'FACTS' THAT SLA MODELS NEED TO EXPLAIN
an adult amnesiac who could not learn new information was perfectly able to learn a second language, French, including vocabulary English primary school children who are taught Italian for one hour a week learn to read better in English people who speak a second language are more creative and flexible at problem-solving than monolinguals, e.g. Einstein, Nabakov … ten days after a road accident, a bilingual Moroccan could speak French but not Arabic; the next day Arabic but not French; the next day she went back to fluent French and poor Arabic; three months later she could speak both the Voice Onset Time (VOT) of French people who speak English is different in French from those who don't L2 learners rapidly learn the appropriate pronunciations for their own gender, for instance that men tend to pronounce the “-ing” ending of the English continuous form going as “-in‟ ” but women tend to use “ing”. after seeing an American flag, Chinese/English bilinguals are more likely to say interpret behaviour of fish as driven by internal forces; after a Chinese dragon as driven by external forces
When you have to express an idea in your L2 do you: a) think of the word first in your L1 and then turn it into the L2? b) think of the word first in your L2? c) neither?
Early concepts in Second Language Acquisition research
1950s interference: Weinreich compound/coordinate bilingualism: Weinreich Contrastive Analysis, transfer: Lado habit-formation: Lado, Bloomfield etc phrase structure grammar: Bloomfield etc 1960s independent grammars assumption: school of Chomsky Language Acquisition Device: Chomsky 1964 hypothesis-testing: Corder 1970s
interlanguage: Nemser. (Chinese) Raelly I am so happy. Selinker Error Analysis: Corder. 1953. 'individuals tend to transfer the forms and meanings. becuse my mother is very sik. (Korean student) I play squash so so and I wish in Sunday's morning arrange matches with a girl who plays like me. and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture to the foreign language and culture' (Lado. I wold like to give you my best congratulate. 1957.1) types of bilingualism: 'book' 'kniga' 'book'='kniga' | | | /buk/ /kniga/ /buk/ /kniga/ coordinative bilingualism compound bilingualism 'book' | /buk/ | /kniga/ subordinative bilingualism
Lado: Contrastive Analysis transfer. (Spanish)
Weinreich: Languages in Contact
interference: 'those instances of deviation from the norms of either language which occur in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their familiarity with more than one language' (Weinreich. p.2)
. and I wold like too to till you my real apologise. (Arabic) I please you very much you allow me to stay with you this Christmas. how would you correct them?
Anyone doesn't need any deposit in my country to rent an apartment. (Italian) Everytimes I concentrate to speak out. don't know why always had Chinese in my mind. 1971 What is wrong with the following sentences from students' essays? If you were their teacher.
p. 'a system of habits' (Lado. a child must devise a hypothesis compatible with presented data he must select from the store of potential grammars a specific one that is appropriate to the data available to him' (Chomsky. Ann Arbor
. strategies of L2 learning. communication strategies. R. 1957. (1991). Reprinted in Richards (1974) Corder. V.U.). 2.36) Approximative systems. 'Idiosyncratic errors and Error Analysis'. Chomsky. S. R. 'Formal discussion: the development of grammar in child language'. 7. O. 7.The LAD (Language Acquisition Device) model primary linguistic data ---> LAD ---> generative grammar (linguistic competence)
. La [approximative language]. Indiana. V. Second Language Research.J. IRAL. etc (Lado.45). (iii) explanation. 'familiarity of response'.P. and Brown. Selinker (1972) interlanguage: language transfer. Cook (1991) multi-competence 'the compound state of a mind with two grammars'
Much of this is covered in Chapter 1 of Cook (1993). 103-117. U. N. Error Analysis and Interlanguage. (eds. Lado.the independent grammars assumption . The Acquisition of Language. 2. 'The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence'. in Bellugi. Linguistics Across Cultures.learning. 'The analogy between first and second language learning'. 3.. 9. (1957).P. (1971). IRAL.P. p.57) based on 'laws of language learning' such as 'exercise'. distinct from Ls [source language] and Lt [target language] and internally structured'. Purdue University Cook. (1969). (ii) accounting for the learner's idiosyncratic dialect. p. Corder (1971) Error Analysis: (i) recognition of idiosyncracy. S. 207-216 Cook.hypothesis-testing: 'To acquire language.J. Corder. overgeneralisation of L2 rules. (1981). 1965a. (1965). 147-159. transfer of training. First language acquisition ideas of the 1960s . interlanguage and multi-competence Nemser (1971) 'approximative system': 'Learner speech at a given time is the patterned product of a linguistic system. University of Michigan Press. 1964.
