points help convey emotion. Some writers, however, tend to overuse them.

3. Use semicolons to separate groups of words that already contain commas.

I am going to Los Angeles, CA; Las Vegas, NV; and Orlando, FL. Before we can leave on vacation, I must go to the bank for travelers checks, passports, and cash; I must stop our mail and newspaper delivery; and I must pick up some medication, cosmetics, and film at the pharmacy.

Sentence Structure Terminology Subjectthe key noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about
The king beheaded his enemies. (simple subject) Charles and I escaped execution. (compound subject)

Predicatethe key verb or verb phrase that expresses what the subject is or does
The king beheaded his enemies. (Beheaded is the simple predicate; beheaded his enemies is the complete predicate.)

Direct objectthe noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that receives the action of the verb
I adore my English teacher.

15 They can see it.

Indirect objectthe noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that indirectly receives the action of the verb The indirect object answers the question to whom, for whom, to what, or for what.
My boss offered me a raise. My parents gave my sister their old car. (A raise = direct object/me = indirect) (their old car = direct object/ sister = indirect)

Appositivea noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that adds an explanation or new information about the noun it follows
Mark Twain, one of my favorite humorists, was born in Missouri. My brother George loaned me the money.

Noun of addressa noun or a pronoun that names the person or thing being spoken to
Jack, where is my brand new car? How in the world, Heather, did you get your hair like that?

Gerunda verb form with an -ing ending that functions as a noun

Swimming is good exercise.

Infinitivea verb form preceded by to The verb in this form can often function as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
My goal is to win.

Participlea verb form that functions as an adjective

The kiss awakened the dreaming princess. The cryptographers decipher the hidden meaning in the message.

Clausea group of words with a subject and predicate Independent (or main) clausea clause that can stand alone
Sam finished his homework.

Dependent (or subordinate) clausea clause that cannot stand alone A dependent (or subordinate) clause must be attached to an independent (or main) clause.
Sam finished his homework after he washed all the windows. (independent clause) (dependent clause)

Restrictive clausea clause or phrase in a sentence that is needed in the sentence because it restricts or limits the meaning of the sentence
The assistant principal who sets the testing schedule is out of the building today.

Nonrestrictive clausea clause or phrase in a sentence that is not needed to convey the basic meaning of the sentence (Such clauses are set off by commas.)
Mr. Russell, who happens to be my neighbor, is an award-winning teacher.

Sentence Types According to Purpose Declarative sentencea statement that tells us something about a person, place, thing, or idea
Whales are mammals. Disney World is crowded during the week of Christmas.

Imperative sentencea command (often with the understood subject you)

Look at the whales. Be prepared to discuss the story.

Interrogative sentencea sentence that asks a question

Do you see the whales? When did you read the story?

Exclamatory sentencea sentence that communicates strong emotion or surprise

I love studying English grammar!


Sentence Types According to Structure Simple sentencea declarative, interrogative, or imperative sentence that is not part of another sentence
Whales are mammals. Where are the whales? Look at the whales.

Compound sentencea sentence with two or more independent clauses

The bell rang, and the students started to work.

Complex sentencea sentence with one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses
When the teacher arrives late, the students begin class without her. (dependent clause) (independent clause)

Compound-complex sentencea sentence with more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause Loose sentencea sentence that makes complete sense if brought to a close before the ending
We continued working together as a group/ because we liked each other/ and work well together.

We love studying grammar; if they take away our grammar books, well organize a protest. (independent clause) (dependent clause) (independent clause)

Periodic sentencea sentence that doesnt fully make sense until the end of the sentence is reached
That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Denver.

Balanced sentencea sentence where the phrases and clauses balance each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters When the going gets tough, the tough get going.

Sentence Types According to Length Telegraphic- shorter than five words in length, it expresses a straightforward, nofrills idea
Just do it!

Short- about five words

I would have never guessed that.

Medium- about fifteen words

Mrs. Lewis-Hunt asked the students to read one chapter of The Great Gatsby each night for homework.

