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Types, Combustion, Performance Evaluation, Feed Water Treatment, Blow Down, Improving Availability (Reducing Tube Failure, Soot

Blowing and Reducing Soot Deposition, Preservation, Start-up and Shutdown procedure), Thermic Fluid Heaters, Energy Conservation Opportunities.

Figure 2.1 Boiler System Schematic

Packaged Boiler: The packaged boiler is so called because it comes as a complete package. Once delivered to site, it requires only the steam, water pipe work, fuel supply and electrical connections to be made for it to become operational. Package boilers are generally of shell type with fire tube design so as to achieve high heat transfer rates by both radiation and convection (Refer Figure 2.4).

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depending largely on coal grade. Secondary and tertiary air may also be added. Combustion takes place at temperatures from 1300-1700°C. use of high pre-heat air temperatures etc. . and the particles must be small enough for complete combustion to have taken place during this time. Particle residence time in the boiler is typically 2 to 5 seconds.The pulverized coal is blown with part of the combustion air into the boiler plant through a series of burner nozzles. quick responses to changes in load. This system has many advantages such as ability to fire varying quality of coal.

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a special type of oil-synthetic / mineral -is used as heat carrier. In thermic fluid heaters. at high temperatures. This fluid can be heated up to 300oC at atmospheric pressure.Water/steam is used as heat carrier in many heating applications. Industrial heating systems. . steam requires a corresponding high operating pressure. There are several advantages in using thermic fluids compared to steam systems. However. In comparison steam would require a pressure of 85 bars to obtain this temperature. The most obvious advantages are as follows. and establishing this with steam can be very cumbersome and expensive in some cases. a high temperature level is often a great advantage.

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It can be determined by conducting tests with different air fuel ratios.The Table 2. . type of burner. This level varies with furnace design. to allow for the normal variations in combustion and to ensure satisfactory stack conditions for some fuels. Excess air is required in all practical cases to ensure complete combustion. The optimum excess air level for maximum boiler efficiency occurs when the sum of the losses due to incomplete combustion and loss due to heat in flue gases is minimum.5 gives the theoretical amount of air required for combustion of various types of fuel. fuel and process variables.

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