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- Power Quality 2 MARKS
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What is Power Quality? From the utility perspective, Power Quality has been defined as the parameters of the voltage that affect the customer’s supersensitive equipment. From the power user perspective, Power Quality may be defined as any electrical parameter or connection that affects the operation of the equipment. This included all electrical parameters, connections and grounds, whether the source from the utility, local equipment or other users. 2. How can Power Quality problems be detected? Determining the exact problems requires sophisticated electronic test equipment. The following symptoms are indicators of Power Quality problems: 1. A piece of equipment misoperates at the same time of day. 2. Circuit breakers trip without being overloaded. 3. Equipment fails during a thunderstorm. 4. Automated systems stop for no apparent reason. 5. Electronic systems fail or fail to operate on a frequent basis. 6. Electronic systems work in one location but not in another location. 7. Lights dim or blink and electronic systems misoperate. 3. What are Harmonics? Harmonics are distortions in the AC waveform. These distortions are caused by loads on the electrical system that use the electrical power at a different frequency than the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz. An example of such a load is the common PC, television receiver or any other electronic load. 4. What are the various power quality issues? 1. Power frequency disturbances 2. Power system transients 3. Grounding and Bonding 4. Electromagnetic interference 5. Power system harmonics 6. Electrostatic discharge 7. Power factor

T.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A.P/ EEE) P.S.R.ENGG COLLEGE

10. Define Waveform Distortion. Voltage sags are caused by motor starting. Voltage Sag is an event in which the RMS voltage decreases between 0.ENGG COLLEGE .5 cycles to 1 min. Momentary Sag 3. Differentiate between sag and swell. This lagging current causes a voltage drop across the impedance of the system.9 per unit at the power frequency. Harmonics is one of the causes of many types of waveform distortion. Swell is an event in which the RMS voltage increases between 1.5.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Interruption 6. Noises 6. 9. It lasts for durations of 0. sag is further classified as: 1. The short duration variations are further classified into the following three categories: 1. Sag 2. for example. DC offset 2. Harmonics 5. Instantaneous Sag 2. Based on the time duration and voltage magnitude. 1. Temporary Sag 8. 2. Interharmonics T. Classify power quality events in long duration events and shout duration events.R. 2. It lasts for durations of 0. Swell 3.8 per unit at the power frequency. Notches 3. It is the deviation from an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized by the spectral content of the deviation.P/ EEE) P.1 and 0.1 and 1. What are the components of waveform distortion? 1.S. Mention the types of sag. Voltage sags are usually associated with system faults but can also be caused by the switching of heavy loads. What are the causes of sags? 1. Flickering 4. an induction motor will draw six to ten times its full load current.5 cycles to 1 min. 7.

Voltage flicker is most commonly caused by rapidly varying loads that require a large amount of reactive power such as arc furnaces. U1 represents the fundamental component and h represents harmonic order.g. wood chippers. 12. 13. THD=100√( Where Uh represents harmonic components. Interharmonics can be found in networks of all voltage classes. They can appear as discrete frequencies or as a wideband spectrum.R. sawmills. (ii)Interharmonics..BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Interharmonics: Voltages or currents having frequency components that are not integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate (e. Voltage Flicker: Voltage flicker is rapidly occurring voltage sags caused by sudden and large increases in load current. It can cause visible flicker in lights and cause other processes to shut down or malfunction. and amusement rides. Total harmonic distortion is the term used to describe the net deviation of a non-linear waveform from ideal sine wave characteristics. The total demand distortion is defined as the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS value of the currents from 2nd to the highest harmonic (say 25th maximum in power system) divided by the peak demand load current and is expressed as a percent.S.11. 14. THD is the ratio between the RMS value of the harmonics and the RMS value of the fundamental. This can occur as the result of a geomagnetic disturbance or asymmetry of electronic power converters. metal shredders. Define for the following terms: (i)DC offset. 50 or 60 Hz0 are called interharmonics. Mention the formula used to calculate THD. Define Total harmonic distortion and mention the formula used to calculate THD. IEEE Power Quality Standards: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer IEC Power Quality Standards: The International Electro technical Commission SEMI Power Quality Standards: The Semiconductor Wquipment and Material International UIE Power Quality Standards: The International Union for Electricity Applications T. Define Total Demand Distortion (TDD).ENGG COLLEGE .P/ EEE) P. List any four standards available in power quality. (iii)Voltage Flicker DC offset: The presence of a dc voltage or current in an ac power system is termed DC offset. rock crushers. electric welders.

