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1. What do you call the period taken by the moon to go to all phases? A. Lunation B. Lunar eclipse C.

Lunar cycle D. Lunar oscillation

2. The relative narrow extension of any anticyclone or high pressure area particularly one connecting two anti cyclones is called: A. Isobar B. Trough C. Ridge D. Edge

3. Find the GHA of Aries if the SHA of the star was 109 31.8 and the GHA of the star was 225 17.2. A. 115 49.4 B. 115 45.4 C. 334 49.0 D. 334 35.0

3. Solution: GHA = ? SHA = 109 31.8 GHA = 225 17.2 SHA = 109 31.8 ( - ) GHA = 115 45.4

4. This is an instrument used in measuring the humidity of the air consisting of a dry and wet bulb thermometer. A. Barograph B. Thermograph C. Hydrometer D. Hygrometer



5. Find the true bearing if the compass reads 296, variation is 6 W and deviation is 12 E. A. 302 B. 314 C. 278 D. 290

5. Solution C/ = 296 Dev. = 12 E ( + ) M/ = 308 Var. = 6 W ( - ) T/ = 302

6. The direction of one terrestrial point from another expressed as angular distance from a reference direction usually 000 clockwise through 360. A. Bearing B. Azimuth C. Course D. Heading

AZIMUTH = The horizontal direction or bearing of a celestial point from a terrestrial point, expressed as the angular distance from a reference direction measured from 000 clockwise to 360. COURSE = The direction in w/c a vessel is steered or intended to be steered expressed as angular distance from north usually from 000 clockwise / counterclockwise through 360 HEADING = The horizontal direction in w/c ship usually points or heads at any instant, expressed in angular units from 000 clockwise to 360

7. If the declination of the sun is 0, what do you call the position or point on the celestial sphere? A. Solstice B. Apogee C. Equinox D. Perihelion

8. The belt of high pressure extending around 35 N is called: A. Doldrums B. Horse latitude C. Prevailing Westerlies D. Trades

9. If latitude and declination are equal and the same name, what is the altitude of the body at meridian transit? A. 0 B. 90 C. 180 D. 45

10. What are the two planets that are nearest to the earth? A. Venus and Mars B. Mars and Saturn C. Jupiter and Saturn D. Mercury and Venus

11. What is the usual sequence of direction of tropical revolving storm in the southern hemisphere? A. Northwest, West hence South B. Southwest, South hence Southeast C. North, Northwest hence East D. West, Northwest hence North

12. What is the angle of observation between true north as a reference point measured clockwise to the direction of the object being measured? A. Compass bearing B. Magnetic bearing C. True bearing D. Geographic bearing

13. A vessel at Lat 32 14.7 N, Long 66 28.9 W heads for a destination at Lat 36 58.7 N, Long 75 42.2 W. Determine the course and distance by Mercator sailing. A. 058.2 T, 241.2 miles B. 235.2 T, 270.2 miles C. 301.8 T, 538.2 miles D. 348.3 T, 300.2 miles

Lat 1 = 32 14.7 N Lat 2 = 36 58.7 N Dlat = 04 44.0 N x 60 Dlat = 284 Long 1= 66 28.9 W Long 2= 75 42.2 W Dlong = 09 13.3 W x 60 Dlong = 553.3

RULES FOR DLAT Lat same name ( - ) Lat diff name (+)


How to acquire meridional parts by calculator MP = Lat / 2 + 45 = Tan log x 7915.7 Lat sin x 23.3 RULES FOR DMP MP1 = 2033.31 LAT SAME NAME ( - ) LAT DIFF NAME ( + ) MP2 = 2376.98 ( - ) DMP = 343.67 Tan co = Dlo / DMP = 553.3 / 343.67 = 1.60997 inv. Tan Co < = N 58 09 W 360 - 58 09 T / Co. = 301 51

