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Aibara, S., N. Ogawa and M. Hirose, 2006. Microstructures of bread dough and the effects of shortening on frozen dough.

Journal Bioscience. 5 (3) : 90-95. Aibara et al. (2006) Three types of straight doughs different in combination of yeast and shortenings (RLS20, FTS20, and FTS80) were prepared, and the structure of the frozen doughs was examined under a microscope after staining protein or lipid droplets. Even after 2 months of frozen storage, distinct changes were not found in the gluten network of FTS80, although significant damages in the dough structures of FTS20 and RLS20 appeared after only one month of frozen storage. These results suggest that the gluten networks loosen and decrease in the water retention ability, and it may be concluded that the lipid is removed from the gluten protein due to the decrease in water in the continuous protein phase. The resulting product from the damage to the gluten matrix gave rise to fusion of lipid droplets and an increase in their size. Because of the difference in fatty acid composition, the lipids of shortening S80 are presumed to interact more strongly with gluten proteins and to keep the gluten matrix from damage in comparison with the lipids of shortening S20. Publisher: Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology and Agrochemistry About CAB Abstracts CAB Abstracts is a unique and informative resource covering everything from Agriculture to Entomology to Public Health. In April 2006 we published our 5 millionth abstract, making it the largest and most comprehensive abstracts database in its field. Title: Influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread. Personal Authors: Carr, L. G., Tadini, C. C. Author Affiliation: Food Engineering Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politécnica, São Paulo University, P.O. Box 61548, Sao Paulo 05424-970, Brazil. Editors: No editors Document Title: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und -Technologie Abstract: The objective of this project was to study the influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread stored for 28 days and to produce a frozen part baked bread with physical and textural characteristics similar to those of the fresh one. Four formulations were used with different quantities of yeast and vegetable shortening. Dough was prepared by mixing all ingredients in a dough mixer at two speeds. After resting, the dough was divided into 60 g pieces, molded and proofed. The bread was partially baked for 7 min at 250°C, in a turbo oven. After cooling, it was frozen until the core temperature reached -18°C and stored at the same temperature up to 28 days. Once a week, samples were removed from the freezer to complete the baking process, without previous thawing. Mass, volume, water content, firmness, cohesiveness and springiness were measured 1 h after final baking. Resistance to extension and extensibility of dough were measured after mixing. Specific volume and

chewiness were determined. Bread with higher yeast content presented a higher specific volume, whereas vegetable shortening reduced its crumb firmness and chewiness. Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd About CAB Abstracts CAB Abstracts is a unique and informative resource covering everything from Agriculture to Entomology to Public Health. In April 2006 we published our 5 millionth abstract, making it the largest and most comprehensive abstracts database in its field.

Volume 12, Number 43 (spring 2008) Back to browse issues page Volume 12, Number 43 (spring 2008)

Effects of Shortening and Emulsifier (SSL) on Retarding Barbari Bread Staling Author(s): M. Ghanbari , M. Shahedi Study Type: Research Article abstract: Effect of semihydrogenated vegetable oil (shortening) and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) on retarding Barbari bread staling was investigated in this study. Three levels of 2, 3 and 4 percent shortening and SSL in two levels of 0.5 and 1 percent of flour were used in this research. Treatments included control sample (without shortening and SSL), bread with only shortening, bread with only SSL, and bread with 0.5 percent SSL and 3 percent shortening. Organoleptic properties and staling factors of the samples were determined. The data was statistically analyzed by complete randomized design and means comparison was done by Duncan’s multiple range test (5% level). The results showed that the breads containing SSL and shortening were significantly different in organoleptic properties, and samples with 0.5 SSL and 3 percent shortening had the highest quality. The results of staling test showed that samples with 0.5 percent SSL and 3% shortening had the lowest staling rates.

LWT - Food Science and Technology Volume 38, Issue 3, May 2005, Pages 275-280

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doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2004.06.001

aldehydes, three alcanes and one sulphur compound.

Except for the aldehydes and the alcanes, all these Copyright © 2004 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. classes of compounds increased with the activity of Published by Elsevier Ltd. the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [from (NYF) to

Influence of vegetable shortening and emulsifiers on the unfrozen water content and textural properties of frozen French bread dough

(YF)], notably the alcohols due to the formation of fusel alcohols. The 2,3 butanedione, 3-methyl 1butanol, 2-methyl 1-butanol, methional, 2-phenyl ethanol and two unidentified components with a pungent an a mushroom-like odour, were the most odourant compounds generated during the fermentation of the dough, as shown by the aroma extract dilution analysis of the three aromatic extracts. Purchase PDF (397 K) View More Related Articles
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T. G. Matudaa, D. F. Parrab, A. B. Lugãob and C. C. Tadini , , a a São Paulo University, Escola Politécnica, Food Engineering Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, P.O. Box 61548, São Paulo 05424-970, Brazil b Instituto de Pesquisas Enérgeticas e Nucleares, Chemical Engineering and Environment Department—CNEN, Rua do Matão, trav. R 400, São Paulo 05508900, Brazil Received 5 December 2003; Revised 31 May 2004; accepted 1 June 2004. Available online 15 July 2004.