5 cycles to 1 minute.9 pu.ENGG COLLEGE .S. will cause a voltage sag in 1. 16. reported as the remaining voltage. Starting of large motors 17. What are the sources of sags and Interruption? 1. Equipment Design 3. IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality. Typical values are between 0. What is Voltage Sag? A sag or dip.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. IEEE 493-1990. Power System Design 2. What are three levels of possible solutions to voltage sag and momentary interruption problems? 1. It can also be caused by energization of heavy loads 3. Name the different motor starting methods. Any sudden increase in load.R. as defined by IEEE Standard 1159-1995. Autotransformer starters 3.P/ EEE) P. A sudden increase in load results in a Corresponding sudden drop in voltage 2. “IEEE guide for service to equipment sensitive to momentary voltage disturbances” 2. What are the causes of sag? 1.1 pu and 0.UNIT-II VOLTAGE SAGS AND INTERRUPTIONS 15. Switching 20. is a decrease in RMS voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0. Motors 2. “IEEE recommended practice for powering and grounding electronic equipment” 4. 3. IEEE 1100-1999. if large enough. “IEEE recommended practice for emergency and stand by power systems for industrial and commercial applications range of sensibility loads” 19. “Recommended practice for the design of reliable industrial and commercial power systems 3. Faults. 1. List some IEEE Standards Associated with Voltage Sags. Star-Delta starters T. IEE 446-1995. IEEE 1250-1995. Voltage sags are usually associated with system faults 2. 1. Resistance and reactance starters 2. Power Conditioning Equipment 18.

Define transient over voltages. 2. a switching operation or a fault) or network stimuli (e. Phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase insulation switching withstand to voltage stresses 2. Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power 2. 1. Controlled closing for circuit breakers (pre-insertion resistors/reactors or synchronous switching) 3. Give the various aspects of equipment specific design and protection issues for the capacitor switching transients. lightning strike).P/ EEE) P. Define voltage magnification phenomena? The highest transient voltages occur at the low voltage capacitor bank when the characteristic frequency of the switching transient is nearly equal to the resonant frequency of the low voltage system and when the switched capacitor is ten or more times the size of the low-voltage capacitor 26. These are referred to as active series compensation devices. Capacitor bank and substation circuit breakers ANSI?IEEE C37 requirements 4. 1.ENGG COLLEGE . Elimination of current harmonics UNIT-III OVERVOLTAGE TRANSIENTS 24.S. either intended or accidental.21. They are available in size ranges from small single-phase devices to very large devices that can be applied on the medium-voltage systems. Name any four types of sag mitigation devices. Active Series Compensators (Transformer less series injection) 3. Surge arrester energy requirement T. A transient over voltage can be defined as the response of an electrical network to a sudden change in network conditions. Define active series compensation devices. 1. Correction of power factor 3. Solid State (static) Transfer Switches (SSTS) 22. One of the important new options is a device that can boost the voltage by injecting a voltage in series with the remaining voltage during a voltage sag condition. What is the main function of DSTATCOM? 1.g. 23.R. 25.g. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) 2. (e.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Current limiting reactor requirements 5.

i. A surge arrester is a protective device for limiting surge voltages on equipment by discharging or bypassing surge current. thereby improving system protection. What are the various Causes of over voltages? Over voltages. or between cloud and earth (or earthed object). T. 30.S.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. can be attributed to the Following main causes: 1.ENGG COLLEGE . On unshielded sub transmission or distribution circuits. 2. lightning (LEMP – Lightning Electro-Magnetic Pulse) 2. 29. Surge arresters allow only minimal flow of the 50Hz/60Hz power current to ground. What is the need of surge arrestors? 1. 2. spikes).e. Define lightning phenomena. as surge voltage conduction starts and stops promptly at a precise voltage level. 1. It occurs when line capacitance resonates with the magnetizing reactance of a core while it goes in the out of saturation. Lightning is an electrical discharge in the air between clouds. Atmospheric discharges. 2. On shielded transmission lines or under-built distribution circuits.e. What is metal-oxide surge-arrester? A metal-oxide surge-arrester (MOSA) utilizing zinc-oxide block provides the best performance. i. What is the role of surge arrestor on shielded and unshielded transmission line? 1.27. 31. What is Ferro resonance? Ferro resonance is a special case of series LC resonance where the inductance involved is nonlinear and it is usually related to equipment with iron cores. Even though more discharges occur between or within clouds. the arrester prevents tower-to-phase insulator back-flashovers during a lightning strike. Switching operations in the public grid and low-voltage mains 3.P/ EEE) P. between different charge centre within the same cloud. Ferro resonance 28. surges. there are enough strokes that terminate on the earth to cause problems to power systems and sensitive electronic equipment 32. brief voltage peaks (transients. the arrester prevents phase-toground flashover.R. Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) 4.

