Infectious Coryza

Introduction A usually acute, sometimes chronic, highly infectious disease of chickens, occasionally pheasants and guinea-fowl, characterised by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, especially nasal and sinus mucosae. Infectious Coryza is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus paragallinarum and is seen in many countries especially in multi-age farms that are never depopulated. Morbidity is high but mortality low if uncomplicated although it may be up to 20%. The route of infection is conjunctival or nasal with an incubation period of 1-3 days followed by rapid onset of disease over a 2-3 day period with the whole flock affected within 10 days, resulting in increased culling. Carriers are important with transmission via exudates and by direct contact. It is not egg transmitted. The bacterium survives 2-3 days outside the bird but is easily killed by heat, drying and disinfectants. Intercurrent respiratory viral and bacterial infections are predisposing factors. Signs • • • • • • • • Facial swelling. Purulent ocular and nasal discharge. Swollen wattles. Sneezing. Dyspnoea. Loss in condition. Drop in egg production of 10-40%. Inappetance.

Post-mortem lesions • • • • Catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages and sinuses. Conjunctivitis. Eye-lid adherence. Caseous material in conjunctiva/sinus.


Diagnosis A presumptive diagnosis may be made on signs, lesions, identification of the bacteria in a Gram-stained smear from sinus. Confirmation is by isolation and identification - requires X (Haematin) and V (NAD) factors, preferably in raised CO 2 such as a candle jar. Serology: HI, DID, agglutination and IF have all been used but are not routine. Differentiate from Mycoplasmosis, respiratory viruses, chronic or localised pasteurellosis and vitamin A deficiency. Treatment Streptomycin, Dihydrostreptomycin, sulphonamides, Flouroquinolones are bactericidal and might prevent carriers. Prevention Stock coryza-free birds on an all-in/all-out production policy. Bacterin at intervals if history justifies or if multi-age; at least two doses are required. Commercial bacterins may not fully protect against all field strains but reduce the severity of reactions. Live attenutated strains have been used but are more risky. Controlled exposure has also been practised. Vaccines are used in areas of high incidence. Birds recovered from challenge of one serotype are resistant to others, while bacterins only protect against homologous strains tylosin, erythromycin.

Occurrence: Mainly in warm and tropical / sub-tropical climates. Species affected: Chickens. Age affected: All ages. Causes: Gram negative, non-motile bacterium- Hemophilus gallinarum. Effects: The organism gives off a strong odour of rotten eggs. Symptoms include watery eyes, facial oedema, diarrhoea, anorexia, and there may be a high cull rate (20%). Nasal discharge, swollen infraorbital sinus, laboured breathing, drop in egg production and poor shell quality can also occur. Detailed causes: Infectious coryza affects chickens of 15-30 weeks. It is more common in tropical humid areas and where multi-age pullet farms are kept. Coryza means head cold. The causative agent, Hemophilus gallinarum is a gram-negative, polar-staining, nonmotile bacterium and appears as short rods or coccobacilli.

Mode of transmission Faecal, aerosol. Special note It is found in Southern US and Third World Countries (multi-age farms) and is common in backyard flocks. Several serotypes (A,B,C) make successful vaccination difficult. Clinical signs: Strong odour (rotten eggs) given off by the organism. Water eyes, facial oedema, diarrhoea, anorexia and high cull rate (20%) may be evident. Nasal discharge, swollen infraorbital sinus, laboured breathing, drop in egg production and shell quality can occur. Postmortem lesions Oral or tracheal lesions, catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages and sinuses may be seen. Congested lungs, facial swelling, swollen wattles, pneumonia, air sacculitis and conjunctivitis may be evident. Diagnosis: Respiratory signs, odour and isolation of organisms are important. The organism is a polar-staining, facultative anaerobic gram-negative rod. Brain heart infusion and NADyields tiny dew-drop colonies. Serologic tests include agar gel precipitin and haemagglutination-inhibition. It simulates many respiratory problems, fowl pox (FP), vitamin A deficiency, fowl cholera (FC) and mycoplasma infections. Treatment and control: Prevention Bacterin at 10-12 and 16-18 weeks and one age per farm can help prevent the disease. Destroy all clinically ill birds to contain spread of the organism. Live vaccine using homologous field strain can be given by water in tropical areas where bacterin is not effective. Treatment Administering bacterin at 8 and 16-18 weeks and keeping one age per farm can help prevent the disease. Treatment of all clinically ill birds will contribute to containing the spread of the organism

