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Tran Cao Quyen1, Phan Anh1, Paul Fortier2 Research Center for Electronics and Communications Vietnam National University, Hanoi (VNUH) Hanoi, VIETNAM 2. LRTS, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Université Laval Québec, CANADA

1.

Abstract - In this paper, a BTS antenna system using conventional adaptive array antennas with transmit diversity is presented. Beam forming is constructed not only by an adaptive algorithm but also using a MIMO strategy. The performance of the suggested antenna system is compared to normal adaptive array antenna. Keyword: MIMO, DOA, adaptive array, LMS.

antenna system for 3G and 4G is proposed in section III. The operation of new antenna system is discussed in section IV. Section V concludes the paper. II. BTS ANTENNA STRUCTURE A conventional BTS antenna system is placed on the sides of an equilateral triangle (Fig. 1). In general, the antenna on each side supports one sector, covering three sectors. If the

I. INTRODUCTION BTS is short for base transceiver station. It is an important part of a cellular mobile radio network. With its position in the network the BTS can be connected with all the mobile units within a given cell depending on the particular frequency planning. In the past, BTS antenna of the first generation had omni-directional patterns whereas the second generation had sectorization patterns. This kind of antenna was presented by W. C. Y. Lee [1]. With the development of 3G, the need for adaptive beam forming or smart antenna arised [2]. In addition, with 4G, designers have to combine existing BTS antenna systems and the MIMO strategy [3]. This is the main purpose of this paper. This paper is organized as follows. The conventional BTS antenna structure is

beamwidth of each antenna is about 120 degrees, this BTS antenna system will serve nearly 360 degrees of azimuthal plane. As in [1], we can use one transmitting antenna (Tx1) and two receiving antennas (Rx1, Rx2) on each side. If a linear antenna array is used for Tx1, the array factor, AF, can be expressed as

⎛ ϕ⎞ sin ⎜ N ⎟ ⎝ 2⎠ AF = ϕ N sin 2

where

(1)

ϕ = β d cos Δ

1 2

(2)

and where N is the number of elements in the array, d is the distance between two elements, β is the propagation constant, and Δ

presented in section II. An approach for a BTS

198

Further information about this type of antenna. At next moment (t + T). The structure of the receiving antenna consists of two antennas. DOA estimation By using an antenna system without phase center and the MUSIC algorithm. NEW ANTENNA STRUCTURE (4) ⎡S 0 X = ⎢S 1 ⎢{ ⎣ t − S1* ⎤ Anten1 * ⎥ S0 { ⎥ Anten 2 t +T ⎦ (5) In reality.is the angle between the incoming signal and the side of the array. The complex transmitted symbols are given by ⎛ ϕ⎞ sin ⎜ N ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ sin θ E = AF ⋅ EF = ϕ N sin 2 direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. the output of the array can be expressed as U(t) = AS(t) + W(t) where A(θ) = [a(θ1). OPERATION Transmitting strategy For the transmitting strategy. we assume that a transmitted symbol is constant during the sampling period T. EF. This antenna is placed on top of the triangle (Fig. symbol S0 is ⎡S 0 X = ⎢S 1 ⎢{ ⎣ t When − S1 ⎤ Anten1 ⎥ S 0 ⎥ Anten 2 { t +T ⎦ simple (6) this transmitting diversity applied for adaptive antenna. a(θ2). can be found in [4].. Tx2) are used as compared to one transmitter antenna (Tx1) for 3G. At moment t. two transmitting antennas ( Tx 1 .. 2). (8) 199 . is given by EF = sin θ The total electric field of Tx1 is then (3) transmitted by Tx1 and symbol S1 is transmitted by Tx2. the transmitted symbols become ⎡ S 0W0 X = ⎢S W 1 0 ⎢{ ⎣ t − S1 W1 ⎤ Anten1 ⎥ S 0 W1 ⎥ Anten 2 1 2 3 t +T ⎦ (7) It is clear that if W0 = W1 =1 the formula (7) will be the same as the formula (6) without loss of the generality. The real transmitted symbols are given by Two receiver antennas (Rx1. An antenna system without phase center is used for all receiving antennas.. This MIMO strategy was introduced in [3]. IV.. The second antenna has no phase center and is constructed from two vertical dipoles couples. Rx2) are used for The transmitting antenna is still placed on the three sides of an equilateral triangle. a(θ) is the steering vector and W(t) is a zero mean white Gaussian noise. symbol -S1* and S0* are transmitted correspondingly. the DOA can be estimated accurately. III. These couples are perpendicular to each other and one is phase shifted by 90 degrees from the other. a(θn-1)] (9) is the array manifold. only real symbols are transmitted. called a turnstile antenna. The first antenna is a monopole (Rx1). Given the incoming signal S(t). However for 4G. If a vertical dipole is used for each element. the element factor.