ENGG COLLEGE . Transient over voltage studies (TOV) 2. swells and interruptions Induction motor starting System faults Voltage fluctuation UNIT-IV HARMONICS.S. according to Hopkinton. Give the cable life equation as a function of impulses. 3.P/ EEE) P. 4. selection of inrush and out-rush reactors Power Quality 1. T. The damage to the cable is related by Dc=P. Give any two analysis examples available in PSCAD/EMTDC? Transient Studies 1. The equation representing a harmonic frequency is given by: fh =f1*h Where f1 is the fundamental frequency and h is the harmonic order. representing cable damage P=Number of impulses V=Magnitude of impulses E=empirical constant ranging from 10 to 15 34.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Dc=constant. 36. The cable life is an exponential function of the number of impulses of a certain magnitude that it receives.R.33. What is the need of Computer analysis tools for transient studies? Computer analysis simulation tool can simulate the time response of the transient phenomena in the power system with a very high degree of accuracy. Define Harmonics. Capacitor bank back to back switching. Line energizing (charging and discharging transients) 3. Voltage dips.Ve Where. 35. 2. Harmonics is a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental power frequency.

which is given by the relation.ENGG COLLEGE . True power factor is calculated as the ratio between the total active power used in a circuit (including harmonics) and the total apparent power (including harmonics)supplied from the source. Differentiate between linear loads and non-linear loads. 2. is discontinuous and non sinusoidal because of the presence of harmonics. Non linear load: Any load that draws harmonic currents from the supply is a nonlinear load.37. 40.R. Define true power factor.S. resistors. The current drawn does not contain any harmonics (multiples of the supply frequency). The amount of harmonic distortion can be measured by means of a factor known as the total harmonic distortion (THD). The current waveform of such non-linear loads. Motors. 39. True power factor = total active power (P)/Total apparent power (S) 38. inductors and capacitors are all linear loads. THD%=100* Where U1 represents the fundamental components and h represents harmonic number. Current distortion is any deviation from the nominal sine waveform of the AC line current. What is total harmonic distortion? THD is the ratio between the RMS value of the harmonics and the RMS value of the fundamental. Voltage distortion is any deviation from the nominal sine waveform of the line voltage.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Linear loads: Any load that draws current at supply fundamental frequency only is a linear load. What is voltage and current distortion? 1.P/ EEE) P. T.

Variable voltage inverter(VVI) 2. Or square-wave six-step voltage source inverter (VSI). Thermal stress (current effect) 3. Arcing Devices (Arc furnaces. Three phase converter with Adjustable speed drives (DC drives and AC drives) 2. What are the applications of active filters? Passive tuned filters introduce new resonances which can cause additional harmonic problems Active filters will provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on the existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time. weiders.ENGG COLLEGE . Insulation stress (voltage effect) 2. What is Variable Voltage Inverter? The variable voltage inverter (VVI). 1. 46. residential) and for the application of equipments on utility system. 42. Load ruptures (abnormal operation) 43. TDD% of peak demand= Where. T.41. What is total demand distortion? The total demand distortion is defined as the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS value of the currents from 2nd to the hth harmonics divided by the peak demand load current and is expressed as a percentage. electromagnetic devices etc with steel core) 44. Saturable devices (transformer. receives DC power from an adjustable voltage source (either from thyristor converter or DC-DC converter fed by Diode Bridge) and adjusts the frequency and voltage.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. IRMS distorted is the RMS value of the distorted waveform with the fundamental lift out of the summation. Current source inverter(CSI) 3.S.P/ EEE) P. What are the objectives of IEEE standard? Provide general harmonic distortion evaluation procedures for different classes of customers (industrial. commercial. 1.R. Mention the harmonic sources from industrial loads. Mention the harmonic effects on devices and loads. Pulse width modulated(PWM) 45. Discharge lamps etc) 3. 1. 47. State the different types of inverters.

