You are on page 1of 59

The World Copper Factbook 2012

About ICSG
The International Copper Study Group (ICSG) was formally established as an autonomous inter-governmental organization on 23 January 1992, following a series of Ad Hoc meetings sponsored by the United Nations (UNCTAD) in 1986 and 1987 to review the world situation of copper and discuss the need for such a body. ICSG serves to increase copper market transparency and promote international discussions and cooperation on issues related to copper. In order to fulfill its mandate, the Study Group has three main objectives:  Increase market transparency by promoting an exchange of information on production, consumption, stocks, trade, and prices of copper, by forecasting production and consumption, and by assessing the present and future capacities of copper mines, plants, smelters and refineries. Promote international cooperation on matters related to copper, such as health and the environment, research, technology transfer, regulations and trade. Provide a global forum where industry and governments can meet and discuss common problems/objectives. The ICSG is the only inter-government forum solely dedicated to copper.

The current members of ICSG are: Australia Belgium Chile China European Union Finland France Germany Greece India Iran Italy Japan Luxembourg Mexico Peru Poland Portugal Russian Federation Serbia Spain Sweden United States Zambia

As part of its mandate to provide a global forum where industry and governments can meet and discuss common problems and objectives, ICSG meetings are held twice per year, typically in the Spring and Fall at ICSG Headquarters in Lisbon, Portugal. The meetings of the Study Group are open to government members, their industry advisors and invited observers.

International Copper Study Group

i

The World Copper Factbook 2012 ICSG Officers and Secretariat
INTERNATIONAL COPPER STUDY GROUP OFFICERS FOR 2012 Chairman Vice-Chairman Vice-Chairman STANDING COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman Finance Committee Chairman Mr Henrique Santos (Portugal) Mr Alfonso Martinez Vera (Mexico) Mr Henrique Santos (Portugal) Mr Salim Bhabhrawala (U.S.A.) Mr Andres Mac-Lean (Chile) Mr Bian Gang (China) STATISTICAL COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman INDUSTRY ADVISORY PANEL Chairman SECRETARIAT Secretary-General Chief Statistician Head of Environment and Economics Statistical Analyst/Economist Secretary Mr Don Smale Ms Ana Rebelo Mr Carlos Risopatron Ms Susanna Keung Ms Fatima Cascalho Mr Mark Loveitt (IWCC) Mr Daniel Edelstein (U.S.A.) Ms Marion Finney (Aurubis)

ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman Mrs Heli Kask (EU) Mr Shakeel Ahmed (India)

Contacts: International Copper Study Group Rua Almirante Barroso, 38-6º 1000-013 Lisbon, Portugal Tel: +351-21-351-3870 Fax: +351-21-352-4035 e-mail: mail@icsg.org website: www.icsg.org

Acknowledgements and Copyright: ICSG would like to thank the International Copper Association, the Copper Development Association, the European Copper Institute, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. National Park Service, the British Museum and Mr Luis Hernán Herreros Infante for their contributions to the Factbook. The International Copper Study Group's World Copper Factbook © 2012 is published by the ICSG.

International Copper Study Group

ii

The World Copper Factbook 2012 ICSG Publications
 COPPER BULLETIN (monthly). The ICSG Copper Bulletin includes annual and monthly statistics on copper and copper products, their production, usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, providing a global view of supply and demand. Subscribers to the Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual subscription.  ICSG 2011 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK (September 2011). The ICSG Copper Bulletin yearbook includes annual statistics on copper and copper products, their production, usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, providing a global view of supply and demand for the past 10 years. The Yearbook serves as a useful tool for consultations and analysis on the longer term evolution of world copper production, usage, stocks and prices. Subscribers to the Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual subscription.  DIRECTORY OF COPPER MINES AND PLANTS (February 2012 edition). The Directory of Copper Mines and Plants highlights current capacity and provides a five year outlook of forecasted capacity for over 1,000 existing and planned copper mines, plants and refineries on a country by country basis, including separate tables for SX-EW plants. Salient details for each operation are included and the Directory separates operations between Operating & Developing and Exploration & Feasibility stages. The Directory is published twice per year.  ICSG GLOBAL COPPER SCRAP RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT (August 2010). Copper scrap generation, trade and use are playing a key role to balance the growth observed in recent years in the global copper market. This report presents a comprehensive picture of the global copper scrap market and its determinants, synthesizing the findings of ICSG research project on the copper and copper alloy scrap market.  COPPER SCRAP MARKET IN JAPAN (2009), CHINA’S SCRAP USAGE SURVEY (2009), DOMESTIC COPER SCRAP GENERATION IN CHINA, 2010-2015 (2009), CHINESE COPPER SCRAP MARKET (2009) and THE COPPER SCRAP MARKET IN INDIA (2009) The Japanese Report by MERI/J provides an overview of the Japanese refined copper and copper scrap markets and also covers Japanese copper scrap trade, material flows, how scrap is categorized and relevant regulations. The Chinese Reports, prepared by BGRIMM, give insights into scrap usage in China at the smelters/refineries and fabricators and forecast domestic scrap generation in China. The Chinese Copper Scrap Market Study was prepared by Beijing Antaike and the Indian Study by the India Copper Development Centre.  DIRECTORY OF COPPER & COPPER ALLOY FABRICATORS (FIRST USE) 2011 EDITION. This directory provides a global overview of companies and plants involved in the first use of copper. First users are mainly semis fabricators that process refinery shapes into semi-finished copper and copper alloy products. Published July 2011.  ICSG STATISTICAL DATABASE. The ICSG maintains one of the world's most complete historical and current databases with statistics on copper production capacities, data on copper production, consumption, stocks, prices, recycling and trade for copper products. In 2012 ICSG launched its ONLINE STATISTICAL DATABASE that will give subscribers direct access to ICSG historical data. It will also offer subscribers specific data extraction tools that will enable users to download the data.  SURVEY ON NON FERROUS METAL SCRAP & REFINED INPUTS & PRODUCTION IN CHINESE COPPER & COPPER ALLOY SEMIS MANUFACTURING PLANTS (2012) A joint report of the ICSG, ILZSG and INSG, providing information on Chinese fabricators and their use of refined copper, nickel, zinc, lead and non ferrous scrap For more information about ICSG and ICSG publications, please visit our website at www.icsg.org

International Copper Study Group

iii

The World Copper Factbook 2012
Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region, 1980 & 2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production by Country: Top 20 Countries, 2011 Chapter 3: Copper Trade Major International Trade Flows of Copper Ores and Concentrates Major International Trade Flows of Copper Blister and Anode Major International Trae Flows of Refined Copper Leading Exporters and Importers of Semi-Fabricated Copper Products, 2010 The Global Copper Market and the Commodity "Copper" Copper Stocks, Prices and Usage Chapter 4: Copper Usage How is Copper Used? World Refined Copper Usage, 1900-2011p Refined Copper Usage by Region, 1960, 1980 & 2011p World Refined Copper Usage per Capita: 1950-2011p Intensity of Refined Copper Use Total Copper Usage, Including Copper Scrap, 2002-2010 Major Uses of Copper: Electrical Major Uses of Copper: Electronics and Communications Major Uses of Copper: Construction Major Uses of Copper: Transportation Major Uses of Copper: Industrial Machinery and Equiptment Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General Products Major Uses of Copper: Usage by End-Use Sector and Region, 2010 Chapter 5: Copper Recycling Copper Recycling Rate Definitions Global Copper Recyclables Use, 2002-2010 ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project The Flow of Copper ANNEX World Copper Production and Usage, 1960-2011 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 54 54