Abstract
The influence of vegetable shortening (VS) and emulsifiers (calcium stearoyl-2lactylate (CSL) and polysorbate 80 (PS80)) on frozen French bread dough has been studied. Eight formulations without yeast were used with different quantities of VS, CSL and PS80. Dough was prepared by mixing all ingredients in a dough mixer at two speeds. The fresh dough was divided into 60 g pieces and molded. Fresh dough samples were also collected for water content and textural analyses. The dough pieces were packed, frozen in a freezer at −30°C and stored at −18°C up to 56 days. After 2, 7, 21, 28 and 56 days of frozen storage, samples were removed from the freezer, thawed at ambient temperature and textural analyses were conducted. The enthalpy of freezable water on fresh bread dough was determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at the heating rate of 3°C/min, temperature range of −40°C to 20°C. The value of unfrozen water was 0.30– 0.34 g H2O/g solids and additives used during the storage up to 56 days significantly affected the textural properties of frozen dough.

Titre du document / Document title Effect of shortening and surfactants on selected chemical/physicochemical parameters and sensory quality of arabic bread Auteur(s) / Author(s) TOUFEILI I. ; SHADAREVIAN S. ; MISKI A. M. A. ; HANI I. ; Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s) American univ. Beirut, FAFS, dep. food technology nutrition, Beirut, LIBAN Résumé / Abstract Shortening (0.5 or 1.0% on flour-mass basis), distilled monoglycerides (MG), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) or L-ascorbyl-6-palmitate (AP) at the 0.25 or 0.50% level, and shortening/surfactant combinations were added to Arabic bread and the effects on waterbinding capacity (WBC), amylose content of soluble starch and sensory properties evaluated. WBC and percentage amylose of soluble starch were not affected by shortening and decreased in the presence of surfactants. The sensory quality of breads was not affected by shortening. At the 0-25% level, the first-day quality was not affected by MG and improved in the presence of SSL, DATEM or AP. High levels (0.5%) of surfactant adversely affected the breads' first-day quality. Addition of shortening to surfactant-containing formulations negatively affected the first-day quality of the product. Surfactants, alone or in combination with shortening, had deleterious effects on the keeping quality of Arabic bread Revue / Journal Title Food chemistry ISSN 0308-8146 CODEN FOCHDJ Source / Source 1995, vol. 53, no3, pp. 253-258 (34 ref.) Langue / Language

Title: Influences of the proportion of solid fat in a shortening on loaf volume and staling of bread. Personal Authors: Smith, P. R., Johansson, J. Author Affiliation: YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden. Editors: No editors Document Title: Journal of Food Processing and Preservation Abstract:

Fats and oils are an important component of bread. Fats and oils are added to improve the properties of a loaf of bread, such as increasing loaf volume and increasing the time before staling is initiated. The physical form of the added fat can affect the overall dough behaviour. The effect of hydrogenated soyabean oil concentration in an emulsion used for the baking of bread was studied. Increasing concentration of hydrogenated soyabean oil (solid fat), while keeping total lipid content constant, led to increased loaf volume and decreased loaf weight. Also, increasing solid fat content led to a reduction in the rate of staling. Publisher: Blackwell Publishing About CAB Abstracts CAB Abstracts is a unique and informative resource covering everything from Agriculture to Entomology to Public Health. In April 2006 we published our 5 millionth abstract, making it the largest and most comprehensive abstracts database in its field. Your search for ‘effect of shortenings on physicochemical properties of bread, abstract’ has pulled up numerous records and resources from the CAB Abstracts database. At this time, your institution does not subscribe to CAB Direct so you cannot access them. To find out more about this exciting resource, and how to subscribe, please click here.

Title: Physicochemical properties of bread baked from flour blended with immature wheat meal rich in fructooligosaccharides. Personal Authors: Mujoo, R., Ng, P. K. W. Author Affiliation: Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1224, USA. Editors: No editors Document Title: Journal of Food Science Abstract: Grain of the soft white wheat cultivar Harus was harvested weekly from anthesis to maturity and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) contents were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Tests were carried out to determine the effect of adding immature wheat meal to a base flour of cultivar Russ (hard red spring) on the quality characteristics of bread. FOS content was also analysed in baked bread, and the effect of transglutaminase in improving bread quality was examined. Marked decreases in FOS contents, such as 1-kestose and nystose, were observed with grain maturation. The overall quality of bread appeared to be acceptable, and the added FOS were retained after baking. Publisher: Institute of Food Technologists About CAB Abstracts CAB Abstracts is a unique and informative resource covering everything from Agriculture to Entomology to Public Health. In April 2006 we published our 5 millionth abstract, making it the largest and most comprehensive abstracts database in its field. Your search for ‘effect of physicochemical properties of bread%2C abstract’ has pulled up numerous records and resources from the CAB Abstracts database. At this time, your institution does not subscribe to CAB Direct so you cannot access them. To find out more about this exciting resource, and how to subscribe, please click here.