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AngloSaxon Age (4501066) Literatur Beowulf e

Medieval Age (10661485) Canterbu ry Tales Arthurian Romance Divine Right Absolute Monarchy Feudalis m/ Hierarchy Magna Carta Catholicis m

English Renaissanc e (14851625) Macbeth

Enlightenme Romantic Age nt (1625(1790-1830) 1790) Paradise Lost Frankenstein, Rime of Ancient Mariner American/Fren ch revolutions Constitutional Democracy Deification of nature Gothicism

Victorian Age (18301900) Heart of Darkness, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Imperialism / British power Cultural Conservatis m Sensibility/ Propriety Exploitation vs. justice Darwin

Modernism (1900-1945) 1984

PostModernism (1945present) Grendel

Intellectu al, political, cultural, “truth candidate s”

Tribal warlords Germanic Paganism Druidic Culture Early Christiani ty Heroic Ideal

Constitutio nal Monarchy Humanism Protestant Reformatio n PreChristian classicism Secular theater

English civil War Parliamenta ry government Monism/ Deism Democratic (secular) humanism Newtonian Universe Rationality Scientific Method

Fascism/ Communism World War/ Holocaust Existentialis m/ Atheism Freudian Psychoanaly sis Solipsism

Cold war Nuclear power and the bomb Postcolonialism Relativism and the other Civil rights/ Immigratio n Space exploration Computer revolution Scientific

Early Feminism Imagination/ Individualism Antirationalism “Noble savage”

Ptolemaic Universe Copernican Universe Chivalric code/ Telescope/ Courtly Printing Love press

Confusion/ Nascent Alienation/ Existentialis Fragmentati m on Industrial Revolution Marxism

Materialis m/ Nihilism

Multiple Choice questions- Romantic to Modernism Period matching Questions- everything Romanticism—study guide - Schama Romantic Age Video - Frankenstein - Poetry of Coleridge o Rime of the Ancient Mariner o Kubla Kahn - Poetry of Blake o Songs of innocence o Proverbs of hell Victorian Age—study guide - Schama Victorian Age video - Hear of Darkness Modernism study guide - 1984 - As soon as the A-bomb drops this period begins - Orwell is influenced by World wars - This is a bloody time period - Freud

o Gives vocab to psychology o Allows writes in the modern time to go inside the character’s mind - Solipsism o You can only know truth in your mind o There is no external truth o This is often negative - Marxism in 1984 o The common man (the proles) will overthrow the government - Confusion/Alienation/Fragmentation o Winston has these qualities within his life and society Romanticism Schama Gothicism - Imitative, grotesque form of Medievalism - Themes o The mysterious, the fantastic the psychologically terrifying o The supernatural the mock religious, the transgressive - Gothicism as a response to the dissolution of “order” (king and church) Science fiction - Speculative fiction rooted loosely in the laws of probability as understood through the natural sciences - Themes o Moral implications of human knowledge/potential “truth through science Romanticism The French revolution was occurring next door  The people could and would take back their rights Rousseau  Reshaped the mental habits of an entire generation


Changed from thoughts of reason to soul • Men of feeling  Believed that humans should go back to childhood  Forget about book learning • Hurt their instinct for freedom • Get them outside and let them romp Mary wolfstentin craft 

Frankenstien Letters - Parallel the whole story - Desire for man to lay in the land of God - Loneliness of the individual, they have a fatal flaw which separates them from society o The ship captain o Walton lacks friends, they don’t understand him truly  Page 10 - Over confidence of man o The delusion that man will be successful at what he is doing  Walton thinks his voyage to the North Pole will go smoothly • Page 7 - Desire to be god like, playing in gods realm o Walton thinks his discovery may be heavenly, like Victor when he brings the dead to life - Decent into madness o Protagonist breaks down  Page 10 - Return form destruction o Redemption from total chaos o When people actually accept him, he comes back to society  Page 14 - Gothicism




o Dreams of going into the mysterious  Walton wants to find new lands never before seen Deification of nature o He sees the world as celestial o Focuses a lot on its beauty o It influences the people and changes them Rugged individual o The Lieutenant is looking for glory Noble Savage o He is naturally good but his experiences have made him darker and grittier Frame Narrative o Walton’s journey parallels Victors  Both in uncharted territory • Walton literally, Victor in scientific territory For romantics you have to set the bar ridiculously high o Walton tries something extremely dangerous and failed  Look what he was doing; being savage  They want you to do something massive

