Wild Thornberries CHUMACERA, KRISTINE B. Coden, Christelle Jae D. Gelera, Mariel Grace M. Jacinto, Justine April C.

Tanalgo, Baby Lyn Ann S.

HAD Date Performed: August 1, 2013 Date Submitted: August 15, 2013

Exercise No. 11 Population Age Distribution Abstract
Population pyramids graphically illustrate age distribution in a population. A population pyramid plots population (x-axis) against age (y-axis). It consists of two horizontal bar graphs placed back-to-back, with the graph on the left for males and the one on the right for females. Divided into prereproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive age classes, a population pyramid shows a country’s capability for population growth and can be used as an indicator of development. Based on their shape, the pyramids can be classified as expansive, constictive or stationary. Using demographics and graphs generated from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs site (http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm), the population pyramids of Haiti (less developed), Mexico (developing) and Norway (developed) for the year 2010 and 2015 were studied. Haiti has large percentages of younger age groups, an expansive population, for both years. Mexico has an expansive population for 2010 which aproaches a more or less equal distribution, a stationary population, in 2015. Norway has stationary populations for 2010 and 2015. Keywords: age distribution, population pyramid, expansive, constrictive, stationary

I. Introduction
Populations have an age structure, the number or proportion of individuals in different age classes. The relative proportions of each age group show the rate of population growth. Age classes can be divided into three stages: prereproductive, reproductive, and postreproductive (Smith and Smith, 2012). Birth and death rates, and immigration and emigration determine age distribution (proportion of individuals in each age group) of a population. Fecundity (rate at which females produce eggs), fertility (rate at which females produce zygotes), and sex ratio (proportion of male and female in the population) affect birth rate. Typically, expanding populations have a large percentage of young individuals while declining populations have a large percentage of old individuals, and stable populations have a relatively even distribution among age groups (Campbell, 2008). Age distribution of a population reflects: history of survival (high and low periods), periods of successful reproduction, and growth potential of a population (Utah State University, n.d.). Age pyramids represent the age structure of a population at some period in time, providing a picture of the relative sizes of different age groups in a population (Smith and Smith, 2012). Age distribution can be determined through different methods. Life tables allow for characterization of populations in terms of agespecific mortality or fecundity. There are two types of life tables: cohort and segment. Cohort approach consists of all individuals born during some particular time interval until no survivors remain. It is the most reliable method for determining age specific mortality. Segment (static) approach is a snap-shot of organisms alive during a certain segment of time. It examines the whole population at a particular point in time. Life Tables allow to discover patterns of birth and mortality, uncover common properties shared by populations, and understanding of population dynamics (Weber, 2010) There are generally three types of population pyramids. Expansive population pyramids show larger numbers or percentages of the population in the younger age groups. These types of pyramids are usually found in populations with very large fertility rates and lower than average life expectancies. The age-sex distribution of many developing countries would probably display expansive population pyramids. Constrictive population pyramids display lower numbers or percentages of younger people. The age-sex distribution of the United States fall into this type of pyramid. Stationary or nearstationary population pyramids display somewhat equal numbers or percentages for almost all age groups (Abedon, 2005). Determining population age distribution is important because it allows researchers to predict the trend of population growth in a given population. In this experiment, the students will determine the age structure of certain countries and construct age

htm . Mexico and Haiti were chosen respectively. Norway. Three columns were achieved – the age groups. Generated population age structure of a less developed country. the chart was recolored and labels of “Men” and “Women” using text box were added. The tick mark labels on the Y-axis were moved to the lefthand side of the graph. The border around the plot area was removed. Haiti 2010 Figure 5. II. Generated population age structure of a developing country. the female populations in those age groups. Bar was the chart type chosen and the gap width was reduced to 0. The legend box and gridlines were removed. Norway 2010 . Haiti 2015 Figure 3. The minus sign was removed on the x-axis. The data presented in the excel was filtered according to sex. Mexico 2010 III. These were copied into Powerpoint where a pyramid was created. developing and less developed country. Figure 2. and the male population preceded with a minus (-) sign.pyramids. The students will provide possible explanations to the age distributions that will be obtained and predict the future trends for that population. Three countries were chosen each coming from developed. A label was added to the x-axis and finally.CSV type of file was downloaded and was opened using an Excel. A . Generated population age structure of a developing country. The oldest age groups were removed and adjustments were made so all the age-group labels appear. Generated population age structure of a developed country. Generated population age structure of a less developed country.un. Mexico 2015 Figure 1. Materials and Methods Population numbers were obtained from the UN population division website: http://www.org/esa/population/unpop. Results Figure 4.

