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Title: Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modeling of Single Step H2 S Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution Authors: A. Karimi, A. Tavassoli, B. Nasernezhad PII: DOI: Reference: To appear in: Received date: Revised date: Accepted date: 20-5-2009 7-11-2009 21-11-2009 S0263-8762(09)00307-4 doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2009.11.014 CHERD 415

Please cite this article as: Karimi, A., Tavassoli, A., Nasernezhad, B., Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modeling of Single Step H2 S Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution, Chemical Engineering Research and Design (2008), doi:10.1016/j.cherd.2009.11.014 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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Kinetic Studies and Reactor Modeling of Single Step H2S Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution
A. Karimi1, A. Tavassoli1, B. Nasernezhad2 1 Gas Research Division, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI) karimial@ripi.ir 2 Chemical Engineering Department, Amir Kabir University Abstract

Airlift reactor concept was used for hydrogen sulfide removal from acid gases using

were determined and finally, an „Autosweet‟ program was developed for design and

and products with time, the required time to achieve steady state conditions, concentration profiles of two phases at steady state and volume of the reactor in absorption and regeneration sections can be calculated based on implemented model in this study. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows a good agreement and justifies the model. Based on the model as a second stage of project, a 1 m3 prototype reactor was designed and constructed at NIOC research institute. Keywords: kinetics, modeling, airlift, chelated iron, hydrogen sulfide

Liquid phase oxidation process using iron chelate catalytic solution (LOCAT) has been employed for treatment of acid gas streams. However, the process was identified economical for up to 850-1050 kg/hr of sulfur production, although much larger systems have been installed [1]. Advantages of these systems include the ability to treat both aerobic and non-aerobic gas streams, high H2S removal

Ac

Introduction

ce pt

ed

M
1

an

simulation of the reactor. Variations of the concentration profiles of the reactants

us

chelated iron solution. Rate equations for absorption and regeneration reactions

cr

ip t
Page 1 of 23

riser. absorption and regeneration reactions occur in separate vessels. 1. in which the reaction of equation (1) occurs. which are either combustible or cannot be contaminated with air. The second one is which both absorption and regeneration reactions are carried out in a single vessel according to the following equations respectively: H 2S 2Fe 3 2Fe 2 S 2H us cr used for processing acid gas streams (CO2 and H2S) or noncombustible streams in H 2 O 2Fe2 1 O2 2 2Fe3 an 2 2OH The overall reaction is the reaction given in equation (3): The autocircualtion scheme of the reactor is illustrated in Fig. and quality and the production of innocuous products and byproducts. As seen in Fig. In riser both absorption and regeneration reactions take place. Here. great flexibility. downcomer and gas-liquid separator. essentially 100% turndown on H2S concentration in feedstock. acid gas is sparged and absorbed into a catalytic solution. the two spargers for acid gas and air are placed in an appropriate flexible distance to each other. In the initial section of the riser. The reactor consists of three main zones.efficiencies. 1. The first one is employed for processing gas streams. Then. The solution circulates due to density difference created between riser and downcomer zones. Ac ce pt ed H 2S 1 O2 2 H 2 O S M ip t (1) (2) (3) Page 2 of 23 . The two most common processing schemes encountered in these systems are named "Conventional" and "Autocirculation". The regenerated catalytic solution re-enters to the riser absorption zone due to the presence of the natural circulation. the solution flows in regeneration section in which air is sparged where the reaction of equation (2) occurs.

6] but there are different information can be found regarding the order of reaction with respect to the chelated iron II concentration. Ac literature shows a great controversy regarding kinetics parameters. Sada et al.536 [4]. pressure distribution and bubble diameter were determined in another work [2]. the absorption reaction takes place between imply an appropriate model interpreting the experimental data is very important for determination of rate constant and the other required parameters. The absorption reaction between H2S and catalytic solution is fast and as M 3 fermentation or bio-reactions. Therefore. reported this order equal to 0. the unique feature of the autocirculation reactor is that no pumps are required to circulate solution between absorber and oxidizer. [4. The main objective of this paper is to determine reaction kinetic parameters for both absorption and regeneration reactions and then presenting a model to simulate the reactor behavior using airlift reactor concept which is commonly used for In fact. these units may produce more byproducts. In addition the investigations commonly confirm that the regeneration reaction can be considered first order with respect to the oxygen concentration. The ce pt two phases [3]. ip t Page 3 of 23 .In comparison with the conventional scheme. an us cr Hydrodynamic parameters of this scheme such as gas hold up. however. the other investigators reported it to be mostly equal one and two [5]. liquid velocity. 5. The method of how to measure the kinetics parameters and how to ed literature. these are generally less expensive units with few operational problems related to sulfur plugging than usually reported for the other scheme. For example. However. due to presence of oxygen and sulfide ions. a little information concerning kinetic data has been revealed in the soon as H2S reaches to interface plane.