Ch 1 - Ideal family o Instead of giving Elizabeth a step mother, they want blood relation - Early Feminism o Victor is really appreciative towards Elizabeth  She has like true power - Deification of nature o He sees the lightning strike the tree

- Imagination o His search for things like the philosopher’s stone  Page 22 - Gothicism o Victor’s medievalism study  Agrippa Ch 2 - Anti-Rationalism o “I need not describe the feelings of those whose dearest ties are rent by that most irreparable evil, the void that presents itself to the soul and the despair that is exhibited on the countenance” (25) o He isn’t thinking upon the death trough reason-just emotion - Gothicism o “we must continue our course with the rest and learn to think for ourselves fortunate, whilst one remains who the spoiler has no seized” (25) supernatural the spoiler is the grim reaper or death - Imagination/Individualism o He goes to school alone for his own studies o “My life had hitherto been remarkably secluded and domestic and this had given me invincible repugnance to new countenances” (26) o “Thus ended a day memorable to me; it decided my future destiny” (28) o He decides he can learn enough to do what he wants to (reanimate life?)  1st step in him creating the monster Ch 3 - Rousseau’s thoughts on education o Frankenstein’s studies initially go against this





o Later he changes this Obsession and the rejection of loved ones o Page 29 o He is so obsessed he does sleep  Works through the night Secrecy o He continues to say that he is the only one who knows how to re animate life He likes science a lot since he can push the boundaries Light vs. dark o Page 30 o Light represents brilliance, knowledge o Darkness is a lack of knowledge, death  Darkness doesn’t effect him o Gothicism  He always works during thunderstorms and torrents Deification of nature o He is dabbing in nature o Using nature to achieve a scientific goal Price or progress o Page 33 o His pursuit is conflicting with his domestic life  You need to push your self though

Ch 4 - Women’s powerlessness o Calls his workshop a womb o “Time spent in painful labor” - Creation o Creates his monster but abandons it in the end - Sci-Fi o His creation turns on him - Obsession

o Pg 34 o He was working late, raining o The time and the setting whenever the monster appears are like this  Gothicism - Guilt o Like Macbeth he has nightmares  But this time about the look of his monster Ch 6 - Victor’s family writes him a letter saying William has died and he is missed - Awe of Nature o Pg 47 o Really descriptive o Victor is attracted by the immense peacefulness of his surroundings  The Nature “restores” him o He leaves the “enlightened” and rational university for the opposite in nature  Nature is intangible, very romantic - Dissolution of order o When the monster kills William o The child (the monster) takes out the creators family - Child archetype o Monster didn’t have formal education o Escaped to nature  He was “driven to it” - Motherhood o Victor feels guilty for Williams death since his creation killed William Ch 7 - Obsession of science destroys morals o Victor knows that the right thing to do is tell the court that the monster killed William, not Justine o But he decides to keep the secrecy of the monster and not say anything

- Irony o Victor is trying to save lives with his science while his creation is killing people - Anti-rationalism o He brings an extremely rational explanation of suicide which doesn’t really help - Individualism o He wants to protect his creation through his theory of suicide - Innocence vs. gothic novel o The innocence of Justine wont survive in a dark gothic novel - Reputation vs. honesty o Victor has the ability (the evidence) to free Justine of the charges o He wants to protect his reputation - Monsters rage through Victors cowardice o Victor seems like a true coward by not telling the truth o The Monsters’ rage is uncontrollable and it leads to Victor’s cowardice - Medievalism an Romanticism o Macbeth and victor  Page 57  Both Duncan and Justine are representations of innocence who die  Both Macbeth and Victor feel remorse • After Justine’s sentencing he feels remorse because he created the monster and its destroying all these things around him o He makes wrong decision in search of the monster  Like the waking vs. sleeping in Macbeth Themes - Plight of the Byronic hero o Social isolation and dark genius o Ingenious and social alienated as a result of this o Possessed with a dark genius/remarkable ability - Dangerous Knowledge o Human intellect vs. Transgressive