Sheep By-Products: The Hidden Resource
When most people think of sheep products, two items come to mind: meat and wool. Granted, these two products account for the majority of the income for sheep producers; however, there are numerous possibilities to use all parts of the sheep. In using the carcass to the full extent, everybody, from the producer to the consumer, benefits. The major benefits come from both economical and environmental aspects. By using all parts of the carcass, it becomes more valuable to the processor and as a result, the lamb becomes more valuable, meaning that the producer benefits economically. Most importantly, the consumer saves money in two ways from the processor using the entire lamb. First, the price of lamb meat is reduced because the processor's income increases by using the entire carcass. Second, since sheep byproducts can be sold at a low price, the products that they go into can also be sold at a lower cost. From an environmental standpoint, in using the entire carcass, less waste is accumulated. By producing less waste that needs to be disposed of, everyone benefits from a cleaner environment. Although by-products provide a great opportunity for everyone in the sheep industry to profit, few in the industry are actually reaping the benefits. It is only through educating those integrally involved in the industry that the full resources of this opportunity may come into fruition. The purpose of this web site is to explore and educate on the many by-product of sheep. To begin with, let's divide the parts of a sheep carcass that can be used for byproducts and describe how these products can be extracted. § From the Intestines § From the Horns, Hooves, & Bone § From Manure § From Fats & Fatty Acids § From Wool § From Hide

From the Intestines In most cases after the intestines are eviscerated, they would be disposed of. However, they can be converted to many valuable products. Once cleaned, the intestines can be used as natural casings for foods such as sausages and frankfurters. This type of casing provides an economical and safe packing material for these popular foods. A high value by-product of the intestines are instrument strings. Though labor intensive, this product can be sold at a high price. Sheep intestines provide a critical product for the veterinary field. Once processed, the intestines are made into suture material. By using natural sutures from sheep, veterinarians avoid complications such as immune responses, that arise from synthetic sutures. Also, these sutures are less invasive because the body reabsorbs them over time. From Horns, Hooves, & Bone The horns, hooves, and bones are rich sources of keratin and collagen among other things. These two proteins are important due to their binding ability and strength. The properties of these proteins allow the horns, hooves and bones of sheep to be used for a wide variety of products. These products include: bone charcoal for high grade steel, shampoo and conditioner, bone china, collagen and bone for plastic surgery, horn and bone handles, bone meal, bone jewelry, adhesive tape, gelatin capsules, bone charcoal pencils, marshmallows, piano keys, gelatin desserts (ice cream, yogart, and jello), film, and shepard crooks. From Manure One of the last places that one would look for a usable by-product is sheep manure. However, due to the ruminant digestive action of sheep, many valuable minerals are found in the manure. The manure contains nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium carbonate, and lower levels of various minerals. Since manure contains these minerals, it is a valuable part of such products as fertilizer and potash.

From Fats & Fatty Acids Although ill regarded and of little per unit value, fats and fatty acids can add to the value of the carcass. Due to the high quantities available on the carcass, once fats and fatty acids are further processed, uses can be found for these otherwise worthless attributes of the carcass. Sheep fat and fatty acids can be added to dog and chicken feeds with relatively little further processing. They provide an inexpensive source of energy to fill the needs of the diet. Through further processing, fats and fatty acids can be used as components in wax products. Examples of these products are: paraffin, crayons, candles, and floor wax. Also, fats and fatty acids play an integral role in chemicals; glycol is found in brake fluid and glycerol is the ingredient that makes asphalt stick together. To top things off, most people don't realize that products they use on themselves everyday, such as: makeup, cosmetics,

tanning lotion, shaving cream, and hand cream, contain sheep fat and fatty acids. From Wool Wool itself is a common product of the sheep industry, and like all other sheep products there is waste material generated that can be converted into profitable items. These products include: lanolin, artists brushes, insulation, and rug pads. Without wool by-products there would be no baseball because: the ball is stuffed with wool, it is sewn with wool thread, its rubber lining is made from stearic acid, and the cork center contains processed blood.

From Hide As an alternative to expensive leather from beef hides, sheep hides can be used as an economical alternative. Once removed and processed, the hides can be used in the making of sporting goods such as baseballs, footballs, tennis balls, and basketballs. Also, the leather from sheep hide can replace virtually all leather products made from the leather of beef hide such as footwear and drum heads.

In Conclusion Hopefuly this site has shown the potential of sheep by-products to benefit all those involved in the industry. From the producer to the consumer, everyone can enjoy lower prices and a better environment through the use of the many by-products described here. The knowledge of sheep by-products is the key that opens the door to both profits and a better environment for all those in the sheep industry. References and Resoures For Shepards' Crooks- For Sheep backgrounds and

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