The “Autosweet” program is also developed to estimate the time needed volume of the reactor needed to take place the absorption and regeneration reactions within the safe zone operation and for a given condition. an experimental investigation is performed to determine rate equations for RIPI20*. 2. Here. ce pt contacted. concentration profile of two phases at steady state and ip t . The reactor has 10 cm diameter and 20 cm height in which gas and liquid can be the bulk of gas and liquid on the agitator shaft. Both phases are well mixed via two impellers located at two positions in The agitator speed in all experiments is constant and equal to 300 rpm. Variations of iron concentration and dissolved oxygen in liquid phase are measured and saved using an oxidation-reduction probe (ORP) and a DO electrode.Reviewing some papers shows that the order varies between one and two when pH and concentration of chelated iron solution change. Experimental Setup Kinetic experiments were carried out in a glass reactor illustrated in Fig. Six baffles. are placed symmetrically to avoid the formation of vortex inside the reactor and make agitation to take place completely. Fe-EDTA complex).e. iron chelate catalytic solution (i. 1 cm in width. and a model is developed to predict variations of the concentration of the reactants and products with time. Depending on the purpose of experiment the electrodes are connected to a PentiumII personal * RIPI20 is formulated by RIPI Ac ed M 4 an Page 4 of 23 us cr to steady state conditions. Experimental data obtained from a bench scale reactor are in a good agreement with simulated reactor using the program. Depending Variations of iron concentration and dissolved oxygen in liquid phase are measured and saved using an oxidation-reduction probe (ORP) and a DO electrode.

respectively. n m1 M solution and its subsequent ionization.E H2S . are dry nitrogen. C Fe 3 dPH 2S VG . A vacuum pump is used for evacuation of the reactor and charging the catalytic solution from container V6. hydrogen sulfide and air cylinders. The overall absorption reaction follows equation (1). According to the following ce pt K 1C H 2S 1 . Containers.VL Ac The aim here is to determine values of n1.T dt ed iron to the ferrous state.i C H2S ) 5 ip t (4) (5) (6) (8) (9) Page 5 of 23 Absorption reaction kinetics . V3 and V4.a.computer for data acquisition. absorption rate of H2S in liquid phase is related to the gas phase pressure[4]: J H 2S .( ) R. is given as[7]: J H2S K L . while equation (6) represents the oxidation of an 2Fe3 The rate of absorption of H2S per unit of gas-liquid interface. m1 and K1. J H 2S . The reaction mechanism is as follows: H 2S(g ) H 2 O ( L) H 2 S ( aq) H 2 O (L) cr us (7) H2S(aq) HS H HS S 2Fe2 H Equations (4) and (5) represent the absorption of H2S into the aqueous chelated iron the sulfide ions to elemental sulfur and the accompanying reduction of the ferric Writing the intrinsic rate equation in the power form yields: rH 2S dC H 2S dt equation. V2.(C H2S. Off gases from the reactor can be gathered in vessel V5.

i the liquid–side interfacial H2S concentration and C H 2S the concentration of H2S in the liquid bulk (i.K L . the glass reactor is evacuated and 700 cm3 of the 10000 ppm of RIPI20 catalytic solution is charged inside the reactor.T .T .PH2S VG .R.K 1 .E H 2S .Where K L the liquid-side mass-transfer cofficient.K 1 .T . D.C Fe 3 KL 2 m1 Since the solubility of H2S in the catalytic solution is relatively high. variations of the iron concentration can be neglected.He .He Substitution of equation (10) in equation (12) gives: Ac dPH 2S PH 2S VL .. so it is assumed that concentration of H2S at interface is equal to its solubility: C H 2S .a.t VG .E H2S .R. C H 2S. A little dry sulfur is added on the liquid surface to avoid further contacts between gas and liquid before starting 6 ip t (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) Page 6 of 23 . x with x the distance from the gas-liquid interfac) and for fast reaction C H 2S 0 .R. In chemically enhanced reaction regim E H 2S can be defined as [5]: cr an ed M m1 E H 2S Ha D. Combination of above equation results: dPH2S dt 0 PH 2S VL . Also the enhancement factor E H 2S is the result of chemical reaction[7]. First of all.He ln ce pt PH 2S VL .a.e.a.K L .C Fe 3 VG . i C* H 2S PH 2S He us C*H2S is equilibrium concentration of H2S in solution and He is Henry‟s law constant. Thus.dt Determination of n1: In this experiment a high concentration of chelated iron solution about 10000 ppm is prepared.