R. Continuous monitoring with periodic max/min/avg samples 4. UPS systems.48. What is the need of filtering in harmonic studies? Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant.P/ EEE) P. RMS magnitudes 3. and backup generators. 1. Power Factor Correction. 1. Currents for response of equipment. PQ monitoring assists in preventive and predictive maintenance. 2. What are the monitoring objectives? 1. IEC 610000-3-2 (2000): Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC). 53. T. 3. Power Quality Monitoring is necessary to detect and classify disturbance at a particular location on the power system. There are two basic methods: passive and active filters. Part 2: Environment. PQ Monitoring can be used to determine the need for mitigation equipment. 2. Section 2: Compatibility Levels for Low-Frequency Conducted Disturbances and Signaling in Public Low-Voltage Power Supply Systems. 2. 50.ENGG COLLEGE . other ride through technologies. Give at least two IEC standards for EMC.S. Resonance Prevention. Part 3: Limits Section 2: Limits for Harmonic Current. What are the importance of power quality monitoring? 1. UNIT –V POWER QUALITY MONITORING 51. 3. 52. List the some dynamic correction of power quality events. such as static switches. 49. Document performance of power conditioning equipment.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Continuous evaluation of the electric supply system for disturbances and power quality variations. 4. What are the requirements of monitoring for a voltage regulation and unbalance? 1. 3 phase voltages 2. IEC 610000-2-2 (1993): Electromagnetic Compatibility (ECM). Dynamic VAR Compensation. Problems can be detected before they cause widespread damage by sending automated alerts. 2.

P/ EEE) P.BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Definition of line disturbance parameters varies between manufacturers 56. T. What are the requirements of monitoring for a harmonic distortion? 1.R. What is the purpose of SVC? The SVC is mainly used for compensation of large fluctuating reactive industrial loads like arc furnaces etc. audio.ENGG COLLEGE . What is tracking generator? The tracking generator enhances the applications of spectrum analyzers. Designed for long-term unattended recording 4. Portable. 57. Simple to use.54. 2. and radio-frequency measurements. The algorithm analyzes the time domain waveform. Spectrum analyzers are available for sub audio. What is FFT (or) digital technique used for harmonic analysis? The signal to be analyzed is converted to a digital signal by using an analog-to-digital converter. What are the Characteristics of power line monitors? 1. 59. What is the use of oscilloscope? Oscilloscopes with fast sampling rates and automatic triggering function can be very useful for trace of transients. as well as for microwave and optical signal measurements. and the digital signal is processed by using the FFT algorithm. Ins output delivers a swept signal whose instantaneous frequency is always equal to the input tuned frequency of the analyzer. with proper training 3. rugged. An instrument used for the analysis and measurement of signals throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. lightweight 2. Waveform characteristics 3. 60. What is Spectrum analyzer? 1. 3 phase voltages and currents 2. Synchronized sampling of all voltages and currents 5. 128 samples per cycle minimum 4.S. 58. and displays the results. computes the frequency components present. Configurable sampling characteristics 55.

BALASUBRAMANIAN (A. Expert systems deliver EIA expertise to the non-expert. What is total error? The total error in a measurement is a sum of errors that can (mainly) be divided into three different categories: 1. offset.R. Instrument errors (quantization. 3. Errors due to the measure signal (low signal level etc. Expert systems help users cope with large volumes of EIA work.P/ EEE) P. and 4. 62.and linearity errors etc. What are the components of flicker meter? The flicker meter consists of a lamp model.ENGG COLLEGE . 61. What are the advantages of expert systems? 1. Expert systems enhance user accountability for decisions reached. a model representing the human eye-brain chain and a statistical evaluation block where the flicker parameters PST and PLT are calculated.) 63.) 2. 2. Transducer errors 3.S. Expert systems provide a structured approach to EIA.The purpose of the SVC is to maintain a constant voltage level at PCC by dynamically injecting reactive power and compensation for the fluctuation power demand of the load. T.

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