This is the usual population pyramid for less-developed countries as seen in the exercise (Haiti). Norway 2015 IV. 2011).. then there would also be an effect on the age structure. eggs. Organisms with short lives usually increase rapidly between generations and those which have long lives increase slowly and have longer time spans between generations. also called population age distribution is defined as the relative proportion of individuals belonging to various age classes across a population at a certain point in time. If there is an effect on the growth rate of the population. “age” may refer to time units (e. Members of the population are grouped into age classes since generations may overlap. The population of each age groups is shown as a bar extending from the certer vertical line. where the bar’s length is dependent on the population for the particular age class it is representing. Figure 7. .org. 2011). Stable population pyramids (bell-shaped) indicates that pre-reproductive and reproductive age groups are mostly equal and post-reproductive groups smallest (due to mortality). then the length of the pre-reproductive period has a significant effect on the growth rate of the population. if a large proportion of the population belonged to the post-reproductive stage.The usual representation for population age distribution is an age pyramid. This is usually pyramidal in shape.scalloway. then it could be expected that the population would be declining or have no growth (McGraw-Hill. In humans. Generated population age structure of a developed country.html> There are three main types of age pyramids: expanding population pyramid. For example. and the declining population pyramid(McGraw-Hill. The government in these countries may invest in incentives to use birth controls to decrease population growth rate(McGraw-Hill. pupa) (Smith & Smith. stable population pyramid. The concaves sides indicate the high birth rate and low death rate. Discussion Age structure. years) or to a qualitative stage (e.g. 2001). First is the horizontal approach. and the population is undergoing exponential growth. This type of pyramid is the usual population pyramid for stable. reproductive. It is a figure where relative sizes of different age groups in the population are shown. Third utilizes an indirect method which involves a life table (McGrawhill. Expanding population pyramids have represent populations with high birth rates. there are three ecological ages namely dependency (pre-reproductive). If an organism has variable generation times. Population pyramids for the different stages of demographic transition Retrieved from <http://dc191. The length of time an organism remains in each stage is dependent on the life history of an organism. 2012). Figure 6. There are several ways of obtaning the age distibution of a given population. However. 2011). 2001).com/doc/DbIi4vdB/preview. if a large proportion of the population belonged to the pre-reproductive state of the population. An example of an age pyramid Retrieved from <www. larva. days.g. Second is the vertical approach were the ages in the population are examined simultaneously in one point in time. then it could be expected that the population is expanding or increasing. and post-reproductive (McGraw-Hill. The centerline (center vertical line) separates females (on the right side) from the males (on the left side) (McGrawhill.4shared. 2001). This utilizes young members of the population and following their survival during their life spans. months.uk> Figure 8.