Linear trend of the data in Fig. The reaction is started with a 2000 ppm of RIPI20 catalytic solution with H2S initial pressure equals to 46. Determination of K1: In Ac and none of them is excess. 5. Using equation (14). then according to equation (13).7 millibar. the data are analyzed to determine rate constant and finally the rate equation for absorption of H2S in chelated iron solution at pH=8-10 and for T=22 oC can be derived as follows: ce pt this step. Determination of m1: During the experimental tests the pressure of the gas phase is concentration in excess. which confirms that the reaction is first order 2 with respect to the chelated iron III concentration. H2S is fed into the reactor and variations of the gas pressure inside the reactor is recorded with time for a given condition. Fig. E H 2S is ip t Page 7 of 23 vs. 700 cm3 of 2000 ppm of RIPI20 catalytic solution is charged into the reactor and dry sulfur powder is added to the contact area inside the reactor. 3 turns out to be linear and its . Then.the experiment and data recording. 4 shows the results of the experiment. time as shown in Fig. the enhancement factor for H2S is plotted respect to concentration of chelated iron III solution in Fig. This quantity is equal 0. variations of both reactants are measured with time ed M 7 an kept constant and high value via continuous injection of H2S in order to maintain its us cr intercept from the y-axis is zero. The slope of the line is equal to m1 [8]. Then agitator is turned on and data recording is started. According to equation (10). 3 indicates that the absorption reaction is first order with respect to the hydrogen sulfide concentration. Linear trend of the data indicates that absorption reaction is first order as a function of the chelated iron III concentration[9].53. Also plot of ln 0 PH 2S PH 2S independent of PH 2S and the reaction is first order in H2S[8].

rH 2S dC H 2S dt k ab . Determination of n2: The reactor is evacuated and 700ml of chelated iron II is fed into it.C Fe 3 . in each step concentration of one of the reactants is investigated. The gas phase with a high flow rate is charged into the reactor through a gas sparger. 7 shows a ce pt is plotted versus time. Then. The straight line with correlation factor of 0. In Fig. Determination of m2: Ac and variations of concentration of iron II with time is recorded.C O . k ab 16 .C H 2S .0025 indicates that regeneration reaction is first order with respect to the dissolved oxygen concentration[10]. pure oxygen is injected to the system up to a known pressure and variations of oxygen pressure with time is recorded. Fig.992 In this experiment. concentration of dissolved oxygen is excess ed M considered to be high and variations of concentration of the other one is 8 an rFe 2 dC Fe 2 dt n2 2 K 2 .C m Fe 2 2 us Considering power form for the intrinsic rate equation yields: cr 1 O2 2 ( aq) 2Fe2 H 2O 2Fe3 2OH ip t (16) (17) (18) Page 8 of 23 1 O2 2 (g ) 1 O2 2 ( aq) .6 variations of Ln 0 PO 2 PO 2 and slope of 0.815 ( time 1 concentration 1 ) (15) Regeneration reaction kinetics: Reaction mechanism is considered as follows: H 2 O (L) H 2 O ( L) Using isolation method.

linear trend for variations of 1 C Fe 2 . Fig. 1. Arrhenius constant and rate constant for regeneration reaction can be estimated as follow: Ko 381 . 8. In this way. This expresses that order of 2 is correct again[9]. variations of both reactants are measured with time 0.9933) shows the order of the reaction with respect to the chelated iron II concentration.7 m 6 / mol 2 . Using this slope the rate constant can be calculated. slope of the curve log C2 Fe C O2 versus log rFe 2 C O2 (i. 10. it is necessary that mentioned equations are coupled with hydrodynamic model results determined in previous work. The experiment is repeated for different temperatures and the results are plotted in Fig.s and E a Kinetic model By applying mass balance equations for two elements in absorption and equations with them.e. For this purpose.159 kJ / mol 9 ip t (19) Page 9 of 23 . According to the Fig. 9 shows that the slope of the resultant line is cr 25 . Determination of K2: In this step. Following assumptions are considered in regeneration section: Ac regeneration sections respectively and combination of resulted intrinsic rate ce pt ed K2 Koe Ea RT M an us and none of them is excess. which indicates that the reaction is second order with respect to the chelated iron II concentration[9].0185. required height for complete absorption of H2S and regeneration of reacted iron II will be determined. Activation energy. concentration profiles of the H2S and iron II are determined.

