You are on page 1of 28

Cooling with

No MAD w E IND IN IA

POULTRY FARMS

MUSHROOM FARMING

EVAPORATIVE COOLING PADS

GREEN HOUSES

from the specialists in INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ)

INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL AREAS

ARCTIC INDIA ENGINEERING

Cooling with
EVAPORATIVE COOLING PADS How does cool ?
u u u u Energy efficient : Allows higher cooling with lower air volume; pads are over 80% efficient. Rigid structure : No need for any supporting framework; totally self supporting. Longer life : Eco-Cool is synthesized with specialised anti-rot chemicals. Higher consistency : The specially engineered fluted structure of Eco-Cool prevents sagging and clogging. u Maintenance free : Eco-Cool has a unique structure which does not allow dust and other dirt to settle on it. u More effective : Eco-Cool can handle treble the air velocity over the same area, compared to any other type of pads.

E co-Cool Evaporative Cooling Pad uses the simple


principle of evaporative cooling i.e. passing fresh air through the wet surface to bring temperatures down.

The Eco-Cool Evaporative


pads are saturated with water, sprayed on to it through prefixed channels.

F resh air, which is warm or hot,


is blown (with the help of a fan) through the wet Eco-Cool Pad. The water evaporates when it comes in contact with the warm/ hot air, thus cooling as well as humidifying the air entering the area . . . green house, hatchery or shop floor . . .

P lus Eco-Cool can be customised for special applications and is compatible with all air handling and conditioning systems. u Retrofits easily.

E cofriendly and economic, Eco-Cool provides the


ideal media to keep temperatures low in poultry farms, hatcheries, livestock areas, green houses and other agricultural areas, as also industrial and commercial areas.

is ideal for
u Poultry farms, hatcheries, breeding areas, livestock and dairy farms. u u u Green houses, mushroom farming, seed farming and floriculture. Industrial and commercial areas. Cooling `air intake cooling.

Evaporative Cooling Pads


Features & Benefits
u Effective cooling : Lowers temperature at minimal energy cost.

Manufactured by

ARCTIC INDIA ENGINEERING PVT. LTD.


20, Rajpur Road, Delhi - 110 054.
Ph.: 91-11-3912800 Fax : 91-11-3915127 E-Mail : dri@pahwa.com Website : www.drirotors.com
A ENTERPRISE

* Facts you need to know to optimise effectiveness of your Evaporative Cooling Pads

MADE IN INDIA

NOW

EVAPORATIVE COOLING PADS (ECP)

For cost-effective, efficient cooling

Mismanagement of water
Majority of problems reported by users of evaporative cooling pad based systems are basically due to improper treatment of water or misuse / management of water. The problems can be categorised as :

Types of water
Natural water contains many soluble minerals and salts in different proportion. Based on the proportion of salt and mineral content, water can be classified as : Soft Water Hard Water
Higher Mineral + Salt

1 2 3

Scale formation

Hard water, normally, contains a higher concentration of mineral and salt.

Microbiological infestation Corrosion of support frame work, sump, pumps, etc.

When water evaporates, it leaves behind a concentration of mineral and salt in form of a precipitate, which manifests itself as scale on the cooling pads. Continuous build-up of these minerals, in form of scale, on the media surface restricts airflow and reduces the cooling effi c i enc y. Additional fresh water is needed to dilute the high concentration of salts in the sump water if build-up is occurring. As opposed to hard water, soft water is ca-

Problems arising from mismanagement of water can be handled effectively by :


n Identifying type of water n Water treatment

MADE IN INDIA

NOW

pable of leaching out the rigidifying agents and causing the pads to collapse.

EVAPORATIVE COOLING PAD (ECP) u u u

Made of cellulose paper, engineered from cross-sectional, specially treated flute media capable of absorbing and retaining water to provide the maximum cooling efficiencies. Treated with stiffening and wetting agents to provide efficient cooling. Considerable effective life span.