Long- long and involvedabout 30 or more words

Having never been to London, Maria decided to go online and research the most visited attractions and recommended restaurants; however, once she arrived, she felt it was much more exciting to hire a bike and explore the city without any specific plans or agenda.


Transition Words and Phrases

Transition words and phrases help writers to improve organization, clarity, and flow. They link sentences and paragraphs by connecting ideas and introducing shifts. Addition/Continuation These words are used to build upon ideas. additionally again also another as well as besides equally important finally first, second, third further furthermore in addition in fact in the same way indeed lastly moreover next similarly still

In fact, after revising her paper, she received a much higher grade than she had ever gotten before. Lastly, you mix all of the ingredients in a bowl and serve. In the same way, bees locate food using their senses.

Cause and Effect These words are used to show logical relationships between events and ideas. accordingly as a result because consequently for hence in consequence in order that on account of resulting from so so that subsequently then therefore thus

As a result, the school has had to implement a new policy. Its remote location made it impossible to reach. Thus, the island was never inhabited by humans.

Compare These words are used when comparing similar things or ideas. again analogous to as well as by the same token equally in like manner in similar fashion in the same way like likewise much as same as similarly still too moreover

Massachusetts created the first free public schools, and in similar fashion, New York followed. Equally important is the effect on the environment.


Contrast These words are used to show differences between things or ideas. and yet although at the same time but conversely despite different from even though however in contrast instead nevertheless on the other hand opposite from otherwise opposite from rather though whereas yet

Janice cannot boil rice; whereas, he brother can cook a full Thanksgiving dinner. On the other hand, hundreds of years ago, most learning took place in the home.

Concession These words are used to show that one is weighing ideas, and that, one point or another may be right. granted naturally of course

Granted, most people still believe in the possibility of the American Dream. Of course, opponents of the law present a number of valid arguments.

Emphasis These words are used to show the importance of a key idea. a central idea a key issue/feature a distinctive quality a major development a major event a significant factor above all certainly chiefly clearly especially important especially relevant important to note indeed in fact most of all most noteworthy note that of course of primary concern obviously pay particular attention to remember that should be noted The crux of the matter

The crux of the matter is that we can no longer afford to ignore the impact of green house gases. In this instance, it is important to note that the Governor only signed the law after a month of protests.

Exemplification These words are used to introduce an example. as an illustration for example for instance in fact in short in other words in particular much like namely specifically such as that is to demonstrate to illustrate

For instance, she never mentions her childhood home in the early chapters of her memoir. Changing our carbon footprint will require sacrifices; namely, cutting back on our energy consumption.


Order and Sequence These words are used to indicate when things happen in relation to each other. again after after awhile afterward already at last at the same time before during earlier eventually finally first formerly immediately in time in the past last lastly lately later meanwhile next now presently second secondly shortly simultaneously since so far soon still subsequently suddenly then thereafter until when while

Mr. Jones would subsequently get a job working for Bensen Aircraft Corporation at RDU. Formerly a member of the Cleveland Cavaliers, LeBron James moved to the Miami Heat in 2010.

Summary and Conclusion These words are used to introduce summarizations and important final points. all in all altogether as a result as a final point finally in brief in conclusion in short in summary in the end last of all lastly on the whole therefore to summarize

To summarize, the drinking water throughout the region has been proven to be contaminated. As a final point, it should be noted that Washington was unanimously elected to two terms as President.

Basic Spelling Tips The English language has two kinds of letters: vowels and consonants. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y or w. The consonants are the letters that are not vowels: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, z. Long vowelWe hear the sound of the letter just as it is when we recite the alphabet.
A long a is pronounced like the a in the words: make, cake, take, ache.

Short vowelThe sound of the vowel is soft.

A short a is pronounced like the a in the words: mask, task, act, jack, bag.

1. Short-Vowel RuleWhen one-syllable words have a vowel in the middle, the vowel usually has a short sound.
cat, dog, man, hat, mom, dad, got

If the letter after the vowel is f, l, or s, this letter is often doubled. staff, ball, pass.