2) The mass transfer of oxygen from gas to liquid phase as a ratelimiting step.D H 2S.A.A. In equation (21). Regeneration section: Mass balance for liquid phase around the element in regeneration section results the following equation: 10 ip t (20) (21) (22) and an (23) Page 10 of 23 . theoretically the relation of E and C Fe 3 depends on the regime of mass transfer with reaction that occurs and istaneous reaction may well explain the results observed and can be calculated from the following relation [5.P(YH 2S * YH ).a (C * H 2S C H 2S ). E relates proportionally to C Fe 3 ce pt Here. rH2S is intrinsic rate equation of absorption reaction.rH2S .C* H 2S Ac diffusion of the reactive components.A.a.dx 0 In which.L . 3) Negligible axial dispersion. b1 is the stochiometric coefficient of the absorption reaction.10]: E 1 D Fe 3 .dx M ed Q L dCH2S (1 ). 11. Several experiments were carried out to correlate variations of volumetric mass Absorption section: An element of the absorption section is illustrated in Fig.b1 .L . E is enhancement factor and in the industrial process.dx 2S an 0 0 us cr transfer coefficient with gas flow rate in the reactor[2.K L . Consideration of mass balance for gas and liquid phases around the element yields following equations respectively [11]: Qg P dYH2S RT P dYH 2S RT K g .1) Negligible changes in gas phase composition due to high flow rate of the air injected.C Fe 3 b1 .6] Qg E.

a.A. ce pt 4 * K reg .a us Regeneration reaction is limited to the rate of mass transfer of the oxygen from gas cr K2 m6 381.C O 2 C 2 Fe 2 (25) RT to liquid phase.A. The final rate equation for regeneration dC Fe 2 dt ed Autosweet Program “Autosweet” program was prepared to predict overall performance of the reactor and safe operating zone in both sections for a given condition. therefore the rate of oxygen transfer per unit volume of the dispersed phase is as below: rFe 2 K L .159( kJ ) mol ) 11 ip t (26) (27) (28) Page 11 of 23 . Here.L dx 2 (1 ).dx 0 (24) Assuming negligible axial dispersion. rFe 2 dC Fe 2 dt K 2 .dx Q L dC Fe 2 (1 ). bubble diameter are required.C O 2 C 2 Fe 2 an 1 K L . To solve above equations. rFe2+ is intrinsic rate equation for regeneration reaction. some hydrodynamic parameters such as gas holdup.7( ) exp( mol2 .s 25.C 2 Fe 2 M K 2 . liquid velocity.D Fe 2 dC Fe 2 .( C O 2 ) i 1 K 2 . These parameters were investigated in simultaneous work of the author [2].b 2 . Ac Using determined rate equations for absorption and regeneration sections. [( C O 2 ) i (C O 2 ) o ] In which reaction is: rFe 2 is the effectiveness factor.rFe 2 . the first term will be omitted. pressure distribution.

The absorption reaction of hydrogen sulfide by chelated iron III is first order with respect to the both reactants. (13-1. Table 2 shows the properties of the catalytic solution.Regeneration reaction is first order with respect to the dissolved oxygen 3.13-2). equations (24) and (27) are solved simultaneously to determine concentration profile and percentage of conversion at both steady and unsteady sates. and acid gas used as feedstock. Figs. 12. ce pt ed 12 resulting experiments. Table 3 shows overall results of simulations and Conclusion 1. 2.In absorption section. (14-1. Results of the simulation of the reactor such as concentration profile at steady state. when the concentration of catalytic solution varies between 1000-4000 ppm.Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results shows a good agreement and confirms the capability of the model implemented and the Autosweet program. variation of concentration with time. variation of equilibrium concentration with air/H2S ratio and comparison Figs. RIPI20.14-2) respectively. Ac concentration and is second order with respect to the Chelated iron II concentration. Simulation of reactor and comparison of results: from glass with dimensions given in Table 1. the required height for complete absorption of H2S (safe operating zone) and concentration profile of two phases at steady and unsteady state are determined through simultaneous solution of equations (20) and (22). M of the theoretical and experimental results are shown in Fig. an us cr The experimental reactor is made ip t Page 12 of 23 . In regeneration section.