Basic theory of water evaporation

Dry bulb temperature


DRY BULB TEMPERATURE ( 0 F) OF LEAVING AIR CAN BE CALCULATED AS BELOW :
t2 = t1 - hs ( t1 - w1 )

evaporation

makeup

t1 = dry bulb temperature of entering air (0 F) t2 = dry bulb temperature of leaving air (0 F) hs = saturation efficiency of the selected media w1 = wet bulb temperature of entering air (0 F)

bleeding off

Guideline
q Ensure pH range of 7.3 to 8. Water with extreme pH value is not suitable for cooling pads. q Adjust the bleed off rate to ensure pH value does not cross the prescribed limit. Bleed off is referred to the rate at which the water is being removed from the sump to maintain the water quality. q q Normally, bleed off rate is 20% of the evaporated water. Maintain the water quality. Both very hard and very soft water is harmful and can adversely affect the life span and performance of cooling pads.

MAKE - UP QUANTITY

EVAPORATION

+ BLEEDING OFF

Evaporation rate

ALCULATE THE RATE OF EVAPORATION IN THE AIR COOLER


cfm x (t1 - t2) Evaporation rate (lpm) = 550 t1 = dry bulb temperature of entering air (0 F) t2 = dry bulb temperature of leaving air (0 F)

u u u

Treated with anti-rot and rigidifying resins to extend its life span. Cross-corrugated to maximize the mixing of air and water and eliminate water carryover. Saturation effectiveness ranging from 50 to 98%, can be achieved depending upon air velocity and depth of the cooling pad.

Water management guidelines


Recommended water management for Evaporative Cooling Pad based systems incorporating Eco-Cool Cooling Pads.

A. Rate (s)

B. Chemistry

C. Treatment

TO AVOID BUILD UP OF SCALES, SOME OF THE RECIRCULATED WATER MUST BE REPLACED WITH FRESH WATER. THE FRESH WATER DILUTES THE CONCENTRATED SUMP WATER, THEREBY, MAINTAINING THE DESIRED WATER QUANTITY.

The water, which is replaced, by fresh water is re-

Recirculation rate of water


It is important to control the quantity of water in circulation through the media. Water, if flowing at a lesser rate than recomImproper Cooling

ferred as bleed-off water. Bleeding off some of the water is the most practical means of minimizing scale accumulation. Bleed-off prevents excessive concentration of minerals in the re-circulated water. The bleed off rate should be 5% to 100% of the evaporation rate depending upon water hardness and air - borne contamination level. Bleed-off general rate for

mended, results in uneven wetting of the media, which causes improper cooling. Cooling depends on evaporation rate.
lesser Water Flow

The water provided should be sufficient to keep the entire media wet and flushed, therefore, limiting scale deposition over the media surface. Severe deposition could result in air flow restriction and also localized very high pH levels at joints of the media leading to the leaching of the stiffening resins causing early failure of the media.
Evaporation Water Flow

RECOMMENDATIONS TO ENSURE LONG LIFE OF PADS

FO

applications

should be set at 20% of maximum evaporation rate in extreme conditions. A flush out cycle should be used that runs fresh water through the pad every 24 hours when the fan is switched off. This water should run for 3 minutes for every foot of media height.

Please ensure water flowing through

the pad is maximum 3 times the rate of evaporation or 1.5 gpm per sq. ft. of top surface.

Bleed-off rate
Water evaporates leaving behind all soluble salt and mineral present in it. This results in a high concentration of minerals in the sump water. Further, the evaporation of this water causes precipitation of these salts and minerals in the form of scales, which deposits itself on the media surface.

Regular inspection, to ensure that the bleed rate is adequate and is maintained, is a must.