called the maximum or absolute natality.uk> In the exercise.). mortality denotes the death of individuals in a population. Similarly. or the proportion of males relative to the proportion of females (University of Wyoming. This may occur when immigration is equal to emigration. This shows that Haiti is indeed not yet a well-developed country in terms of economy. Moreover. a developing country. it could be seen that Haiti has an increasing population because of the triangular form of the age pyramid. if birth and immigration is greater than emigration and death. This shows that mortality is greater that birth rate which leads to declining populations(McGraw-Hill. The current population can support and is supported by the economy(McGraw-Hill.d. The stationary type is found in countries with low natality and mortality. germination. this value is theoretical. 2011). Other pyramid types may include the stationary and contracting type. In addition to natality and mortality. This shows that Mexico is approaching a stable pyramid type. n. When population size increases. n. and ecological mortality. The vital index determines the normal growth rate of a population (Kohli et al. natality is the production of new individuals or offspring of an organism in a population. Norway has a columnar shaped pyramid which implies that it is stable in terms of population and economy. n. is also known as the fertility rate. or the theoretical minimum death rate under ideal conditions.d. Formula for dependency ratio Retrieved from <coolgeography.developed countries as seen in the exercise (Norway). The first. n. Age distribution shifts depending on the ages of the individuals migrating. Here. Conclusion and Recommendations In conclusion.d. called the ecological natality. For instance. the investigators were able to determine and compare the age structure of countries . 2012). Other important concepts to note are sex ratios and dependency ratios. 2013). The governments in countries with stable population pyramids should maintain the current population because stable population pyramids indicate that not only is the population stable but the economy as well.). the distributions shifts toward the older ages (Kohli et al. as in chicken eggs.). and means the number of offspring produced under the existing environmental conditions. The government could implement family planning procedures and give incentives to those who have less children. Meanwhile. Figure 9. The vital index is the ratio of birth to death rate. Since environmental conditions constantly change and are never static. Age structure can change without changing population size when the number of individuals leaving is equivalent to those entering. mortality rate should always be lower than the population size (Bietsch. One of the factors influencing the age structure of a population is the sex ratio. the population size would increase.). A declining population pyramid (urnshaped) represents a population where the postreproductive group is the largest and the prereproductive groups is the smallest. Mexico. free health care for the second child). described as zero growth. These pyramid types are based on factors affecting age structure(McGraw-Hill. if more old people immigrate and more young people emigrate. and emigration also affect population size. is another factor. or cell division. There are two types of natality. the population will be stationary. V. the capacity of an ecosystem to support a maximum number of individuals. expressed as percentage. The government in countries with declining population may use incentives to increase population (i. or when death rate is equal to birth rate. the growth rate is reduced as the carrying capacity is approached (Kohli et al. 2011). The contracting type is found in population where there are lower numbers of young people.e. Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in the population. mortality rate has two types – the minimum mortality rate or physiological longevity.d. 2011). Carrying capacity. On the other hand. The formula for dependency ratio is shown below (Columbia University. as in plants. It is also constant for a given population. hatching. Immigration and birth increase population size while emigration and death decrease it. immigration. the actual death rate. For instance. refers to the maximum offspring produced under most suitable environmental conditions. also known as the fecundity rate. is mosty triangular but eventually becomes columnar at the basal part. as in lower organisms. as in humans.co. These individuals can be formed through birth. The upper portion is triangular only because of the mortality in the post-reproductive population. The second type. Dependency ratio is the number of people who are not economically active for every 100 economically active people in a given population.

Smith R. Elements of Ecology.niscair.d.pdf>.ohio-state. It is recommended that more pyramids be constructed with respect to time to observe differences in the population patterns of a country and to correlate these differences with various factors and events that have occurred in the years observed. Singapore. Retrieved 14 Aug 2013 from <http://www. (n. Biology.d). hill. Population Ecology. Demography Learning Module.J. Population Ecology. Population Ecology. McGraw-Hill. and Singh.uwyo. Ecology of Populations. (2012). Pearson Education Inc.html > Kohli.weber.html>. University of Wyoming. (2001).princeton. VI. Age pyramids are clear visual representations of the population and show the trend in age distribution and can also predict the future population structure. Singapore.E. A Guide to Stable Population. Population Ecology. 2012. Pearson Education Inc. Retrieved 12 August 2013from < http://www. Retrieved 14 Aug 2013 from <highered.pdf>. (n. Literature Cited Abedon.usu. Utah State University. 8th ed.columbia.in/bitstream/123456 789/153/1/Population+and+community. S. Ohio State University.P.%20Population%20Ec ology.pdf >. (2013). Retrieved 14 Aug 2013 from <http://nsdl.edu/~kbietsch/pdfs/P OP502/stable_pop_guide. Ecology. Weber. Factors such as natality and mortality were correlated with the obtained data. H. Bietsch.with varying state of economies.html>. Retrieved 14 Aug 2013 <http://www. such as if it is a developing or a developed country. Reece. D.. R. 2010. 2005.htm>. Retrieved 14 Aug 2013 from <http://www. K. Columbia University.edu/itc/hs/pubhealth/ modules/demography/populationRatio.).mansfield. Retrieved 12 August 2013from <http://faculty..res. Retrieved 12 August 2013from < http:// ocw. Batish. 2008. These tools can also reflect the economy of the area of concern.edu/biology/general-ecology/ lecture8/lecture-8-population-ecology2.R.com/sites/dl/free/0073212040/63819/co 46.K..mcgraw- .pdf> Smith T. edu/jcavitt/WildlifeManagementMaterials/L ectures/Lecture%207.edu/~ sabedon/ campbl52. Campbell N.edu/dbmcd/popecol/febl ects/lect10. 8th ed.

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