Edward Arnold.Lado. Selinker. are consistent with related formulations. (1964).' McLaughlin.18
3. Conditions for Second Language Learning. B. Good theories fit the data well. 'The goal of this book then is certainly not to propose a new method but rather to explore the requirements
for a general theory of second language learning by examining the conditions under which languages are learnt. B. (1989). Perhaps most important. R. 9. CUP
2.' Kevin Gregg in S. U. (1953). (1989). Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach. This theory assumes that principles and parameters of UG constitute an innately given body of knowledge which constrains first language (Li) acquisition. in particular. Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition. 'The ultimate goal of second language acquisition research is the development of a theory of second
language acquisition. Gass & J.2
Activities Motivations for SLA research
A.. L. London p. The Hague. To contribute to linguistics and the linguistic theory of acquisition D. we shall be concerned with a principles and parameters approach to Universal Grammar (UG). IRAL. 10/3. '. are clear in their predictions and are heuristically rich. W. To contribute to general issues in psychology Under which motivation heading would you place each of these quotations?
1. scientific progress is achieved as we come to illuminate progressively our knowledge by taking different
perspectives and by utilising diverse methods of research. they are capable of disconfirmation. 'Approximative systems of foreign language learners'. To improve language teaching C. 115-123. OUP p. Spolsky. 'Interlanguage'. Languages in Contact. To investigate L2 learning itself B.' White. 'in this book. McGraw-Hill Nemser. Linguistic Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition.xi
4. as realised in Government and Binding (GB) (Chomsky. International Review of Applied Linguistics. Theories of Second-Language Learning. L..). (1987). 1981 a). (1972). the potential relationship between linguistic universals and second language acquisition will be
explored. (1971). Reprinted in Richards (1974) Weinreich. John Benjamins p. Reprinted in Richards (1974). Schachter (eds. and to consider the relevance of such a theory for language teaching'.
& Swain. The Development of Second Language Proficiency. that is to say. vii
7.(1990). (v) creativity of language use. cabable
Written sample of adult L2 learner of English
I ferom Israel. The neme of my douther is Ruth I love ther very mach I gout i sister in Israel and al my famili I be in the harmy en it uous wunderfent last wik we went tu paris. Jakobson (1953). R.) (1990). The purpose of the project. IJAL Supplement. CUP
6. he is a native speaker of this language‟ (Bloomfield. UNESCO L2 user: Any person who uses another language than their first (L1). I em e merid woman I got one cheild 5 yeres oud I nov my eghit it na very good we live in egland about tou yers I live in Standford Hill London N16. 1933. p. 'Results of the
conference of anthropologists and linguists'. the one they learnt first as a child. B. (iii) ability to communicate within social settings. Cummins. P. p. native speaker 'a monolingual person who still speaks the language they learnt in childhood' (Cook 1999) „The first language a human being learns to speak is his native language. Allen. 'I have been interested for a long time now in how an understanding of second language acquisition can
contribute to language pedagogy' Ellis.
second language: „A language acquired by a person in addition to his mother tongue‟.. Blackwell.43) 'a native speaker of a language is someone who speaks that language as their first language rather than having learnt it as a foreign language' COBUILD English Dictionary.
. Memoir 8. Instructed Second Language Acquisition. 1995 Characteristics of native speakers: (i) subconscious knowledge of rules. (iv) range of language skills. entitled the Development of Bilingual Proficiency (DBP). J. 'This book is about a major five-year research project conducted during the 1980s in the Modern Language
Centre at the Ontario institute for Studies in Education. (eds..' R. M. descride (describe).. 19-22
Where do they come from?
A person who does not distinguish /ki:n/ and /kin/ A person who says Yesterday came he A person who writes bepent (depend). 'Bilingualism is for me the fundamental problem of linguistics. (ii) intuitive grasp of meanings. has been to examine a number of educationally relevant issues concerning the language development of school-age children who are learning a second language' Harley.5.
'the point where a speaker can first produce complete meaningful utterances in the other language' (Haugen.'native-like control of two languages' (Bloomfield.3) . p. 1991.7) .(Stern. 1987. 1983).51)
. 1992. 1970) . it is a characteristic of its use' (Mackey.1) . p.' (Appel & Muysken. p.'Bilingualism is not a phenomenon of language. 1986) . bilingualism is a relative concept' (Hoffman.'Paradoxical as it may seem.'All too often imposing Bloomfield's criteria on bilinguals has led to their stigmatisation as being somehow deficient in their language capacities. 55) .'From whatever angle we look at it. p. 1953. bilingualism . p. Second Language Acquisition researchers seem to have neglected the fact that the goal of SLA is bilingualism' (Sridhar and Sridhar.Bilingualism is the regular use of two (or more) languages. and bilinguals are those people who need and use (two or more) languages in their everyday lives' (Grosjean.'the practice of alternately using two languages' (Weinreich. 1933. 1953.31) .