WAT E R

= WATER FF MAKE UP BLEED O + D E T A E VA P O R

Micro-biological growth control


Water provides an ideal medium for growth of various type microbiological organisms mainly algae, mold, fungus, bacteria, etc. Any of these organisms can damage the media and may result in undesirable odor in the air stream. Growth of these organisms can be controlled effectively n By using chemicals. n Without chemicals. Please consult your Water Treatment Consultant before using any chemicals. There are some non-oxidizing chemicals, which are not oxidizing in nature, that are toxic to micro-organisms. Unlike oxidizing chemicals, they remain active and effective in the water for a longer period and are effective over a broad pH range. These chemicals are also effective on broad spectrum of micro-organisms like bacteria, fungus, mold, algae etc.

. . . USING CHEMICALS
ECO-COOL
FIFTH YEAR

Chemicals used in treating the water can be broadly classified as oxidizing and non-oxidizing. As the name suggests, the oxidizing chemical is chemical that is oxidizing in nature. They destroy microorganisms and also destroy the nutrition used

. . . WITHOUT CHEMICALS
Mostly growth of micro-organisms is the result of improper and inconsistent maintenance of water reservoir and other surrounding area. Micro-organisms need water, sunlight and nutrients to breed and grow. The cooling pads must be above the water level of the sump especially when the pump is switched off. The pads should be dried out so that organisms present in the media become dry. It is recommended to flush the media prior to the next start up and operate the pump for sometime prior to start the fan. Organism grows faster in the sunlight. By shading the media and avoiding light falling on the pads, the growth of these organisms can be retarded to a great extent. Also micro-organisms cannot exist without nutrients. An effective removal of nutrients from the sump water can control the growth of these organisms. Normally, the air passing through the media brings nutrients. Typical nutrients present in the air are farm field dust, pollen, organic dust and organic emissions from near by stacks.

I N S TA L L E D

OURTH YEAR

FIRST YEAR

THIRD YEAR

SECOND YEAR

by micro-organisms to grow. Chlorine and bromine are two most commonly used chemicals to control organism growth. These chemicals should be handled with great care, as they are potentially dangerous. AN OVER DOSE OF THESE CHEMICALS MAY ALSO DAMAGE THE COOLING MEDIA. THESE CHEMICALS SHOULD NOT BE USED ON A CONTINUOUS BASIS. It is important to maintain a 7.3 to 8 pH level after the treatment.

CHEMICALS

Proper cleaning and maintenance is always better than the chemicals treatment.
CHEMICALS

LEGIONNAIRE'S DISEA SE CONTROL


Legionnaires Disease is a respiratory disease, contracted by inhaling aerosol laden with sufficient Legionella pneumophila bacteria (1 to 5 mm in diameter) into the low respiratory system. Evaporative coolers do not provide suitable growth conditions as the water used for evaporation is cool and does not encourage growth of these bacteria. This bacteria grows when water temperature is between 70F to 115F. We can further reduce the possibility of the bacteria growth by following precautions:

Corrosion control
Corrosion is destruction of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. During evaporative cooling, water circulating in the system is exposed to varying conditions and its composition changes, which increases its corrosive characteristics. Corrosion can occur in pipelines, water sump, water pump and water distribution channel causing damage, or destruction of, the equipment, or excessive rapid wear of moving parts such as pumps. Corrosion can reduce cooling efficiencies and create water flow blockages. Corrosion related damages can be minimized by the following:

1. 2.

Run fans after switching off water circula-

tion pump to allow pads to get dry.

n n

Using corrosion resistant construction materials. Providing protective coatings to separate the water from the metal surfaces of the equipment.

Thoroughly clean and flush the entire cooln

ing water loop regularly (minimum annually), including disinfecting before and after cleaning.

Adding corrosion inhibitors and pH control chemicals to water or removing oxygen from the water.

3. 4.

Maintain system bleed off consistent with

pH is defined as logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. If pH value is less than 7, the water is considered as

makeup water quantity.

Avoid dead end piping, low spots and

other areas in the water distribution system where water may stagnate during shutdown.
n

acidic and if pH value is more than 7, water is considered as alkaline. Use of dissimilar metals should be minimized and if possible, avoided. Organic coating or gasket must be used between two dissimilar metals to avoid galvanic corrosion.