Victor and Lucifer • Both engaged in this dangerous knowledge with reason at the heart of it God-Like human potential o Humanism + science o Creator = created  The created gets to speak to its god (its creator) o Humans are capable of limitless possibilities Scientific Transgression vs. natural healing o Science is viewed as the tool to get you where you shouldn’t be going  Almost immoral uncharted territories o Natural healing solves problems  Victor gets sick from all the science and then when Victor goes back to nature (through hikes and stuff) he gets better Destruction of innocence and natural order o Death of child and maternal figures  Death of Elizabeth o Victor’s transgression causes this Corrupted maternity o Science vs. nature on the origins of life o Which has the answer to the origins of life? Human empathy/unity o The monster wants this but he cant get it  Through his mate he asks for o Victor’s family ties  Their support of victor o Idealized democratic poor  Poverty makes you seem more simple, less corrupt Mary Shelly’s history o Her mother’s death, her miscarriages 

Kubla Kahn - Lines 1-5 he arrives in the dream land o The pleasure dome - 6-11 o In the garden o Cultivated by man - 12-30 o Garden to forest  Tame to the wild  Deeper in the trip o Woman wailing for her demon lover in a rift in the earth  The rift is a connection to hell o A geyser explodes out of the ground and forms a river  Water is life forming stuff - Woman playing a dulcimer o Consider her the original poet o Could he channel her power  He could then bring this whole vision to life - Last lines o He becomes a pure poem energy o Honeydew and paradise  He is trippin’  Or it’s a sacred food • Either way it puts him into an altered state of consciousness - Society always pulls you back from your state of perfection William Blake - 1757-1827

- He was and established printer o He was middle class like most print makers - Relatively unknown during his life time - Called the most underrated poet - He believes that imagination is a form of energy that is God o He believes we are all sacred o We posses the power of creation o “Imagination is the body of God” - Influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American revolutions - Idolized Milton - Really religious but against the Church of England - Called a “man not forestalled by predecessors, nor to be classed with contemporaries, not to be replaced by known or readily surmisable successors” o However Milton would be his predecessors - Lived the life a pure artist o Didn’t care what people said - Considered by his contemporaries to be insane o Now considered the spirit of the age o He calls him self a prophet for Christianity - Eidactic imagination o A mind that has difficulty separating fantasy from reality  Blurs the line between  His parents didn’t discourage his visions, told him to have more - Illuminated printing o He was a printer by trade  H would do it the normal way o Illuminated printing his own way  He invented it, his own method  He only used it on text he called holy, sacred o He would take a plate of copper and paint on it in backwards and pour it into an acid formula then put ink on it and then print paper

o Blake’s Poems Songs of Innocence- Intro Piping down the valleys wild, Piping songs of pleasant glee, On a cloud I saw a child, And he laughing said to me: "Pipe a song about a Lamb!" So I piped with merry cheer. "Piper, pipe that song again;" So I piped: he wept to hear. "Drop thy pipe, thy happy pipe; Sing thy songs of happy cheer!" So I sung the same again, While he wept with joy to hear. "Piper, sit thee down and write In a book, that all may read." So he vanished from my sight, And I plucked a hollow reed, And I made a rural pen, And I stained the water clear, And I wrote my happy songs Every child may joy to hear. - Written for Children o Rousseau



o Child archetype of innocence There is a baby floating on a cloud over a valley He comes across a Sheppard o Idealized rural poor people o Like the people Frankenstein’s monster watches The Sheppard plays a song, baby cries, the baby tells him to sing it again o The sense of repetition is reassuring The Sheppard writes a poem with a reed from the ground Fairly conventional knowledge is typical in the songs of innocence Basic foundation for human knowledge

- The Lamb Little Lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Gave thee life, and bid thee feed, By the stream and o'er the mead; Gave thee clothing of delight, Softest clothing, woolly, bright; Gave thee such a tender voice, Making all the vales rejoice? Little Lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Little Lamb, I'll tell thee, Little Lamb, I'll tell thee. He is called by thy name, For He calls Himself a Lamb.

He is meek, and He is mild; He became a little child. I a child, and thou a lamb, We are called by His name. Little Lamb, God bless thee! Little Lamb, God bless thee! - Borderline stupid since they don’t convey new info because we are supposed to already know it - Blake tries to bring the noble savage into these innocence poems o Vs. the byroic hero in the songs of experience - “Who made you the little lamb?” o God made you the lamb of God Songs of Experience - Intro Hear the voice of the Bard, Who present, past, and future, sees; Whose ears have heard The Holy Word That walked among the ancient tree; Calling the lapsed soul, And weeping in the evening dew; That might control The starry pole, And fallen, fallen light renew! "O Earth, O Earth, return! Arise from out the dewy grass! Night is worn, And the morn Rises from the slumbrous mass.