2. Two-Vowels TogetherWhen two vowels are next to each other, the first vowel is usually long (the sound is the same as the sound of the letter) and the second vowel is silent.
meat, seat, plain, rain, goat, road, lie, pie

3. "Vowel-Consonant- e" PatternWhen a short word, or the last syllable of a longer word, ends in this pattern: vowel--consonant--e, the first vowel is usually long and the e is silent.
place, cake, mice, vote, mute

4. Y as a long iThe letter Y makes the long sound of I when it comes at the end of a short word that has no other vowel.
cry, try, my, fly, by

5. Y as a long eWhen y or ey ends a word in an unaccented syllable, the y has the long e sound
money, honey, many, key, funny

6. Y with a suffixWhen adding the suffix s or ed to words ending in y, ordinarily change y to i when the y is preceded by a consonant but not when it is preceded by a vowel. preceded by a consonant- comedy, comedies monkey, monkeys preceded by a vowel-dry, dried play, played 7. I before EWrite i before e when the sound is long e except after the letter c.
relieve, relief, reprieve

Notice the change when there is a c preceding the ie: receipt, receive, ceiling, deceive, conceive
Other Exceptions: seize, either, weird, height, foreign, leisure

8. E before IWrite e before i when the sound is long a.

weight, freight, reign

9. Oi or OyUse oi in the middle of a word and use oy at the end of a word.

boil, soil, toil, boy, toy

10. Ou or OwUse ou in the middle of a word and use ow at the end of words other than those that end in n or d.
mouse, house, found, mount, borrow, row, throw, crow

11. Double ConsonantsWhen b, d, g, m, n, or p appear after a short vowel in a word with two syllables, double the consonant: b, d, g, m, n, or p.
rabbit, manner, dagger, banner, drummer

12. The "ch" soundAt the beginning of a word, use "ch." At the end of a word, use "tch." When the "ch" sound is followed by ure or ion, use t.
choose, champ, watch, catch, picture, rapture

13. Forming PluralsAdd s to form the plural of most nouns; add es to singular nouns ending in s, sh, ch, and x.
table, tables church, churches paper, papers dish, dishes

14. Forming Plurals with words that end in oAdd s to nouns ending in o when the o is preceded by a vowel. Add es when it is preceded by a consonant.


radio, radios hero, heroes video, videos tomato, tomatoes Exceptions- pianos, solos, memos 100 Commonly Misspelled Words 1. Accommodate 2. Achieve 3. Across 4. Aggressive 5. Apparently 6. Appearance 7. Argument 8. Assassination 9. Basically 10. Beginning 11. Believe 12. Bizarre 13. Business 14. Calendar 15. Canceled 16. Caribbean 17. Cemetery 18. Chauffer 19. Colleague 20. Coming 21. Committee 22. Completely 23. Conscious 24. Curiosity 25. Definitely 26. Dilemma 27. Disappear 28. Disappoint 29. Ecstasy 30. Embarrass 31. Environment 32. Existence 33. Fahrenheit 34. Familiar 35. Finally 36. Fluorescent 37. Foreign 38. Foreseeable 39. Forty 40. Forward 41. Friend 42. Further 43. Gist 44. Glamorous 45. Government 46. Guard 47. Happened 48. Harass 49. Honorary 50. Humorous 51. Idiosyncrasy 52. Immediately 53. Incidentally 54. Independent 55. Interrupt 56. Irresistible 57. Knowledge 58. Liaison 59. Lollipop 60. Millennium 61. Misspell 62. Necessary 63. Noticeable 64. Occasion 65. Occurred 66. Pavilion 67. Persistent 68. Pharaoh 69. Piece 70. Politician 71. Portuguese 72. Possession 73. Preferred 74. Propaganda 75. Publicly 76. Really 77. Receive 78. Referred 79. Religious 80. Remember 81. Resistance 82. Sense 83. Separate 84. Siege 85. Successful 86. Supersede 87. Surprise 88. Tattoo 89. Tendency 90. Therefore 91. Threshold 92. Tomorrow 93. Tongue 94. Truly 95. Unforeseen 96. Unfortunate 97. Until 98. Weird 99. Wherever 100. Which

