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# COLEGIO DE SAN JUAN DE LETRAN – CALAMBA

EE124 / EE124L ELECTRICAL MACHINES 4EE EXPERIMENT NO. 8 THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER BANK

NAME DATE PERFORMED DATE SUBMITTED

DIAZ, JOHN BINZENN B. JANUARY 30, 2009 FEBRUARY 6, 2009

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I. Objectives: • To study the different methods of connecting three single-phase transformers to form a three phase transformer bank that can be used for three phase voltage transformation. II. Theory: Three-phase transformation of voltages is accomplished by using two or three single phase transformers or by using a single three phase transformer designed for this purposed. Such a connection of three single phase transformers is called a three phase transformer bank. Compared to a transformer bank, a single three-phase transformer requires smaller space, weight, and cost for a given output. However, when a fault occurs in one phase of the 3Φ transformer, the whole 3Φ transformer is taken out of service. Thus, the reliability of service is affected. Using a single 3Φ transformer means greater cost because a unit must be on standby. Three single-phase transformers are therefore used to avoid the disadvantages in the use of a single 3Φ transformer. In connecting three single-phase transformers for three-phase operation, the polarity of the transformers should be taken into consideration. Furthermore, their impedance and voltage characteristics must be similar for satisfactory operation. The four most common three-phase connection of three 1Φ transformers to form a 3Φ transformer bank are: 1. wye to wye 2. wye to delta 3. delta to delta 4. delta to wye

Figure A. Wye to Wye Connection of Three 1Φ Transformers

Figure B. Wye to Delta Connection of Three 1Φ Transformers

Figure C. Delta to Delta Connection of Three 1Φ Transformers

Figure D. Delta to Wye Connection of Three 1Φ Transformers

The ratio in which the voltage is transformed depends on two factors: 1. the ratio of transformation of each single-phase transformer; and 2. the manner of connection. If the connection of the primaries is the same as the connection of the secondaries, as in the wye to wye and delta to delta connections, the voltage transformed is dependent only on the transformation ratio of the transformers. For example, if in Fig. A there are 100 volts between line terminals on the high-tension side, each transformer has a primary voltage of 10/√3 =57.7 volts. If the transformation ratio of each 1Φ transformer is 10, then the voltage in the secondary winding of each 1Φ transformer is 5.77 volts, resulting in 5.77 x √3 = 10 volts between the low tension lines. In Fig. C, if the 100 volts exist in the high tension lines, the primary voltage is also 10 volts. For a transformation ratio of 10, the secondary winding voltage is 10 volts and this is also the voltage in the low tension lines. In Fig, B, with 100 volts between high tension lines, each primary winding has 57.7 volts and 5.77 volts exist in each secondary winding. The voltage in the low tension lines is also 5.77 volts. This will make the transformation n ratio of the entire 3Φ system 1.732 times the ratio of transformation of each 1Φ transformer.

Open Delta or V-Connection Open Delta or V-Connection gives a balanced 3Φ voltage, but only two 1Φ transformers are used. If this connection is obtained from an existing delta to delta connection and for the same transformer load, the current in each transformer will increase from the previous current to the line current existing before the delta to delta connection is opened. The secondary current in the open delta is equal to 1.732 times the secondary current in the complete delta to delta connection. If the transformers were fully loaded in the complete delta to delta connection, the load must be reduced by a factor of

1/1.732 or 0.578 in the open delta; otherwise, the transformers would overload. This connection is used when one transformer of the delta to delta connection is damaged or when supplying a small amount of 3Φ power.

Figure E. Open Delta Connection of Two 1Φ Transformers

Scott or T-Connection Scott or T-Connection is similar to the open delta connection in that only two 1Φ transformers are needed. One transformer must have a mid-tap point, while the other transformer must have a 0.866 tap. The transformer with the mid tap point called the main transformer is connected across two lines, while the second transformer called the

teaser transformer is connected to the mid-tap point of the first transformer and the third line. Identical transformers are generally used for this connection and the transformers may be interchanged if both have mid-taps and 0.866 taps. Electric utility companies utilize the “main” transformer for supplying single phase loads, while a smaller transformer is used as ‘teaser” transformer for supplying customers requiring a three phase supply. The Scott connection may also be used to transform 3Φ voltage to 2Φ voltage. If the 3Φ voltage is applied to the side of the windings with the taps, the other windings will be a source of 2Φ voltages.

Figure F. Scott Connection of Two 1Φ Transformers

III. Instruments and Apparatus • • • Three 1Φ transformers(must be similar) AC Voltmeter(Digital) Connecting Wires

IV. Procedure Caution: High voltages are present in this laboratory experiment! Do not make any connections with the power on. The power should be turned off after completing each individual measurement. With due regard to the polarity marks of the transformers, do the following connections: Run I. Wye to Wye Connection 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. G. 2. Turn on the power breaker and the power supply module. 3. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the 3Φ transformer bank and record them in Table A. 4. Turn off the switch of the power supply module. 5. Using the measured line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record the calculated values in Table A. 6. Compute for the percent difference between the measured and computed values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the 3Φ transformer bank. Record them in Table A.