Table of Contents
About ICSG ICSG Officers and Secretariat ICSG Publications Table of Contents Chapter 1: Cu Basics What is Copper? Copper Properties and Benefits Selected Copper Definitions Copper in History Copper Today Chapter 2: Copper Production How is Copper Produced? Copper Mine Production: World Copper Mine Production, 1900-2011 Copper Mine Production by Region: 1960, 1980 & 2011p Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Trends in copper Mining Capacity, 1995-2015 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity, 2011 Constraints on Copper Supply Copper Smelter Production: World Copper Smelter Production 19762011p Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity, 1995-2015 Copper Smelter Production by Region, 1990-2011p Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity, 2011 World Refined Copper Production, 1960-2011p Trends in Refined Capacity, 1995-2015 Refined Copper Production by Region, 1990-2011p Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity, 2011 Semis Production: Copper & Copper Alloy and Casting Production, 1980-2010 i ii iii 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

International Copper Study Group

1

while ensuring that tomorrow's needs are not compromised. in silicate deposits (as chrysycolla and dioptase) and as pure "native" copper. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. International Copper Study Group 2 . Copper will continue to contribute to society’s development well into the future. contribute to ensuring that materials are used efficiently and effectively. is an important factor in ensuring society's sustainable development. and by taking advantage of the renewable nature of copper through reuse and recycling. processing. Copper is an important contributor to the national economies of mature. efficient design. Mining. As a nutrient and essential element. recycling and the transformation of metal into a multitude of products creates jobs and generates wealth. results in energy savings and contributes to ensuring that we have a sustainable source of metal for future generations. and supply and demand principles. The demand for copper will continue to be met by the discovery of new deposits. Copper also occurs naturally in humans. and create trade and investment opportunities. Life sustaining functions depend on copper. Its continued production and use is essential for society's development. in carbonate deposits (as azurite and malachite). technological improvements. bornite. Copper occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust in a variety of forms. Recycling copper extends the efficiency of use of the metal. covellite). once reprocessed. copper is vital to maintaining health. It is our ability to recycle metals over and over again that makes them a material of choice. animals and plants. chalcocite. Copper and copper-based alloys are used in a variety of applications that are necessary for a reasonable standard of living. These activities contribute to building and maintaining a country's infrastructure. competition between materials. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Chapter 1: Cu Basics What is Copper? Copper is a malleable and ductile metallic element that is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity as well as being corrosion resistant and antimicrobial. Organic life forms have evolved in an environment containing copper. It can be found in sulfide deposits (as chalcopyrite. Recycled copper (also known as secondary copper) cannot be distinguished from primary copper (copper originating from ores). How society exploits and uses its resources. As well. newly developed and developing countries.

as well as excesses. society's infrastructure is based. can be detrimental to health. such as zinc (to form brass). Copper's chemical. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals. for example. animal and humans. Deficiencies. Copper makes vital contributions to sustaining and improving society. industrial and high technology applications. aluminum or tin (to form bronzes).   International Copper Study Group 3 . on copper.383 kJ kg-1 K-1 394 W m-1 K-1 16.673 x 10 ohm-m Face-Centered Cubic -8 -3 But copper’s benefits extend beyond mechanical characteristics:   Copper is essential to the health of plants. Alloyed with other metals. copper and copper alloy products can be used to eliminate pathogens and reduce the spread of diseases. physical and aesthetic properties make it a material of choice in a wide range of domestic. Antimicrobial Properties. In fact. Copper can improve the efficiency of energy production and distribution systems. in part.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Key Physical Properties of Copper Copper Properties and Benefits Chemical Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Weight Density Melting point Specific Heat cp (at 293 K) Thermal conductivity Coefficient of linear expansion Young's Modulus of Elasticity Electrical Conductivity (% IACS) Crystal Structure Cu 29 63.54 8960 kg m 1356 K 0. Virtually all products made from copper can be recycled and recycled copper loses none of its chemical or physical properties. it can acquire new characteristics for use in highly specialized applications. Energy Efficiency. or nickel. Due to copper’s antimicrobial properties.5 x 10-6 K-1 110 x 109 N m-2 1. Recycling.

            Electrowinning. A copper anode at 99 percent purity will dissolve. Solvent extraction. or that has been converted to anode at the smelter level and then electrolytically refined. Sources: ICSG and USGS. Direct melt. Secondary refined material represents scrap that has been fire-refined. tube and other semifabricated forms are not included. more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material than blister. iron. from which it is made. more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material than matte. A product of flotation milling.99 percent pure. Usage. the exact percentage depending on the process parameters. A method of separating one or more metals from a leach solution by treating with a solvent that will extract the required metal. Usage data is either directly reported. The negative terminal in an electrolytic cell where copper is plated during electrowinning or electrolytic refining. consumers. Stocks. Secondary refined material. Only refined products at plant sites are included. both products requiring further processing to obtain copper metal. Copper concentrate. Cathode.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Selected Copper Definitions   Anode. producers and governments. leaving the others. It is an intermediate. ICSG reports refined copper stocks as those held by the exchanges. Direct melt scrap. and sulfur. Fire-refined copper. Primary copper. It can be processed pyrometallurgically in a smelter to produce matte or hydrometallurgically (pressure leaching) to produce pregnant leach solution.ending stocks. and high-purity copper is plated at the cathode. Items such as wire rod. or Remelt scrap is secondary material that can be used directly in a furnace without cleanup through the use of fluxes and poling and re-refining. An electrolytic refining process where less pure copper anode are dissolved. An electrolytic refining process where the anode is inert. Fire-refined copper contains about 99 percent copper. and rich (copper-loaded) electrolyte continually replaces lean (copper-depleted) electrolyte as copper is plated at the cathode. The product of a fire-refining furnace. Contained copper is defined as the analytical amount of copper outputted in concentrates and precipitates. Merchant stocks are included where it is certain that these are nonduplicative to those already reported. The product of a converting furnace. from which it is made. Copper extracted from ores and recovered as copper metal or copper-bearing chemicals. The metal is recovered from the solvent by further treatment. The positive terminal in an electrolytic cell where electrons leave a device to enter the external circuit. Blister. and is usually transferred to another furnace for further concentration.refined exports + refined beginning stocks . Electrorefining. Copper usage represents refined copper used by semifabricators. It is an intermediate. It composes sulfide minerals and entrained material and contains one-third each copper. or ICSG estimates an apparent usage using the following formula: Refined copper production + refined imports . International Copper Study Group 4 . Contained Copper. Copper so plated is referred to as “cathode” and is generally about 99.