Dist. = = = Dist. =

Dlat / Cos Co. 284 / Cos 58 09 284 / 0.527697 538.2 nm

14. What is the reference in determining the sidereal time? A. Solstice B. Meridian angle C. Equinox D. First Point Aries

15. You depart Lat 18 54 N, Long 73 00 E, and steam 1,150 miles on course 253 T. What are the latitude and longitude of your arrival by Mercator Sailing? A. Lat 13 16 N, Long 58 18 E B. Lat 13 18 N, Long 54 03 E C. Lat 13 19 N, Long 53 46 E D. Lat 13 20 N, Long 53 28 E

15. Solution : Dlat = Dist x Cos co. = 1,150 x Cos 253 / 73 = 1150 x 0.29237 = 336.22 / 60 Dlat = 05 36 S Lat 1 = 18 54 N (-) MP1 = 1147.59 MP2 = 799.90 ( - ) Lat 2 = 13 18 N
DMP = 347.69

RULES FOR LAT 2 Same name ( + ) Diff name ( - ) Dlo = Tan co. x DMP = Tan 73 x 347.69 = 3.27085 x 347.69 = 1137.2 / 60 Dlo = 18 57 W RULES FOR LONG. 2 Long 1 = 73 00 E ( - ) SAME NAME ( + ) Long 2 = 54 03 E DIFF NAME ( - )

16. What publication contains ocean current information for voyage planning from San Francisco to Tokyo? A. World Port Index B. Sailing Direction C. Guide to Port Entry D. Coast Pilot

17. The extreme distance in which a prominent object can be seen by unaided eye is called: A. Extreme distance B. Distance of eyesight C. Visibility D. Recorded distance

18. You depart Lat 38 14 N, Long 12 42 W, for Lat 38 14 N, Long 46 09 W. What are the course and distance? A. 090 T, 1,576.5 miles B. 090 T, 2,879.0 miles C. 270 T, 1,576.5 miles D. 270 T, 2,868.5 miles

18. Solution: Long 1 = 12 42 W Long 2 = 46 09 W Dlo = 33 27 W x 60 DLO = DIST / COS LAT. DIST = DLO x COS LAT Dlo = 2007

= 2007 x Cos 38 14 = 2007 x 0.785496 DIST = 1,576 NM

19. When considering currents to use in coastal navigation, what amount of current is prudent to use? A. The least B. Minimum C. Maximum D. None

20. The warm dry air blowing down the leeward side of the mountain slopes to the valley or plain is called: A. Foehn wind B. Fall wind C. Anabatic wind D. Katabatic wind

21. Where is the body when its LHA and meridian angle are zero? A. At sunrise B. At meridian passage C. At sunset D. At the prime vertical

22. You depart Lat 15 48 N, Long 174 06 E and steam 905 miles on course 090 T. What is the longitude of arrival? A. 165 41 W B. 170 13 W C. 172 47 W D. 179 06 E

22. Solution: Dlo = Dist / Cos Lat = 905 nm / Cos 15 48 N = 940.5 / 60 Dlo = 15 40 E Long 1 = 174 06 E ( + ) = 189 46 - 360 ( Dlo > 360 ) Long 2 = 170 14 W

23. What do you call the condition at which the gyroscope devices should be insensitive to applied acceleration? A. Law of inertia B. Archimedes C. Schuller tuned D. None of these

24. Which publication is needed when entering a foreign port and you require pilot services? A. Sailing direction B. World port index C. Coast pilot D. Pilot chart

25. What is the term used to the apparent increase in the semidiameter of a celestial body as its altitude increases due to reduced distance from the observer? A. Augmentation B. Refraction C. Parallax D. Dip




Parallax - the difference in direction of a celestial object as seen by an observer from two widely separated points. The measurement of parallax is used directly to find the distance of the body from the Earth (geocentric parallax) and from the Sun (heliocentric parallax). The two positions of the observer and the position of the object form a triangle.