Common Usage Errors

1. 50s, 60s, 70s, etc. 2. altar vs. alter 3. accept/except 4. affect vs. effect 5. alot vs a lot 6. allusion/illusion Theres no requirement for the apostrophe before the S in decade names like 50s and 60s, since there are no omitted letters. Altar- a raised structure used for worship vs. Alter- to change Accept- consent to receive vs. Except- other than Affect- to have influence on vs. Effect-a change the is the result of an action Alot is NOT a word! The word lot means a large amount. Allusion- an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly vs. Illusion- Something incorrectly perceived by the senses. This is non-standard English and should not be used.

7. anyways


8. being that 9. bring vs. take 10. collage vs. college 11. conversate 12. could of 13. due to the fact that 14. disinterested vs. uninterested 15. e.g vs. i.e. 16. good vs. well 17. Hanged vs. hung 18. hisself 19. irregardless 20. its vs. its 21. lead vs. led 22. loser vs. looser 23. must of 24. on accident 25. principal vs. principle 26. real vs. really 27. supposably or supposingly vs. supposedly 28. Suppose to vs. supposed to 29. than vs. then 30. think on it 31. theyre vs. their vs. there 32. two vs. to vs. too 33. use to 34. would of 35. whos vs. whose 36. youre vs. your

This is non-standard English; use because instead. Bring- come to a place with something vs. Take- leave a place with something Collage- a piece of art formed by sticking various pictures and other materials together vs. College- a place of higher education This is non-standard English. The correct word is converse. This is non-standard English. The correct way to say or write this is could have. This is a non-standard way to say because. It should not be used. Disinterested- objective, neutral vs. Uninterested- bored e.g.- for example vs. i.e.- that is
You do something well (describes an action), but a thing is good (describes a noun). The exception is verbs of sensation in phrases such as the pie smells good, or I feel good.

Hanged is used to describe suicide or capital punishment and hung is used to describe things that are suspended from above. This is non-standard English. Use himself instead. This is non-standard English. The correct term is regardless. Its= possession vs. Its= it is Lead (pronounced the same as led) is a type of metal. Led is the past-tense of lead. Loser- a person who is a failure vs. Looser- not tight (comparatively). This is non-standard English. The correct usage is must have. This is non-standard English. The correct usage is by accident. Principal- the head of your school or the first in order vs. Principle- a fundamental truth I felt real good is non-standard English; you should use the correct adverbial form really. Supposably and supposingly are incorrect. Supposedly is the correct form. Suppose to is non-standard English. The correct term is supposed to. Than is used when comparing two things. Then is used when writing or speaking about sequence. This is non-standard English. The correct term is think about. Theyre= they are; Their= shows possession (their books); there= refers to a place or position Two= number 2; to= expressing motion in the direction of; too= also or in excess This is non-standard English. The correct term is used to. This is non-standard English. The correct term is would have. Whos= who is; whose= indicates possession (Whose turn is it?) Youre= you are vs. your= possession (Your essay is great!)


The Writing Process

1. Research and PrewritePrewriting is a stage of exploring what you already know and discovering what you need to find out. Researching, filling out a graphic organizer, freewriting, talking to friends, reading, or drawing pictures are examples of how to explore ideas. 2. OutlineCreating an organized outline allows the writer to examine ideas and build a carefully crafted paper. 3. DraftDrafting is a stage where you put your thoughts on paper. Emphasis should be on ideas, not on perfecting every detail. This will be your first, but not only, draft. 4. ReviseRevising is a stage of thought and change. Revising falls into two categories: revising for ideas and revising for form. This is your second draft. Note that steps three and four may be repeated as many times as necessary. 5. ProofreadProofreading is a stage of correcting the conventions. This includes capitalization, spelling, punctuation, and getting your paper ready for the reader. This is when you should also check to make sure your paper is formatted in MLA style. 6. Publish and PresentPublishing and presenting is the stage of sharing your finished paper with a larger audience. This is accomplished by oral presentation, displaying your paper, turning in to your teacher, or submitting it for publication. 7. ReflectionReflecting is the stage of taking time to think about your writing process. Reflections can take the form of a journal entry or a note to your teacher or fellow writers. It may be attached to the writing itself or included as a part of your portfolio.