5. 6.

The inlet of the evaporative cooler should

not be located near to any cooling tower.

Maintain system cleanliness. Deposits from

calcium carbonate, minerals and nutrients may contribute to the growth of these bacteria and other micro-organisms.

Corrosion treatment of cooling water is done


through use of chemicals like blends of phosphate, phospohonate, molybedate, zinc, silicate, and various polymers for corrosion control.

Typical water distribution circuit, frame work, construction

TYPICAL DATA FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


4 - 8" DEPTH 10 - 12 DEPTH
3/4" - 1 1/2" 1/8" 2 1/2" - 3 1/2" 16ft 1" - 1 1/2" 5/32" 3" 16ft

PIPE DIA HOLE DIA SPACING MAX PIPE LENGTH


A Typical rigid media in standard frame A Typical water distribution system.

PRECAUTIONS

Header pipe should be located at

the top of the media towards the front enabling the water to flow towards the front of the media from where air is entering in to the system. 4 Header size should be selected as per the total quantity of water circulating through the media. 4 Please ensure a circulation water quantity of 1 1/2 to 2 GPM per sqft. of the top surface area or 3 times the evaporation rate, which so ever is higher in order to keep the media wet and to achieve the rated performance.

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
( Suggested material shown will help to provide a long, relatively trouble-free service life ) A Typical Evaporative Cooling Installation
It is recommended to always use a distributiuon pad for better effectiveness, more so when the media thickness is greater than 8".

1. Main Header - PVC 2. Collection Pan - FRP / GI WITH FRP LINING 3. Side Plates 4. Gutter 5. Sump FRP / MSHDG FRP / PVC / GI MASONRY / GI WITH FRP LINING / SS

Per formance of

EVAPORATIVE COOLING PAD (ECP)

based systems in major cities in India


Outside Design Conditions (Summer) Condition of air leaving the media at 80% (3) saturating efficiency DBToF (2) 81.6 84.4 82 81.6 81.6 79.6 82.4 86.2 80.4 81 82 83.6 82.8 82 83.6 77 85 85.4 83.2 81.6 75 78 75 76 78 73 78 82 76 75 75 78 77 75 77 75 79 83 76 76 WBToF Makeup water flow (lpm) per 1000 cfm (4) 3.985 3.979 3.997 3.955 3.894 3.985 3.918 3.912 3.918 3.967 3.997 3.955 3.961 3.997 3.985 3.846 3.967 3.858 4.003 3.955

City

DBToF

WBToF

RH%

Wet Bulb Depression (1)

Agra Ahmedabad Ambala Aurangabad Bangalore Bhopal Calcutta Chennai Coimbatore Dehradun Delhi Hyderabad Indore Jaipur Jodhpur Kathmandu Lucknow Mumbai Nagpur Pune

108 110 110 104 96 106 100 103 98 105 110 106 106 110 110 85 109 95 112 104

75 78 75 76 78 73 78 82 76 75 75 78 77 75 77 75 79 83 76 76

21 24 20 24 45 20 26 41 37 25 20 28 28 20 23 63 26 60 28 28

33 32 35 28 18 33 22 21 22 30 35 28 29 35 33 10 30 12 36 28

Notes : 1)

Wet Bulb Depression = Outside Dry Bulb Temp. in oF Outside Wet Bulb Temp. in oF. 2) Condition of air leaving media = ODBT S.E. (ODBT OWBT) 3) 80% evaporative cooling efficiency (saturation efficiency) is achieved only with a minimum of 8 (200mm) thick pad. 4) Make up water flow = water evaporation + bleed off. (Based on 2x1x8 pad). 5) Total recirculated water flow should be 3 times of rate of water evaporation or 1.89 LPM per linear foot of 4 thick pad. 6) Due to constant product refinement, the performance data may change in future.
ECP-98-102