the optimum weight vector is obtained. Beam forming (15) The weight vector can be written more simpler as w (n+1) = w(n) + μ u(n) e*(n) (28) is the phase pattern of the second receiving We assume that the LMS algorithm is used and DOA is given by the DOA estimation process. The capacity of cellular mobile networks can be increased by the number of transmitted antenna to satisfy the demands of 3G and 4G [3].wH (n) p . Furthermore. the main beam will point towards the direction of (16) communications while nulls will be placed in the directions of noise sources.uH (n) w)] (20) We rewrite J(n) as (10) J(n) = δ d2 . Evaluation Using the suggested BTS antenna structure. The weight vector is given by W (n) = [w1(n). Consequently. we The vector of output samples can be expressed as uT(n) = [u1(n).pH w(n) + wHRw Where (21) δ d2 = E [d(n)d* (n)] p = u(n)d* (n) R = u(n) uH(n) (22) (23) (24) P (θ ) = where 1 a (θ ) VnVnH am (θ ) H m To minimize the objective function gradient vector is calculated as (12) ∇ (n) = -2p(n) + 2R (n) w (n) or (25) am( θ ) = (1.. but also the diversity transmitting strategy. Applying the MUSIC algorithm we get the power spectrum function H J(n) = E [(d(n) . .WH u(n))(d* (n). Therefore the objective function denoted as J(n) = E [e(n)2] Thus (19) 200 . w2(n). using an antenna system without phase center. … wM(n)] T After some interaction processes.. exp(-j ϕ B( θ )) (13) (14) ϕ A( θ ) = C antenna and ∇ (n)= -2u (n)d*(n) + 2 u (n) uH (n) w (n) (26) Interactive process can be executed as w (n+1) = w(n) + is the phase pattern of the first receiving μ u(n) [d*(n) – uH(n)w(n)] (27) ϕ B( θ ) = θ antenna. the DOA With d(n) is desired respond ( It contains DOA and synchronization informations).. u(n .. ………. u(n) (18) (17) exploited not only the adaptive antenna concept.1} (11) where qi are eigenvalues corresponding to eigenvectors of Ruu. N .The autocorrelation matrix of the output signal is given by Ruu = E{uu } where u is the vector of output samples. Let Vn ={qi|i = D.M + 1)] The error vector is formed as follows e(n) = d(n) – wH(n) .

1999. S. Prentice Hall PTR. [1] Mobile Cellular Telecommunications. [4] DOA Determination by Using An Antenna System without Phase Center and MUSIC Algorithm. July 3-8. Y. Joseph C. 8. IEEE AP-S International symposium and SNC/URSI Meeting. Q. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication. M. CONCLUSION An approach for BTS antenna system was presented. It is an important step in telecommunications research towards applications for next generation wireless networks. Tran Cao. Alamouti. Phan Anh. Liberti and Theodore S. 2: New antenna structure. 1: Conventional antenna structure.estimation process can be more accurate [4] and the number of receiving antennas reduced compared to the conventional approach. V. No. USA. Its benefits were pointed out. REFERENCES Rx2 Tx1 Tx2 Fig. C. 1989. Washington DC. Lee McGraw –Hill Inc. Vol. Rx1 Tx1 Rx2 Fig. W. [3] A Simple Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communication. October 1998. Rappaport. 201 . 2005. [2] Smart Antennas for Wireless Communication. The adaptive beam forming is done by using LMS algorithm to ensure that signal Rx1 processing processes can be performed as quick enough for real time applications. 16.

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