The Structure of a Basic Essay

Thesis StatementEvery essay needs a well formulated thesis statement, a statement of the purpose, intent, or main idea of the composition. This must be a declarative sentence. 1. Introduction The opening paragraph must: Gain the attention of the reader. State the topic of the essay (State the author and title if literature is the subject). State any relevant background information. Include the thesis statement Allow for a smooth transition into the body of the writing.

2. Body ParagraphsThere should be several body paragraphs. Some essays may require two or three body paragraphs, but some compositions may need more. 3. ConclusionThe concluding paragraph should: Briefly restate the thesis.



Summarize major points. Tie any loose ends left in the body of the paper. Leave the reader with a clear understanding of the meaning and significance of the essay. Include action steps or a call to action, if appropriate.

1. Statement- Also known as your topic sentence, ideally the statement connects to the prompt and thesis statement. It usually tells what you will explore in this rest of the paragraph. 2. Proof3. ExplanationEach quote should be explained in your own words. 4. SynthesisThe separate ideas and pieces of evidence are combined to create one cohesive idea.

Sample Essay Outline

This is the way a traditional outline is formatted in MLA style. Please note that your teacher may ask you to put your thesis statement right at the top of your essay, since this is the most important component of the outline. Insert page number in the header and type your last name. Note: your heading does not go in the header.

The title is centered in normal Times New Roman font

The main point follows a Roman numeral. Proof and secondary points follow capital letters (A, B, etc.), minor points are followed by numbers (1, 2) or (i, ii, iii).

One inch margins all around


Each of your paragraphs should use SPES. This type of allows you to maintain an organized essay, which is desired in most essays. However, when approaching very sophisticated papers, such as those in an AP class, this rigid format may not be desirable. Still, an outline may still be employed in order to plan and organize.

Basic MLA Format

According to Purdue Owl: Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor). Set the margins of your document to one inch on all sides. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times. Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, onehalf inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.) Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).

This is how it looks:

Your heading includes: your full name, your teachers name, the name of the class, and the date. Note: your heading does not go in the header.

Insert page number in the header and type your last name. Read on to find out how to do this.

Note that the date is NOT written month day, year (December 10, 2014. It is written day month year (10 December 2014).

The title is centered and typed in 12 pt Times New Roman font. It should not be underlined or in bold. Only hit enter once after the title. Then begin your essay. Press the Tab button to indent each paragaph.

26 This is how to double space your paper: (Your screen may appear different depending on the specific program that you are using, but the general idea is still the same).

Press line spacing button and choose 2.0. If you have already typed, highlight your work before completing the other steps.

This is how you insert your name and page number into the header:

Step 3: Click Top of Page Step 1: Click on insert Step 2: Click Page Number Step 4: Choose whichever one is in the top right corner. Also, make sure it is plain.


Works Cited Creating a works cited page can be complicated because each type of entry is formatted slightly differently. This is just a basic overview of how your works cited page will look once completed. Basic entry types are listed here, but consult Purdue Owl online for more details on other types of entries. Websites like Son of Citation are also helpful. ( The main thing you must remember is that the works are listed in alphabetical order. Also hanging indents are used. Last, it is formatted in the same way as the rest of the paper (double spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font, Last name and page number in header, and one inch margins all around).


1. Format a works cited entry for an article: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Medium of publication. 2. Format a works cited entry for a book: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. 3. Format a works cited entry for a website: Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access. (URL Some teachers may require this and some will not). In Text Citation According to the Purdue Owl Writing Lab: The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the sources entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the lefthand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List.