ARCTIC INDIA ENGINEERING PVT. LTD. 20, Rajpur Road, Delhi-110 054 (India) l Phone: 91-11-391-2800 l Fax: 91-11-3915127 l E-Mail: dri@pahwa.com l Website: www.drirotors.com

Manufatured by :

ENTERPRISE

Evaporative Cooling Pad

The

Evaporative Cooling Pad (ECP), made of cellulose paper

is engineered from cross - sectional, specially treated flute media capable of absorbing and retaining water to provide the maximum cooling efficiencies. The cellulose media is treated with stiffening and wetting agents to provide cooling over its considerable effective life span. The pad media is treated with anti-rot and rigidifying resins NOW! MADE IN INDIA

to extend its life span. pad media is cross-corrugated to maximize the mixing of air and water and eliminate water carryover. Saturation effectiveness ranging from 50 to 98 %, can be achieved depending upon air velocity and depth of the cooling pad. Air flows horizontally while the re-circulating water flows vertically through the pad. The water is collected below the bottom of the pad and is re-circulated again by a pump through the unique gutter system.

Evaporative Cooling Pad Technical Specifications Material : Cross corrugated cellulose paper treated with anti rot, rigidifying and wetting resins.

Standard Sizes Available Depth Width Height Flute Angle Flute Height Fill Contact Surface : : : : : : 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 12 , 24 12 , 24 , 36 , 48 , 60 , 72. 30/30, 45/45, 45/15 Approximately 6.5 mm 45 sq. Ft for each cu. Ft. Of 4 thick pad (135 ft2 / ft3)

Evaporative Cooling Pad Performance of Evaporative Cooling Pad based system in major cities in India
Outside Design Conditions (Summer) Condition of air leaving the media at 80% (3) saturating efficiency DBTF WBTF Makeup water flow (LPM) per 1000 cfm (4) 75 78 75 76 78 73 78 82 76 75 75 78 77 75 77 75 79 83 76 76 3.985 3.979 3.997 3.955 3.894 3.985 3.918 3.912 3.918 3.967 3.997 3.955 3.961 3.997 3.985 3.846 3.967 3.858 4.003 3.955

City

DBTF

WBTF

RH %

Wet Bulb Depression (1)

(2) 81.6 84.4 82 81.6 81.6 79.6 82.4 86.2 80.4 81 82 83.6 82.8 82 83.6 77 85 85.4 83.2 81.6

Agra Ahmedabad Ambala Aurangabad Bangalore Bhopal Calcutta Chennai Coimbatore Dehradun Delhi Hyderabad Indore Jaipur Jodhpur Kathmandu Lucknow Mumbai Nagpur Pune Notes :

108 110 110 104 96 106 100 103 98 105 110 106 106 110 110 85 109 95 112 104

75 78 75 76 78 73 78 82 76 75 75 78 77 75 77 75 79 83 76 76

21 24 20 24 45 20 26 41 37 25 20 28 28 20 23 63 26 60 28 28

33 32 35 28 18 33 22 21 22 30 35 28 29 35 33 10 30 12 36 28

(1) Wet Bulb Depression = Outside Dry Bulb Temp. in F - Outside Wet Bulb Temp. in F. (2) Condition of air leaving media = ODBT - S.E. (ODBT - OWBT) (3) 80% evaporative cooling efficiency (saturation efficiency) is achieved only with a minimum of 8" (200mm) thick pad. (4) Make up water flow = water evaporation + bleed off. (Based on 2' x 1' x 8" pad). (5) Total recirculated water flow should be 3 times of rate of water evaporation or 1.89 LPM per linear foot of 4" thick pad. (6) Due to constant product refinement, the performance data may change in future.
Manufactured by :
ECP-2000-301-R 1

Visit our Website www.drirotors.co m

ARCTIC INDIA ENGINEERING PVT. LTD.