000 years. During the Middle Ages. copper continues to serve society's needs.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper in History Archaeological evidence demonstrates that copper was one of the first metals used by humans and was used at least 10. During the prehistoric Chalcolithic Period (derived from chalkos. Greek and Roman needs for copper. Faraday and Ohm. innovative applications for copper are still being developed as evidenced by the development of the copper chip by the semi-conductors industry. 2. when alloyed with tin. copper and bronze works flourished in China. literally Cyprian metal. and the products manufactured from copper. The discoveries and inventions relating to electricity and magnetism of the late 18th and early 19th centuries by scientists such as Ampere. The discovery that copper.000 years ago for items such as coins and ornaments in western Asia.500 BC. As early as the 4th to 3rd millennium BC. man discovered how to extract and use copper to produce ornaments and implements. International Copper Study Group 5 . c. in addition to gold and silver. Cyprus supplied much of the Phoenician. the Copper Development Association and ICSG. helped launch the Industrial Revolution and propel copper into a new era. "Copper" is derived from the latin Cyprium. workers extracted copper from Spain's Huelva region. the pre-Columbian Maya. produces bronze. Israel's Timna Valley provided copper to the Pharaohs (an Egyptian papyrus records the use of copper to treat infections and to sterilize water). India and Japan. In South America. led to the Bronze Age. Aztec and Inca civilizations exploited copper. Although copper has been in use for at least 10. Today. Images courtesy of the British Museum. the Greek word for copper). The Greeks of Aristotle's era were familiar with brass as a valued copper alloy.

The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Today The global demand for copper continues to grow: world refined usage has more than tripled in the last 50 years thanks to expanding sectors such as electrical and electronic products.org.1 million tonnes. heat exchangers.5 million tonnes of secondary refined production. and consumer and general products.6 million tonnes. Smelter production in 2011 reached over 15. including 3. transportation equipment. New copper applications being developed include antimicrobial copper touch surfaces. building construction. China was also the largest consumer of refined copper in 2011 with apparent usage of over 7. © Copyright Anglo American (Faena Los Bronces y Mantos Blancos – Chile) International Copper Study Group 6 . and recycling. and new consumer products as well.9 million tonnes. Images courtesy of CDA and Luis Hernán Herreros from www.3 million tonnes). Copper Usage Highlights Refined copper usage (usage by semis plants or the first users of copper) in 2011 reached nearly 20.cl. please visit our website at www. China was the largest producer of blister & anode in 2011 (over 4. Copper Production Highlights Preliminary figures indicate that global copper mine production in 2011 reached over 16 million tonnes. more in-depth information is presented on copper production. high tech copper wire.8 million tonnes. lead-free brass plumbing. Refinery Production in 2011 increased to nearly 19. equipment was the largest copper end-use sector last year. trade. The largest producer of mined copper was Chile (nearly 5. usage. In the chapters that follow. Some of the highlights of 2011 copper production and usage are listed below. followed by infrastructure and building construction. For the most up-to-date information on the global copper market.7 million tonnes) According to the International Copper Association (ICA). industrial machinery and equipment.visnu.icsg.

refined copper cathodes. secondary copper refined production reached around 18% of total copper refined production. International Copper Study Group 7 . The molten matte is processed in a converter resulting in a so-called blister copper of 98. Refined copper production attributable to recycled scrap feed is classified as “secondary copper production”. copper is extracted from mainly low grade oxide ores and also some sulphide ores. refined copper production from SX-EW represented 17% of total copper refined production. Under the right geological. The obtained copper concentrates typically contain around 30% of copper. increasingly.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Chapter 2: Copper Production How is Copper Produced? Geologists look for signs and/or anomalies that would indicate the presence of a mineral deposit. The output is the same as through the electro-refining route . economic. or. There are three basic ways of copper mining: surface. ICSG estimates that in 2011.5% copper content.5-99. After the ore has been mined.99% of copper. Open-pit mining is the predominant mining method in the world. sometimes preceded by a roasting step. it is crushed and ground followed by a concentration by flotation. there is another important source of raw material which is scrap. Copper scrap derives from either metals discarded in semis fabrication or finished product manufacturing processes (“new scrap”) or obsolete end-of-life products (“old scrap”). re-melted and cast into anodes for electro-refining. In the following smelting process. assaying over 99. Alternatively. copper is transformed into a “matte” containing 50-70% copper. underground mining and leaching. Refined copper production derived from mine production (either from metallurgical treatment of concentrates or SX-EW) is referred to as “primary copper production”. as obtainable from a primary raw material source. at the refinery level. However. Primary copper production starts with the extraction of copper-bearing ores. ICSG estimates that in 2011. The output of electro-refining is refined copper cathodes. but grades can range from 20 to 40 per cent. environmental and legal conditions. in the hydrometallurgical route. through leaching (solvent extraction) and electrowinning (SX-EW process). the blister copper is fire refined in the traditional process route. mining can proceed. In the next step. Secondary producers use processes similar to those employed for primary production.

000 6.000 10.000 8. SX-EW production.000 14.4 million tonnes copper in 2011.000 2. when world production was less than 500 thousand tonnes copper. virtually non-existent before the 1960s. reached nearly 3.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Mine Production World Copper Mine Production. International Copper Study Group 8 . 1900-2011 (thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG 16. world copper mine production has grown by around 3% per year to reach over 16 million tonnes in 2011.000 12.000 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Concentrates SX-EW Since 1900.000 4.

*preliminary data International Copper Study Group 9 . 1980 & 2011p (Thousand metric tonnes copper) 1960 2011p 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Africa Asia Europe Latin America North America Oceania From less than 750 thousand tonnes copper in 1960. copper mine production in Latin America surged to around 7 million tonnes in 2011. 1980 & 2011p* (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG Source: ICSG 1980 Copper Mine Production by Region.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Mine Production by Region. 1960. 1960.

000 Chile accounted for over one-third of world copper mine production in 2011 with mine output of nearly 5.000 3. International Copper Study Group 10 .000 4. Zambia Canada Indonesia Mexico Congo Poland Kazakhstan Iran Brazil Papua New Guinea Laos Mongolia Argentina Bulgaria 0 1.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG Chile China Peru United States Australia Russian Fed.3 million tones copper.000 2.000 5.

000 10.000 2.000 18.000 4.000 - Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 SX-EW 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Concentrates Total Mines Copper mining capacity is estimated to reach 26.000 26. 1995-2015 28.000 16.000 20.000 24.000 6.000 8.2 million tonnes copper in 2015.000 14.000 12.000 22.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Trends in Copper Mining Capacity. International Copper Study Group 11 . with 22% being SX-EW production.

250 920 750 520 470 434 430 420 370 300 280 250 250 246 230 225 215 204 200 195 Grasberg Collahuasi Los Pelambres El Teniente Taimyr Peninsula (Norilsk/ Talnakh Mills) Morenci Antamina Andina Bingham Canyon Batu Hijau Kansanshi Los Bronces Zhezkazgan Complex Olympic Dam Rudna Sarcheshmeh Spence La Caridad International Copper Study Group 12 . Rio Tinto Corp. Xstrata plc (44%). BHP Billiton Mexicana de Cobre S. National Iranian Copper Industry Co. Sumitomo Metal Mining & Mitsubishi Materials 31. (Grupo Mexico) Source Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concentrates Concentrates Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Capacity 1. Radomiro Tomic. 24.5%). A. Teck (22. Xstrata plc (33. Newmont 41. Rio Tinto Anglo American (44%).5%.T.A.5%. Freeport Indonesia Co.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity.75%). Mitsubishi Corp. 2011 Thousand metric tones copper Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Escondida Codelco Norte (includes Chuquicamata. 15% affiliates of Sumitomo Corporation BHP Billiton (33.5%).75%).5% Kazakhmys (Samsung) BHP Billiton KGHM Polska Miedz S. ZCCM (20%) Anglo Amercian 75. Japan Escondida (12. (10%) Codelco Kennecott PT Pukuafu 20%. (PT-FI).5%) Codelco P. (30%). Mina Ministro Hales project) Mine Country Chile Chile Indonesia Chile Chile Chile Russia United States Peru Chile United States Indonesia Zambia Chile Kazakhstan Australia Poland Iran Chile Mexico Owner(s) BHP Billiton (57. Mitsui + Nippon (12%) Antofagasta Plc (60%). PT Multi Daerah Bersaing 7% First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%).. Nippon Mining (25%).5%. Sumitomo Corp. Mitsubishi Corp. Mitsubishi Materials (15%) Codelco Norilsk Nickel Freeport-McMoRan Inc 85%.