m3/mol mol/s m6/mol2.4.The results of this study were used to design a new reactor for H2S removal at RIPI with about 1 m3 capacity and also for optimization of similar reactors in operating units.Application of such reactors for H2S removal is genuine and development of the model is necessary for simulation of larger scale units. Nomenclatures: A a b Cross sectional area Interfacial area per unit volume of gas and liquid Stochiometric coefficient m2 C* H 2S C Fe an C H 2S Concentration of hydrogen sulfide at gas bulk Concentration of hydrogen sulfide at interface M 13 Concentration of iron in catalytic solution Concentration of ironat equilibrium Ceq.s m6/mol2.s m3/mol. 5.s m/s m/s m2/m3 cr Page 13 of 23 ip t .Fe (C O 2 ) i ed Concentration of oxygen at interface ce pt (C O 2 ) o D E Ea He Ha J K K1 K2 Kg KL Initial concentration of oxygen Dispersion coefficient Enhancement factor Activation energy Ac Henry‟s law constant Hatta number Absorption rate Pre-exponential reaction rate constant Absorption rate constant Regeneration rate constan t Gas phase mass transfer coefficient Liquid phase mass transfer coefficient us mol/m3 mol/m3 mol/m3 mol/ m3 mol/m3 mol/ m3 m2/s kJ/mol Pa.

Hydrocarbon engineering. 6 (2001) 35-38 Removal Using Chelated Iron Solution: Investigation of hydrodynamic parameters 651. M. Chem.. C.Eng. Removing hydrogen sulfide. Tavasoli. Kumazawa.& Technol. Bakhtiyari. H. & Tech. Nagl. I..n P Po Qg R Order of a reactant in reaction Pressure initial value of Pressure for any species Volumetric gas flow rate Gas constant Reaction rate Time Volume of liquid phase Volume of gas phase Distance from gas sparger Effectiveness factor Average gas holdup at cross section mol/m2. of Sci. Karimi.. Trans. A mathematical model describing the ARI Chem. Beenackers. Kinetics of the Oxidation of Ferrous Chelates of EDTA and HEDTA in Aqueous Solution. J. M. Eng..R. Eng. A. Sada. B. Abedinzadegan. [5] H. Jafari Nasr. Res. J. 28(B6) (2004) 643- ed [2] M. [4] E. Jafari nasr. A.A.314 J/ mol. Ac “Autocirculation reactor” for low temperature conversion of H2S into sulfur. Ind. ce pt in an internal loop air lift reactor. 17 (1994) 141-143. Single Step H2S M 14 an us Page 14 of 23 cr ip t .m. A. [3] M. 26 (1987) 1468-1472. Ind. H.k r T VL VG Z mol/s s m3 m3 m - References [1] G. Oxidation Kinetics of FeII –EDTA and FeII –NTA Chelates by Dissolved Oxygen. 32 (1993) 2580-2594. Wubs. A. Machida. H.s Pa Pa m3/s 8. Res.

Eng. Address Correspondence concerning this paper should be addressed to A. RajabPour. Beenackers.. C. Wubs. Res. Publishing Corporation. R. A. A. A.71010112. Petroleum & Coal. Res. new model for the oxidative absorption of hydrogen sulfide. Kinetics of H2S Absorption into Aqueous ip t Page 15 of 23 . 49 (1) (2007) 27-33. P. Levenspiel. Bakhtiary. Box: 14665-1998. project Nos: 71010109. M. J. Acknowledgment The author wish to express his appreciation to RIPI of National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) for the financial support of this research. Beenackers. C. A. A. A. Silveston. Oxidation of Ferrous Nitrilotriacetic Kinetics. O. 1995. Multiphase Chemical Reactors. Chem. Gas desulfurization with ferric chelates EDTA and HEDTA. A. Chemical Reaction Engineering.F. West Blvd. 37 (1998) 1444-1453. Wiley Eastern University. 40(3) (1994) 433-443. Gas research division.[6] A. C. M. Tehran. [7] J. AIChE Journal. 36 (1997) 1989-2005. H. National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). A.F. P. Ind. Iran Ac ce pt ed [11] A. Karimi. A. 1989. Demmink. Eng. “Mass transfer study in “AUTOCIRCULATION” reactor for H2S removal from acid gas streams". Chem. [10] J. Gianetto. Hemisphere M 15 Acid with Oxygen: A Model For Oxygen Mass Transfer Parallel to Reaction an us cr [8] H. Ind. Karimi. Ferric Solutions of EDTA and HEDTA. Azadi Sport Complex. Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI). New York. Jebreili Jolodar.. [9] O. M. Beenackers. 2nd Edition.L. Demmink.