20, Rajpur Road, Delhi-110054 (India) l Pho ne: 91-11-2391-2800 Fax: 91-11-23915127 l E-Mail: enquire@pah wa.com A ENTERPRISE

Typical Pressure DropAcross Media (45/15) (mm wg.) 7 MM Flute Height


30

20, Rajpur Road, Delhi-110054 (India) Phone : 91-11-3912800 Fax: 91-11-3915127 E-Mail : enquire@pahwa.com Website : www.drirotors.com 7mm

24" 600mm

25

18" 450mm

20

Pressure Drop ( mm wg )

12" 300mm

15
8" 200mm 6" 150mm 4" 100mm

10

0
Velocity FPM M/S

200 1 0.51 0.765 1.02 1.12 1.275 1.53

300 1.5 0.765 1.02 1.275 1.785 2.55 3.315

400 2 1.02 1.53 2.295 3.57 4.845 6.12

500 2.5 1.785 2.295 3.57 5.355 7.65 9.945

600 3 2.55 3.315 5.1 7.65 10.71 14.025

700 3.5 5.655 7.14 9.18 12.495 15.81 20.4

800 4 6.455 8.95 11.145 16.28 20.655 26.52

Pad Thickness

4"/100mm 6"/150mm 8"/200mm 12"/300mm 18"/450mm 24"/600mm

Typical Saturation Efficiency ( 45/15) 7 MM Flute Height


100

20, Rajpur Road, Delhi-110054 (India) Phone : 91-11-3912800 Fax: 91-11-3915127 E-Mail : enquire@pahwa.com Website : www.drirotors.com 7mm
16" 400mm 12" 300mm

90

80

8" 200mm

Efficiency (%)

70

6" 150mm

60
4" 100mm

50

Velocity FPM M/S Pad Thickness

40

200 1 62 79 87 93 98

250 1.25 60 76 86 92 98

300 1.5 58 74 84 91 98

350 1.75 56 73 83 91 97

400 2 55 71 81 90 97

450 2.25 54 69 79 90 97

500 2.5 53 68 78 89 96

550 2.75 53 67 78 89 96

600 3 52 66 77 88 95

650 3.25 51 65 76 88 95

700 3.5 50 64 75 87 95

4"/100mm 6"/150mm 8"/200mm 12"/300mm 16"/400mm

Date: 05.04.2000 - ECP-2000-302-R1

Pressure Drop Across Media (45/45) (mm wg.) 7 MM Flute Height


16

20, Rajpur Road, Delhi-110054 (India) Phone : 91-11-3912800 Fax: 91-11-3915127 E-Mail : enquire@pahwa.com Website : www.drirotors.com 7mm

14

12" 300mm

12

Pressure Drop ( mm wg)

10

8" 200mm 6" 150mm

4" 100mm

2 Velocity FPM M/S Pad Thickness

200 1 0.51 1.53 2.04 2.907

300 1.5 2.04 3.06 4.08 6.114

400 2 3.315 5.355 6.63 10.112

500 2.25 5.355 7.395 8.925 14.0505 Date: 24.07.98

4"/100mm 6"/150mm 8"/200mm 12"/300mm

Typical Saturation Efficiency (45/45) 7 MM Flute Height 100

20, Rajpur Road, Delhi-110054 (India) Phone : 91-11-3912800 Fax: 91-11-3915127 E-Mail : enquire@pahwa.com Website : www.drirotors.com 7mm

12" 300mm

90
Efficiency(%)

8" 200mm

6" 150mm

80

70

4" 100mm

Velocity FPM M/S Pad Thickness

60

200 1 79 89 93 99

250 1.25 76 87 92 99

300 1.5 74 86 91 98

350 1.75 73 86 91 98

400 2 71 85 90 97

450 2.25 69 83 90 97

500 2.5 68 82 89 97

4" / 100 mm 6" / 150 mm 8" / 200 mm 12" / 300 mm

Date: 05.04.2000 - ECP-2000-303-R1