Resource nationalism: It has become a priority for certain governments to develop their mineral resources that have not been exploited until now.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Constraints on Copper Supply With copper concentrate in strong demand. there has been growing interest in understanding the obstacles that can prevent copper mine supply from coming on-stream. please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. For more information about ICSG research related to constraints on copper supply. While willing to develop their natural resources. underestimations of US dollar inflation was source of many cost overruns Tax & investment regimes: recent research indicates these are less important than geological endowments Water supply: a critical issue in dry mining districts Energy: coal is the fuel chosen to power main copper mines and processes… climate change may increase costs. Shipping costs: not an issue for copper. During 2008-2009. but tend to be longer and less frequent in cool economic times and also when copper prices are down High domestic costs if there is “dutch disease” (resulting in higher exchange rates due in part to strong exports) Rate between imported inputs and domestic input costs affected by the currency strength of the producer Market power/concentration: risks have moved to the import demand side versus export supply side in recent years Peace and security is also a key factor International Copper Study Group 13 . Below are some of the operational and financial constraints identified from the study.. for now Sulphuric acid supply and price: 16% cost factor for SX-EW projects Skilled labor: open labor markets would help address this constraint Labor strikes: tend to increase when refined prices are high and GDP is growing faster. countries might be seeking to extract strong revenue flows from them.org                Falling Ore Grades: a serious issue in developed copper areas such as the USA and Chile Project finance: cost of capital is a central factor. the ICSG Secretariat conducted a project on Constraints on New Copper Supply Coming On Stream.. It will be important to balance royalty/taxation levels with the need to encourage capital investment to develop their rising industries. High interest rates may reduce supply significantly Capital cost overruns: in the past. with the final project report completed in October 2009.

world copper smelter production reached 15.500 11. Secondary copper smelters use copper scrap as their feed. Primary smelters use mine concentrates as their main source of feed (although some use copper scrap as well).500 6.000 8.000 13.000 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 Primary Feed Secondary Feed Smelting is the pyrometallurgical process used to produce copper metal.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Smelter Production World Copper Smelter Production. International Copper Study Group 14 . Recently. In 2011.8 million tonnes copper. 1976-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 16. the trend to recover copper directly from ores through leaching processes has been on the increase.

000 - 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Electric 2011 Low Grade EW 2013 Unkown 2015 Flash/Continuous Reverb/Blast/Rotary Modified Reverb/Convert International Copper Study Group 15 .000 15.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity. 1995-2015 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.000 10.000 5.

000 7.000 6.000 1.000 4.000 5. 1990-2011p 9.000 0 International Copper Study Group 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Asia’s share of world copper smelter output jumped from 27% in 1990 to 55% in 2011 as smelter production in China expanded rapidly.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Smelter Production by Region.000 3.000 2. 16 .000 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 8.

The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Japan Chile Russian Fed.000 4. Chile (9%) and the Russian Federation (5%).000 In 2011.000 2. followed by Japan (9%). Poland Zambia Australia Kazakhstan Canada Peru Bulgaria Indonesia Iran Spain Brazil Sweden 0 1.000 3.000 5. International Copper Study Group 17 . India Germany United States Korean Rep. China accounted for around 30% of world copper smelter output.

Sumitomo (35%). 2011 Thousand metric tones copper Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 8 8 8 11 12 13 13 13 16 17 17 17 20 Smelter Guixi (smelter) Birla Copper (Dahej) Codelco Norte (smelter) Saganoseki/ Ooita (smelter) Hamburg Besshi/ Ehime (Toyo) Saganoseki/ Oita (smelter) El Teniente (Caletones) Jinchuan (smelter) Norilsk (Nikelevy. Electric Outokumpu Flash Outokumpu Flash Reverberatory/ Teniente Conv. (49.1%) Xstrata plc Tongling Nonferrous Metals Corp. Furukawa Metals & Resources Co. Ltd. Ltd.(31.4%).15%). Dowa Metals & Mining Co. Outokumpu Flash Process Capacity 900 500 450 450 450 450 450 400 400 400 380 360 350 350 350 322 320 320 320 306 Outokumpu Flash. Norilsk G-M Vedanta Southern Copper Corp. Vanyukov Isasmelt Process Isasmelt Process Noranda Continuous Flash Smelter Isasmelt Process Reverberatory Mitsubishi Continuous Outokumpu Flash Kennecott/ Outokumpu Mitsubishi Continuous International Copper Study Group 18 .29%). Ausmelt. Ltd Aurubis Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity. Ltd. (LS.67%) LS-Nikko Co. (57. Pan Pacific Copper Co. (Grupo Mexico 75.Ferrous Metal Co. Reverb. Ltd Codelco Chile Jinchuan Non. Nippon Mining) Atlantic Copper S. (12.A. Birla Group Codelco Pan Pacific Copper Co. Electric. Mitsubishi Continuous Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter Outokumpu Flash Outokumpu. Yunnan Copper Industry Group (Local Government) Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (Freeport McMoran) Kennecott (Rio Tinto) Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Reverberatory/ Kaldo Conv. Medny) Sterlite Smelter (Tuticorin) Ilo Smelter Altonorte (La Negra) Jinlong (Tongdu) Yunnan Onahama/ Fukushima Onsan II Huelva Garfield (smelter) Naoshima/ Kagawa (smelter) Country China India Chile Japan Germany Japan Japan Chile China Russia India Peru Chile China China Japan Korean Republic Spain United States Japan Operator/Owner(s) Jiangxi Copper Corp. Pingguo Aluminium Co. Contimelt.

refined copper produced from leaching ores has been on the rise.000 7. 1960-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.500 5.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Refined Copper Production World Refined Copper Production.000 2.000 12.500 0 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 Refinery Primary Refinery Secondary Refinery SX-EW With the emergence of solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW) technology.000 17. increasing from less than 1% of world refined copper production in the late 1960’s to 17% of world output in 2011.500 10.500 15. International Copper Study Group 19 .

000 16.000 26.000 12.000 24.000 6.000 18.000 20.000 - 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Electrolytic Electrowinning Fire Refining This chart shows world copper refinery capacity by refining process.000 8. International Copper Study Group 20 . 1995-2015 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 28.000 10.000 2.000 14.000 4. The ratio between production and capacity is called the capacity utilization rate.000 22. The world refinery capacity utilization rate was around 80% in 2011.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Trends in Refined Capacity.

500kt in 1990.000 3.000 7.000 4.000 8.000 6.250 kt). followed by Europe (3.000 0 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Region with the highest output of refined copper in 1990: the Americas (4.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Refined Copper Production by Region. International Copper Study Group 21 . 1990-2011p 9.000 2.024 kt) as compared to 2.000 5.004 kt) Leading region in the world in 2011: Asia (9.000 1.

The World Copper Factbook 2012 Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Chile Japan United States Russian Fed. Germany India Korean Rep.000 2.000 22 .000 4. Poland Zambia Australia Belgium Peru Spain Mexico Congo Kazakhstan Indonesia Canada Iran 0 International Copper Study Group 1.000 5.000 3.

5%) Electrowinning Tongling Non Ferrous Co. Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Japan Escondida (12. 7. Itochu Corp. Aurubis Norilsk Nickel Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic International Copper Study Group 23 . Rio Tinto Corp. Sumitomo Corp.8%) Birla Group Hidalco Jinchuan Non Ferrous Co. 52 %.5% Aurubis Vedanta Uralelectromed (Urals Mining & Metallurgical Co.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity. (30%).5%). 2011 Thousand metric tones copper Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 3 3 6 7 7 9 10 10 12 13 13 15 16 16 16 16 20 20 Guixi Chuquicamata Refinery Yunnan Copper Birla Jinchuan Codelco Norte (SX-EW) Toyo/Niihama (Besshi) Amarillo El Paso (refinery) Las Ventanas Jinlong (Tongdu) (refinery) Hamburg (refinery) Sterlite Refinery Pyshma Refinery CCR Refinery (Montreal) Ilo Copper Refinery Morenci (SX-EW) Escondida (SX-EW) Zhangjiagang Olen Norilsk Refinery Refinery Country China Chile China India China Chile Japan United States United States Chile China Germany India Russia Canada Peru United States Chile China Belgium Russia Jiangxi Copper Corporation Codelco Yunnan Copper Industry Group (64.5%. Ltd. Grupo Mexico Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Codelco Tongling NonFerrous Metal Corp./Sumitomo Owner(s) Process Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrowinning Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrowinning Capacity 900 600 500 500 500 470 450 450 415 400 400 395 380 380 370 360 350 350 350 345 330 BHP Billiton (57. 7. Codelco Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.) Xstrata plc Southern Copper Corp. Sharpline International 13%.

000 18.000 9. alloy wire mills. China data included here since 2009 as no breakdown available Semis fabricators process refinery shapes such as cathodes. ingot. master alloy plants.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Semis Production Copper and Copper Alloy and Casting Production. International Copper Study Group 24 . found ries and foil mills.000 21. wire rod plants.000 24.000 15. 1980-2010 27.000 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Copper Semis Copper Alloy Semis Not specified (1) Foundry Castings (1) Includes all semis production of not specified composition.000 3.000 12. billet slab and cake into semi-finished copper and copper alloy products using both unwrought copper materials and direct melt scrap as raw material feed. Semis fabricators are considered to be the “first users” of refined copper and include ingot makers. wire bar. brass mills.000 6.

000 8. or more than 15. up from 22% in 1980. International Copper Study Group 25 .000 10.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region.2 million metric tonnes. 1980 & 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 16.000 4.000 14.000 2.000 12.000 0 Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania South America 1980 2010 Asia accounted for 66% of semis production in 2010.000 6.

000 35. International Copper Study Group Wire rod plants are estimated to have accounted for just under half of all first use capacity in 2011.000 Semis Production Capacity by Product.000 25. China accounted for the largest share of world semis capacity production (32%) and the largest number of semis plants (499).000 45.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Semis Production Capacity by Region.000 - 2010 Wire Rod Tubes Ingots PSS Unclassified Foil 2011 RBS Alloy Wire Powder In 2011. or nearly 21 Mt. 26 .000 40.000 15. 2010 vs 2011 (kt gross weight) Source: ICSG Americas 14% 20.000 10. 2011 (%) Source: ICSG Africa Russian Fed. Norway & Switzerland 21% North Asia (exChina) 15% 5. & Central Asia 1% 5% Middle East 5% China 32% South Asia & Oceania 7% 50.000 30.000 EU27.

000 12.000 4.000 6. 2011 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China USA Japan Germany Korea Italy India Taiwan Russia Turkey France Brazil Belgium Spain Thailand United… Indonesia Egypt Poland Iran 0 2.000 27 International Copper Study Group .000 14.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production Capacity by Country: Top 20 Countries.000 8.000 10.

2010p Thousand metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise noted) Source: ICSG Concentrates Blister & Anode Refined Copper Copper Scrap /1 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis /1 Copper powders and compounds are also traded globally. International Copper Study Group 28 . such as import duties or export quotas. For more information about the international trade of copper and changes in regulations that can affect the trade of copper. In additional. and vice versa.000 8. electronic equipment and other products. please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. but typically in much smaller quantities.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Chapter 3: Copper Trade Copper products across the value chain are traded internationally.000 4. copper is contained in end-use products that are traded globally including automobiles. 2010p Thousand metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise noted) Source: ICSG Concentrates Blister & Anode Refined Copper Copper Scrap /1 Image courtesy of the Copper Development Association.000 8. Major product categories of copper traded internationally include:      Copper concentrates Copper blister and anode Copper cathode and ingots Copper scrap and Copper semis World Copper Exports by Product Category. Often.org1 0 2. Changes in trade regulations.000 6. appliances.000 4. Copper & Copper Alloy Semis /1 0 1 2.000 Gross metal weight.000 World Copper Imports by Product Category. can have significant impacts on the international trade of copper.000 6. countries where upstream copper production capacity exceeds downstream production capacity will import the raw materials needed to meet their production needs.

India 4. . Spain 6. Brazil 10.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major International Trade Ores and Concentrates1 Major Trade Flows Flowsof ofCopper Copper Ores and Concentrates1 Major Exporters of Copper Ores and Concentrates. Finland 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. 2. Philippines 8. 2010 1. Kazakhstan Major Importers of Copper Ores and Concentrates. 2010 1. Mongolia 10. 3. Korean Rep. Japan 3. 5. Chile Peru Indonesia Australia Canada Brazil Argentina Papua New Guinea 9. Bulgaria 9. 4. 6. China 2. 8. 7. Germany 7. 5.

Peru 9. Austria 9. Chile 2. International Copper Study Group 30 . Spain 6. Belgium 4. Armenia Major Importers of Copper Blister and Anode. USA 10. Finland 5. Canada 6. Australia 5. Belgium 3. 2010 1. Bulgaria 7. 2010 1. 8. Germany 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Netherlands 3. China 2. Canada 8. Korean Rep.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major International Trade of Copper Blister Major International Trade Flows of Copper Blister and Anode1 1 and Anode Major Exporters of Copper Blister and Anode. Netherlands 4. Mexico 7. USA 10.

The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major International Trade Flows of Refined Major International Trade Flows of Refined Copper1 1 Copper Major Exporters of Refined Copper. Turkey 8. USA 5. India 10. 7. Taiwan 6. Korean Rep. Germany 3. Russia 5. Thailand 10. China 2. Australia 7. Japan 4. Italy 4. Zambia 3. France 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. International Copper Study Group 31 . 2010 1. 2010 1. Poland 8. Brazil 9. Peru 6. Kazakhstan 9. Chile 2. Netherlands Major Importers of Refined Copper.

The World Copper Factbook 2012 Leading Exporters and Importers of Semi-Fabricated Copper Products. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes.000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Exporters International Copper Study Group 32 . Source: ICSG 1.000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Importers 1.

More recently. as any other good or merchandise. delivery warehouses and other aspects related to the trading process. the size of the lot. reflecting the market's perception of supply and demand of a commodity on a particular day. Exchanges also provide for warehousing facilities that enable market participants to make or take physical delivery of copper in accordance with each exchange's criteria. The existence of futures contracts also allows producers and their clients to agree on different price settling schemes to accommodate different interests. Exchanges The role of a commodity exchange is to facilitate and make transparent the process of settling prices. In these exchanges.000 2. copper is traded in lots of 5 tonnes and quoted in Renminbi per tonne. and on the SHME. so that downstream fabricators can transform these into different end-use products.000 pounds and quoted in US cents per pound. prices are settled by bid and offer. Cash). Three commodity exchanges provide the facilities to trade copper: The London Metal Exchange (LME). who transform the metal into shapes or alloys.000 0 Current $ Constant 2005 $ International Copper Study Group 33 . thus providing a hedge against price variations. In this process the participation of speculators. Grade A. delivery dates. On the LME.000 8. Producers sell their present or future production to clients. 1960-2011 US$ per tonne Source: ICSG 10.000 4. mini contracts of smaller lots sizes have been introduced at the exchanges. One of the most important factors in trading a commodity such as copper is the settlement price for the present day (spot price) or for future days. These allow producers and consumers to fix a price in the future.000 3. on COMEX.000 5.000 6.000 9.000 1. Average Annual Copper Prices (LME. Contracts are unique for each exchange. copper is traded in lots of 25. Exchanges also provide for the trading of futures and options contracts. the Commodity Exchange Division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (COMEX/NYMEX) and the Shanghai Metal Exchange (SHME).The World Copper Factbook 2012 The Global Copper Market and the Commodity “Copper” Copper. copper is traded in 25 tonne lots and quoted in US dollars per tonne.000 7. gives liquidity to the market. who are ready to buy the risk of price variation in exchange for monetary reward. is traded between producers and consumers. A futures or options contract defines the quality of the product.

400 2.325 2.650 1.300 3.050 975 900 825 750 675 600 525 450 375 300 225 150 75 0 Jan Jul 01 Jan Jul 02 Jan Jul 03 Jan Jul 04 Jan Jul 05 Jan 01 02 03 04 05 06 Exchanges Producers Merchants Consumers Chapter 4: Copper Usage 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Jan12 Thousand metric tonnes.950 1.075 3.025 1.875 1.425 1.625 2.100 2. copper Jul Jan 07 Jul Jan 08 Jul Jan 09 Jul Jan10 Jul Jan11 Jul 3 mth moving average copper usage seasonally adjusted Price LME (UScents/pound) International Copper Study Group Price LME (US cents/pound) 34 .225 3.200 1.125 1.175 2.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Stocks.500 1.575 1.250 2.150 3.550 2.475 2. Prices and Usage Thousand metric tonnes and US cents/pound Source: ICSG 3.725 1.925 2.800 1.775 2.850 2.000 2.700 2.275 1.375 3.350 1.

billet. wire rod. rolling.org International Copper Study Group 35 . tube. plate. castings. and a whole range of other copper-dependent products in order to meet society’s needs. Through extrusion.icsg. major uses of copper and end-use. Copper and copper alloy semis can be further transformed by downstream industries for use in end use products such as automobiles. fabricators form wire. rod. appliances. This section provides a range of information about refined copper usage. The fabricators of these shapes are called the first users of copper. sheet. please visit the ICSG website at www. total use.The World Copper Factbook 2012 How Is Copper Used? Copper is shipped to fabricators mainly as cathode. drawing. strip. The total use of copper includes copper scrap that is directly melted by the first users of copper to produce copper semis. melting. electronics. powder and other shapes. electrolysis or atomization. For the most up-to-date information on refined copper usage. cake (slab) or ingot. forging.

International Copper Study Group 36 . demand for refined copper increased from less than 500 thousand tonnes to nearly 20 million metric tonnes in 2011 as demand over the period grew by an average of 3% per year.000 2.000 12.500 10.000 17.500 0 Since 1900. 1900-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.The World Copper Factbook 2012 World Refined Copper Usage.500 15.500 5.000 7.

000 2. International Copper Study Group 37 .000 8.000 0 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania 1960 1980 2011p Growth in refined copper usage has been especially strong in Asia.000 Thousand Metric Tonnes Copper 12.000 10.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Refined Copper Usage by Region.000 4. 1960. 1980 & 2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 14. where demand has expanded more than five fold in less than 30 years.000 6.

including ingot makers. master alloy plants.0 2. wire rod plants. As a result.0 1.0 3.5 3.5 population (bln) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. International Copper Study Group 38 kg per person . foundries and foil mills.5 1.0 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 World Population Refined Copper Usage per Capita *Refined copper is consumed by semis fabricators or the “first users” of refined copper.0 0.The World Copper Factbook 2012 World Refined Copper Usage* per Capita: 1950-2011p Sources: ICSG and US Census Bureau 8 7 6 4. per capita consumption of refined copper refers to the amount of copper consumed by industry divided by the total population and does not represent consumption of copper in finished products per person. alloy wire mills.5 2. brass mills.

53 5414 5.81 46878 27.64 50.00 35.39 12789 2.00 10. foundries and foil mills. alloy wire mills.00 Refined copper use per capita (kg/person) 45.42 45920 7.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Intensity of Refined Copper Use* Sources: ICSG and International Monetary Fund Australia Belgium Brazil Canada Chile China France Germany India Italy Japan Thailand Indonesia Malaysia Egypt Iran Korean Rep Mexico Peru Poland Portugal Russian Fed Saudi Arabia Spain Taiwan Turkey UAE United States GDP (Current Int'l $ per capita) Refined Cu use (kg/person) 65477 5.33 50436 4.56 36267 10.91 22778 17.00 Italy Poland Malaysia China Saudi Arabia Turkey Chile Thailand Russian Fed Brazil EgyptIran Portugal Mexico India Peru Indonesia Spain Germany Japan United States France Canada Australia 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 GDP per capita (2011 US$/person) *Refined copper is consumed by semis fabricators or the “first users” of refined copper.20 14278 5. wire rod plants.00 Taiwan Korean Rep 15. brass mills.14 10153 2.83 13540 7.89 20101 23.66 5782 1.05 20504 7. master alloy plants.00 Belgium 25.00 67008 42.14 12993 3. per capita consumption of refined copper refers to the amount of copper consumed by industry divided by the total population and does not represent consumption of copper in finished products per person.00 UAE 40.32 1389 0.10 32360 7.25 22413 0.00 5.27 2970 2.00 30. International Copper Study Group 39 .90 3509 0.87 5394 3.88 43742 16.83 9700 6.03 6360 1. As a result.90 10522 5. including ingot makers.00 20.82 44008 3.79 48387 5.

000 10.000 5.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Total Copper Usage. Including Copper Scrap.000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 International Copper Study Group 40 .000 Total scrap 20. 2002-2010 Thousand metric tonnes copper Source: ICSG 25.000 Primary refined 15.

copper's exceptional strength. fuel cells and other technologies are all heavily reliant on copper due to its excellent conductivity. ductility and resistance to creeping and corrosion makes it the preferred and safest conductor for commercial and residential building wiring.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Electrical Copper is the best nonprecious metal conductor of electricity as it encounters much less resistance compared with other commonly used metals. the International Copper Association and the International Copper Promotion Council (India). for high. In addition. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. geothermal. ICSG. motors and motor systems using more energy efficient high pressure copper die castings. wind. motors. transformers and renewable energy production systems. is supervising the Transfer of Technology for High Pressure Copper Die Casting in India project. International Copper Study Group 41 . The project is designed to facilitate the transfer of technology related to the manufacture of rotors. Renewable energy sources such as solar. It sets the standard to which other conductors are compared. medium and low voltage applications. Copper is also used in power cables. in partnership with the Common Fund for Commodities. Copper is an essential component of energy efficient generators. either insulated or uninsulated.

including internet service." By using copper for circuitry in silicon chips. transformers. International Copper Study Group 42 . Copper and copper alloy products are used in domestic subscriber lines. using less energy. microprocessors are able to operate at higher speeds. connectors and switches. Copper is also used extensively in other electronic equipment in the form of wires. Semiconductor manufacturers have launched a revolutionary "copper chip. mobile phones and personal computers. HDSL (High Digital Subscriber Line) and ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) technology allows for high-speed data transmission. through the existing copper infrastructure of ordinary telephone wire.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Electronics and Communications Copper plays a key role in worldwide information and communications technologies. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and European Copper Institute. wide and local area networks. Copper heat sinks help remove heat from transistors and keep computer processors operating at peak efficiency.

that gives copper the classic look of warmth and richness. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Association. doors and window frames. Major public buildings. is used in a variety of settings to build facades. is well known for its resistance to extreme weather conditions. copper and its alloys. Unlike plastic tubing.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Construction Copper and brass are the materials of choice for plumbing. International Copper Study Group 43 . copper does not burn. such as architectural bronze. in addition to being attractive. Copper roofing. commercial buildings and homes use copper for their rainwater goods and roofing needs. Thanks in part to its aesthetic appeal. melt or release noxious or toxic fumes in the event of a fire. canopies. The telltale green patina finish. valves and fittings. is the result of natural weathering. The use of copper doorknobs and plates exploits copper's biostatic properties to help prevent the transfer of disease and microbes. Copper fire sprinkler systems are a valuable safety feature in buildings. taps. Copper tubes also help protect water systems from potentially lethal bacteria such as legionella.

radiators.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Transportation All major forms of transportation depend on copper to perform critical functions. connectors. corrosion resistance and recyclability make it ideal for automotive and truck radiators.6 km (1 mile) in length. strength. Electric and hybrid vehicles can contain even higher levels of copper. smaller and more efficient radiators.5 kg (50 lbs) of copper. Copper-nickel alloys are used on the hulls of boats and ships to reduce marine biofouling. significantly higher than the 1 to 2 tonnes used in traditional electric trains. processes and innovative designs are resulting in lighter. while luxury cars on average contain around 1. the average mid-size automobile contains about 22. Today. thereby reducing drag and improving fuel consumption. International Copper Study Group 44 . Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and the European Copper Institute. New high-speed trains can use anywhere from 2 to 4 tonnes of copper. brakes and bearings.500 copper wires totaling about 1. Copper is also used extensively in new generation airplanes and trains. wiring. New manufacturing technologies. Automobiles and trucks rely on copper motors. Copper's superior thermal conductivity.

Due to their durability. and copper-nickel) make them especially suitable for use in marine and other demanding environments. tanks.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Industrial Machinery and Equipment Wherever industrial machinery and equipment is found. The corrosion resistant properties of copper and copper alloys (such as brass. International Copper Study Group 45 . pressure vessels and vats. all depend on copper's corrosion resistance for protection Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. and piping exposed to seawater. bearings and turbine blades. it is a safe bet that copper and its alloys are present. Copper's superior heat transfer capabilities and ability to withstand extreme environments makes it an ideal choice for heat exchange equipment. copper alloys are ideal for making products such as gears. machinability and ability to be cast with high precision and tolerances. propellers. Vessels. bronze. oil platforms and coastal power stations.

Computers. coins contain a pure copper core and 75% copper face. one cent coins and five cent coins contain 2. Department of the Treasury. in areas known to be copper deficient.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General Products From the beginning of civilization copper has been used by various societies to make coins for currency. also contain copper. cookware. as these coins last 10. first introduced in 2002.5% and 75% copper.S.S. electrical appliances. copper is used by farmers to supplement livestock and crop feed. Copper and copper-based products are used in offices. Images courtesy of the International Copper Association and the Copper Development Association. brassware. households and workplaces. and locks and keys are just some of the products exploiting copper's advantages. countries are replacing lower denomination bills with copper-based coins. Today. In the United States.1 In the recently expanded European Union. while other U. In addition. 20 and even 50 times longer. respectively. 1 Source: U. the Euro coins. International Copper Study Group 46 .

thousand metric tonnes Source: International Copper Association Europe 22% North America 10% Latin America 6% Building Construction 32% Equipment 54% Infrastructure 14% Asia 62% International Copper Study Group 47 . 2010 Basis: copper content.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Usage by Region and End Use Sector.

some emissions. so we also rely on copper produced from the processing of mineral ores. Images courtesy of the European Copper Institute. and waste disposal. It is widely recognized that recycling is not in opposition to primary metal production. recycled copper alone cannot meet society's needs. However. In the recent decades. International Copper Study Group 48 . and to minimize energy use. the existing copper reservoir in use can well be considered a legitimate part of world copper reserves. Considering this. Closing metal loops through increased reuse and recycling enhances the overall resource productivity and therefore represents one of the key elements of society’s transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. Some countries' copper requirements greatly depend on recycled copper to meet internal demands. but is a necessary and beneficial complement. recycling has the potential to extend the use of resources.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Chapter 5: Copper Recycling Copper is among the few materials that do not degrade or lose their chemical or physical properties in the recycling process. If appropriately managed. In 2010. an increasing emphasis has been placed on the sustainability of material uses in which the concept of reuse and recycling of metals plays an important role in the material choice and acceptance of products. ICSG estimates that more than 30% of copper consumption came from recycled copper.

The RIR has been in use in the metals industry for a long time and is widely available from statistical sources. data availability and target audience. Major target audiences for this type of “metallurgical” indicator are the metal industry. Copper Recycling Rate Definitions The recycling performance of copper-bearing products can be measured and demonstrated in various ways – depending. new scrap. processors. International Copper Study Group 49 . and metal recyclers. The RIR is mainly a statistical measurement for raw material availability and supply rather than an indicator of recycling efficiency of processes or products. and environmental policy makers.The World Copper Factbook 2012  The Overall Recycling Efficiency Rate (Overall RER) indicates the efficiency with which end of life (EOL) scrap. it may have limited use as a policy tool. metal traders and resource policy makers. and other metal-bearing residues are collected and recycled by a network of collectors. The three International Non-Ferrous Metal Study Groups in conjunction with various metal industry associations agreed on the common definitions of the three following metal recycling rates:  The Recycling Input Rate (RIR) measures the proportion of metal and metal products that are produced from scrap and other metal-bearing lowgrade residues.  The EOL Recycling Efficiency Rate (EOL RER) indicates the efficiency with which EOL scrap from obsolete products is recycled. scope. product designers. This measure focuses on end-of-life management performance of products and provides important information to target audiences such as metal and recycling industries. However. life cycle analysts. given structural and process variables. among other things. scrap processors and scrap generators. on objectives. The key target audiences of this particular indicator are metal industry.

265 8.054 18.255 22.322 4.3% 15.9% 32.472 1.0% 37.634 2.2% 42.4% 44.429 1.204 3.838 16.390 4.426 1.088 19.975 2.5% 13.132 15.5% 32.566 4.104 15.568 1.The World Copper Factbook 2012 Global Copper Recyclables Use.250 5.8% 30.6% 12.3% 34.577 2.6% 32.5% 13.030 1.7% 31.435 4.467 5.743 2.370 33.3% 41.7% 10.4% 17.0% 41.6% 30.2% 20.161 2.898 5.306 8.1% 33.1% 2.3% 35.0% 33.2% 2003 1.210 20.489 22.364 1.850 5.2% 33.2% 13.717 20.5% 34.7% 10.884 24.823 2.4% 29.370 5.613 2.375 3.549 8.230 4.720 52 7.015 16.555 24.5% 15.546 42 6.3% 41.491 2.5% 31.1% 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1.044 22.4% 1.0% 44.250 37 37 25 29 24 23 24 7.612 1.379 2.0% 1.116 4.342 34.002 23.3% 22.674 17.354 22.7% 41.839 3.3% International Copper Study Group 50 .917 2.890 -2.1% 30.531 8.6% 44.069 2.783 2.644 2.196 18.6% 34.0% -3.4% -11.6% 35.767 2.463 8.821 33.034 18.7% 0.0% 35.8% 35.2% 32.186 1. 2002-2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Americas Asia Europe Africa & Oceania5) World / Total Scrap Use Scrap use Annual Growth Secondary refined production Cu content of Direct Melt Refined Usage Total copper usage Recycling Input Rate (RIR) Asia Europe North America Rest of the World 2002 1.6% 34.417 5.8% 41.487 2.258 7.2% 37.4% 33.806 5.786 5.487 7.

ICSG launched the copper scrap market project in 2007 in order to provide greater transparency on an increasingly vital component of the world copper market at a time when globalization is reshaping the copper scrap and copper alloy recycling business.org Key Drivers of the Global Copper Scrap Market  Expanding Copper Mine Production and Refined Copper Substitution  Industrialization and Economic Growth  Prices o Copper Scrap Prices and Spreads o Refined Copper Prices and the Demand for Scrap  China  The Shift in Regional Scrap Processing Capacity  Regulations on Recycling and Trade  Technology International Copper Study Group ICSG Global Copper Scrap Project Reports  Copper Scrap Market Recovery in NAFTA (New!)  Copper Scrap Supply Survey in China (New!)  Survey on Nonferrous Metal Scrap and Refined Inputs & Production in Chinese Semis Plants (New!)  ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project Final Report  Japan Scrap Market Report  China Scrap Usage Survey  China Domestic Scrap Generation 2010-2015  India Scrap Market 51 . please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. The final report of the project was published in August 2010. In addition. ICSG completed two new detailed reports on the NAFTA and Chinese scrap recovery and scrap supply in 2012. For more information about ICSG work related to copper scrap.The World Copper Factbook 2012 ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project and two new scrap reports Based on interest expressed by member countries.

Plant Direct Melt 987 refined Ingot Maker scrap alloys International Copper Study Group 52 .The World Copper Factbook 2012 The Flow of Copper Trade Concentrates/ Matte Blister/ Anode Refined Copper Alloy Ingot Alloy Metals Semis Net Trade Mining Production Wire rod SX/EW Refined Usage Fabrication Wire rod plant / Wire mill Brass mill Foundry Chemicals Semis Supply Mine Smelter Refinery New Scrap Low Grade Residues Tailings By-products/ slag/ashes Other Plants Scrap Recycling Scrap for Smelting incl. low grade Scrap for Refining Hydromet.

) Semis Import Finished Products Net Trade EOL Products (EOL Management adjusted for export/reuse after collection) End-of-Life Management Manufacture Construction Product Supply E&E Equipment Product Use (Lifetime) C&D Finished Products Copper Reservoir in Use EOL Products INEW Ind. equipment Transport Consumer/ Gen. Recycling losses new scrap IEW Abandoned/ Stored/ Reused End-of-Life Products ELV WEEE MSW & Other Dissipative Uses Disposal/ Other Uses Recycling New Scrap Recycling International Copper Study Group Old Scrap Scrap & Low grade Net Trade Other Metal Loops 53 . Other Uses Low grade from Fabr.The World Copper Factbook 2012 The Flow of Copper (cont.

918 16.124 11.930 9.216 4.210 15.097 6.187 15.030 9.995 6.633 13.775 13.941 6.798 10.900 5.497 9.915 7.100 8.296 5.523 7.302 15.793 15.364 19.006 19.924 4.942 8.097 11.933 18.541 6.743 5.682 5.088 19.249 Refined Usage 9.291 17.195 6.920 10.090 9.127 5.103 13.519 14.592 7.048 5.261 9.050 5.650 Refined Usage 11.886 10.270 19.248 12.212 7.054 18.738 5.291 7.293 10.594 14.735 7.196 18.616 9.075 14.563 10.396 9.445 8. 1960-2011p Thousand Metric Tonnes Source: ICSG Mine Production 3.288 8.987 4.843 8.138 8.674 17.444 7.059 6.592 8.010 5.203 13.478 14.998 5.512 10.908 10.541 9.084 11.137 7.148 10.266 8.371 7.035 Refined Production 11.042 11.638 15.310 7.537 12.553 Refined Production 8.272 15.239 18.668 11.324 6.769 4.992 Mine Production 9.057 9.775 9.838 16.539 Mine Production 7.522 9.306 7.286 4.531 13.527 9.036 16.112 10.289 Refined Production 4.081 4.653 7.922 14.319 9.524 15.990 15.200 9.549 10.081 10.544 8.686 11.043 12.745 7.832 12.866 10.578 14.721 7.884 9.757 14.004 6.572 17.885 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011p International Copper Study Group 54 .443 4.510 9.226 9.903 16.404 8.717 16.The World Copper Factbook 2012 ANNEX World Copper Production and Usage.577 13.084 9.372 9.677 13.848 9.739 6.804 10.230 7.009 15.187 8.440 9.500 5.193 6.740 8.632 Refined Usage 4.560 12.400 5.445 6.759 8.483 15.034 18.296 7.354 15.573 9.

org .icsg. Portugal Tel: +351-21-351-3870 Fax: +351-21-352-4035 e-mail: mail@icsg.org Web site: www.International Copper Study Group Rua Almirante Barroso 38 – 6th 1000-013 Lisbon.