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Examples of how to complete in text citations: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).


According to the Merriam Webster Online Dictionary, plagiarism is: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own to use (another's production) without crediting the source to commit literary theft to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source

Here are some common types of plagiarism taken from 1. Clone- Submitting anothers work, word for word, as ones own 2. CTRL C- Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations 3. Find- Replace- Changing key words and phrases but retaining the initial content of the source 4. Remix- Paraphrases from multiple sources made to fit together 5. Recycle- Borrows heavily from the writers previous work without citation 6. Hybrid- Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation 7. Mashup- Mixes copied material from multiple sources 8. 404 Error- Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources 9. Aggregator- Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work. Most plagiarism is unintentional and can be avoided by properly using in text citations. However, whether plagiarism is intentional or not, it is still a form of cheating and is therefore subject to normal disciplinary procedures.

Glossary of Literary Terms

1. Allegory an extended work in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface 2. Alliteration the repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words (as in wild and woolly) also called head rhyme, initial rhyme 3. Allusion a passing reference to historical or fictional characters, places, or events, or to other works that the writer assumes the reader will recognize 4. Analogy a comparison of similar things, often for the purpose of using something familiar to explain something unfamiliar 5. Antagonist usually the character in fiction or drama who stands in direct opposition to or in conflict with the central character 6. Archetype a pattern or model of an action, a character type, or an image that recurs consistently enough in life and literature to be considered universal 7. Aside- in drama, a remark spoken to the audience, which the characters do not hear 8. Assonance the close repetition of vowel sounds within words as in fade/pale


9. Blank verse poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter, not to be confused with free verse 10. Characterization the method by which an author creates the appearance and personality of imaginary persons and reveals their character 11. Climax the moment of highest intensity and interest in a drama or story 12. Comic Relief- the use of humor to receive intense emotion 13. Conflict the struggle between opposing forces that determines the action in drama and stories 14. Connotation the associations, images, or impressions carried by a word as opposed to the words literal meaning 15. Consonance the close repetition of identical consonant sounds within words as in leave/love 16. Denotation the precise, literal meaning of a word without emotional associations or overtones 17. Denouement a general term for the final resolution of the conflicts and complications of a play 18. Dialogue- the actual words that characters speak 19. Diction word choice 20. Dynamic Character- character changes his outlook or perspective 21. Epiphany a moment of revelation or profound insight 22. Essay an attempt at exploring or explaining a topic or theme; nearly always written in prose 23. Exposition in drama or other fiction, the revelation to the audience of setting, character relationships, and plot; in nonfiction, an explanation 24. Falling action the part of a dramatic plot that follows the climax; when the conflict is resolved, all questions are answered, and loose ends are tied up 25. Fiction narrative writing that is the product of the authors imagination; an invention rather than actual history or fact to entertain, instruct, or persuade 26. Figurative language language that contains figures of speech such as metaphor, simile, personification, and hyperbole that help the reader see what is happening 27. Flashback a way of presenting scenes or incidents that took place before the opening scene 28. Foreshadowing the technique of giving hints or clues that suggest or prepare for events that occur later in a work 29. Free verse a type of poetry that is free of the regular beat of meter, usually lacks rhyme, and has irregular line lengths 30. Genre a type of literary work such as a novel, short story, or lyric poem, each with its own set of characteristics 31. Hyperbole obvious, extravagant exaggeration or overstatement, not intended to be taken literally 32. Iambic pentameter a poetic line of five iambic (unstressed/stressed) feet; it is the meter of blank verse and the sonnet: Shall I com pare thee to a sum mers day? 33. Imagery the making of pictures in words which appeals to the senses of taste, smell, hearing, touch, and sight 34. Inference conclusions drawn from information given