"Turn away no more; Why wilt thou turn away? The starry floor, The watery shore, Are given thee till the break of day." - The language is not as light and simple as the song of innocence o Not as sing-songy either - The Bard is sacred but in a darker way than the lamb o Just because you are experienced doesn’t mean that you are corrupted, you are still sacred like the innocent but just differently - Ancient forests o Older, wiser, deeper o No longer in the peachy, pretty garden - Emerging night and the hope for renewal o Renewal= the new day, new light - Loss or sadness o Byronic hero moment  The knowledge you have that the innocent don’t have corrupts you - The experience people are Turing away from the light (renewal) o If you don’t want the light the rest of the night is yours  “Are given thee till the break of day” - Blake would say sexuality is glorious o Why try to pervert that and call it a sin? - The Tyger Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire? And what shoulder, & what art. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand? & what dread feet? What the hammer? what the chain? In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? what dread grasp Dare its deadly terrors clasp? When the stars threw down their spears, And watered heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? - Did the same thing that created the nice/fluffy ness of a lamb also create a savage tiger? o A lamb better represents Jesus’ teachings and polices but a tiger doesn’t  A god of charity and forgiveness - The tiger comes from the forest in the night - The tiger is old and ancient - Hellish imagery o Furnace, anvil




The industrial revolution • Factory forged o From a different creator than the lamb Loose reference to Lucifer and the war in heaven o And watered heaven with their tears,/ Did he smile his work to see? o Milton’s Lucifer  Cast out for fighting • Pride Iccarus o He goes to the uncharted territory by fling too high  He died gloriously  He becomes a figure of experience Prometheus stealing the power of the gods o “What the hand dare seize the fire?” From 1st stanza compared to the last the difference is who could make the tiger to who dares make the tiger Blake is like a Christian Buddhist o He has the Christian ideas minus the judgmental part The little boy cries while the little girl embraces the nature 

Schama Heart of Darkness - British people believed that they could make a fortune in India o They said they would help the local people - India was going to be transformed by education - Ireland was like Ireland - It Irish were destroyed by the famine - Charles Travellian made the poor work on a road to earn money - To get relief you had to be the poorest - Peasants were kicked off the ands by the land lords - Many moved to other places like America, Canada, NZ - The English didn’t really kick and hurt eh western Irish, it was Irish on Irish

- The Irish blamed Travellain o He thought that Victorian England was the new rome - Travellian created entry by exam - The cartridges on the ammo were made of animal fat o They had to be bitten off o The British considered the Indian’s problems with these as trivial like they did for other things - The British relied too much on the technology of communication and forgot about the word on the street - Indias were pissed and marched to deli for reforms o Called for an uprising vs. the foreigners - Many Indians lead a siege that lasted for a couple of years - Benjamin Disraeli o Leader of the tory party o He wast morally driven o He wanted the queen to rule India as empress - Indians had to walk 10 miles to get work - Millions of Indians died - Ireland wanted London to look into its affairs HEART OF DARKNESS Book 1 - Frame narrative o People on the Nellie’s deck o Introduced to the characters  Un-named narrator, Marlowe, director of company, accountant, lawyer o Dehumanized through ambiguity o All the white guys were the same  Similarity between Marlowe and Kurtz - Roman Imperial experiment in England o Symbolism to the Europeans to Africa o The British were once the Africans

- Fresleven’s story o Back in Europe he was the kindest, gentlest person o In Africa he changes o He argues with a local chief starts beating the chief over a chicken o The chief son sees this, stabs fresleven with a spear - “The City” like a white sepulture o Probably Brussels o The 2 knitting women  Knitting something black  Sign of death  For those who are about to die we salute you o The doctor  Measures Marlowes cranium • Significance is that the doctor is going to study that when you come back and your head is bigger or something you may be going crazy o Marin’s aunt  Stands for Marlowe being a savior - French man-o-war vs. African paddlers o African paddlers stand for harmony in nature o French man-o-war stand for the incomprehensible war against africa - Arrival at the Coastal station o Broken machinery  Steamboat  Failure of the Europeans coming down there • Nothing works well down there for the Europeans o Not their ideals, machinery  Also the Europeans are very robotic, mechanized • Vs. the more natural, primal Africans o African suffering  Conrad uses animal imagery o Company’s chief accountant

Well dressed, white • Marlowe gives him props for the attire o But the man savagely beats an African women to wash his clothes o He looks good on the outside but evil and dark on the inside - Journey to the River’s edge o Fat guy who gets a fever  They have to travel from the stations • 30 miles  The fat guy cant make it without passing out  So they make some Africans carry him  Then the Africans drop him and run away into the jungle  He wakes up and demands that someone is shot for it - Arrival at the river station o Interior manager  Supposed to build bricks but he is waiting for supplies  Becomes manager because he didn’t die of fever • He wasn’t smart or anything • Last one standing basically o Wrecked steamboat (and the “rivets” issue)  Connected to the broken machinery  Rivets • All they needed to fix the boats was the rivets but they took months and months to get them • But before when he was at the other station they had so many rivets o The Europeans cant get it all together o Things aren’t working out down in Africa o Kurtz’s paintings  Painting of a woman carrying a torch and is blindfolded • He painted it before leaving the station • The woman who deals in ideals only 

o - Who o o o

o Protected from reality El Dorado exploring/expedition  El dorado is the city of gold but no one ever found it is Kurtz? Beast Best ivory finder They haven’t talked to him in 9 months

Book 2 - An Inquiry into some points of Seamanship o Touchstone of old civilization o Ironic: its found at the abandoned station o Left behind because it isn’t pertinent to the Congo o The Dossier in the film - Marlow’s African Helmsman & cannibalistic crew o Dies silently by a spear o He is a native taught to operate ship  Taught the boiler is a God who needs wood to stay happy o Jungle reclaims him through the attack and his death o Opposites to the pilgrims  The pilgrims become savage when they shoot the natives  Call the cannibals savage even though they are more civilized than th pilgrims since they hold back their desire for humans - Fog o Confusion o Threshold moment  Go through it to get Kurtz - Thesis o Kurtz says you should act like a God o He looses it/ slips over time  Starts smart, educated → over time becomes more real → “kill them all”

• Like Victorians • Look good on outside; animals within - Russian “Harlequin” o Disagrees with Kurtz about killing o He is young o Wandering for freedom What function does the jungle serve in this story? It’s the unknown It’s a counter to the European countries Returning to prehistory o Fighting in unconventional ways

Conrad anticipates Freud and human psychology As he is going up the river he says he can see sand bars that look like vetrabrae making Kurtz’s center the brain Its up the central nervous system of a primal human Freud’s “id”

Book 3 1. The Journey up river towards Kurtz is a journey toward what symbolically? how does the figure of Kurtz embody different values in the novel and film? a. The journey towards him is a journey towards the primal in humanity b. Kurtz is ultimate clarity i. He knows exactly what he is doing 2. Given the devolution of Kurtz, why would Heart of Darkness have been ironic for a Victorian audience? Does Apocalypse Now create the same tension with an American audience? how does Conrad capitalize on the following Victorian intellectual trends: Darwinism evolutionary theory and the "¨übermensch"?

a. The whites are the most powerful, but they die of fever and stuff b. Kurtz mutates to survive c. Übermensch i. Kurtz became a god figure, like Nietzsche’s thoughts ii. There is no moral component to Nietzsche’s2 philosophy 3. How does Marlow bring closure to the native once he returns to Europe? How is the thematic closure in apocalypse now -- as rendered through Willard-- fundamentally different than H of D? What function does the jungle serve in this story? It’s the unknown It’s a counter to the European countries Returning to prehistory o Fighting in unconventional ways

Conrad anticipates Freud and human psychology As he is going up the river he says he can see sand bars that look like vetrabrae making Kurtz’s center the brain Its up the central nervous system of a primal human Freud’s “id”

1984 Chapter 3 - Memory o The party controls memory  Control of thought and truth o Winston isn’t sure of what did and didn’t happen  Whether he had a sister or not • Was his mom just carrying blankets  Superficial memories of what his parents were like o Society obliterates all concepts except for the relationship between you and the state

o They do this so your only connection is to the state  No dividing loyalties o In our society it is Chapter 4 - Construction of truth o Winston creates Comrade Ogilvy to replace the record about Comrade Withers  Withers was in the party’s praise but he messed up o Ogilvy  Perfect guy in the eyes of the party  Spies, anti-sex, creates a grenade, etc  Dies in serving to the state o The state loves Ogilvy o In our world  Reality shows control what you see of people, their archetype Chapter 6 - The Party and Romantic/sexual intimacy o Winston’s marriage  Marriage can distract you from your allegiance to the state, that’s why the government wants less marriages  His wife is frigid, only has sex if she thinks they will procreate for the test  He was to explore sex on a more primal level o The Prole Prostitute  Having sex with the prostitute is anti-party o Artsem  Artificial insemination  They want to remove the orgasm so there is no sex for pleasure Chapter 7

- Human impulses toward truth/freedom o The Proles → why does Winston idealize them?  They aren’t controlled by the party  They could overthrow the party if they had a rebellion  They are what’s left of natural humanity  85% of the population o Jones, Aaronson, Rutherford  An actual lie from the party Winston sees • A photo as proof  He holds on to it for a moment as a relic of something that was true • Then he burns it Chapter 8 - The old prole in the pub o Winston thought he could get truth about the past from him  He wants oral history o The old man is too senile and stupid to do this o Shows the proles are stupid - Charrington’s shop o Has artifacts from the past o A lot of the stuff has no value except that its from the past o Represents the discarded past - The coral paperweight o It’s a form of natural beauty that precedes the party o It was useless to the party  They would never make anything like it o He likes that its not very practical - “Oranges and lemons” o Way for Winston to connect to the past o But they are forgetting the poem - O’Brien

o He says he is writing the diary to O’Brien o He is the face of the brotherhood o Winston hopes O’Brien will lead him to truth

Book 2 Julia and O’Brien show how Winston is going more against the party Julia looks like she is for the party on the outside but inside she hates it She isn’t all that anti party, she just wants stuff for her Hedonistic She is a patriarchal ideal, Winston doenst notice her until she is hyper sexual, wears makeup O’Brien Brings dialogue about revolution He is a figurehead of the army Winston gets a copy of Goldstein’s book Doesn’t pass through the filter of the state It is text that is truthful Julia What is Winston getting out of all the sex? Revolution The location - Carrington’s shop o Has a double bed, unheard of o Old lady singing, just like the old days o They play house, the woman wears makeup, makes the man coffee o It is a link to the older time

 Things that have endured the party’s rule - The woods o Bestial o Raw, o Free o Less build up (foreplay) - The church tower o The rhyme and the picture of the church (which the telescreen is hidden behind) o Link to the past

Schama Video - in the middle of the 18th century people wanted to explore nature and fine people who escaped devastation - nature= crusade/revelation - Rousseau’s philosophy pushed mental habit from creatures of thought to creature of experience - let creativity and freedom teach children - Buik illustrations brought nature into peoples homes and showing the reality of the world - politicians were moved by sympathy for the first time - called to action because we are all linked together and need to help our fellow man - Thomas Payne wrote in the talk of the people - Mary Wollstonecraft lead the revolution for women’s rights - afraid to speak out because believed it would lead to her death - was spared by marrying, but later tried and failed to commit suicide - first modern feminist - died giving birth to Mary Shelly Frankenstein - Universal Themes:

- Plight of the Byronic Hero (social isolation and dark genius) - Dangerous knowledge (human intellect as transgression Victor and Lucifer) - God-like Human Potential (humanism + science creator = created) - Scientific transgression v. Natural Healing - Corrupted Maternity (science v. nature regarding origins of life) - Human Empathy/Unity (Victor’s family ties, idealized “democratic” poor) - Across Genres (novel blends Gothicism and Science-Fiction together) - Gothicism: - imitative, grotesque for of Medievalism - a response to the dissolution of order - Themes: the mysterious, the fantastic, the psychologically terrifying, the supernatural, the mock-religious, and the transgressive - Science Fiction: - speculative fiction routed loosely in the laws of probability as understood through the natural sciences - Themes: moral implications of human knowledge/potential, “truth” through science - Volume II: - “child” archetype - monster is a blank slate that can be molded into anything - innocence is lost after interaction with society - Noble Savage - corrupted by society - the monster believes that if he interacts with society he will become “good” - wants a mate so he can disappear and create a race of his own - Miltonic Satan - actions are justifiable - rebelling against evil/creator - Romanticism - monster speaks about feelings (Romantic idea) - Biblical Adam - could have been the son Viktor wanted Poetry of Coleridge Rime of the Ancient Mariner

- story is set up as a frame narrative with the following points: I. Frame Narrative - mariner talks to a wedding guest - transmission of knowledge from the mariner (weird immortal character, a somewhat bionic hero) to a wedding guest (innocence) II. Mariners Journey to the “Other” Realm - mariner is going down - a spiritual journey towards the unknown III. Albatross - represents guardian/Jesus figure - provides the mariner and his crew a way out of the ice - is killed for no reason - similar to Jesus crucifixion IV. Purgatorial Damnation - crew dies, but their eyes fallow the mariner - a ghost ship arrives to save the mariner, but he must wait for 7 days a nights - biblical reference (number of completion) V. Snakes - are blessed by the mariner (snakes are lowest members of society) - mariners curse is lifted VI. Mariners Journey to the “Normal” Realm - journey back to reality - quick journey home VII. Skiff Crew - mariners ship is consumed with water - a row boat with three men come to save him - mariner is given his penance - father (God), hermit (spirit), son (Jesus) - quasi-religious VIII. Frame Narrative - wedding guest is changed - becoming closer to the Byronic Hero

“Kubla Khan” - poem influenced by an opium trip - the story is incomplete - pleasure of dream world v. reality - reality will always ruin the dream world - thematically: natural and creative energy, unconscious themes are forming Poetry of Blake - visionary poet - believes he is a prophet starting a new age of Christianity - God IS creative power - the artest in his purest form “Songs of Innocence/Experience” - Innocence - intended for children - lamb is Jesus - connections to Christianity - Experience - language is more intellectually thought through - higher thinking - recalling people to innocence - narrator sees all things “Proverbs of Hell” - writing future truths for humanity - supreme sense of hell - rejects duality - contradiction - sins become virtuous acts

Schama Video - Britain control 1/5 of the globe and was the best nation because she based herself on virtue - Clever Tom - wanted to make a fortune in India, as well as spreading good - would take over a nation and than leave after the nation could stand on its own two feet - Western Education was the way to change India - would bridge the culture gap, and bring equality - Britain harshly punished India for not being a loyal subject - conflict between ideologies - Indian: emotional /British: anti emotional - servants rebelled against their masters - believed that Indians should stay Indian but be taught - January 1st, 1877 Victoria became empress of India - Britain remained ruling India the same way - many millions of Indians were starving and died Heart of Darkness - Premise - several men on a ship in England - Marlow’s speech is very important - takes over the story - tells how England was the heart of darkness during the Roman Empire - portrays his story and his trip to Africa - Conrad lived the entire story - Book I Touchstones: - frame narrative- people in the Nellie’s deck - Roman imperial experience in England - Fuesleuen’s Story - “The City” like a white seplchre - the two knitting women - the doctor






- Marlow’s Aunt - French Man-O-War v. African Paddlers - Arrival at the coastal Station - broken machinery - African suffering - company’s Chief Accountant - Journey to the Rivers Edge - Arrival at the River Station - interior manager - wrecked steamboat - “Kurtz’s painting - Eldorado Exploring Expedition INQUIRY INTO SOME POINTS OF SEAMANSHIP - Totally useless - Guide to navigation - No longer communicates truth MARLOW’S AFRICAN HELMSMAN - Irony of imperialism - Being manipulated by the system - His death is the jungle taking back their own - Shares a sense of humanity when he dies MARLOW’S CANNIBALISTIC CREW - Has respect for them - Very smart and suppressing the need to eat human flesh - Resisting human impulses in need to eat while the Europeans are being savage - They have no eaten the crew THE FOG (PAGE 39) - confusion no matter where you are going - crossed into another reality - crew freaks out and Africans attack KURTZ’S THESIS AND THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF SAVAGE CUSTOMS - Says exterminate the brutes - We have the ability to civilize these people

- Starts out as an explanation how it will benefit the people - THE RUSSIAN “HARLEQUIN” - loves the Kurtz who hates imperialistic tendencies - he wants an adventure and freedom to be out on his own - represented by Kurtz - Kurtz is killing everyone - “TREES, TREES, MILLIONS OF TREES…YOU SO REMOTE FROM THE NIGHT OF FIRST AGES -- COULD COMPREHEND” - the jungle and its function - going into the chaos - a source of exploitation - the darkness the mystery - the buffer between the English and African -reality of the unknown is complex - primal human - an older form of existence -not all negative -sees validity to the jungle experience - European life as all the same -All are called the sepulcher -All of nature has been reduced to the death of the natural - universalized themes throughout the novella



1984 - World of 1984 - Totalitarian - Impoverished - No true base of knowledge - Government tells you what is true - 1984 Preliminary Terms/Characters - Thought Police/ Thought Crime - Similar to Hitler’s secret police - Perform normal police action - Along with secret operations - Thought crime is act of mental activity that does not support government - Winston keeps journal which is illegal - Ministry of Truth - Media propaganda - Winston works there - Newspeak- trying to write a dictionary - No vocabulary that hurts government - Tries to reconstruct history to make government right - INGSOC/ Big Brother - Big Brother is head of state - Leader of government - Human face to government - Oceania/ Airstrip One - One of the three super states - Unified by English language - Airstrip One is England - Name is functional - Telescreen - Two way communication

- Cannot turn it off - Always has picture of Big Brother and propaganda - Can also record you what you are saying and doing - Hard to escape them - Victory_______ - State brand - Victory anything - Hate Week - Surrounds public with hate - Two Minutes Hate - Start every day where they gather to hate Goldstein - Shows evil of world and is then comforted by picture of Big Brother - Goldstein- trying to destroy government from within - Secular satin - Always out to get you

­ The Brotherhood ­ Secret group run by Goldstein ­ Trying to destroy Oceania ­ Junior anti­sex league ­ Group to spend time ­ Will only breed for the state ­ Family is being destroyed ­ The Spies (boy scouts and girl scouts) ­ Able to arrest you ­ Inner Party, Outer party, Proles ­Inner Party ­ head of government ­ Small percentage ­ Outer Party ­ have some intelligence ­ Not trusted ­ forced to live in certain areas ­ Controlled by thought police ­ Proles ­ most freedom ­ Don’t know anything ­build tanks and missiles  ­ Book II: ­ 2 major relationships ­ Winston + Julia  ­ Winston + O’Brien  ­ Julia (sexuality) ­ sex = revolution 

­ O’Brien ­ offers Winston a way to escape the party ­ life before Big Brother  ­ door through knowledge ­ Goldstein’s Book   ­ real truth and knowledge 

­ the state is trying to control identity through sec  ­ creates cracks within the party  ­ create loyalties and unleashes basic instincts  ­ the Party is trying to destroy both  ­ by sleeping with Julia, Winston is taking the next step  ­ conscious rebellion  ­ Sexual Encounters: 1. Wilderness ­ bestial and free ­ Romanticism  ­ noble savage  ­ Adam and Eve  2. Church Tower ­ nuclear family = religious  ­ counter to party beliefs ­ the party is anti­ religious ­ party wants to destroy the primary purpose of sex 3. Charrington’s Shop  ­ reflection of the past and the way things once were  ­ no telescreen  ­ single bed  ­ away from society 

­ Golden Country ­ place where the party does not exist  ­ no cultural restrictions 

Anglo-Saxon Age (450-1066) Beowulf

Medieval Age (1066-1485) Canterbury Tales Arthurian Romance

English Renaissance (1485-1625) Macbeth Sonnets

Enlightenment (1625-1790) Paradise Lost Satire, Essay

­  Triba l  Warl ord ­  Early  Divin e  Mon arch ­  Drui dic  Cultu re ­  Germ anic  Paga nism  ­  Early  Chris tianit y  ­  Heroi c 

­  Abso lute  Mon archy ­  Feud alism  ­  Cath olicis m ­  Chiv alric  Code ­  Court ly  Love ­  Ptole maic  Univ erse ­  Mag na  Carta

­  Const itutio nal  Mon archy ­  Prote stant  Refor matio n ­  Hum anis m  ­  Class icism  ­  Cope rnica n  Univ erse/ Teles cope/ Galil eo

­  Engli sh  Civil  War ­  Mona rch/p arlia ment ­  Dem ocrati c  Hum anis m  ­  Moni sm/D eism  ­  “Age  of  reaso n” ­  Scien tific 

Romantic Age (1790-1830) Frankenstein Rime of the Ancient Mariner

Victorian Age (1830-1900) Heart Of Darkness Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde

Modernism (1900-1945) 1984

Post-Modernism (1945-present) Grendel

­ Dem ocrat ic  Revo lutio n  ­  Deif icati on  of  Natu re ­  Ima ginat ion/I ndiv idual ism  ­  Anti ­ Rati onali sm  ­  Tran

­  Brit ish  Em pire ­  Sci enc e v.  Fait h  ­  Cul tura l  Con serv atis m  ­  Sen sibi lity/ Pro prie ty ­  Exp loit

­  Fascism/C ommunis m ­ World  War/Holo caust ­  Existential ism/Athei sm ­ Freudian  Psychoana lysis ­  Solipsism ­  Confusion /Alienatio n/  Fragment ation ­ Marxism 

­  Co ld  Wa r ­  Nu cle ar  Po we r  &  “T he  Bo mb ” ­  Po st­ Co lon iali sm &  “T he  Ot