Holi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Hindu festival. For the Japanese singer also known as Holi, see Akiko Kobayashi (singer). "Basanta Utsav" redirects here. For the film, see Basanta Utsav (film).

Holi Festival of Colours

Group pose for a photo at a Holi celebration in Vashi, Navi Mumbai, India. Observed by Hindus mainly in India, Nepal Phalgun Purnima or Pooranmashi Begins (Full Moon) February–March Date March 8 2012 date March 27 2013 date March 17 2014 date Celebrations 3 – 7 days
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Holi (Hindi: होली, Nepali: होली, Punjabi: ਹੋਲੀ) is a spring festival celebrated as a festival of colours. It is a Hindu religious festival which has also become popular with people of other communities. It is primarily observed in India and Nepal. It is also observed by the minority Hindus in Bangladesh and Pakistan as well in countries with large Indic diaspora populations following

Trinidad and Tobago.1 India o 4. the United States.1 Synthetic colours o 6. neither by a man nor an animal. which includes locations traditionally connected to the Lord Krishna: Mathura. Holi is also known as Phagwah (Assamese: ফাকুৱা). Vrindavan.4 Trinidad and Tobago o 4. and as Dol Jatra (Bengali: দো঱যাত্রা) or Basantotsav ("spring festival") (Bengali: বসন্তোৎসব) in West Bengal and Assam. Nandgaon. such as Suriname. or Doḷajātra (Oriya: ଦୋଳଯାତ୍ରା) in Odisha. which comes in February or March in the Gregorian Calendar. South Africa. the United Kingdom. and Fiji. inside the home or outside.Hinduism. In Vaishnavism. neither by astra nor by shastra".3 In Sanskrit dramas 4 Regional rituals and celebrations o 4. which become tourist destinations during the season of Holi. Contents           1 Significance 2 Description 3 Rituals o 3. and he had been granted a boon by Brahma. Uttar Pradesh. Guyana.[1] As per the Hindu calendar.2 Environmental impact 7 Influence on other cultures 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Significance The word "Holi" originated from "Holika" sister of Hiranyakashipu. Malaysia. Hiranyakashipu is the great king of demons. he . The festival of Holi is celebrated because of a story in the old Hindu religion. Mauritius. The boon was due to his long penance.3 Nepal o 4. after which he had demanded that he not be killed "during day or night. Holi is of particular significance in the Braj region. which made it almost impossible for him to be killed. Consequently.2 Indian diaspora o 4. Holi is celebrated on the Phalguna Purnima (Full Moon). not on earth or in the sky. Festival of Colours. and Barsana.1 Ritual time o 3.5 Guyana 5 Traditional Holi 6 Modern issues o 6.2 Holika Dahan ritual o 3.

he ordered young Prahlada to sit on a pyre in the lap of Holika. He was ordered to be trampled by elephants yet remained unharmed. All of Hiranyakashipu's attempts to kill his son failed.grew arrogant and attacked the Heavens and the Earth. but the poison turned to nectar in his mouth. In spite of several threats from Hiranyakashipu. where Krishna grew up. He was poisoned by Hiranyakashipu. In Mathura. while Prahlada survived unharmed. Hiranyakashipu's demoness sister. Hiranyakashipu. The festivities officially usher in spring. Description . was a devotee of Vishnu. He was put in a room with hungry. an incarnation of Vishnu According to this belief. who also could not die because she had a boon preventing her from being burned by fire. everyone watched in amazement as Holika burnt to death. When the fire started. He demanded that people stop worshipping gods and start praising respectfully to him. Prahlada. Prahlada continued offering prayers to Vishnu. Finally. Prahlada readily accepted his father's orders. venomous snakes and survived. Hiranyakashipu's own son. on the lap. The salvation of Prahlada and burning of Holika is celebrated as Holi. and prayed to Lord Vishnu to keep him safe. being killed by Narasimha. the celebrated season of love. the festival is celebrated for 16 days (until Rangpanchmi) in commemoration of the divine love of Radha for Krishna.