175 0.O .% of H2S in acid gas 266 ce pt V5 ed A A pH electdrode Ac A A Vacuum pump COMPUTER IBM PS / 2 Fig.62 0.2 .25 Table 3 .6 0.145 Downcomer Gas-liquid separator 1.s) (kg/m3) Liquid 1.174 0. RIPI20 and acid gas used as feedstock Property Viscosity Density Concentration (Pa.03 Agitator H2S absorption length / m cr CFe+2 at the end of absorption zone / ppm Gas 1.Experimental glass reactor dimensions Length (m) Diameter (m) Riser 1. 16 ip t CFe+2 at the end of regeneration zone / ppm Table 2 .Overall simulation results Liquid residence time / s Liquid downcomer velocity /(m/s) Liquid mass velocity / (kg/s) Average gas hold up Steady state oxidation – reduction potential / mV M an BYPASS U-tube manometer V1 D.3 2 vol.65*10-5 1.Glass reactor for kinetic experiments.Tabels and Figures: Table 1 .9 0.Meter or ORP 33.Autocirculation scheme of the reactor.012% -101 us 0.005*10-3 1000 2000 ppm iron chelate 69 N2 V2 H2S V3 Air V4 LIQUID STORAGE TANK V6 Page 16 of 23 .8 0.Properties of the catalytic solution.89 0. Fig.1 .

3 – Determination of n1 ln CFe 3 CFe 3 0 Ac ce pt ed Fig.ln P o H 2S PH 2S Fig.4 – Determination of m1 M 17 an Page 17 of 23 us cr ip t .

us cr ip t .5.Determination of m1using eq.(10).6-Determination of n2.Slope of the line is equal to m1/2=0.EH2S ln o PO 2 PO 2 Ac ce pt ed Fig. M 18 an Page 18 of 23 Fig.5 .

8-Determination of m2. rFe 2 M 19 an Page 19 of 23 Fig. us cr ip t CFe2 1 ./(mol / m3 ) 1 log C O2 Ac ce pt ed log C Fe 2 CO 2 Fig.Slope of the curve is equal to reaction order [9].7-Determination of m2 using the method presented by Levenspiel [9].

9 .ln C Fe 2 C O2 Ac ce pt ln (K) ed Fig.10-Variation of regeneration reaction rate constant with temperature. M 20 an Page 20 of 23 Fig.Rate constant for regeneration reaction at 25oC us cr ip t .

YA YA CA dYA dx dx dCA dx dx YA e A (gas ) k2 Qg YAf CA Ql C Af C Bf x T C Ae x + dx C Be T+ Fig.12.Concentration profile along riser at steady state ed Fe2+ M 21 CFe2+/ ppm Page 21 of 23 Fe3+ an us cr dT dx dx ip t Liquid CB dC B dx dx A + zB P . CFe3+/ ppm Ac ce pt Fig.11-An element of absorption section.

95 (cm3 / s) AIR=66.13-2-Variations of CFe 3+ with time at the end of regeneration section M H2S =0.35 (cm3 / s) CFe3+/ ppm Ac ce pt ed Fig.95 (cm3 / s) AIR=66.CFe2+/ ppm H2S =0.35 (cm3 / s) 22 an Page 22 of 23 Fig.21 (cm3 / s) N2=46. us cr ip t .13-1-Variations of CFe 2+ with time at the end of regeneration section.21 (cm3 / s) N2=46.

14-1-Variations of equilibrium concentration of Fe2+ vs. Air/H2S volume ratio at feedstock.14-2-Variations of equilibrium concentration of Fe3+ vs.Ceq. Ratio Fig.35 (cm3 / s) H2S = 0.35 (cm3 / s) H2S = 0. M 23 an Page 23 of 23 Fig. Ratio volume ratio at feedstock.Fe2+ / ppm N2=46.95 (cm3 / s) AIR / H2S Vol. ce pt Ceq. Air/H2S us cr ip t .95 (cm3 / s) AIR / H2S Vol.Fe3+ / ppm Ac ed N2=46.

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