Run II. Wye to Delta 7. Without changing the connection of the primaries of the three 1Φ-transformers in Run I, with reference to Fig.H, reconnect their secondaries in delta. 8. Turn on the switch of the power supply module. 9. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the 3Φ transformer bank and record them in Table B. 10. Turn off the switch of the power supply module. 11. Using the measured line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record the calculated values in Table B. 12. Compute for the percent difference between the measured and computed values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the 3Φ transformer bank. Record them in Table B. Run III. Delta to Delta 13. Without changing the connection of the secondaries of the three 1Φ-transformers in Run II, with reference to Fig. I, reconnect their primaries of the three 1Φtransformers in delta. 14. Turn on the switch of the power supply module. 15. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the 3Φ transformer bank and record them in Table C. 16. Turn off the switch of the power supply module. 17. Using the measured line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record the calculated values in Table C. 18. Compute for the percent difference between the measured and computed values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the 3Φ transformer bank. Record them in Table C.

RUN IV. Delta To Wye Connection

19. Without changing the connection of the primaries of the three 1Φ-transformers in Run III, with reference to Fig. J as shown below, reconnect their secondaries of the three 1Φ-transformers in wye. 20. Turn on the switch of the power supply module. 21. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the 3Φ transformer bank and record them in Table D. 22. Turn off the switch of the power supply module. 23. Using the measured line and phase voltages on the primary side of the transformer bank, calculate the expected values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the transformer bank. Record the calculated values in Table D. 24. Compute for the percent difference between the measured and computed values of the line and phase voltages on the secondary side of the 3Φ transformer bank. Record them in Table D. RUN V. Open Delta Connectin (V-V Connection) 25. Referring to Fig. K as shown on the opposite, connect the primaries and secondaries of the two 1Φ transformers to form an open delta connection. 26. Turn on the switch of the power supply module. 27. Measure the line and phase voltages on both sides of the 3Φ transformer bank and record them in Table E. 28. Turn off the switch of the power supply module.

V. Data and Result:

Table A. Y to Y Connection Primary Measured value VAB VAN 105V VBC 225V VCA 125V 0V VBN 105 VCN 125V Secondary Measured value Vab Van 45V Vbc 100V Vca 55V 0V Vbn 45V Vcn 55V Secondary Computed value Vab Van 110V Vbc 110V Vca 110V 63.51V Vbn 63.51V Vcn 63.51V % DIFF Vab 59.09% Vbc 59.09% Vca 59.09% Van 100% Vbn 100% Vcn 100%

Table B. Y to Delta Connection Primary Measured value VAB VAN 112.5V VBC 227V VCA 115V 0V VBN 115V VCN 110V Secondary Measured value Vab 50V Vbc 50V Vca 50V Secondary Computed value Vab 110V Vbc 110V Vca 110V % DIFF Vab 54.55% Vbc 54.55% Vca 54.55%

Table C. Delta to Delta Connection Primary Measured value Secondary Measured value Secondary Computed value % DIFF

VAB 100V VBC 225V VCA 130V

Vab 55V Vbc 45V Vca 100V

Vab 110V Vbc 110V Vca 110V

Vab 50% Vbc 59.09% Vca 10%

Table D. Delta to Y Connection Primary Measured value VAB 100V VBC 225V VCA 125V Secondary Measured value Vab Van 145V Vbc 155V Vca 15V 45V Vbn 100V Vcn 55V Secondary Computed value Vab Van 110V Vbc 110V Vca 110V 63.51V Vbn 63.51V Vcn 63.51V % DIFF Vab 24.14% Vbc 29.03% Vca 86.36% Van 29.15% Vbn 9.09% Vcn 50%

Table E. Open Delta (V-V) Connection Primary Measured value VAB 0V VBC 226V VCA 226V VI. Observations: The Experiment makes me aware that if a wrong connection was made during the experiment there is a tendency that an accident will occurs. Being alert and preventive must be considered in performing this experiment. There is a large voltage that can be harmful to us so horse playing must be avoided. Also we don’t get any Secondary Measured value Vab 0V Vbc 100V Vca 100V

credible result that will make our data close to the original values maybe the transformers capability downgrade that’s why we get a high percent difference.

VII. Conclusions: The experiment performed acknowledges me to determine the different methods of connecting three phase transformers to form a 3Φ transformer bank. It also makes me knowledgeable of designing a circuit connection using transformer. This experiment also broadens my understanding for three phase voltage transformation. VIII. Questions: 1. Compare the result of the delta-delta and open-delta connection. Is there a difference between the line and phase voltage of the two systems? 2. Is the VA rating of the delta-delta configuration the same as the VA rating of the open-delta configuration? Explain. 3. If the current rating of each winding is increased, could the open-delta configuration work as well as the delta-delta configuration? Explain. 4. If each transformer has a capacity of 60KVA, what total power can be obtained in each of the five types of configuration; i.e., for: a) Wye-wye b) Wye-delta c) Delta-delta d) Delta-wye e) Open-delta IX. Answers: 1. Table C. Delta to Delta Connection

Primary Measured value VAB 100V VBC 225V VCA 130V

Secondary Measured value Vab 55V Vbc 45V Vca 100V

Table E. Open Delta (V-V) Connection Primary Measured value VAB 0V VBC 226V VCA 226V Secondary Measured value Vab 0V Vbc 100V Vca 100V

Yes, there is a difference between line and phase voltage of the two systems. Some data get the same result their secondary Vca is the same but the majority of the line and phase voltage that we get doesn’t match to one another.

2. No, the VA rating of an open delta connection is only 58% of the rating in a delta to delta connected transformer because open delta used as substitution to some circumstances that interferes such as damaging one of the transformers of delta to delta when supplying 3Φ power.

3. No, if the current rating of each winding is increased, the secondary current in the open delta is equal to 1.732 times the secondary current in the complete delta to delta connection. If the transformer were fully loaded in the complete delta to delta connection, the load must be reduced by a factor of 1/1.732 or 0.578 in the open delta configuration. 4.