The main day. is celebrated by people throwing scented powder and perfume at each other. commemorating events present in Hinduism.Radha and the Gopis celebrating Holi. and caste. Holi was on March 20 and Holika Dahan was on March 19. fun and joy. or Dhulheti. Holi lowers (but does not remove completely) the strictness of social norms. The bonfires are lit in memory of the miraculous escape that young Prahlada accomplished when Demoness Kacy. it was a festival that commemorated good harvests and the fertile land. also known as Kacy Dahan (burning of Kacy) or Little Holi. It also has a religious purpose. Dhulandi or Dhulendi. Holi was on March 1 and Holika Dahan was on February 28. enjoy each other’s presence on this day. In 2010. like ratnavali where people sprayed coloured waters using bamboo syringes. (Phalgun Purnima). In 2011. In 2012. Kama Dahanam is celebrated in India. the rich and poor. a staunch devotee of god Vishnu. Holi ("Dhulandi") was on March 11 and Holika Dahan was on March 10. women and men. it celebrates the beginning of the new season. status. which usually falls in the later part of February or March. carried him into the fire. Holi lasts about two days. During this event. gender. after which Kacy dahan prayers are said and praise is offered. also known as Dhuli in Sanskrit. thousands of Hindus participate in the festival Holi. as a result. First and foremost. Kacy was burnt but Prahlad. In 2009. Like Kacy Dahan. Bonfires are lit on the eve of the festival. No one expects polite behavior. participants hold a bonfire. Together. Though there have been references in Sanskrit texts to similar festivals. In most areas. Rangapanchami occurs a few days later on a Panchami (fifth day of the full moon). which includes gaps between age. the atmosphere is filled with excitement. marking the end of festivities involving colours. sister of Hiranyakashipu. Holi is celebrated at the end of the winter season on the last full moon day of the lunar month Phalguna (February/March). Holi was on March 8. Originally. The festival has many purposes. throw coloured powder at each other. the origin of the modern Holi festival . Holi. Hindus believe it is a time of enjoying spring's abundant colours and saying farewell to winter. escaped without any injuries due to his devotion. spring. with accompaniment of music instruments Every year. and celebrate wildly.

Old wood and leaves that had fallen were burnt to signify that it was time for new leaves and flowers. People then smeared their bodies with ash. Rajasthan. In some cultures.has been traced to ancient Bengal. Having constructed a platform hallowed with "Gau Maya" (cow dung) one should arrange a stack of sticks with Agni and perform Holika Puja with the "Sankalpa" and "Aavaahana" of "Sakutumbasya mama Dhundhaa Rakshasi preetyartham tatpeedaa parihaa –raartham Holikaa pujanam karishye/ ---Asmaadbhirbhayasantrastaih krutaatwam Holikeyatah. This ritual was to signify the end of winter and full advent of spring. in accordance to Vaishnaviya Tantra. applied red colour to the icon and then distributed the red-coloured powder or Abir along with malpua prasad to family and friends. however. the ritual of burning wood and leaves on the full moon night already existed. say the morning of holi should be spent joyfully by playing with cows and calves. the story of Kacy Dahan became associated with this ritual. People went to Krishna temples. Later. The ritual signified that all our desires should be diverted for the attainment of Krishna and for the wellbeing of society. Red signified passion and Lord Krishna is the king of desires. Holika dahan should be performed after evening. Atastwaam . It was a Gaudiya Vaishnav festival. Rituals Ritual time Holi fire in front of Jagdish Temple in Udaipur. Sanskrit texts of festive rituals and dharma shastras. 2010 Dharma Sindhu and Nirnaya Sindhu.

are ignored as gestures of friendship especially with neighbours and friendship circles. there would be group singing. Ratnavali. This is how the Raakshasi Holika would be satisfied. Do kindly show us fearlessness and prosperity!) The mantras addressing Holika Devi state that the ten days from Panchami and Purnima are quite propitious and during these days even stealing of "Indhana" or firewood. The fire itself is lit near midnight.Pujayishyaami bhutabhuti pradaabhava!" (As were afraid of you Holika Devi! we seek your compassion and thus are resorting to shodashopachaaraas to you. sing and play instruments in high pitch throughout the night to please and cool Holika. as the moon rises. difficulties and mental problems. People should circumambulate thrice the burnt chiti of Holika demon. Shloka to worship the ash powders (coloured ashes of cow dung and firewood) of Holika Bhoomi is "Vandhitaasi Surendrena Brahmana Shankaraena Cha| Athastvam Pahi no devi! Bhoothay bhoothipradho bhava|| In Sanskrit dramas The earliest textual reference to the celebration of Holi is found in the 7th-century Sanskrit drama. men prepare for this by collecting extra wood. ignored to celebrate Holi fire on the Purnima Day when throwing of water. Holika Dahan ritual Holika Chiti should be lit by a Kshatriya or a King after Punya snana/Bath in river followed by Swastivaachan and Donations to learned Brahmins and the poor. dances and extravaganza of merriment all through the day and night. Before the event. Later people must dance. Holika Devi be greeted and take up one’s own duties so that the year ahead would be devoid of diseases. In middle or outside the village he should cremate Holika demon's Chiti made of cow dung cakes and sacrificial firewood with the following shloka: Asruk Pabhaya samthrasthai: Krutha thvam HOLI Baalishai:|Atha:Tvaam Poojayishyaami BHOOTAY Bhoothipradho Bhava|| Later he should extinguish the burnt Chithi (cremated woods and cow dung cakes) with ghee or milk. . On the first day of this festival. Next morning. Then he should donate coconuts and guava fruits. Hindus participate in a public bonfire. a Chandaala is touched before taking a bath and after carrying out nitya karmaas.[2] Certainly there are perennial rituals attached to Holi: the first is smearing of coloured powder on each other and throwing coloured and scented water at each time. smearing on other’s faces with colours and using of indecent language etc. Thus one must spend the night joyfully during holi or Holika..

Tribals of Gujarat celebrate Holi with great enthusiasm and also dance around the fire. a pot of buttermilk is hung high on the streets and young boys try to reach it and break it by making human pyramids.The main custom of Holi is the use of the coloured powders and water on others. A bonfire is lit in the main squares of the villages and colonies. People gather around the bonfire and celebrate the event with singing and dancing. who are now very colourful men. there is a custom in the undivided Hindu families that the women of the families beat their brother-in-law with her sari rolled up into a rope in a mock rage as they try to drench them with colours. and in turn.‖ Regional rituals and celebrations India Gujarat The Holi celebration has its celebrative origins in Gujarat. and coloured powder to offer a spring parallel of Navratri. In Western India. This is why Holi is given the name ―Festival of Colours. The girls try to stop them by throwing coloured water on them to commemorate the pranks of Krishna and cowherd boys to steal butter and "gopis" while trying to stop the girls. The boy who finally manages to break the pot is crowned the Holi King.[3] Uttar Pradesh See also: Lath mar Holi . go out in a large procession to "alert" people of the Krishna's possible appearance to steal butter from their homes. Falling on the full moon day in the month of Phalguna. Ahmedabad in Gujarat. which is symbolic of the victory of good over evil. Afterwards. food. particularly with dance. the men. music. Gujarat's Hindu festival celebrated in the fall. Holi is a major Hindu festival and marks the agricultural season of the Rabi crop. the brothers-in-law bring sweetmeats to her in the evening. In some places.

Here the famous Lath mar Holi is celebrated in the sprawling compound of the Radha Rani temple. In Kanpur Holi lasts seven days with colour and a grand fair called Ganga Mela or the Holi Mela that was started by freedom fighters who freed Kanpur from British rule after the First Indian War of Independence in 1857 under the leadership of Nana Saheb. here the festival lasts for sixteen days. Women then go on the offensive and use long staves called lathis to beat men folk who protect themselves with shields. the birthplace of Lord Krishna. In 1857. Thousands gather to witness the Lath Mar holi when women beat up men with sticks as those on the sidelines become hysterical. People of all castes. Aligarh. Vrindavan and Barsana. 18th-century miniature. The Holi songs of Braj mandal are sung in pure Braj Bhasha. creeds. Paris Barsana is the place to be at the time of Holi. and in Vrindavan this day is celebrated with special puja and the traditional custom of worshipping Lord Krishna. In Mathura. His declaration lead to a series of accidents and hundreds of freedom fighters lost their lives in that fight.[1] All over the Braj region and its nearby places like Hathras. in the Guimet Museum. This Ganga Mela which has been celebrated for more than 150 years depicts the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb or the Hindu-Muslim Unity in the city. Males also sing provocative songs in a bid to invite the attention of women. Nana Saheb had declared India free from British rule on June 17. sing Holi Songs and shout Sri Radhey or Sri Krishna. religion and societies together participate in this huge social congregation. On the eve of Ganga . Agra the Holi is celebrated in more or less same way as in Mathura."Celebration of Spring by Krishna and Radha". 1857 in Kanpur. Holi celebrated at Barsana is unique in the sense that here women chase men away with sticks. Since then people started this Ganga Mela where they celebrate Holi at various Ghats along the banks of River Ganga in Kanpur. the Hindus and the Muslims had combined to resist the British forces in the city.

known as Charadi ( ) in Kumaoni (from Chharad ( ). at noon the songs based on Peelu. Shyamkalyan and Yaman etc. shops. where Holiyars ( ). all Government offices. The Ganga Mela which takes place mostly on the seventh day after Holi marks the official end of "The Festival of Colours" or Holi in Kanpur. The Baithki Holi ( ) begins from the premises of temples. The Holika made is known as Cheer ( . fun and spiritualism. the northeast district of Uttar Pradesh. These songs are essentially based on classical ragas. Bhimpalasi and Sarang ragas are sung. In Gorakhpur. This day is considered to be the happiest and most colourful day of the year promoting the brotherhood among the people. is celebrated with great gusto much in the same way as all across North India. be it the Baithki Holi. Courts generally remain closed. while evening is reserved for the songs based on the ragas such as Kalyan. No wonder then the Baithki Holi is also known as Nirvan Ki Holi. Dulhendi. Kumaon. dance in groups to the tune of ethnic musical instruments such as the Dhol and Hurka. sporting traditional white churidar payajama and kurta.) which is ceremonically made in a ceremony known as Cheer Bandhan ( ) fifteen days before Dulhendi. politicians. The Cheer is a bonfire with a green Paiya tree branch in the middle. (Uttarakhand) Main article: Kumauni Holi The uniqueness of the Kumaoni Holi of the Kumaon region in Uttarakhand lies in its being a musical affair. People also kickoff for the next year planning with new year Hindu calendar (Panchang) at the evening of Holi. MLAs and MPs all gather on the Ghats to enjoy the Ganga Mela. Holi is also considered as the beginning of the year as it occurs on the first day of new Hindu calendar year. For instance. ash and water). The Khari Holi ( ) is mostly celebrated in the rural areas of Kumaon. The Baithki Holi and Khari Holi are unique in that the songs on which they are based have a touch of melody. the Khari Holi and the Mahila Holi which starts from Basant Panchmi. who. The Cheer of every village and mohalla is rigorously guarded as rival mohallas try to steal the others cheer. Major business groups. or natural colours made from flower extracts.[4] . The songs of the Khari Holi are sung by the people. (the singers of Holi songs) as also the people gather to sing songs to the accompaniment of classical music. whichever may be its form. this day is celebrated with special puja in the morning of Holi day.Mela. Kumaonis are very particular about the time when the songs based on ragas should be sung. This is known as "Holi Milan" in which people visit every house and sing holi song and express their gratitude by applying coloured powder (Abeer).

On the eve of Phalgun Poornima. dubri. to enhance the mood of the festival. The head of the family observes a fast and prays to Lord Krishna and Agnidev. the deity of the Jagannath Temple of Puri. grains from the fresh harvest and unwanted wood leaves in the bonfire. They sing and dance to the accompaniment of musical instruments like ektara. During these activities. He then smears others with colour as a mark of greeting. It is known as Phaguwa in the local Bhojpuri dialect. wood of Araad or Redi tree and Holika tree. Vast quantities of liquor are consumed alongside ganja and bhang. Though the festival is usually celebrated with colours at some places people also enjoy celebrating Holi with mud. They put dung cakes. Folk songs are sung at high pitch and people dance to the tune of dholak and the spirit of Holi. The eldest member or a purohit initiates the lighting. The festival is celebrated in a dignified manner by placing the icons of Krishna and Radha on a picturesquely decorated palanquin which is then taken round the main streets of the city or the village. people also clean their houses for the day. people light bonfires. Traditional dishes include malpoa. Following the tradition. The devotees take turns to swing them while women dance around the swing and sing devotional songs. payash. Intoxicating bhang is consumed with a variety of mouth-watering delicacies. Odisha The people of Odisha celebrate Holi in a similar manner but here the icons of Jagannath. which is sometimes added to foodstuffs. the students dress up in saffron-coloured or pure white clothes and wear garlands of fragrant flowers. etc. After all the traditional rituals are over. at them. abir. the men keep spraying coloured water and coloured powder. Assam . veena. Next day the festival is celebrated with colours and lot of frolic. too.Bihar Holi is celebrated with the same fervour and charm in Bihar as in rest of north India. Holi is known by the name of "Dol Jatra". Children and youths take extreme delight in the festival. In Shantiniketan. the legend of Holika is prevalent. At the time of Holika people assemble near the fire. Bengal On the Dol Purnima day in the early morning. such as pakoras and thandai. saffron milk. "Dol Purnima" or the "Swing Festival". replace the icons of Krishna and Radha. he smears Krishna's icon with gulal and offers "bhog" to both Krishna and Agnidev. kheer sandesh. basanti sandesh (saffron). and related foods. Here. Holi has a special musical flavour.

The Holi songs in chorus devoted to Lord Krishna are also sung in the regions of Barpeta. and the Konkani diaspora in the state of Karnataka. Dol Jatra is a festival of two days. One of the most prominent festivals of the Konkani community in Goa. Pushkar. Goa Holi is a part of Goan or Konkani spring festival known as Śigmo or in Koṅkaṇī. The burning of clay huts are seen in Barpeta and lower Assam which signifies the legends of Holika. Main article: Shigmo Holi celebrations. Dol Jatra is the main festival associated with Satras of Barpeta during which Holi is celebrated. Śigmo is also known as Śiśirotsava and lasts for about a month. Rajasthan. . and in the second day of it. Maharashtra and Kerala. is celebrated all over Assam in Falgun month of Assamese Calendar. Holi is celebrated with colour powders. The colour festival or Holi is a part of entire spring festival celebrations. also called Phakuwa ( ) in Assamese.Dhulvad or Dhuli vandan.Holi.[5] Holi festivities (but not Śigmo festivities) include: Holika Puja and Dahan.Haldune or offering yellow and saffron colour or Gulal to the deity.

In Krishna temples. Every household makes an offering of a meal and dessert to the fire god. Young children go from house to house to collect money. Holi Paurnima is also celebrated as Shimga. this moonlight party now has modern bands and fluorescent lamps. this holiday merges with the centuries-old festival of Yaosang. the firewood is arranged in a huge pile at a clearing in the locality. Holi is mainly associated with the burning of Holika. The youths at night perform a group folk dance called Thabal chongba on the full moon night of Lamta (Phalgun) along with folk songs and rhythmic beats of the indigenous drum. five days after Holi. devotees sing devotional songs. However. as gifts on the first two days. In the evening. the festival commences with the burning of a thatched hut of hay and twigs. Manipur Manipuris celebrate Holi for six days. perform dances and celebrate with aber (gulal) wearing traditional white and yellow turbans. The colour celebrations here traditionally take place on the day of Rangapanchami. On the day of Holi. youngsters go around the community. A week before the festival. has become common in many places of the valley. . where it is done on the second day itself. Here. a type of Indian sport. 2011. large processions are taken out to the main Krishna temple near Imphal where several cultural activities are held. Puran Poli is the main delicacy and children shout "Holi re Holi puranachi poli". Since the past few decades Yaoshang. collecting firewood and money.Narayani Shastri. Maharashtra In Maharashtra. During this festival. an actress celebrating Holi with her friend at Mumbai. unlike in North India. the fire is lit. On the last day of the festival. people are supposed to forget about any rivalries and start new healthy relations with all. where people of all ages come out to participate in a number of sports that are somewhat altered for the holiday. locally known as nakadeng (or nakatheng). Traditionally. Shimga is associated with the elimination of all evil.

The Gaud Sarawat Brahmins (GSB) who speak Konkani also celebrate Holi in Cherlai area of West Kochi instead of in theior own community. Mokkajonna and wood for weeks prior to . Unlike in the other Indian communities.[6] Andhra Pradesh Holi is celebrated with fun and frolic in Andhra Pradesh. It is locally called Ukkuli in Konkani or Manjal Kuli in Malayalam. In Sirsi. Holi is also celebrated at some colleges in south. Holi is celebrated with a unique folk dance called ―Bedara Vesha‖. it is also here a school holiday. Karnataka. The festival is celebrated for two days. there are 22 different communities living together in harmony. Unlike in the other Indian communities. which is performed during the nights beginning five days before the actual festival day. Karnataka Colours Holi at a market in Mysore Holi is celebrated with much fervour here. There is also a tradition followed in rural Telangana region where children celebrate kamuda and collect money. People in north Karnataka prepare special food on this day. It is celebrated around the Konkani temple called Gosripuram Thirumala temple. and on Kamadhana night all the wood is put together and lit. Adoor Kerala In the Mattancherry area of Kochi. The festival is celebrated every alternate year in the town. rice. the school holidays are here.Kerala Holi celebrations at College of Engineering. which attracts a large crowd on all the five days from different parts of the India. There is also a tradition followed in rural Karnataka where children collect money and wood for weeks prior to Holi.

with the throwing of coloured water and powder and singing and dancing. including lots of bands and Jhakhi. it is celebrated with singing and dancing. The festival is celebrated with great zest and enthusiasm. and the festivities and colour start appearing at least a day before the actual holiday. Holi is a major festival. The festival is celebrated for two days. Rajasthan In Jaisalmer. The festival involves almost 10. Muslims and Hindus alike celebrate Holi.000 people. The Holi celebration in Dhampur is famous throughout the whole of Western UP. In Andhra Pradesh Holi is celebrated along with Basnata Panchami. Bhil tribesmen who have held on to many of the pre-Hindu customs celebrate it in a special way. Dhampur is a city and a municipal board in the Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh of India.Holi. Rural Maharashtra State Known as Rangapanchami in rural Maharashtra State. which represent the cultural values of Holi and India. Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh This region has its own variety of Holi. Jaisalmer. a town in Rajasthan. . Holi celebrations here are much in line with the general definition of Holi celebrations: a high-spirited festival to mark the beginning of the harvesting of the summer crop. Jammu & Kashmir In Kashmir. and on Kamadhana night all the wood is put together and set on fire. Holi celebrations by the India Student Association at University of New Mexico Western Madhya Pradesh In western Madhya Pradesh. music is played as clouds of different coloured powders fill the air. Holi is also celebrated in great fervour in Jammu. Dhampur In Dhampur holi—holi hawan jaloos have been organized for the last 60 years. In the Telangana region and the capital city of Hyderabad.

Kathamandu. North America. and marriages of Ramas brothers and Sitas sisters was also celebrated. even the festival is celebrated on two different days. In Nepal Holi is regarded as one of the greatest festivals as important as Dashain (also known as Dussehra in Madhesh) and Tihar or Dipawali (also known as Diwali in Madhesh). The colours are also getting popular now celebrating divine love and welcoming spring. Marriage of Parvati and Parameshwara. Also. of Narayana and Kamalavalli Naachiyar took place.[7] Nepal Holika Dahan. The word "Fagu/Phaguwa" (Devanagari: / ) represents the month of Falgun and the day is called the "Fagu Poornima" (Devanagari: ) which means (full moon day in the Falgun). In Nepal. Of Muruga and Devasena. dance festivals. of Andal and Ranganathar. along with many other Hindu festivals. On this day Goddess Mahalakshmi incarnated on earth from the ocean of milk (after the ocean was churned by the gods and the demons). Europe or closer to home in South Asia.Tamil nadu In the Phalguna Poornima is Panguni Uthram (Meena Uttara-phalguni in Sanskrit). Holi has become an important festival in many regions wherever Indian diaspora had found its roots. Nepal. It is celebrated as Vasanthosavam and all temples start their Utsavams with decorations and music. Holi is celebrated in the month of Falgun and is also called as the "Fagu/Phaguwa" and is celebrated on the full moon day(in hills) and the day after (in Madhesh) in the month of February.[8] Holi. is . The day is intended to underline the glory of grahasta dharma (or the married life of a householder). It is also Shasta’s (Ayyappa) birthday. Holi celebrated in Hills is remarkably different from Madhesh. according to Valmiki's Ramayana it is on this day and star that Sita's marriage with Rama. It is celebrated as Mahalakshmi Jayanthi. From Brahmanda Purana one learns that on Panguni Uthiram every holy water joins Thumburu Teertha one of seven sacred tanks in Tirupati Tirumala. Pravachans and Harikathas. It is special because of the star "Uthiram" and "Pournami" occurring together. Since more than 80% of people in Nepal are Hindus. be it in Africa. Indian diaspora Over the years.

Trinidad and Tobago Phagwa is normally celebrated in Trinidad and Tobago on the Sunday closest to the actual date of Phagwa. during which the weather changes.[10] The main celebration in Georgetown is held at the Mandir in Prashad Nagar. sometimes called lola (meaning water balloon).[9] Also a lot of people mix bhang in their drinks and food. It is celebrated with a lot of colour and splendour. as is also done during Shivaratri.g. many would not join in the festivities. It is believed that the combination of different colours at this festival take all the sorrow away and make life itself more colourful. and peoples of all races and religions participate in the celebrations.[11] Traditional Holi Flowers of Dhak or Palash are used to make traditional colours The spring season. Bilva. Modern issues Synthetic colours .celebrated in Nepal as a national festival and almost everyone celebrates it regardless of their religion. Christians may also join in. along with the singing on traditional Phagwa songs or Chowtaal (ganna). and other medicinal herbs prescribed by Āyurvedic doctors. The playful throwing of natural coloured powders has a medicinal significance: the colours are traditionally made of Neem. The day of Holi is also a national holiday in Nepal. Guyana Phagwah is a national holiday in Guyana. e.. although since Holi falls during Lent. People walk down their neighbourhoods to celebrate Holi by exchanging colours and spraying coloured water on one another. is believed to cause viral fever and cold. Kumkum. Haldi. A popular activity is the throwing of water balloons at one another. even Muslims celebrate it.

or temporary blindness. Both of the commonly used bases— asbestos or silica—are associated with health issues. . with heavy metals causing asthma. skin diseases and temporary blindness. an alternative to synthetic colors The colorant used in the dry colors. As a result it has caused mild to severe symptoms of skin irritation and inflammation. also called gulals. dry colours and water colours. chemically produced industrial dyes have been used to take their place in almost all of urban India. sandalwood paste.A young man celebrating Holi Natural colours were used in the past to celebrate Holi safely by applying turmeric. puffiness of the eyes.[12] They found safety issues with all three forms in which the Holi colours are produced: pastes. a fact sheet was published by the groups Toxics Link and Vatavaran based in Delhi on the chemical dyes used in the festival. The black powders were found to contain lead oxide which can result in renal failure.[13] They reported that the wet colours might lead to skin discolouration and dermatitis due to their use of colour concentrate gentian violet. In 2001. extracts of flowers and leaves.[13] A natural Holi in Pune. Their investigation found some toxic chemicals with some potentially severe health impacts. was found to be toxic. The prussian blue used in the blue powder has been associated with contact dermatitis. Due to the commercial availability of attractive pigments. slowly the natural colours are replaced by synthetic colours. while the copper sulphate in the green has been documented to cause eye allergies. As the spring-blossoming trees that once supplied the colours used to celebrate Holi have become more rare.

" American rock band Linkin Park incorporated scenes of band members throwing powdered colour at one another. A local tabloid had a view published that 30. they are doused in a different colour. The CLEAN India campaign[16] and Society for Child Development. Delhi and Kalpavriksh. Run or Dye. The Holi festival was featured as a RoadBlock challenge in the popular CBS reality television show The Amazing Race 13. the idea of lighting waste material antagonizes large sections of a certain community. the inspiration for the colors came from the Color Festival in India called Holi. The Graffiti Run." He further elaborates on the religious significance of the colours: "People collect these pigments throughout the year to release them in this festival as a celebration of life and tribute to Vishnu. Influence on other cultures The Color Run. has been well documented to be responsible in Holi festival for many of the severe forms of eye irritation in Delhi. There is also concern about the large scale wastage of water and water-pollution due to synthetic colours during Holi celebration.. However. another synthetic bluish-green dye. The director. episode 7. and other fun runs are starting to spread over the United States. Meanwhile. Color in Motion. Runners show up wearing white running outfits and every kilometer they run. it may be noted that many parts of rural India have always resorted to natural colours (and other parts of festivities more than colours) due to availability. as they are frequently sold by vendors who do not know their origin.[18] Several methods of preventing this consumption of wood have been proposed.[15] Pune. though these are substantially more expensive than the dangerous alternatives. Development Alternatives.Malachite green. They combine the bright colours of Holi with the intensity of a 5K race. Color Me Rad. which is believed to contribute to deforestation. some commercial companies such as the National Botanical Research Institute have begun to market "herbal" dyes.000 bonfires each burning approximately 100 kg of wood are lit in one season. However.[19] Hahn states that ".[14] Lack of control over the quality and content of these colours is a problem.. band turntablist Joe Hahn. rather than multiple smaller fires. through its Avacayam Cooperative Campaign[17] have launched campaigns to help children learn to make their own colours for Holi from safer. In the music video for their song "The Catalyst. The report galvanized a number of groups into promoting more natural celebrations of Holi. Environmental impact An alleged environmental issue related to the celebration of Holi is the traditional Holika Dahan bonfire. who take it as a Western attack to their cultures and traditions citing several examples of similar festivities elsewhere. ."[19] South Africa-based electro-swing dance group Goodluck released a song "The Vision" wherein Holi is seen as an influence. including the replacement of wood with waste material or lighting of a single fire per community. natural ingredients. identifies Holi as a direct influence on the visual style of the video.

[21] The 2006 independent film Outsourced details the story of Todd Anderson. titled "Todd's Holi War. 2009. much cheaper call center in Gharapuri.[23] Shawn is distracted by someone throwing red powder at him.[25] See also      Midsummer Holika Hola Mohalla Kumauni Holi Songkran (Thai festival) References . he must learn about their culture. Todd soon discovers that to successfully train his new charges. 2011 episode of the NBC series based on the film of the same name. In it. by the band Scooter features a final scene with everyone throwing coloured powder at one another." takes a more sitcom-oriented approach to the holiday. in an episode of the USA Network series Psych entitled "Bollywood Homicide. The March 17.[24] Keith Olbermann shows clips from Holi festivals every year on the "Time Marches On" portion of his nightly Countdown news show. where thousands of people gather from all over the country.[22] On September 18. A Holi celebration is the catalyst for this change in his attitude. The music video Behind the Cow. Utah celebrates Holi and is known as Festival of Color." Holi is first depicted on an American network television. episode 2 has host Karl Pilkington take a trip through Dehli. In the British TV show An Idiot Abroad.[20] The music video for Regina Spektor's song "Fidelity" depicts a couple in an achromatic set throwing and celebrating in powdered pigments. which appears to be set in India. an American call center novelty products salesman (Josh Hamilton) as he heads to India to train his replacement after his entire department is outsourced to a new. marking Holi's second appearance on American network television. the powders are packed in plastic bags for a longer throw. Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Spanish Fork. India where he experiences Holi as locals cover him with coloured powder and paint. The music video for the song "The City" by French DJ Madeon centres on a full-out colour war between two factions of youngsters. Outsourced.The Ke$ha music video for the song "Take It Off" features powdered coloured dyes similar to those used to celebrate Holi.

^ a b Steve Baltin (2010-08-30). ^ Ali. Retrieved on 2011-03-21. 4. The Hindu. 5. YouTube. p. Daman and Diu: district 1. Euttaranchal. ^ Ke$ha – Take It Off. 2008. January 10. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 6. Retrieved on 2012-01-25. 24. 69. The Times Of India. ^ The safe Holi campaign – Kalpavriksh Environment Action Group. Youtube. 'The Catalyst' – Exclusive Behind the Scenes Photos". 3.^ a b Holi – the festival of colours Indian Express. 263. ^ Religions – Hinduism: Holi. ^ [2]. ^ "Karnataka".com. Viṭhṭhala Triṃbaka (1979). IMDB. Retrieved on 2011-03-21.com 24. Nepali Times. ^ Happy Holi week. ^ Karl vs Holi Day 25. Pune 16.com 23. ^ Toxics Link (February 2000). Arif (ed. ^ Velpandian et al. ^ Guṅe. Daman and Diu (India). ^ a b India's "toxic" Hindu idols choke rivers: activists. J Hazard Mater. ^ Regina Spektor. Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India--malachite green toxicity. ^ Outsourced (2006). p. Fidelity music video. Reuters. IMDB. ^ [1]. ^ "No real attempt to save trees". External links Find more about Holi at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons     Holi at the Open Directory Project Holi in pictures from The Guardian 27 Big and Colorful Photos of Holi The unique spring festivals in India . 22. ^ topnews. 2. 2003-03-17. ^ CLEAN India campaign 17.org 18. 19. 8. 2007.com. ^ CIA – The World Factbook – Nepal 9. 15. Gazetteer Dept. 11. Retrieved on 2011-03-21.in. 1. ^ Holi Festival as Celebrated in Western United States. 139(2):204-8. Holi: The Ugly Truth Behind The Colorful World fact sheet. Retrieved on 2012-10-03. Guyana London: Hansib. Holi in Gujarat ^ Kumaoni Holi – Uttaranchal Fairs and Festivals. Kirk. Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa. "Linkin Park. YouTube. ^ http://sfcdindia. 13. ^ Smock. http://www.noisecreep.). Retrieved on 201103-21. 2007 14. 20. BBC. p. September 25. Guyana: the Bradt Travel Guide. 2007. 7. 21. 10. 12. Goa.

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