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Research Designs • Various methods to conduct research are called research designs.

• Three Research designs:
– Exploratory research designs – Descriptive research designs – Causal research designs

• Each Research design has following components:
– Data collection method – Sampling method – Data analysis method
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Exploratory Research

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Purpose

• Exploratory research is conducted to
– Know possible causes and possible solutions to solve management problem – Crystallize a situation that is not well understood. – Provides guideline for deciding further steps in conducting research

• Often research starts with exploratory research
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Exploratory research designs

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Exploratory research designs

- Data collection methods -

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Data collection methods

Secondary data Focus Group Depth interview Observations Projective techniques

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Secondary Data

• Data already collected • Advantages:
– Quickly available – Economical

• Disadvantages:
– Can be outdated – Reliability

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Centre for monitoring Indian economy

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Indiastat.com

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Govt. sources- Central Statistical Organisation
Its activities include: • Statistical Abstract of India • Annual Survey of Industries Visit site http://mospi.nic.in

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Govt. sources- National sample survey
• Nation-wide, large-scale, continuous sample survey operation conducted in the form of successive rounds since 1950. • Conducts survey in demographic and socio-economic area. Visit site http://mospi.nic.in

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Govt. sources- Economic survey
• Ministry of finance and company affairs conducts economic survey before the budget. • Gives time series data on various parameters

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Govt. sources- Census data
• Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India publishes census data on population and living conditions. Visit site http://www.censusindia.net

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Govt. sources - others
• Reserve Bank of India • National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER)
– Annual reports on consumption of various consumer products

• Statistics departments of state governments

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Other sources
• National readership survey:
– Readership of major newspapers and magazines – Cinema, TV and radio listener ship – Socioeconomic characteristics of readers

• TRP rating of Television Audience Measurement • Pathfinders Psychographic National Attitudinal profile by Pathfinders
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Other sources
• Retail store audit:
– Conducted for pharmaceutical products and consumer products by ORG-A C Nielsen company – Provides data on market size and growth, brand’s market share and growth, distribution purchase index of new products

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Sample output

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Sample output

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Other sources
• Consumer panels:
– Data is collected periodically on:
• • • • Brands purchased Quantity purchased Packs purchased Stores from where purchased

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Other sources
• Centre for monitoring Indian economy • R K Swamy marketing index • District level data by Lintas

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Focus Group

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Characteristics of Focus Group
• • • • • • • 6 to 10 respondents Homogeneous participants in demographic profile Separate focus groups for different demographic profiles 1 to 3 hours Relaxed mood Videotaped Conducted by moderator. He should see that: – Everyone gets chance to speak – Discussion does not go off the track – All points are covered
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Principle of Focus Group
• Interaction & group discussion among members produces wider range of information, deeper insight compared to independent interview

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Focus Group Guide
Product: Microwave oven

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• Sample:
– Housewives belonging to Urban SEC A+, A

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• Welcome members • Tell us about your family
– Probe:
• Family size & composition • Your occupation • Your interest / hobbies

• Explain purpose
– Your opinion about microwave oven

• When you think of cooking what comes to your mind immediately? • Why one gets joy in cooking? • How would you make cooking more enjoyable?
– Probe:
• Appliances used

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• You said you are not using microwave oven. Could you tell us reasons for it? • You said you are using microwave oven
– Probe:
• • • • • • • • • Which size, solo / convection , brand do you have? How long are you using it? What made you to purchase it? To whom did you refer before buying it? How did you select the brand? Who selected the brand? Why this brand was selected? What dishes are you making using it? What difference does it make using microwave oven for making these dishes? • How many times in a day do you use it? • Who are using it?

• What changes have you noticed in your house after buying microwave oven?
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Now I have a list of food items and I would like you to categorise them into 3 categories viz.
1. being made by me (respondent), 2. can be made but not done so far, 3. can not be made
Probe for reasons for items listed in 2 and 3 above

If you are to advise to anyone who wants to buy microwave oven, what things would you tell him to keep in mind while taking decision? Would you advise the brand you are having? How would you describe a microwave oven user?
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Depth interview

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Characteristics of Depth Interview
• An unstructured interview of the respondent • Only one respondent is interviewed at a time • Usually conducted by experienced researcher • Interviewer’s role is extremely important since the emphasis is on probing
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Principle of Depth Interview
• Respondent will reveal truth about sensitive issue after taking him in confidence. • Respondent’s answer will be obtained by probing

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Depth Interview
• Used for
– obtaining data on sensitive issues – Getting more depth in information obtained in focus group – Interviewing experts

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Projective Technique

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Principle
• Individual is more likely to give true answer if the question is related to someone else. • Respondent projects his true beliefs, attitudes through third person or object. Hence the name ‘projective’

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Usage
• It is used to discover individual’s true attitudes, beliefs, defensive reactions

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Techniques
• The most common projective techniques used in Marketing Research are:
– Word Association – Sentence Completion

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is shown one word at a time • He is asked to note down what comes to his mind immediately once he comes to know the word • Respondent’s spontaneous thought is the true answer

• Respondent

• Responses are analyzed by finding: • Different types of responses to each word & their proportion
• Average time taken to get response to each word

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Word: Rose

Average time to generate response = 2.9 seconds

Response

% 18 20 32 29 …. 100
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Colour variety Love Delicate Fragrance

Visual of rose indicates Delicacy, fragrance

………… Total
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Word Association
• This technique is often used in
– Selecting Brand name for a new product – Deciding visuals in advertisements

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Sentence completion
• Respondent is shown an incomplete sentence. • He is then asked to complete it. For e.g.
– Ayurvedic soap is ________________

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Sentence completion
• Used for image studies

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