26. What do you call the curve that passes through places at zero dip and no inclination on the compass needle? A. Magnetic meridian B. Magnetic equator C. Magnetic field D. Magnetic north

27. What is the plane which passes through the observers eye and at right angles to the vertical of the observer? A. Celestial horizon B. Sensible horizon C. Visible horizon D. Geoidal horizon

28. Find the latitude of the observer if the altitude of the body at upper transit is 50 09.8 bearing south and the declination is 18 17.6 N. A. 31 52.2 N B. 41 07.8 N C. 21 32.6 N D. 58 07.8 N

28. Solution: H.O. = 50 09.8 S * HO & ZX are always * ( - ) 90 00.0 contrary name ZX = 39 50.2 N DEC= 18 17.6 N LAT = 58 07.8 N RULES FOR OBS. LAT 1. Add if ZX & DEC same name LAT will take the name of ZX & DEC. 2. Subtract if ZX & DEC diff name LAT will take the name of greater value

29. What is the color of the light of an isolated danger mark? A. Red B. White C. Yellow D. Green

30. The angular distance of celestial body measured eastward from the first point of Aries is called: A. RA B. LHA C. GHA D. SHA

31. The azimuth angle of the sun is measured from: A. Zenith B. Elevated pole C. First point of Aries D. Greenwich meridian

32. Determine the great circle distance and initial course from Lat 34 51.0 N, Long 115 01.2 E to Lat 10 16.0 S, Long 51 42.6 E. A. 4,436 miles, 245.3T B. 4,598 miles, 245.6T C. 4,493 miles, 245.6T D. 4,582 miles, 245 3T

32. Solution: Long 1= 115 01.2 E RULES FOR DLO Long 2= 51 42.6 E Long same name ( - ) Dlong = 63 18.6 W Long diff name ( + ) Cos Dist. = ( Cos Lat 1 x Cos Lat 2 x Cos Dlo ) +/- ( Sin Lat 1 x Sin Lat 2 ) = ( Cos 34 51 x Cos 10 16 x Cos 63 18.6 ) ( Sin 34 51 x Sin 10 16 )

= 0.36274 0.10184 = 0.2609 inv. Cos = 74.87 or 74 52.7 x 60 GCD = 4492.7 nm

RULES FOR GCD Lat same name ( +) Lat diff name ( - )

Sin I. C. = ( - ) Cos Lat 2 x Sin Dlo Sin Dist. = - Cos 10 16 x Sin 63 18.6' Sin 74 52.7' Note : Make L2 negative when crossing Equator Initial Course is labeled same as Lat 2 and same name as Dlo

- 0.98398 x 0.89344 0.96537 = - 0.910663 inv Sin ( Use +/- to eliminate) Co < = S 65.6 W (+) 180 ( 3rd Quadrant ) T/ Co. = 245.6

Sin I. C. =

33. The boundary between two air masses is called: A. Pressure gradient B. Isobars C. Isotherm D. Front


34. What is the point in the ecliptic that is 90 away from the equinox? A. Solstice B. Azimuth C. Zenith D. Nadir

35. What is the color of conical buoy under IALA A? A. Red B. Yellow C. Green D. Black

36. This is the half of the storm which lies to the left of the path in the North hemisphere and to the right of the path in the South hemisphere. A. Dangerous semi circle B. Navigable semi circle C. Dangerous quadrant D. Storm track

37. In the daily page of the nautical almanac, the unshaded circle in the lower right hand corner means: A. Full moon B. New moon C. Gibbous moon D. Quarter moon

38. What is the zenith distance of the sun at theoretical sunrise and sunset? A. 108 B. 102 C. 90 D. 96

39. The standard atmospheric pressure in inches of mercury is: A. 28.27 B. 29.92 C. 28.70 D. 29.29

40. What is the approximate maximum reliable ground wave range of LORAN C? A. 600 miles B. 1,200 miles C. 900 miles D. 2,300 miles

41. Find the GHA of Aries from the following: GHA of the star 312 17.6, SHA of star 257 26.8. A. 209 50.8 B. 054 44.4 C. 054 50.8 D. 209 44.4

41. Solution: GHA = ? SHA = 257 20.8 GHA = 312 17.6 SHA = 257 20.8 (-) GHA = 054 50.8'

42. A. B. C. D.

Convert 041 39.8 into time. 02H 52M 12S 01H 54M 35S 03H 03M 45S 02H 46M 39S

43. Convert 03H 45M 51S into longitude. A. 056 58.9 B. 056 27.8 C. 055 34.9 D. 057 14.6

44. At the master gyrocompass, the compass card is attached to the: A. Spider element B. Sensitive element C. Link arm D. Pick up transformer

45. What causes the wind flow from horse latitude to the doldrums to deflect? A. Prevailing westerlies B. Semi permanent high C. Coriolis force D. Pressure gradient force

46. It is made of soft un-magnetized iron placed vertically near a magnetic compass to counteract deviation: A. Fore and aft magnet B. Heeling magnet C. Vertical magnet D. Flinders bar

47. Which of the following cannot be seen in the left hand page of the nautical almanac? A. GHA of Aries B. GHA of Sun C. GHA of Mars D. GHA of Venus

48. What is the apparent path by which the planets revolve around the sun? A. Ecliptic B. Orbit C. Axis D. Diurnal circle

49. The difference between the geographic meridian and the magnetic meridian is called: A. Compass error B. Deviation C. Variation D. Dip

50. What is the arc of the hour circle between the celestial pole and a point in the celestial sphere? A. Declination B. Altitude C. Zenith distance D. Polar distance

51. One of the advantage of gyro compass over a magnetic compass is: A. Accuracy is not affected by latitude B. It is run by electric power C. Easy to maintain and repair D. Performance is not affected by magnetic fields

52 An observer aboard a vessel proceeding thru still air will experience an apparent wind from dead ahead has an apparent speed of 18 knots. This is equal to the: A. Speed of cloud movements B. Speed of the waves the ship is meeting C. Speed of the ship D. Speed of sound

53. If you transfer a straight line on Mercator chart to a globe, what will it look like? A. As a straight line also B. Curve line having a convexity towards the equator C. Curve line having a convexity towards the nearest pole D. As an irregular line

54. There are standard lettering used in Nautical charts. A leaning type of lettering is used for: A. Water, underwater and floating features B. Islets C. Lighthouse D. Rocks

55. If all these landmarks charted which of these is less reliable? A. Island B. Lighthouse C. Buoy D. Mountain peak

56. You are on course 303 T. To check the speed of your vessel you should observed a celestial body on which bearing? A. 000 B. 213 C. 090 D. 123

57. In measuring distance from any navigational chart with the aid of a divider, the measurement is always taken from the latitude scale at the side margins of the chart because: A. Ready accessibility B. Accuracy/Minimum distortion C. Expanded meridional parts D. Equal distances

58. What tide occurs when the moon is at first quarter and third quarter phase? A. Apogean B. Perigean C. Neap D. Spring

59. What region of the earth cannot be reproduced accurately in a Mercator Chart? A. The Atlantic B. The Polar region C. The Equatorial region D. The Amazon River Delta

60. A chart covering a large area is called small scale chart and a chart covering a small area is large-scale. Which of the following is large-scale chart? A. 1:100,000 B. 1: 25,000 C. 1:1,000,000 D. 1: 50,000

61. The difference between the directions of an object when it is viewed from two places is: A. Asteroids B. Reflection C. Parallax D. Refraction

62. The apparent diurnal motions of the heavens is due to: A. Orbit of the earth around the sun B. Advance of the earth in its orbit C. Rotation of the earth D. Revolution of the moon around the earth

63. You are steaming on a course of 253T at 14 knots. At 2329 Hrs., you observe a lighthouse bearings 282 T. At 2345 Hrs., the lighthouse bears 300 T. What is your distance off at the second bearing? A. 5.2 miles B. 4.3 miles C. 3.7 miles D. 5.9 miles

63. Solution : BEARING AT ANY ANY ANGLE Co = 253 Co. = 253 < b = 47 1st = 282 (-) 2nd = 300 (-) < a = 29(-) < a = 29 < b = 47 ( b- a ) = 18 AB = Dist Run BC = Dist 2nd AC = Dist 1st CD = Dist Abeam

BC = AB x Sin a Sin ( a-b ) BC = 3.73 x Sin 29 Sin 18 BC = 1.80833 0.30901 BC = 5.85 nm

64. The line in the chart connecting soundings of equal depth is called? A. Agonic line B. Contour C. Seismographic line D. Isothach

65. Compass error caused by horizontal soft irons on board and horizontal force by the earth: A. Quadrantal deviation B. Magnetic field C. Semi circular deviation D. Magnetic polarity

66. Your ship is entering port from the sea, and you sight a pair of range lights. When in line, they bear 315 per standard magnetic compass. The chart shows that the range bearing is 312 T, and the variation is 6 W. What is the deviation of your compass at the time of the sighting? A. 9 E B. 3 W C. 3 E D. 9 W

66. Solution : T/ = 312 Var. = + 6 W M/ = 318 Dev. = 3 E C/ = 315

67. The property of the gyroscope which cause it to maintain its plane of rotation is the: A. Torque B. Precession C. Rigidity D. Spin

68. When the sun is at perihelion, what season will be prevailing in Washington, D.C. and other cities in North America? A. Summer B. Autumn C. Spring D. Winter

69. The rolling motion of a vessel that can introduce an error to the gyrocompass is called: A. Gimballing error B. Damping error C. Ballistic deflection error D. Quadrantal

70. A ship runs at a speed of 8 knots. How long will it take her to run a distance of 1 mile? A. 7.5 minutes B. 4.8 minutes C. 5 minutes D. 8.0 minutes

70. Given : Speed = 8 knots Distance = 1 mile Find : Steaming Time Dist = speed x time Time = Dist / Speed Time = 1 nm / 8 knots x 60 minutes Time = 0.125 x 60 mins. Time = 7.5 minutes

71. During new moon, its upper transit occurs at: A. 6 am B. Midnight C. 6 pm D. Noon

72. What celestial body may be seen at lower transit with an altitude of 32 48 to an observer in Lat. 47 52 N. The body should have a declination of: A. 09 20 N B. 74 56 N C. 81 00 N D. 74 52 N

72. Given : Alt. 32 48, Lat. 47 52 N Find : Dec of body at Lower Transit HO = 32 48 + 90 00' 122 48 Lat = 47 52 N (-) Dec = 74 56 N Rules for Circumpolar body If Lat and Dec are same name but Dec > Lat, therefore HO + 90.

73. When a vessel enters a port, what is the shape of a buoy you will see on the starboard side? A. Cylindrical B. Conical C. Spar D. Spherical

74. The force that will cause the axis of a spinning gyroscope to turn in a direction 90 away for force is: A. Friction B. Precession C. Torque D. Rigidity

75. Index error will be found tabulated in the Nautical Almanac: A. False B. True C. Cannot be determined D. None of these

76. Charts with a scale of 1:50,000 are used for navigation and anchoring in harbors and small waterways. These are classified as: A. Harbor charts B. General charts C. Bay charts D. Coast charts

77. A line of position derived from a loran reading is a section of a (n): A. Parabola B. Arc C. Straight line D. Hyperbola

78. Which of the following listed in the information is not in the Light List? A. Description of the lighthouse B. Characteristics of the light C. Position of the lighthouse D. Vertical and danger angles

79. An ex-meridian sight is to be taken when the body is: A. At lower transit B. Within 28 minutes of meridian passage C. Exactly transiting the meridian D. Is not visible

80. Side adjacent/hypotenuse is known as: A. Cot A B. Cos A C. Sec A D. Sin A


81. Charts with a scale of 1:600,000 are used for planning, fixing positions at sea, plotting dead reckoning while proceeding on a long voyage, showing navigational lights, outer buoys and landmarks is classified as: A. General charts B. Coast charts C. Sailing charts D. Pilot charts

82. What current changes speed in direction cyclically on somewhat regular intervals, as a tidal current? A. Seasonal current B. Drift current C. Surface current D. Periodic current

83. The sea level of the sea is affected by a strong offshore wind. The water level of the sea will be: A. Higher than normal B. Double the level the normal C. Not be affected very much D. Lower than normal

84. A right angle plane triangle ABC, right angle at C, angle A = 58 45, find angle B? A. 31 05 B. 31 15 C. 31 55 D. 31 25

85. Compass error is equal to the: A. Deviation minus variation B. Variation plus compass course C. Algebraic sum of the variation and deviation D. Difference between true and magnetic compass

86. At new moon, the sun and the moon are in __________ and the high tide occurring is called _______ tides: A. Quadrature-Neap B. Conjunction-Neap C. Conjunction-Spring D. Opposition-Spring

87. It is desired to make a good course of 185 T, and a speed of 12 knots, through a current which sets 300 T, drift 3 knots. What is the speed to run? A. 13.5 knots B. 13.8 knots C. 14.5 knots D. 12.0 knots

88. Your ship is steering 330 T at 17 knots. The wind appears to blow from the East at Beaufort force 5 (18 knots). What is the direction of the true wind? A. 085 B. 119 C. 100 D. 148

89. When we say the sun is at perihelion, it means that the earth is: A. At the point when the earth is midway between the sun and the moon. B. Farthest from the sun C. Nearest the sun D. The point when the moons navigational pull is the strongest and draws back on her circular orbit around the sun.

90. The height of a lighthouse featured in a Nautical chart is measured from what level as the reference point? A. Mean sea level B. Mean low water C. Mean high water D. Mean lower low water

91. Tropic tide occurs when: A. The moon is at maximum semi monthly declination B. Moon is at perigee C. Sun and moon are both near 0declination D. Moon is crossing at equator

92.The horizontal movement of water towards the land is: A. Ebb current B. Flood current C. High tide D. Eddies

93. What instrument is used to measure the water content of the atmosphere? A. Psychrometer B. Rain gauge C. Thermometer D. Thermograph

94. After you have computed the Initial Course in a great circle sailing route across the Pacific Ocean going to Seattle, Washington can this course be maintained until you reach your destination? A. Yes B. Maybe C. No D. Definitely yes

95. When the sun is said to be at the Vernal Equinox, it means that sun is directly above the equator. The sun is crossing the equator from: A. The southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere B. Moving obliquely southeast towards the tropic of cancer C. Moving obliquely northwest due to the inclination of the ecliptic D. The northern hemisphere to the southern hemisphere

96. A celestial body with an azimuth of 270 will give a LOP that determines your: A. Longitude B. Latitude C. Polar distance D. Zenith distance

97. The height of tide is the: A. Vertical distance from the tidal datum to the level of the water B. Depth of water at a specific time due to tidal effect. C. Difference between the depth of the water and the high water tidal level. D. Difference between the depth of the water at high and at low tide.

98. How may the possibility of encountering gales be determined from Pilot Chart? A. Listening to the radio weather broadcasts and cross checking with the chart. B. Noting the prevailing wind force and direction for the area in question. C. Noting the bathymetric curves D. Read the weather report from the daily newspapers and compare with the chart.

99. What tide is characterized by a large inequality in the heights of high water and low water heights? A. Mixed B. Semi diurnal C. Diurnal D. Solar

100. What conditions make a celestial body circumpolar? A. When it remains above the horizon for 24 hours B. When the body has a declination of 23 25 min, N or S C. When the body has zero declination D. When it is at 18 below the horizon