35. Irony the recognition of the difference between what is and what seems to be; the use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning 36. Dramatic the audience or reader knows something that a character does not know 37. Situational the opposite of what is expected to happen occurs 38. Verbal (similar to sarcasm) a character says the opposite of what he means 39. Literary criticism the practice of describing, interpreting, and evaluating literature 40. Literature writings in poetry and prose of recognized excellence, valued for their intense, personal, and imaginative expression of life 41. Metaphor a figure of speech in which something is imaginatively compared to or identified with another dissimilar thing, not using like or as 42. Mood the prevailing emotional attitude in a literary work such as regret, hopefulness, or bitterness 43. Motif a recurring image, word, phrase, action, idea, object, or situation that appears in various works or throughout the same work 44. Narrative a recounting of a series of actual or fictional events as found in short stories, novels, epics, ballads, histories, and biographies 45. Narrative Hook the part of the story where the reader becomes hooked 46. Narrator the teller of a story or other narrative 47. Nonfiction literature that is not fictional or imaginary 48. Onomatopoeia the use of words whose sound imitates the sound being named as in hum, buzz, boom, or hiss 49. Oxymoron a figure of speech in which two contradictory words or phrases are combined in a single expression, giving the effect of a paradox, as in wise fool or living death 50. Parable a short, simple tale from which a moral lesson is drawn 51. Paradox a statement that, while apparently self-contradictory, is nonetheless essentially true This sentence by Thoreau is a paradox: I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude. 52. Parallelism repetition of sentence structures, words, or phrases 53. Parody imitates or mocks another serious work 54. Personification a figure of speech in which human characteristics and sensibilities are attributed to animals, plants, inanimate objects, natural forces, or abstract ideas 55. Plot the careful arrangement of events in a narrative to achieve a desired effect 56. Poetic license the freedom writers have to depart from normal word order, use archaic words, or invent new words to achieve certain effects 57. Poetry- literature in its most imaginative and rhythmic form; usually written in lines instead of paragraphs and relying on imagery for meaning 58. Point of View- The vantage point from which a text is presented First Person- The story is told by one of the characters. The reader is told only what this character knows and observes. Third Person- The narrator is not a character in the story at all: o Third Person Limited- focusing on thoughts and experiences of one character. o Third Person Omniscient- all knowing; narrator describes and comments on all characters and action in a story. 59. Prose in its broadest sense, all forms of ordinary writing and speech lacking the sustained and regular rhythmic patterns found in poetry; it is the language of essays, short stories, and novels


60. Protagonist the principal and central character of a novel, short story, play, or other literary work 61. Resolution the final unwinding, or resolving, of the conflicts and complication in the plot of fiction or drama 62. Rhetoric the art of persuasion in writing or speaking 63. Rhythm the patterned flow of sound in poetry and prose, known as meter 64. Rising action the part of the plot that develops the conflicts that lead to the climax 65. Satire a kind of writing that holds up to ridicule or contempt the weaknesses and wrongdoings of individuals, groups, institutions, or humanity in general 66. Setting the time and place of a work of literature 67. Simile a figure of speech that uses like, as, or as if to compare two essentially different objects or actions 68. Speaker the voice of a poem, not necessarily that of the poet 69. Static Character a characters outlook or perspective does not change; he or she remains the same throughout the story 70. Style a writers characteristic way of saying things 71. Suspense the quality of a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem that makes the reader or audience uncertain or tense about the outcome of events 72. Symbol anything that signifies or stands for something else 73. Syntax the arrangement and relationship of words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence; especially important in discussing an authors style 74. Theme the central or dominating idea; the message implicit in a work, usually not stated directly 75. Tone the reflection in a work of the authors attitude toward his or her subject, characters, and readers: friendly, teasing, or imperious are examples of tone 76. Verisimilitude plausibility or believability of the story 77. Voice a term to identify the sense a written work conveys to a reader about the writers attitude, personality, and character 78. Willing suspension of disbelief the circumstance in which the reader of a novel or a play temporarily withholds doubt about truth or actuality and willingly accepts the makebelieve world invented by the author; coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge