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Intro Lesson 1

Lesson 1: The Evolution of Psychology

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Lesson Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to: explain how psychology developed discuss psychology's origins in philosophy and physiology contrast the "schools" from structuralism to humanism describe research areas in psychology discuss professional specialties in psychology discuss seven key themes that relate to psychology's subject matter and field of study take steps to improve your academic performance Reading Assignment Weiten, Chapter 1 Discussion Your textbook defines psychology as a scientific approach to the study of behavior. Some psychologists study the behavior of people; others focus on animal behavior. The subject matter for psychologists may be directly observable and measurable behavior, or mental processes, such as dreams and emotions, may be examined through an individual's self reports. The basic goals of psychology are to explain, predict, and control behavior. Psychologists incorporate their observations and assumptions about behavior into theories. Explanations and predictions are derived from theories. It is important to update theories when new information is discovered. Psychologists consider controlling the behavior of unconsenting others to be unethical. However, psychological theories may be applied to help people who seek to modify their behaviors. Some psychologists engage in pure research (no immediate practical application). Others conduct applied research, which is relevant to specific personal or social problems. In addition to conducting research, psychologists may teach or apply psychological principles to help people realize behavioral goals.

Your textbook provides an exhaustive listing of occupations within the field of psychology. Clinical practice may include clinical, school, educational, and community psychologists. Researchers are typically developmental, personality, social, environmental, or experimental psychologists. Industry employs consumer and industrial psychologists. Psychology's roots reach far back into history. The Greeks were early contributors, noting the relation between behavior and external forces and using introspection to gain self-knowledge. Over the last 150 years, several important movements have formed modern psychology. Wilhelm Wundt introduced structuralism, in which objective sensations are differentiated from subjective feelings. Functionalism was introduced by William James in the early 1900s and is founded on overt behavior and the formation of habits. Around the same time, John B. Watson founded behaviorism, in which measurable responses to environmental stimuli are of concern. From Germany there came Gestalt psychology, which deals with perceptions and insight. Finally, Sigmund Freud contributed psychoanalysis, which concerns itself with unconscious and irrational motivation. In explaining, predicting, and controlling behavior, psychologists typically work from one of four contemporary perspectives: biological, cognitive, psychoanalytic, or behavioral. The biological perspective looks to hormonal and/or genetic factors in explaining behavior. The cognitive perspective focuses on perceptions, cognitions, problem-solving, and dreams. Your textbook discusses the structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt, and humanistic schools of the cognitive perspective. The psychoanalytic perspective was developed largely through the work of Sigmund Freud, who saw behavior as motivated by sexual and aggressive instincts. The behavioral perspective focuses on situational determinants of behavior. Fundamental to this view was the early work of Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. Social learning theorists have more recently expanded the behavioral perspective to include cognitive factors.

Psychologists employ five basic methods in their study of behavior: naturalistic observations, experiments, surveys, case studies, and correlations. Naturalistic observation involves actually observing behavior as it occurs in the environment. Your textbook discusses the various control techniques employed in the experimental method to determine the causes of behavior. The survey method may employ interviews, questionnaires, and/or psychological tests to obtain self-report information from subjects. The behavior of an individual is examined closely in a case study. Finally, the correlational method determines the degree to which variables are related to each other. Regardless of the methods used, psychologists must adhere to ethical standards that require informed consent, confidentiality, considerate treatment, and debriefing of research participants. Throughout this course, as you examine psychology in its many variations, seven key ideas are emphasized as unifying themes. These seven key themes come in two sets: three relate to psychology as a field of study and four relate to psychology's subject matter. The three key themes having to do with psychology as a field of study are as follows: psychology is empirical psychology is theoretically diverse psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context Themes four through seven, related to psychology's subject matter, are these: behavior is determined by multiple causes behavior is shaped by cultural heritage heredity and environment jointly influence behavior our experience of the world is highly subjective Self Test Now check your knowledge with this Self Test. Written Assignment Please return to the "Lessons and Assignments" page to access the Written Assignment for this lesson.

My name is Pia Aiya. I have a degree from the University of Georgia is Spanish and am currently working on my degree in Biochemistry. This is my first IDL course but I am just as dedicated to it as I would be to a classroom based course. I have always wanted to take psychology, but my schedule never permitted it. I am currently living at home with my parents and working for my father as a director of marketing and sales for his jewelry lighting business. I am taking Medical Biochemistry at UGA two days a week and working the other three days. I am also applying to medical schools with hopes to start in 2013.

Book Notes
Book Notes:

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Psychology is about understanding all the things we do (2) Probing whys and hows gives answers (2) No simple answer to the mystery of pathological gambling (3) Study of psychology teaches the complexity of behavior (3) Early History: Greek : psyche = soul and logos = the study of a subject 18th century = the study of the mind Wundt (founder of psychology) an independent discipline not a stepchild of philosophy or physiology o 1879 he did first formal lab for research in psychology at university of leipzip o psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (4) o lab studies focused on attention, memory, sensory processes and reaction time experiments in regards to mental processes G. Stanley Hall: student of Wundt o End of 19th century, established Americas first research lab in psych at johns Hopkins in 1883 o Americas first psych journal 1887 o American psychological association (APA) he was driving force 1893 , first president

1879 psychologys date of birth Structuralism vs. Functionalsim Structuralism Edward Titchener at Cornell Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Like sensation, feeling and images to the conscious experience Structuralists depended on introspection (the careful, systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experience) o Trained people to be more objective and aware then exposed to auditory tones, optica illusions and visual stimuli Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure Functionalism William James (formal training medicine), moved to Harvard to study and teach psychology

o His teachings show psychology deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences o Natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time o Consciousness he argued consists of a continuous flow of thoughts stream of consciousness Functionalism led to behaviorism and applied psychology Freud and the unconscious Freuds approach to psychology grew out of his efforts to treat mental disorders Unconscious contained thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior Slip of the tongue revealing true feelings and dreams showing feelings people are unaware of Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior Watson and Behaviorism 1913-1920 John B. Watson founded behaviorism Behaviorism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior Suggested that psychologists abandon the study of consciousness all together (trying to redefine psychology) (8) o Basis of verifiability Behavior refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism Clashed with psychoanalytic theory Mission to relate overt behaviors (responses) to observable events in the environment (stimuli) Pavlovs dogs (9) Animals became test subjects (better than humans b/c more control) Skinner and Free Will B.F. Skinner influenced by Pavlov and Watson Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes o Pigeons playing ping pong (9)

People are controlled by their environment, not themselves Free will is an illusion Behaviorism like his flourished in 1950s and 60s Humanist 1950s behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory thought dehumanizing by manythought failed to recognize qualities of human behavior Humanism formed through loose alliance of diverse opposition to behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Carl Rogers argued that human behavior is governed by each individuals sense of self Greatest humanist contribution is their innovative treatments for psychological problems and disorders

Modern History Applied psychology = the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems not mainstream until WWII Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Took off during and after WWII because many psychologists called to war to screen trauma soldiers Veterans Administration (VA) trained and paid for clinics for veterans psychological scars 1988 Association for Psychological Science (ASP) serves exclusively as an advocate for the science of psychology Cognition and Physiology Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge once called consciousness Cognitive perspective point out that the way people thing about events surely influences how they behave Biological perspective maintain that much of human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behave Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity

Cross cultural research costly, difficult, time consuming Psychologists worry that cultural comparisons may inadvertently foster stereotypes of various cultural groups Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view ones own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways Civil rights movement, womens movement and gay-rights movements all raised doubts about whether psychology had dealt adequately with human diversity New interest in culture appears attributable to two recent trends o advances in communication, travel and international trade has shrunk the world and increased global interdependence bringing more and more Americans and Europeans into contact with people of nonWestern culture o the ethnic makeup of Western world has become an increasingly diverse multicultural mosaic The emergence of Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Psychology examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations o Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms reproductive success Doubters say evolutionary psychology cannot be tested and explanations are post hoc and speculative accounts for obvious behavioral phenomena Positive Direction Positive psychology movement comes from Seligmans 5 year old daughter thinking father was too grumpy. Argued that psychology devoted too much attention to pathology, weakness, damage and ways to heal suffering Positive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence. Three areas of interest o Positive subjective experiences positive emotions o Positive individual traits positive strengths and virtues o Positive institutions and communities society, strong families, etc. Psychology Today

Psychology is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems Research areas in Psychology Developmental psychology Social psychology Experimental psychology Physiological psychology Cognitive psychology Personality Psychometrics Educational psychology Health psychology Professional Specialties in Psychology Four established professional specialties: o Clinical psychology o Counseling psychology o School psychology o Industrial/organizational psychology 2 emerging specialties are clinical neuropsychology and forensic psychology Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry differ in the way they approach the treatment of mental disorders and how they obtain their degree Psychiatry is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Seven Unifying themes Theme 1: Psychology is Empirical o Empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation o Its conclusions are based on direct observations rather than reasoning, speculation, traditional beliefs or common sense o Wheres the evidence? How do you know? Theme 2: Psychology is Theoretically Diverse o A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Theme 3: Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context o Trends, events, issues, and values in society effect psychology

Theme 4: Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes Theme 5: Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage o Culture refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations Theme 6: Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behavior o Nature vs. Nurture Theme 7: Peoples Experience of the World is Highly Subjective o People see what they want to see o People see what they expect to see Improving Academic Performance 1. Set up a schedule for studying 2. Find a place to study where you can concentrate 3. Reward your studying Improving your Reading SQ3R is a study system designed to promote effective reading, which includes five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review Improving Test Taking Strategies Testwiseness is the ability to use the characteristics and format of a cognitive test to maximize ones score

Lesson 1 Questions

9/10/2012 7:11:00 PM

1. Who is Wilhelm Wundt? Why is he important to current day psychology? a. Wundt is considered to be the founder of psychology because he was the first to view psychology as separate from physiology or philosophy. He is important to current day psychology because he turned what was up until that point a intellectual concept into a science with rule and theories. 2. Name three significant individuals in the early development of psychology as a discipline and describe their major contributions to the field. a. While there were many important individuals in the early development of psychology as a discipline, three that stand out are William James, Sigmund Freud, and John Watson. James defended the idea of functionalism and believed psychology should study the purpose and function of consciousness. His work incorporated the idea of natural selection of characteristics and he was one of the first to think of consciousness as a flow of thoughts. Freud on the other hand was the first to bring the unconscious to psychology. He is best known for developing the psychoanalytic theory which is still used today. Though he is best know for his idea that behavior is driven by sexual urges. Finally, Watson is known for founding behaviorism which suggests psychology study observable behavior. 3. Briefly discuss and contrast the five schools of psychological thought that were developed after Freud's psychodynamic theory. a. After psychodynamic theory many psychological thoughts sprung up. Behavioral psychology was first introduced by John Watson and comes from fundamentalism. It is based on the thought that psychology should scientifically study observable behavior. Its major criticism was that it fixated on animal behavior. Humanistic psychology was introduced in the 1950s and it revolved around the idea that humans had their own unique, complex qualities different from those of animals. Cognitive psychology developed in the 1950s and 1960s and believed human behavior could not be understood without studying how people process, store and attain information. Biological psychology believed behavior could be explained by the subjects bodily structure and biochemical functions. Biological psychology was introduced in the 1800s but not developed until the 1950s. Evolutionary psychology believes in natural selection of

traits. This idea was introduced by William James and his belief of functionalism. 4. Briefly describe the advances and changes that occurred in psychological thinking after World War II. a. Due to the war, many soldiers were psychologically scarred, which called for more psychologists. The Veterans Administration therefore paid to train people in clinical psychology and thus psychology evolved from an academic science to a profession. Furthermore, this time period after the war led to increased interest in the cognitive perspective and the biological perspective. Together, these led to the discovery that mind, body, and behavior were interrelated. Later, this led to interest in cultures effect of behavior and eventually evolutionary psychology. 5. Briefly summarize the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. a. The main idea behind evolutionary psychology is natural selection of behavioral traits lead to the successful continuation of a species with those traits. 6. How is psychology defined today? a. Psychology today is defined as both a profession and as a science. The profession uses the studied theories and applies them to real life problems. The science studies behavior and its cognitive and physiological procedures. 7. Briefly describe the differences between academic psychology and applied psychology and describe two types of applied psychology specializations. a. Applied psychology deals with everyday, practical problems where as academic psychology is the study of psychology as a science and is more greatly invested in research rather than application. One example of applied psychology is clinical psychology, where the main concern is diagnosing and treating those with psychological issues. Another example is counseling psychology which is similar to clinical psychology in that it deals with evaluating and treating psychological disorders but counseling psychology differs in that it only deals with moderately sever cases. 8. Pick two different types of academic psychologists and briefly compare the types of issues researched by them.

a. Two types of academic psychologies are social psychology and educational psychology. Social psychology deals with communal relationships and their effect on behavior. Social psychology researches issues such as conformity, aggression, and prejudice. Educational psychology on the other hand deals with methods of teaching and learning. This type of psychology researches curriculum optimization, classroom diversity and motivational factors. 9. How do a psychologist and psychiatrist differ? How are they the same? a. Psychologists and psychiatrists differ in how they approach treatment of a problem and how they obtain their degree. A psychologist must go to graduate school and choose a specialty in order to get a doctorate. A psychiatrist goes to medical school and get a MD degree. They are similar in that they both treat mental disorders. 10. Briefly summarize the advice provided in the text on how to get more out of lectures and improving your test-taking strategies. a. There are many things that can be done to get more out of class lectures. Start by actually attending class. The key is to stay motivated, stay attentive and try to make notes as complete as possible. This can be done by being an active listener, reading ahead before class, taking notes in your own words, listening for clues as to what is important, and asking questions. These strategies can be applied to improve test scores in many ways. The best way is to set up a mental schedule based on the test; guess on difficult questions, mark them, and move on; take questions how they come, meaning dont make them more complicated than needed; and finally review answers if time permits. 11. What is critical thinking, and why is it important in psychology? a. Critical thinking is purposeful, reflective judgment that is used to evaluate situations, make decisions, and solve problems. It is imperative to psychology because the basis of critical thinking are cognitive skills and affective outcomes both of which have been greatly studied in psychology since its birth in the 19th century.

Essays

1. Discuss the contributions of structuralism and functionalism to the evolution of psychology as a discipline. a. Wundt brought psychology into being as the scientific study of conscious experience. From there sprang both functionalism and structuralism. Both accept consciousness as the basis for scientific research, but they differ in how it should be studied. Structuralism focuses on the basic elements components of consciousness and their relation with one another. Functionalism on the other hand delves into the reasoning behind consciousness itself. Both brought about important techniques and discoveries, but eventually structuralism diminished because the methods of result interpretation were unreliable. The study of functionalism on the other hand led to discoveries such as stream of consciousness by William James and the study of behaviorism. In time however, functionalism as defined by nineteenth century psychologists too died out. It however left other forms of psychology -- with basis in functionalism -- that are still around today. 2. Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic, behaviorist, and humanist assumptions about human nature. a. Views on human nature in psychology come down to attitude. Humanists by definition view humans as superior to and different from animals. For this reason they view human nature as essential. Free will that makes up human nature is for them what makes humans unique from any other species. b. Behaviorists on the other hand dont see human nature as negative or positive. They dont actually believe human nature exists because for them a persons views and opinions are the result of the environment. In fact, behaviorists tried to redefine psychology all together without the study of the consciousness. c. All in all, behaviorists views clash with psychoanalysts views because psychoanalysts believe subconscious urges cause humans to behave the way they do. For this reason, psychoanalysts view human nature as a negative stimuli. They go to the opposite spectrum as humanists and believe everything about the behavior of a person can be explained by impulses of which the person may not even be aware.

3. Compare and contrast the research interests of a developmental psychologist, a physiological psychologist, a social psychologist and a cognitive psychologist on the topic of love. a. Each psychologist would be interested in a different aspect of love. The developmental psychologist would be in the stage of life the people in love were in. He would want to know when the lovers first fell in love and how that impacted their maturation. Furthermore, a developmental psychologist would be interested in the components of love and the components evolution in the peoples lives because the developmental psychologist sometimes studies emotional development as well as physical, mental, and social. b. A physiological psychologist would be less interested in the emotions associated with love and more interested in the effect love has on the body. The physiological psychologist would research chemical release in those in love versus chemical release in those not in love. He would also look at brain function and activity in response to love. Another topic of interest might be changes in bodily functions when around that which the person loves. c. A social psychologist would look have more in common with the developmental psychologist versus the physiological psychologist. The social psychologist would research loves effect on relationships. He would be interested in how love changes the behavior of the person in love and the behavior of those around the person in love. The social psychologist may also be interested in changes in daily thoughts that might occur as a side effect to being in love. d. Finally, the cognitive psychologist would combine the research and interests of the social psychologist with that of the physiological psychologist. The cognitive psychologist would be interested in loves effect on higher mental function. He would look at how love effects a persons reasoning, decision making, and overall perception of himself and other. The cognitive psychologist would also be interested in how love effects a persons creativity. 4. Imagine that you are the president of a large corporation that designs different products for the home. Your company designs everything from cleaning powders to furniture. What type of applied psychologist would

you hire to work in your company? Explain how having them on staff would benefit your company. a. I would most likely hire a counseling psychology. As a president of a company that designs products for the home, I need someone who deals with practical, every day problems to tell me what needs fixing. This is what a counseling psychologist does. She/he would inform me and my company on what patients suffer from most on a daily basis and I would create products to make their lives easier so their environment is a calmer place for them to live. 5. Your text identifies three unifying themes that relate to psychology as a field of study. Identify each of these themes and show how each theme might be relevant in investigating clinical depression. a. Psychology is empirical. This means conclusions about clinical depression can only be drawn by directly studying and analyzing those with clinical depression. b. Psychology is theoretically diverse. This means investigating clinical depression would be most beneficial if first the scientist proposed a theory he/she would like proven about clinical depression. Then, any observations about clinical depression have a purpose. c. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context. Therefore, any investigation of clinical depression must be compared to the happenings of the world and society at that point in time. This means todays findings of clinical depression may not mean as much as they do tomorrow because tomorrow has a different sociohistorcial context. 6. Your text identifies four unifying themes that relate to psychology's subject matter. Identify each of these themes and show how each theme might be relevant in investigating clinical depression. a. First, Behavior is determined by multiple causes. In relation to clinical depression, this means that there is no once cause of clinical depression. This opens up infinite avenues as to what caused the clinical depression. b. Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage. This means clinical depression could be a effect of the cultural circumstances in which a person grew up. In this scenario, researching common cultural factors in those with clinical depression could turn up answers.

c. Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior. This introduces the argument of nature versus nurture. With clinical depression, this mean analyzing how many with clinical depression have family members with clinical depression and analyzing common environmental factors in those without family members with clinical depression. d. Peoples experience of the world is highly subjective. This means clinical depression patients could potentially have nothing in common because each sees the world differently. The best way to learn about clinical depression through this theme would be to compare how patients interpret common occurrences. 7. Imagine that you have been asked to speak to a group of tenth-grade students who have signed up for a study skills seminar offered by a local youth group. Based on the information provided in the Personal Application, what are ten concrete points that you would make in your presentation? a. Before the class properly and effectively prepare by following the subsequent advice. First and foremost, set up a study schedule for yourself. This ensures that you have time to properly prepare for both class and exams. It also ensures that you are not stressed out last minute cramming weeks of material in mere hours. Next, designate a study area where you can concentrate. It is important to have one or two places you can study sans distractions. This way you can optimize your study time. Furthermore, set up short-term rewards for yourself while studying. Do this by breaking up your work and when you finish a portion, take a desired break such as a snack or television show. b. During class use the following guidelines. Be an active listener in class. Even though it can be hard, avoid distractions such as day dreaming. Also, read ahead before class. Most classes have schedules. Skim the prepared assignment before going to class. Then, take note in your own words instead of copying what the teachers says. This is important for your understanding of the material. The most important thing you can do in class is ask questions. Many a time, even the not so important questions can help you and those around you better understand the material.

c. During the test the first thing you should do is set up a mental schedule. This way you can finish the test without being rushed at the end. Next, guess on hard questions and come back to them at the end if time permits. This way you do not waste more time than you have. Finally, look over and change any wrong answers at the end. Once done with the test, a second glance can help correct answers chosen in the heat of the moment. 8. The Critical Thinking Application in your text lists four skills that are exhibited by critical thinkers. Identify these four skills and show how they might be used by a woman who was trying to decide whether to begin hormone therapy once she was past menopause. a. The first skill is understanding and using scientific investigation. The woman might use this by asking how the hormone therapy affects post-menopausal women. This skill may also motivate the woman to find out what hormone therapy is made up of and how it will help her. The second skill is the application of formal and informal logic. This might lead the woman to the assume that because she has already gone through menopause and will not get her period again, she can expect minimal hormone interference from her body in reaction to the hormone therapy. The third skill is evaluation of credibility of information. This might lead the woman to question her hormone therapy information sources. The final skill is analysis of reasoning to reach a viable conclusion. With this final skill, the woman would weigh reasons to undergo hormone therapy against reasons not to undergo hormone therapy and the one that outweighs the other would be her decision.

last question

9/10/2012 7:11:00 PM

Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic, behaviorist, and humanist assumptions about human nature. Views on human nature in psychology come down to attitude. Humanists by definition view humans as superior to and different from animals. For this reason they view human nature as essential. Free will that makes up human nature is for them what makes humans unique from any other species. Behaviorists on the other hand dont see human nature as negative or positive. They dont actually believe human nature exists because for them a persons views and opinions are the result of the environment. In fact, behaviorists tried to redefine psychology all together without the study of the consciousness. All in all, behaviorists views clash with psychoanalysts views because psychoanalysts believe subconscious urges cause humans to behave the way they do. For this reason, psychoanalysts view human nature as a negative stimuli. They go to the opposite spectrum as humanists and believe everything about the behavior of a person can be explained by impulses of which the person may not even be aware. Psychoanalysts view humans as essentially "bad" (primitive, animalistic, sexual, and irrational) and unconsciously driven to behave in certain ways. This is a pessimistic view of humanity. Behaviorists view human nature as nonexistent. Rather, behavior develops under the control of the environment. Since behavior is regarded as conditioned reactions to observable stimuli, the implication is that there is no such thing as free will. Humanists view humans as essentially "good" and unique among species because they have free will (conscious and rational), a natural potential for growth, and a basic need to fulfill this potential. This is an optimistic view of humanity.

other notes

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Structuralism: Edward Titchener (English Professor in America) Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. Recognizing Relationships Breaking Down Barriers Taking things Apart Functionalism William James (American Scholar) Psychology should be based on the belied that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness [alone] rather than its structure. Seeing the psychological process as a whole Structuralism vs. Functionalsim Structuralism Edward Titchener at Cornell Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Like sensation, feeling and images to the conscious experience Structuralists depended on introspection (the careful, systematic self-observation of ones own conscious experience) o Trained people to be more objective and aware then exposed to auditory tones, optica illusions and visual stimuli Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure Functionalism William James (formal training medicine), moved to Harvard to study and teach psychology o His teachings show psychology deeply embedded in a network of cultural and intellectual influences o Natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than

alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over time o Consciousness he argued consists of a continuous flow of thoughts stream of consciousness Functionalism led to behaviorism and applied psychology

9. Discuss the contributions of structuralism and functionalism to the evolution of psychology as a discipline. Wundt brought psychology into being as the scientific study of conscious experience. From there sprang both functionalism and structuralism. Both accept consciousness as the basis for scientific research, but they differ in how it should be studied. Structuralism focuses on the basic elements components of consciousness and their relation with one another. Functionalism on the other hand delves into the reasoning behind consciousness itself. Both brought about important techniques and discoveries, but eventually structuralism diminished because the methods of result interpretation were unreliable. The study of functionalism on the other hand led to discoveries such as stream of consciousness by William James and the study of behaviorism. In time however, functionalism as defined by nineteenth century psychologists too died out. It however left other forms of psychology -- with basis in functionalism -- that are still around today.

Both perspectives reflect the early view that consciousness is the appropriate subject matter for the new science, but they differed in regard to how consciousness should be studied. With Wilhelm Wundt, the structuralists believed that consciousness should be broken down into its basic elements through introspection. This approach generated numerous laboratory studies of sensory and perceptual phenomena. Structuralism eventually died out due to the inconsistent results of introspective studies. Along with William James, the functionalists emphasized the adaptive purposes of consciousness, arguing that psychologists should look at the continuous flow of thought rather than its static elements. Its practical and applied focus generated advances in the study of mental testing, child

development, and gender differences. Functionalism, too, gradually faded away, but left applied psychology and behaviorism as its enduring descendants.