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Introduction to some simple signal

Definition of Signal: Any time varying physical phenomenon that can convey information is called signal. Some examples of signals are human voice, electrocardiogram, sign language, videos etc. There are several classification of signals such as Continuous time signal, discrete time signal and digital signal, random signals and non-random signals . Continuous-time Signal: A continuous-time signal is a signal that can be defined at every instant of time. A continuous-time signal contains values for all real numbers along the X-axis. It is denoted by x(t). Figure 1(a) shows continuous-time signal.

Fig.1(a)

Continuous-time

signal

1(b)

Discrete-time

signal

Discrete-time Signal: Signals that can be defined at discrete instant of time is called discrete time signal. Basically discrete time signals can be obtained by sampling a continuous-time signal. It is denoted as x(n).Figure 1(b) shows discrete-time signal. Digital Signal: The signals that are discrete in time and quantized in amplitude are called digital signal. The term "digital signal" applies to the transmission of a sequence of values of a discrete-time signal in the form of some digits in the encoded form. Periodic and Aperiodic Signal: A signal is said to be periodic if it repeats itself after some amount of time x(t+T)=x(t), for some value of T. The period of the signal is the minimum value of time for which it exactly repeats itself.

Fig. where as a deterministic signal is one that can be described mathematically.4(b) Fig.3(b) Deterministic signal Signal that are zero for all negative time.2(b) Aperiodic signal Signal which does not repeat itself after a certain period of time is called aperiodic signal. non-causal and anti-causal signals are shown below in the Figure 4(a).Fig. Fig.4(a) NonAntiCausal caual causal signal signal signal . A common example of random signal is noise. Random and Deterministic Signal: A random signal cannot be described by any mathematical function. Non-causal and Anti-causal Signal: Fig. 4(b) and 4(c) respectively. Random signal and deterministic signal are shown in the Figure 3(a) and 3(b) respectively.4(c) Fig. Causal. The periodic and aperiodic signals are shown in Figure 2(a) and 2(b) respectively. that type of signals are called causal signals.2(a) Periodic signal Fig. A non-causal signal is one that has non zero values in both positive and negative time.3(a) Random signal Causal. while the signals that are zero for all positive value of time are called anti-causal signal.

Even and Odd Signal: An even signal is any signal 'x' such that x(t) = x(-t). Informally.x(-t). is the function that defines the idea of a unit impulse in continuous-time. Fig. The even and odd parts of a signal x(t) are and Here xe(t) denotes the even part of signal x(t) and xo(t) denotes the odd part of signal x(t). this function is one that is infinitesimally narrow. As we take the limit of this setup as D approaches 0. yet integrates to one. The impulse function is often written as .5(b) Even signal An even signal is one that is invariant under the time scaling t→ . the same two parts of the signals are negative mirror images of each other.5(a) Odd signal Fig. Some signals are odd. infinitely tall. On the other hand. In case of an odd signal. But any signal x(t) can be expressed as a sum of its even and odd parts such as x(t) = xe(t) + xo(t) or we can say that every signal is composed of the addition of an even part and odd part. A simple way of visualizing even and odd signal is to imazine that the ordinate [x(t)] axis is a mirror. Figure 5(a) and 5(b) shows the odd signal and even signal respectively. Even signals are symmetric around the vertical axis. some signals are even and some signals are neither odd nor even.t and an odd signal is one that is invariant under the amplitude and time scaling x(t) → . Impulse Signal: The Dirac delta function or unit impulse or often referred to as the delta function. Perhaps the simplest way to visualize this as a rectangular pulse from a -D/2 to a +D/2 with a height of 1/D. For even signals. we see that the width tends to zero and the height tends to infinity as the total area remains constant at one. the part of x(t) for t > 0 and the part of x(t) for t < 0 are mirror images of each other. so that they can easily spotted. an odd signal is a signal 'x' for which x(t) = -x(-t).

9(a) Dirac delta functoin Fig. we represent the Dirac with an arrow centered at the point it is applied.Fig. The dirac delta function and unit impulse are shown in Figure 9(a) and 9(b) respectively.9(b) Unit impulse Since it is quite difficult to draw something that is infinitely tall. .